What would a surviving Celtic Britain look like?

Instead of just Wales (which is a direct survival of Celtic culture in Britain), the Brythonic culture that dominated the island from the Iron Age to the 600s, continues and the territory that we now call "England" retains its Celtic nature. This could happen in three ways
1 - No Anglo Saxon invasion at all (don't really know how you'd pull this off)
2 - Anglo Saxons are peacefully assimilated into British culture and do not become a threat
3 - Anglo Saxon kingdoms are conquered and destroyed by Welsh/Brythonic campaigns in the early Dark Ages.

Long story short, the Anglo-Saxons do not control the island and Britain stays Celtic. What would Britain's history look like as a result? I can predict that it would most likely remain petty kingdoms based on former tribal areas (Brigantes, Strathclyde, Dumnonia, Kent, Iceni etc), that would unify either around the time OTL England did, or perhaps a few centuries later. A common culture, language and religion on a single island is guaranteed to unify. What would happen with the Viking invasions, or the Dalriadans? Perhaps there would even be a Norman situation resulting in a Celtic-French hybrid tongue being spoken as the lingua franca.

What would the eventual British Empire be like if Celtic? If it reaches the same successes of the OTL British, the global lingua franca and culture would be Welsh, not English. Relations with the Irish are guaranteed to be better as they both share a common culture (elite English often viewed the Celtic nature of the Irish as backwards, as opposed to the enlightened Germanics or Romance speakers). Eventually with decolonisation, democratization and liberalism, Britain could look very similar to OTL in terms of politics, attitude and global influence.
 
It's difficult to say with a POD so far back. Depending on what you want, you could take it in any number of different ways. It'll probably be drawn closer into the Continental Western European cultural orbit as the middle ages progressed (like happened with Scandinavia, and OTL's England), but beyond that the specifics are up to you.

A common culture, language and religion on a single island is guaranteed to unify.
Not necessarily. Even IOTL, the German- and Italian-speaking nations haven't all unified (due to the existence of Austria and Switzerland). And of course, national identity is often shaped by political events as much as vice versa. It might well be that the inhabitants of the different parts of Britain come to see themselves as separate peoples. Even if they do recognise a common culture, there's no guarantee that this will equate to a desire for political unity -- just look at the ancient Greeks, whose strong sense of common nationhood was matched only by their fondness for fighting each other.

Relations with the Irish are guaranteed to be better as they both share a common culture (elite English often viewed the Celtic nature of the Irish as backwards, as opposed to the enlightened Germanics or Romance speakers).
Aha, if only. As it happens, even culturally very similar peoples are quite liable to hate each other. Just look at, say, the Jews in Nazi Germany. Culturally speaking, they were practically indistinguishable from the rest of the Germans, but that did nothing to stop the Holocaust.

Not to mention, the most fertile and populous (and therefore most important) part of Britain is also the part best located for trade and interchange with the Continent, meaning that the island is likely to pick up more Continental influences as time goes on. So it's quite possible that they'll end up thinking of the Irish as backward savages anyway.
 
When POD is so far back on the past things can take many directions. Probably the place would remain as fighting chieftain kingdoms like OTL Ireland if then someone not manage unite tribes as one kingdom. This might anyway last bit longer than in OTL uniting of England. Vikings might are quiet succesful on their invasions and I could predict there being some kind of Celtic-Nordic hybrid culture.
 
Whichever one was most politically advantageous.
So likely Britain would opt for the Roman rite once again, after all an entire continent, even at dark age levels, has more to offer both economically and politically than Ireland. Also, had pre-Anglo-Saxon-conquest Britain, which had already been overwhelmingly Christian before the invading Anglo-Saxon pagans imposed their paganism on the conquered Britons, been using the Roman or Irish rite? If it was the former, there wouldn't even need to be an ATL Synod of Whitby, since there would never be the OTL necessity to rechristianise Britain from both Ireland and the continent there was IOTL.
 
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So likely Britain would opt for the Roman rite once again, after all an entire continent, even at dark age levels, has more to offer both economically and politically than Ireland. Also, had pre-Anglo-Saxon-conquest Britain, which had already been overwhelmingly Christian before the invading Anglo-Saxon pagans imposed their paganism on the conquered Britons, been using the Roman or Irish rite? If it was the former, there wouldn't even need to be an ATL Synod of Whitby, since there would never be the OTL necessity to rechristianise Britain from both Ireland and the continent there was IOTL.
Rites in this period were usually quite localised -- you had separate rites for Gaul, Spain, Rome, Milan, etc. England ended up adopting the Roman Rite because the early missionaries came from Rome, and naturally brought their Roman missals and prayerbooks with them. I don't think there are any surviving accounts of the rite used in post-Roman Britain, although it was probably quite similar to the Irish ones (seeing as how St. Patrick had come over from Britain), and they'd probably keep using that for at least a few centuries.

Of course, there was a tendency for countries outside of Italy to adopt the Roman Rite -- as, for example, when Charlemagne ordered the churches in his realm to use it instead of the Gallican Rite they'd been using previously -- so you'd probably see Britain adopt the Roman Rite eventually. Aside from anything else, the importance of the Roman See would naturally make people want to celebrate Mass in the same was as the Pope did.
 
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