What if Portugal discovered America?

Actually, I'd be very interested in knowing what was happening in Brazil around 1600. Did we see a push of Portuguese settler colonialism?

Around the 1580s there was a big boom in trade between Portugal and Brasil, related to the sugar trade but that happened in an all-new framework pushed by Filipe II&I. He opened up trade to Brasil to port towns that previously hadn't been granted said privileges, the case I am more aware of is the granting of a Royal Privilege Charter to Viana do Castelo that allowed trade between Viana and Brasil to be integrated into the larger trade international network that Viana already had developed by that time and that was combined with locals being granted capitanias in Brasil.

In combination with Filipe's efforts to dynamise trade between his Portuguese domains, he also endeavoured to do several needed bureaucratic and fiscal reforms, and legal as well as Filipe overhauled the legal code with the publication of the Ordenações Filipinas that would be the basic law of the realm until 1867, that started to pay off in the late 1590s and early 1600s, even if a few were of just a temporary nature like the Portuguese Council of the Indies that was granted jurisdiction over all of the overseas domains (with the exception of the Atlantic Islands and Morocco) but was abolished in 1614 after just a decade of being in operation, but you really start seeing that Brasil is starting to be of more importance to the monarchy like when in 1609 a local Tribunal da Relação (a second instance court) was establish in Bahia.

But in terms of Brasil proper, the establishment of a single Governour for Brasil already during João III's time allowed for the man that can be said to be responsible for establishing the Portuguese colonies in Brasil in full to have the needed powers and authority to establish a small but thriving colonial centre that would grow quickly after the 1570s. I talk of Mem de Sá who was Governour for 14 years between 1558 and 1572 and really established and solidified the colony and did a lot of work to try to dynamise its trade ties with the mainland and also defeated the french attempts to take over the colony.

This overall set of circumstances meant that by the 1580s already there were far more ties between Brasil and Portugal than there had been in the previous decades and they kept growing in the decades that followed, with greater trade links and the integration of Brasil's trade routes into the smaller, but by no means less important, trade port towns of northern Portugal, in specific the cases of Viana do Castelo and Vila do Conde, meant there was a lot more movement of goods and people between the most populated part of Portugal and Brasil which then translated into people moving from there to Brasil, so while the policies pushed by at the time were of a more mercantile nature, the greater focus was always in increasing trade volumes for the incomes generated, they had the consequence of linking a region, Northern Portugal, that was arguably suffering from some overpopulation at the period, you see a lot of the costal towns that nowadays we would consider of small size (and I mean small 3 to 5,000 people or 7,000 pushing it) but that were in a situation where they couldn't feed the local populations via their own productions and were dependent on food imports from other parts of Europe (this in itself isn't that strange for Portugal in the 1500s, or even the centuries that followed, as the period is marked by a lot of bad harvests and the Kingdom was most of the time in a food production deficit) and this greater access to Brasil also allowed them to send excess population.
 
That is impossible to happen (C Columbus voyage west) unless you can butterfly the knowledge Portugal had of the world size. I think a best premise would be no C Columbus voyage and Brazil is discovered like OTL by Cabral, due to the winds and currents involved in navigation to India, that is the main Portuguese objective, seems to be more a logical POD.

But lets assume that some New Christian(s) gets the Crown authorization to finance the voyage and it goes like you said, in late 15th century, so I assume that those lands will be explored by private individuals rather than by the Crown initiative.

Diplomaticly the lands will probably be divided according to the Treaty of Alcáçovas, so the line to divide the New World will be based on a North-South compromise around the cape Bojador, probably pushed south considering the winds and currents to America.
How is the Treaty of Alcálçovas?
 
How is the Treaty of Alcálçovas?
Its the treaty that ended the Castilian succession war. In one of the articles its was defined that an equatorial paralel line from around the cape Bojador was the frontier that forbid Castilian navigation south, in essence, giving Portugal mare clausum of the south Atlantic. If Portugal is the one claiming the discovery of the Americas and Castile starts to make its exploration voyages too the treaty will be definitive base for the spheres of influence of each kingdom, so, unlike the Tordesillas, the world will be divided in a North-South axis between both nations, so Portugal gets a massive slice of the Americas.
 
Its the treaty that ended the Castilian succession war. In one of the articles its was defined that an equatorial paralel line from around the cape Bojador was the frontier that forbid Castilian navigation south, in essence, giving Portugal mare clausum of the south Atlantic. If Portugal is the one claiming the discovery of the Americas and Castile starts to make its exploration voyages too the treaty will be definitive base for the spheres of influence of each kingdom, so, unlike the Tordesillas, the world will be divided in a North-South axis between both nations, so Portugal gets a massive slice of the Americas.
That's very cool!
 
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