As the title says - what would have happened had Napoleon never invaded Egypt? IOTL, he played a vital role in breaking the power of the Mameluke ruling caste (although the Mamelukes had already been in a state of civil war for nearly 30 years), which enabled Muhammad Ali to seize power and ruthlessly modernize the region. What would have happened to Egypt had Napoleon never invaded it? Would the Mamelukes retain power? With the Mameluke civil war still in force, would the centralizing projects of the Porte succeed & Egypt be put under the Empire's authority?