What is the latest in time a religion can form that can challenge Christianity and Islam?

I believe the largest world religions to form post Islam are Sikhism and Mormonism. However they have a small fraction of the membership size as compared to Christianity and Islam. Could a religion founded in the 15th or 18th century for example have become big enough to challenge the billion+ members of those two by today?
 
Not that late....but after Islam and Christianity right? Vladimir the great centralised Slavic paganism and spreads it across Eurasia central Asia and the far East as the Rus expands.
 
If an indigenous Mesoamerican or Andean state survived colonization, and developed a reformed native faith, that's potentially upwards of a hundred million adherents.
I think personally best bets are a religion developing in India, Southeast Asia Asia, or China.
I believe Sikhism or a similar syncretic religion of Islam and Hinduism could become dominant in the Indian subcontinent, which means hundreds of millions of adherents.
In China, you could see a Taiping Rebellion scenario succeeding, some messiah figure creating their own faith by amalgamating traditional Chinese beliefs and some outside influences.
I think Southeast Asia might be the best option. It's highly populated and at the confluence of major commercial routes. Any eccentric, talented prophet can pull from Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and various indigenous faiths to craft a new religion. From there the new faith can spread throughout Southeast Asia/Indonesia, India, China, Australia, and East Africa, by both conquest and trade.
 
Manichaeism could easily have been a world religion if it hadn't been persecuted so much by a few large Empires that were in control at the time.
 
If an indigenous Mesoamerican or Andean state survived colonization, and developed a reformed native faith, that's potentially upwards of a hundred million adherents.
I think personally best bets are a religion developing in India, Southeast Asia Asia, or China.
I believe Sikhism or a similar syncretic religion of Islam and Hinduism could become dominant in the Indian subcontinent, which means hundreds of millions of adherents.
In China, you could see a Taiping Rebellion scenario succeeding, some messiah figure creating their own faith by amalgamating traditional Chinese beliefs and some outside influences.
I think Southeast Asia might be the best option. It's highly populated and at the confluence of major commercial routes. Any eccentric, talented prophet can pull from Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and various indigenous faiths to craft a new religion. From there the new faith can spread throughout Southeast Asia/Indonesia, India, China, Australia, and East Africa, by both conquest and trade.

Islam in Indonesia is highly syncretic. With the right dictators pushing this further, a Kejawenfaith/Kepercayaan could be the official religion. However this would be nationalistic so unlikely to revival Christianity or Islam.
 
Sikhism is the best candidate, perhaps a Uber Sikh Wank where it conquers South Asia and converts it to Sikhism, like how Arabs did to middle east
 
isn't Mormonism a christian denomination?

Latter Day Saints (Mormons) themselves believe that they are a christian denomination.
But there are major differences between them and almost every other Christian denomination.
The differences are as large as the differences between "mainstream" Christianity and Islam or the Bahai.

For example the Saints believe in the existence of multiple gods while only praying to their godhead.
Their idea of exaltation (becoming like God) and that God was once a man are major differences.
Their temples have a unique function in their faith.

Meanwhile catholic theologians can use various theological ideas of Martin Luther. Catholics and Protestants use almost the same scripture Canon. If you get baptized by a catholic priest and later decide to become protestant (or Orthodox or almost all other Christian denomination) you don't need a second baptism. Meanwhile catholics and most protestants don't accept a latter day baptism. Meanwhile the LDS church requires baptism for converts from mainstream Christianity.

However we have to accept that the Latter Day Saints see themselves as Christians. Everybody who describes themselves as a Christian is a Christian.
I would classify them as a unique Christian religion (not just a denomination)
 
Excluding religions that existed pre-Islam, I think there are a few good candidates under the right circumstances.


Sikhism
Fairly obvious one as it did quite well OTL despite bad circumstances. It would however need to build up a significant proselytising trend however to do well outside of India/India adjacent lands.

Hare Krishna
Ok this one is sort of misleading, but revolves around a misunderstanding with the religion. Namely, the actual religion of which Hare Krishna is a "denomination" (for lack of a better term), is Gaudiya Vaishnavism. What the Hare Krishna movement showed however is that said religion actually can proselytise fairly well given the right circumstances.

Sabbataeans
This is a bit far out there, but I have speculated a few times as to if Zevi could have been a major figure in the world of religion given the right circumstances. Namely, a Kabbalistic Messiah would have been right up the ally of many mystery cults of the time (like the Rosicrucians who supported one claimed successor) but that his desire to survive cost him. Had he been a martyr, I could very much see if becoming a major (though not as big as Islam) force.
*cough* Communism *cough* Fascism-Naziism *cough*
Not religions.
However we have to accept that the Latter Day Saints see themselves as Christians. Everybody who describes themselves as a Christian is a Christian.
I wouldn't go that far. I mean if I called myself a Christian, despite being a pretty open Zen Satanist, it's pretty clear that I am not a Christian XD
 
I wouldn't go that far. I mean if I called myself a Christian, despite being a pretty open Zen Satanist, it's pretty clear that I am not a Christian XD

Okay, maybe everybody who calls themselves Christian and thinks that Jesus has some religious significance. (Christian means basically followers of Christ)
 
Hare Krishna
Ok this one is sort of misleading, but revolves around a misunderstanding with the religion. Namely, the actual religion of which Hare Krishna is a "denomination" (for lack of a better term), is Gaudiya Vaishnavism. What the Hare Krishna movement showed however is that said religion actually can proselytise fairly well given the right circumstances.
And Gaudiya Vaishnavism is a sect of Hinduism.
 
If an indigenous Mesoamerican or Andean state survived colonization, and developed a reformed native faith, that's potentially upwards of a hundred million adherents.
I think personally best bets are a religion developing in India, Southeast Asia Asia, or China.
I believe Sikhism or a similar syncretic religion of Islam and Hinduism could become dominant in the Indian subcontinent, which means hundreds of millions of adherents.
In China, you could see a Taiping Rebellion scenario succeeding, some messiah figure creating their own faith by amalgamating traditional Chinese beliefs and some outside influences.
I think Southeast Asia might be the best option. It's highly populated and at the confluence of major commercial routes. Any eccentric, talented prophet can pull from Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and various indigenous faiths to craft a new religion. From there the new faith can spread throughout Southeast Asia/Indonesia, India, China, Australia, and East Africa, by both conquest and trade.
Yea, my thought is south east Asaia but the question is what sort of faith might this look like?
 
Modernity has many of the sociological features of a religion and is successfully challenging both Christianity and Islam.
...not really...

Modernity is a very vague term in general that it can be applied to quite a lot, but being in opposition to Christianity and Islam (both of which exist in modernity and for which their adherents are the biggest religious block in the modern world) is definitely not one of them.
 
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