What will be the consequence of the Middle East being divided between the Ottoman (with them only holding Anatolia in the Middle East but still the Balkan) the Mamluks (with Egypt the levant and the Hejaz) and the Safavids with their OTL lands + Mesopotamia and possibly them managing to keep part of Eastern Anatolia ) . Let’s say the PoD is in the late 1400s and is the mamluk not degrading military as OTL and making far more extensive use of firearms and gunpowder with a domino effect making the Safavids as well having a earlier adoption of them due to domino effect . There some back and forth between the different state but some sort of equilibrium establish itself between the various state with the border mentioned previously . What are the effect on the different state ? The Ottoman will not be as hegemonic as OTL and will keep strong Sunni rival in the region coupled with a stronger Safavid possessing Mesopotamia will this lead them to not experiencing the same decline they did as OTL ? (Heard many time that the lack of continued rivalry between states like in Europe is what caused the decline of the Ottoman) and how a strong independent Mamluks state will look in the period ? they were impressing in many way and could probably a experience a revival and had good condition for possible modernization . And what would be the consequence of a lasting Safavids possession of Mesopotamia like the previous Iranian empire be on the Safavids ? I’ve thinked about it before but that could be a very interesting scenario could this lead to a less declining Middle East ?