We Are All Republicans, We Are All Federalists

Seems interesting. The Democratic Republicans might be splitting apart. Will the Federalists stay in national politics or just be a New England regional party? The Democratic Republicans seem to be the pro Constitution party.
Chapter Five: The Election of 1804
Chapter Five: The Election of 1804

"Emperor Thomas I of America of the House of Jeffersonicus", a Democratic-Republican political cartoon
With Adams declining to run for a third term to follow the precedent of Washington, the eyes of the Liberty Party turned to his vice-president, Thomas Jefferson. Adams had endorsed Jefferson to be his successor, and with his support along with that of all of the former Democratic-Republicans, Jefferson was ensured the nomination. The larger question was who would receive the vice-presidential nomination. The men that both Adams and Jefferson would have preferred to put in that role, John Marshall and James Madison respectively, were unable due to sharing their home state with Jefferson. Following this, small movements began around nominating a variety of candidates, including Naval Secretary Benjamin Stoddert, Associate Justice Samuel Dexter, and Senators Albert Gallatin, Nathaniel Macon, and John Breckinridge. In the end, however, the man who received the nomination was once again the man that Adams endorsed, Secretary of War and former New York Governor George Clinton. Knowing the influence that Clinton controlled in the state, many members of the Liberty Party hoped he would be able to bring their electoral votes to their column. There were some murmured complaints that two former Democratic-Republicans had been nominated on the ticket, instead of a former Democratic-Republican and a former Federalist, but these were few and far between, as the longer the Liberty Party continued, the more the former Democratic-Republicans and Federalists were able to get past their old rivalries.

Thomas Jefferson and George Clinton
When the Democratic-Republicans gathered, it was clear who their party was going to nominate, as Burr still had a firm grip on the reins. The question was more who was going to be his vice-president. Eventually, in a surprise decision, they would go with Vermont representative Matthew Lyon. Lyon's nomination surprised meaning as he was known to be a moderate within a generally extremist party. He would sometimes cross the aisle, and vote with the Liberty Party in Congress, leading to a movement spearheaded by Representative William B. Giles of Virginia to expel him from the party. Lyon would weather the storm, however, and manage to hold until his party membership even though he continued in his voting habit. Lyon's nomination was a calculated move by the Democratic-Republicans, as it appeared that North Carolina and Tennessee might fall to the Liberty Party due to the perceived extremism of the Democratic-Republicans, as evidenced by the Liberty Party's Nathaniel Macon defeating Alexander Martin in the race for one of the North Carolina Senate seats, although the other seat was maintained by Democratic-Republican David Stone. With Lyon on the ticket, they hoped to hold onto these two states, as well as to try and possibly win Vermont.

Aarron Burr and Matthew Lyon
Alexander Hamilton would find controlling the Federalist Party not as easy as Burr had found controlling the Democratic-Republicans. With Hamilton being out of the government for almost a decade, as well as hurting his reputation with the Reynolds Affair, and opposing the Louisiana Purchase and shrinking the army, the Federalists believed they could probably nominate someone better than the man many in the country were beginning to refer to as "America's Failed Napoleon". He had also recently lost two of his greatest allies in the deaths of father figure Washington in 1801 and father-in-law Schuyler in 1804, slightly before the caucus. The coup would occur during the Federalist nominating caucus. Hamilton would enter the caucus expecting to easily be nominated. It was when the caucus began that his dreams of an easy nomination were shattered. Instead of nominating him, the party that Hamilton had played a key role in creating turned instead to Massachusetts Senator Theodore Sedgwick. Hamilton would try desperately to stop the inevitable, but soon found that not only had the party generally turned away from him, but even some of his closest allies, including Rufus King, Charles C. Pinckney, Timothy Pickering, and Benjamin Tallmadge had come to support Sedgwick over him. Taking the few Federalist who still supported him with him, Hamilton would abandon the nominating caucus. With Hamilton and the remains of his supporters gone, nominating Sedgwick was easy. After some debate about who to give the vice-presidential nomination to, with both Pinckney and John E. Howard in consideration, the caucus would end up supporting former South Carolina representative William L. Smith.

Theodore Sedgwick and William L. Smith
Despite being rejected by the party he had founded, Hamilton's presidential ambitions for the 1804 election were neither beaten nor sated. Rallying what supporters he could, he formed his own nominating caucus, hosted at his mansion. After their unanimous support of Hamilton for the presidential candidate, however, it rapidly proved to be a disorganized affair. This is highlighted by the fact that former New York senator John Laurence was nearly nominated as Hamilton's running mate despite both being from New York. This event was only halted when former Treasury secretary Oliver Wolcott Jr. pointed it out. With Laurence now out of contention, the race turned to be between former Secretary of War James McHenry and Hamilton's running mate in the previous election Thomas Pinckney. After Pinckney withdrew his name from contention, McHenry was chosen to run with Hamilton.

Alexander Hamilton and James McHenry
In the campaign season, it seemed that the Democratic-Republicans and the Liberty Party were pitted against each other in battles over Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and Vermont. In the eyes of the general populace, these were America's two most dominant political parties, as the Federalist were losing power, prestige, and office holders to them in every election cycle since 1796. The Federalists, meanwhile, were distracted by Hamilton petulantly attacking them, even to the point of ignoring the Liberty and Democratic-Republicans in his attacks. More and more, however, Alexander Hamilton was beginning to appear as a maniac, such as attacking popular policy decisions, and even going so far as attacking the popular President Adams in a pamphlet titled Letter from Alexander Hamilton, Concerning the Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq. President of the United States. Despite this, Hamilton was able to pull a decent number of votes away from the Federalists. Meanwhile, Jefferson and Burr, the former allies, had their cronies launch brutal verbal and written assaults against each other. The Liberty Party attacked both Burr's war record and his known ambitions which he often flaunted. They would restrain, however, from dredging up the old rumors about Theodosia, with Adams, Jefferson, and Clinton all approving of letting the hurtful story against someone not even involved die. The Democratic-Republicans, meanwhile, pointed out Jefferson had never even seen combat, and also brought up his time as Virginia's governor, and how it was under his governorship that Richmond burned. James T. Callender would also bring up the Sally Hemings story again, although it received much less attention than in the previous election, and it was generally disavowed, although modern genetics would ultimately prove the story true.

A photograph of Hamilton's pamphlet
When the results came in, it had been a landslide for Jefferson and the Liberty Party. He had managed to win 5 of the 6 states that were being severely contested between the Liberty and Democratic-Republican Parties. He would secure 143 electoral votes from Ohio, Kentucky, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont. His victories in North Carolina, Vermont, and Massachusetts had been extremely close, however, with his victory in the latter coming down to a matter of a couple dozen votes. In second place came Aaron Burr, securing 21 electoral votes from Tennessee, South Carolina, and Georgia. Theodore Sedgwick would end the election with 12 electoral votes from Delaware and Connecticut, and Hamilton would finish with no electoral votes, although he did manage to beat Sedgwick for the popular vote in several states including New York. Their tremendous victory would secure the Liberty Party as a political organization, while this election also marked the beginning of the slow and painful death of the Federalist Party.
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Just out of curiosity, do any of the readers of this TL want to see where the effects of the P.O.D. stretch out to beyond the U.S., or should I just stay focused on my area of expertise, the history of the United States? If you want the former, then what do you want to see?
Just out of curiosity, do any of the readers of this TL want to see where the effects of the P.O.D. stretch out to beyond the U.S., or should I just stay focused on my area of expertise, the history of the United States? If you want the former, then what do you want to see?
While not all timelines have to be globe trotting, it would be interesting to see some of the effects of the divergence on other nations when relevant.
Just out of curiosity, do any of the readers of this TL want to see where the effects of the P.O.D. stretch out to beyond the U.S., or should I just stay focused on my area of expertise, the history of the United States? If you want the former, then what do you want to see?
If it has ties to the overall TL then yes. Right now I don't see much changing overseas. About the only major change is the Democratic Republican party isn't the party in charge. Basically it's just replacing the DR for the liberty party at this time.
Basically add a chapter for France if Napoleon isn't going to invade Russia. That in turn could change the war of 1812.(if there is one) Without the oversea war against the Barbary states the us is relatively unknown military. If the British go after American sailors like otl the British would stay focused on Europe. The US could get some leverage.
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Chapter Six: The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson, 1805-1809
Chapter Six: The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson, 1805-1809

President Thomas Jefferson
As soon as Jefferson entered office, he set about doing something he had long waited to do while serving as Adams' vice-president. He believed that paying the Barbary states bribes only encouraged them to keep raiding American ships, and that the only way to halt them was to bring war to their countries. He would wait, however, until an incident of pirate raiding occurred, wanting to have something to show to the nation as his casus belli. In the meantime, he worked on constructing his cabinet. Realizing the coalition nature of his party and popularity of his predecessor, he hoped to maintain as many of Adams' cabinet officials as he could. In the end, however, he only managed to maintain one of Adams' secretaries, Naval Secretary Benjamin Stoddert. Secretary of State Ellsworth had only been serving as temporary figure head, and Treasury Secretary Gerry was hoping to return home to Massachusetts and engage in state politics, leaving the stress of the Treasury department behind. Clinton had been elected as Jefferson's vice-president, and Attorney General Lee was eager to return to his lucrative law office. To fill the holes in his cabinet, Jefferson would appoint James Madison to state, Albert Gallatin to treasury, Henry Dearborn to war, and John Breckinridge as attorney general. Although many historians agree Jefferson had formed the most harmonious presidential cabinet up until that point, some others point out that in choosing the men that he did, he removed three of his firmest advocates from the Senate, Madison, Gallatin, and Breckinridge, leaving behind only James Monroe, Nathaniel Macon, and John Langdon to be the voice piece of the president in the upper branch of Congress. Just as Jefferson was finishing assembling his cabinet, the opportunity he had been waiting for arrived.

Jefferson's New Cabinet Members: James Madison, Albert Gallatin, Henry Dearborn, and John Breckinridge
The scandal that Jefferson had been looking for would occur when a pirate ship hailing from the nation of Tripoli, one of the Barbary states Adams had bribed not to attack America, assaulted a U.S. merchant ship. The decision to go after the American ships once again had been made by Yusuf Karamanli, Pasha of Tripoli. Knowing the stance that Jefferson took concerning his nation, as soon as he heard that Jefferson had won the office of the presidency, Yusuf decided to strike first and ordered his ship to again harass U.S. merchant vessels. When Jefferson was informed of this, he had all that he needed to launch a strike against Tripoli. Jefferson did not wish to only humiliate Tripoli, however, he wished to make an example of them, as there were three other North African states that engaged in piracy, although not to the notoriety of Tripoli. To accomplish this goal, Jefferson would assemble a fleet of U.S. naval ships, many of which had been built under order from his predecessor. For command of the fleet, Jefferson would turn to Commodore Edward Preble, a veteran of the Revolutionary and Quasi Wars who had made a name for himself as a capable, calm-headed, and determined officer. Serving under Preble would an array of some of America's finest naval officers, including William Bainbridge, Oliver Hazard Perry, Isaac Hull, Andrew Sterett, Thomas Macdonough, James Lawrence, David Porter, Daniel Patterson, Richard Somers, Isaac Chauncey, and the Decatur brothers, Stephen and James. Commanding the U.S. Army forces Jefferson sent would be Brigadier General William H. Harrison.

Edward Preble and William H. Harrison
Preble would lead his fleet and the army convoys across the Atlantic, and right off the shores of Tripoli Harbor, capturing several pirates vessels on the way. He would then position his fleet to bombard the harbor's defenses, and soften them up for the amphibious invasion of Harrison and his troops. Despite their seeming ferocity, Tripoli's defenses were antiquated, and twice during the bombardment an old cannon would explode, killing the crew servicing it. Other soldiers of the Pasha would report seeing their cannon ball firing from their cannon only to travel a few yards before rolling down the fortifications due to the poor quality of their powder. In the lopsided artillery exchange, the Americans very much got the better of the Triplotians, with only a single American killed, and five others wounded, as opposed to the dozens of Yusuf's soldiers killed or severely wounded. With Tripoli's harbor defenses disabled, Preble would give the go ahead for Harrison to land his troops. Harrison's men would storm into the town, rapidly routing the shoddy militia that guarded the beaches. It was in the tight streets, however, that the Americans faced their greatest challenge. Companies of men would get separated from their regiments, and disorganization ruled the day as pot shots from the old buildings rung out at the Americans soldiers every few seconds. The most famous of these separated units would ultimately be Lieutenant Presley O'Brannon, who, with a dozen other marines, was separated from their fellow Americans.

A painting of Preble's bombardment of Tripoli​

Confused by the winding streets, O'Brannon and his men were unable to find their way back before several dozen Triplotian defenders began firing on the men. Hiding behind broken pieces of old houses, O'Brannon and the marines desperately tried to hold out and await reinforcements. Fighting alongside O'Brannon would be Private John E. Wool, an orphan he had joined the expedition hoping to make a name for himself. As all hope seem lost, O'Brannon would be rescued by the arrival of two artillery batteries under Major George Armistead and Captain Alexander Macomb, which fired at the old buildings hiding the defenders and collapsed several. The arrival of five companies of infantry under Captains Zebulon Pike, William Eaton, Winfield Scott, Zachary Taylor, and Jacob Brown cleared out the rest of the Triplotians, and allowed O'Brannon and his four remaining marines, including Wool, to rejoin the American forces. Not long after O'Brannon's relief, American forces breached the Pasha's palace, and were able to capture Yusuf himself, ending the battle and the war. The Americans would depose Yusuf, and instead place his brother Hamlet on the throne, as he was much more favorable to America. The Tripoli War as it came to be known would go on to be important for several reasons. Most immediately, it put a stop to the Barbary States' harassment of U.S. vessels, and marked the beginning of the rapid decline of the Barbary pirates. Secondly, it brought into the limelight several capable young officers who would go on to distinguish themselves in later service. Most importantly, perhaps, would be that it was America's first oversea victory, and helped bring respect to the U.S. in the eyes of other nations.

Lieutenant Presley O'Brannon
The Tripoli War would be the most prominent event of Jefferson's term, although another national stir would occur with the return of the Corps of Discovery minus 36 of its members. Lewis and Clark, both of whom served the expedition, would report they had had several run-ins with the Natives on the land, although many of them had been diffused by the presence of Sacagawea, a pregnant female guide who had helped guide them and often served as mediator between the expedition and the Native Americans they encountered. With Sacagawea's death during child birth, however, the expedition had lost their most important member, and they started losing members from there. Several members had died of starvation, a few more of diseases, but the largest number had been killed by attacks by hostile tribes. In their reports to Jefferson, both Lewis and Clark lamented the loss of Sacagawea, saying her presence could have saved the lives of many of the men who died. Another controversy would occur when Democratic-Republicans in Congress championed a bill referred to as the Embargo Bill, which would halt foreign trade with Britain and France as a result of their harassment of U.S. merchant vessels. Many in New England, whose livelihoods depended on this trade, feared that Jefferson and his former Democratic-Republicans in the Liberty Party would vote in favor of the bill. Following the advice of Naval Secretary Stoddert, however, Jefferson made it known that he was opposed to the bill, and would veto it if it was approved by Congress. This declaration caused the Liberty Party to unite against the bill, and kill it in Congress. Finally, two vacancies to the Supreme Court would open during Jefferson's term. First, Associate Judge William Paterson, a staunch Federalist who had supported Hamilton in the 1804 election, would die in 1806. Jefferson would replace him with Robert R. Livingston, a man well-liked among the Liberty Party. His second appointment would come with the creation of 7th seat in the Supreme Court in 1807. To fill this seat, Jefferson would follow the advice of John Adams and appoint Robert T. Paine, a fellow signer of the Declaration of Independence and a justice in the Massachusetts Supreme Court. Although hesitant to accept and eager to retire, letters from Jefferson, Adams, and Benjamin Rush would convince Paine to accept the role. As the next election approached, Jefferson believed that he had done well in his term, and believed in his ability to be reelected.

Robert R. Livingston and Robert T. Paine
Jefferson and his cabinet:
President: Thomas Jefferson
Vice-President: George Clinton
Secretary of State: James Madison
Secretary of the Treasury: Albert Gallatin
Secretary of War: Henry Dearborn
Attorney General: John Breckinridge
Secretary of the Navy: Benjamin Stoddert
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When the results came in, John Adams had been narrowly reelected. Adams would secure 76 electoral votes from Kentucky, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Massachusetts. Meanwhile, Hamilton would finish second with 35 electoral votes from New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Burr would finish third with 27 electoral votes, securing North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina, and Georgia to his cause. For the vice-presidential candidates, Jefferson would receive 75 electoral votes, Pinckney would receive 34 electoral votes, and Sumter would receive 27 electoral votes. The thrown away vice-presidential vote for the Liberty Party went to John Marshall, while for the Federalists it went to Theodore Sedgwick. The Democratic-Republican who was supposed to cast his vote for a different candidate for the vice-president failed to do so, but it did not ultimately affect the election. This election made clear that the bars of dignified politics had been broken, and that personal attacks were no longer off limits for the supporters of the candidates, even if the candidate himself would not dare to publicly start one.
President and VP weren't elected separately at this time. The VP was just the runner up to the Presidency. There were only 138 electoral votes at the time, I believe.
President and VP weren't elected separately at this time. The VP was just the runner up to the Presidency. There were only 138 electoral votes at the time, I believe.
I am aware of the fact that the president and VP were not elected separately at the time. At the time of this election, each member of the electoral college was entitled to two electoral votes. The winner of the most electoral votes became president, and his runner-up was vice-president. This situation would make it so there were actually 276 electoral votes up for grabs, although a candidate could only gain 138 at a maximum. Because of how this system worked, I wrote the results to show the electoral votes for both the intended president and VP candidates, as electors were supposed to vote for the ticket, with one elector throwing away an electoral vote to prevent a tie between the President and VP. I hope this has cleared up what I meant with this paragraph.
Chapter Seven: The Election of 1808
Chapter Seven: The Election of 1808

A Federalist pamphlet printed in Rhode Island for the 1808 election
With Jefferson carrying on the popularity and success of his predecessor's second term, he was ensured renomination, and many people believed he would sweep the election even more so than he did in 1804. All three parties would nominate candidates, however. The Liberty Party would enjoy a quick and easy convention, a luxury denied to the two other parties. Both Jefferson and Clinton would enjoy overwhelming support for their renomination at their nominating caucus. By now, the few men who were distraught about the ticket from the previous election's caucus had come to rally around Jefferson and Clinton, and no other names were mentioned for the candidacy except their's.

Thomas Jefferson and George Clinton
When the Democratic-Republicans gathered for their nominating caucus, they found that the man who in the past had always been eager to receive their nomination for the presidency, Aaron Burr, suffering from indifference. Burr had managed to win the governorship of New York following John Jay in 1804, and many believed that upon being elected to this role he had finally given up his ambitions for the presidency and had settled down, even walking his daughter Theodosia down the aisle during her marriage ceremony to DeWitt Clinton. So when the Democratic-Republican nominating caucus gathered, he made no efforts to receive their nomination. The party, however, struggled to choose a candidate besides Burr. Former New York senator John Armstrong Jr., Maryland Senator Samuel Smith, and Virginia Representative John Randolph Jr. were all considered, but none managed to gather the excitement and fervor that had accompanied Burr, although Randolph with his impassioned dictations came close in the eyes of many. Eventually, Armstrong would drop his candidacy, and join several others in trying to convince Burr to run one last time. Burr would turn down their advancements at first, but when his son-in-law DeWitt Clinton and his daughter Theodosia both started suggesting he give it one last try, he caved in and agreed to be nominated. With Burr once more becoming their presidential nominee, the proceedings for the vice-president began, and they eventually gathered around Smith after Randolph declined to be nominated.

Aaron Burr and Samuel Smith
For the Federalists, they had managed to bring most of break off members of their party back into the party, with the notable exception of Hamilton himself, who now claimed to be a political independent and to have retired from politics. Despite the leadership of the party managing to regain most of its cohesion, the party was starting to suffer from a lack of new members joining, as well as their membership base slowly seeping over to the Liberty Party among the rank and file. They also noticed more and more they, instead of the Democratic-Republicans, were beginning to be ostracized as the extremist and regional party, with them rapidly becoming known as the party of New England merchants. This sobering reality, which was becoming more and more clear to the Federalist Party, cast a pall over the Federalist caucus. Both of the Pinckney brothers declined to be nominated, saying they were seeking to retire. Eventually, the party would settle on former New York senator Rufus King for their presidential nomination, and Massachusetts Representative and former Secretary of State and War Timothy Pickering for their vice-presidential nomination.

Rufus King and Timothy Pickering
The campaigns for the 1808 election were generally characterized by the general apathy suffered in the Federalist and Democratic-Republican Parties due to the viewed certainty of Liberty Party victory. No one personified this better than the Federalist and Democratic-Republican presidential candidates themselves. Burr put no effort into campaigning for his candidacy due him having no real desire for victory, and King had personally very little criticize the Jefferson's administration for due to the tinge of former Federalist influence found in the Liberty Party. The one exception to this trend would be Timothy Pickering, who would go out and criticize the Adams and Jefferson administration in the most merciless terms. His speeches, however, only helped the Liberty Party paint the Federalists as the party of extremism, and the party that hoped to establish American dictatorship by subjugating all other occupations to mercantilism. When election day arrived, the question of many people's minds was not who would win, but rather how large the margin of victory the election was going to be.

A Democratic-Republican cartoon criticizing Jefferson for his opposition to the Embargo Bill. It depicts King George the III and Napoleon continuing to harass Jefferson, who has given up his opposition to it. This political cartoon would be one of the few examples of cartoons created by the Democratic-Republicans for the election.
When the results came in, the election had given Jefferson a second landslide victory. He had secured 142 electoral votes from Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. Trailing behind him would be Burr securing 21 electoral votes from Tennessee, South Carolina, and Georgia, and King's 12 electoral votes from Connecticut and Delaware. This election would witness two states firmly entrenched in their respective parties, Tennessee to the Democratic-Republicans and Delaware to the Federalists, nearly have their electoral votes go to the Liberty Party. With his large margin of victory in both the popular and electoral vote, Jefferson confidently looked forward to his next term in office. Unfortunately for him and the Liberty Party, however, his second term would be much more tumultuous than his first.
I'm actually hoping the Federalists stay around as a new England regional party even if it's under another name. Have them become the party of merchant's and early industry.
The National Republicans, maybe?
Yea, basically I hope they stay alive long enough to reform if needed. I figure non of the parties will last the whole United States time period. I would like to see personally the Federalists become the national Republicans basically the party of the merchant's, industrial elito and the rich and favor the government helping the nation industrialize and internal improvement.
Yea, basically I hope they stay alive long enough to reform if needed. I figure non of the parties will last the whole United States time period. I would like to see personally the Federalists become the national Republicans basically the party of the merchant's, industrial elito and the rich and favor the government helping the nation industrialize and internal improvement.
But that was already OTL, the National Republicans/Whigs did absorb the Federalist remnants. Split the Liberty Party once they dominate, create a National Liberty Party, and the result would be the same.

The fundamental issue of the Federalists is thay they could never appeal to a sufficient large population base to be sustainable.
The federalists just had to small a base to really expand otl it's even worse now. They survived as long as they did otl because of the Napoleonic Wars effects on the US and what the embargo did to US trade. So far their isn't the same effects on the US as far as I can see.
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Chapter Eight: The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson, 1809-1813
Chapter Eight: The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson, 1809-1813

President Thomas Jefferson
It was a few days into Jefferson's second term in office that he lost his sole cabinet hold-out from the Adams' administration. Secretary of the Navy Stoddert, tired after working hard for the past eleven years, decided to retire and return home to his family. He believed that he had put America's navy into a secure enough state, both in terms of logistics and the number of ships, to allow a successor to take over. Jefferson would accept his resignation, and offer the post to former congressman William Jones. Jones had served in the American Revolution, and had experience working in shipyards and the merchant industry, making him the perfect choice in Jefferson's eyes. Jones would accept the offer, and become the nation's second Secretary of the Navy.

William Jones
The issue that would dominate Jefferson's second term, however, was British impressment of U.S. citizens. While a decent portion of the men being taken off U.S. ships were actual deserters from the Royal Navy, a large number of others were just unfortunate American seamen. Jefferson was split about what to for the situation. Part of him leaned towards reconsidering the Embargo Bill as a possibility, and this was supported by Madison and Breckinridge in his cabinet. He also remembered Stoddert's arguments against the bill, however, and thought about the embarrassment it would bring to his party if they decided to switch their stance on the bill a mere year after they had voted it down. He also considered the political victory it would be for the Democratic-Republicans, as well as the fact that he had come to believe it would likely to be ineffective. Both Gallatin and Jones in his cabinet argued against bringing the bill back to Congress. In the end, Jefferson decided to let the bill stay dead, but he and the Liberty were unable to come up with a solution sans economic sanctions or war, neither of which they wanted. In the nation's eyes, the Liberty Party was being indecisive and mulling too long over a decision that required immediate action.

A drawing depicting British sailors impressing American merchants
It was this general reaction by the public that historians hold up as the reason for the Liberty Party losing their 10 year long majority in Congress. When the results for the 1810 midterm election came in, the Democratic-Republicans had taken the House of Representative with a slight majority, although the Senate remained in Liberty Party hands. This midterm would also witness the sweeping out of most of the remaining Federalist representatives, leaving the Senate to be their last remaining enclave in the federal U.S. government. For House Speaker, John Randolph of Roanoke, the long time leader of the Democratic-Republicans in the House, defeated incumbent Joseph B. Varnum of the Liberty Party.

John Randolph and Joseph Varnum
One thing that the Jefferson administration would deal with rapidly, however, would be the new threat posed by Tecumseh's Confederacy. Created by Tecumseh in an attempt to regain land lost to encroaching white settlers, Tecumseh would unite warriors from his tribe, the Shawnee, with men from six other tribes to oppose the expansion of the American and to try and set up a Pan-Indian Confederacy in the Midwest. Aiding him in this effort would be a religious revival lead by his brother Tenskwatawa, otherwise known as "The Prophet" due to the visions he reported receiving. For the capital of his new nation, he would establish a village known as Prophetstown. Tecumseh uniting the Native Americans worried Jefferson, and soon he had cause for greater concern when he started hearing rumors that the British were covertly supplying them. Deciding that this would be a good opportunity to present to the public decisive action taken by the Liberty Party, Jefferson would dispatch hero of the Tripoli War Major General William H. Harrison alongside 500 regular army soldiers to scatter the warriors of Tecumseh's Confederacy and burn Prophetstown, expecting militia to join him along the way. When news of this mission reached Tecumseh, who had been in South trying to convince Natives there to join his Confederacy, raced back to try and gather his warriors and prepare for an attack, knowing that his brother Tenskwatawa, who was leading the coalition in his absence, was no warrior.

Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa
Tenskwatawa would launch an attack before Tecumseh could arrive, however. With his scouts finding a camp of soldiers bearing the U.S. flag, they reported they had located the camp of Harrison's force. What in actuality they had found was the camp of an Ohio militia that had come to reinforce Harrison and had made contact with him, but decided to finish the last few miles of the march to his camp the next day. Soon, Tenskwatawa had the camp of roughly 75 man surrounded with his roughly 500 warriors, and launched an all-out assault. Taken completely by surprise, the militia panicked and desperately tried to ready for battle, firing off a volley, which would only halt Tenskwatawa and his warriors momentarily. This time, however, allowed one of three riders they dispatched to escape the assaults, although the other two were hacked apart when they accidentally ran into Native lines. When this rider reached Harrison, he ordered his force to the relief of the battered force, and went ahead of his men to survey the situation accompanied by his aides Sergeant John E. Wool and Privates Stephen W. Kearney and William J. Worth, as well as an Indiana dragoon militia under Major Joseph Hamilton Daveiss. When Harrison arrived on the scene, he managed to begin to stabilize the situation, and launched several assaults against the Natives with his dragoons. Tenskwatawa, surprised by the rapid turning of the tide, and receiving reports that the Natives that had been dispatched a flank guards being overwhelmed by the U.S. regular army force, ordered a withdrawal. When the main U.S. Army force arrived at the militia camp, they found that the Natives had withdrew. With his forces consolidated. Harrison ordered them to march forward towards Prophetstown. When they arrived, they found Tenskwatawa directing the Natives in escaping from their capital, with the time taken by the U.S. Army force to ford the river giving him enough time to make his second escape. Although Tenskwatawa and the majority of his warriors who had survived the battle did manage to get away, Harrison would see their capital burn to the ground before returning to Washington to declare victory.

Tenskwatawa's ambush of the Ohio militia's camp
President Jefferson would make three more appointments to the Supreme Court during his term. The first would occur when William Cushing died in 1810. To fill this vacancy, Jefferson would offer the position to both his Attorney General John Breckinridge and fellow Declaration of Independence signer George Clymer, but both would decline. Eventually, Jefferson settled on nominating Levi Lincoln Sr., a man he had previously considered for the attorney general post. The next would occur in 1811 with the death of Samuel Chase. To fill his seat, Jefferson would nominate Caesar A. Rodney, a former Delaware representative and a lawyer of note, as well as a cousin to a signer of the Declaration of Independence. His last appointment would occur as the result of an earlier appointment of his, Robert R. Livingston, dying in office. Jefferson considered many men for the role, but eventually decided to give the position to James Sullivan, a long time supporter of him and a man who desperately wanted to be on the Court, even if he did have ever declining health. Sullivan would be confirmed by the Senate, but die before he could assume office. To replace Sullivan, Jefferson would nominate former Chief Justice of the Rhode Island Supreme Court William Ellery, who would also be confirmed, but this time would live long enough to take his seat. As the next election drew closer and closer, Jefferson announced he would not run for a third term. He was starting to get worried, however, as increasingly the Democratic-Republicans in Congress, especially the younger members, were advocating war with Britain as the solution to American impressment. Nevertheless, Jefferson still believed it was possible for a Liberty Party candidate to win, despite their losses in the 1810 midterms.

Levi Lincoln, Caesar Rodney, James Sullivan, and William Ellery​
Very interesting timeline here. Not a POD I ever considered, and liking the differences that are already emerging. Can't wait to see what else comes along.