We Are All Republicans, We Are All Federalists


We Are All Republicans, We Are All Federalists
As the realization that my first timeline, Stonewall Jackson's Way, was eventually going to come to an end hit me, I decided to start preparing a second timeline in preparation for its eventual conclusion. To do this, I turned to the large numbers of points of divergence I have had in my head, but not truly fleshed and planned out as I had done with Stonewall Jackson's Way. Eventually, I came across an interesting possibility that I had first learned about when I had viewed the documentary adaption of Founding Brothers by Joseph Ellis. With this idea in mind, I started putting my ideas down, and I suggested it as one of the three timeline possibilities following the end of my first timeline. Despite it at first looking like Abandon the Alamo would be the next timeline, as time passed by We Are All Republicans, We Are All Federalists was voted passed it, and ultimately chosen as the next timeline. With this in mind, I began devoting more attention to the formation of the ideas of this timeline. It should be noted, however, that I would expect there to be wider amounts of time between chapters than Stonewall Jackson's Way, as I have been working on this timeline for a much shorter amount of time. With all of this said, I hope all the fans of my previous timeline can enjoy this new one, as well as many new comers who come across this.
 
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Congratulations on the success of Stonewall Jackson's Way.
Best wishes for this timeline.
But the POD does seem rather interesting. What is it since I do not have any idea what it is.
 
Chapter One: The Birth of an Alliance
Chapter One: The Birth of an Alliance

President-elect John Adams and Vice-President-elect Thomas Jefferson​

It was in the aftermath of the election of 1796 that John Adams began to fully realize the monumental task that lay before him. Not only would he had to hold the reins of a nation that was dissolving into factionalism, was caught in the middle between Britain and France, and was a little over two decades old, but the hands he would be receiving the reins from would be the closest mortal to a god in the eyes of the American people: George Washington. Perhaps it was this realization that caused Adams to draft one, if not the most consequential letters in American history, or perhaps it was merely a gesture from an overwhelmed man in search of help and guidance from an old friend. Whatever the cause, the effects would reverberate throughout the history of the nation the two men had helped found. For President-elect John Adams was drafting a letter to his vice-president elect and friend Thomas Jefferson, with an offer to help stop the ever growing divide between the two men. In the letter, Adams acknowledged that regardless of the result of the election, the man elected to the presidency would be unable to break out of Washington's shadow on his own. But if two of the most prominent men in the founding of the nation banded together, perhaps this result could be achieved. In effect, Adams was trying to change his former role as vice-president from the rather irrelevant part it had played in most circumstances to a position of more power. He offered that Jefferson bring himself into Adams' personal circle of advisors, focusing most of his efforts on diplomacy, an unsurprising offer from Adams considering Jefferson's former role as Secretary of State, and the mutual loathing John Adams shared with Timothy Pickering, Washington's Secretary of State who Adams felt obliged to maintain in his current role. Knowing also that the moment that the letter arrived in the hands of Jefferson, it would be viewed by James Madison, Adams also included a paragraph offering to name the Father of the Constitution as the head of the next diplomatic mission to France.

Representative James Madison​

When Jefferson received the letter, he quickly consulted with Madison, as Adams expected. Jefferson was interested in the offer, while Madison was more wary, and feared a possible scheme of the Federalist Party to some how humiliate the two most prominent leaders of the Democratic-Republicans. Jefferson ultimately decided he would discuss the contents of the letter with Adams during Washington's farewell banquet. The day of the feast arrived, and Jefferson approached Adams to try and decipher any hidden meanings behind the offer. After some discussion, Adams revealed that the offers in the letter were genuine, after that he would actually prefer working with Jefferson rather than Alexander Hamilton, leader of the Federalist Party that Adams was a member of. Both men feared Hamilton as a potential American Napoleon, and on a subconscious level believed that he hadn't really earned the status he had achieved, but had gotten it by riding Washington's coattails. Eventually, Jefferson agreed to the offer, but both men realized the impact of this. Jefferson served as the figure head of his party, and by accepting the offer, the future of both the Democratic-Republicans and the portion of the Federalist Party that were loyal to Adams remained unclear. Would a coalition form between them for the duration of Adams' time in office? Would their be a merger between the followers of the great leaders into one party? And most importantly, which men would follow Jefferson and Adams, and which would turn their nose up and the prospect of working with their former enemies. To figure this out, Jefferson and Adams agreed to another dinner, with both men bringing the leaders of their parties to answer these questions. To help with the organization of the whole affair, the pair would turn to three known moderates: Benjamin Rush of Pennsylvania, Edmund Randolph of Virginia, and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts. When the three men accepted the role of hosting and organizing the tremendous event, Adams and Jefferson went about figuring out which leaders to include in the important meeting.

Benjamin Rush, Edmund Randolph, and Elbridge Gerry
Both men would find trouble in bringing together the men for the dinner. For Adams, the problem revolved around the fact that many Federalist held a closer loyalty to Hamilton than himself, and were united with Hamilton in opposition to anything Jeffersonian, regardless of the thoughts of the president. Jefferson, who had the benefit of being solidly the head of his party, also would encounter this problem, but on a smaller scale than Adams. Some men in his party were simply unwilling to work with Federalists, whether they be High Federalists like Hamilton or moderates like Adams. Among the group was Thomas Sumter, William B. Giles, John Randolph of Roanoke, John Taylor of Caroline, Samuel Smith, and most prominently Aaron Burr. Others, such as George Clinton and Nathaniel Macon agreed to accompany Jefferson, but were uncertain if they would support any resulting coalition or merger. Ultimately, Adams would be accompanied with 5 Federalist leaders, while Jefferson would come along with 11 Democratic-Republican leaders [1]. After a meal that was by all accounts delicious and satisfying, the leaders of two parties got into the business of figuring out their future. After much debate, the men agreed to the formation of the Liberty Party, which was organized to be a moderate party, with an unspoken agreement that the political leaning it took would come with the executive it elected. When word of the formation of this party reached the public, it was initially quite bad for both Jefferson and Adams. Despite both Clinton and Macon agreeing to support this new party, all of the leaders who had refused Jefferson's invitation also refused to support the new party, and formed their own party maintaining the name Democratic-Republicans. As a result of this, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe had to begin a public relations campaign to convince the members of their party to join the Liberty Party rather than the Democratic-Republicans. It is generally agreed that the farther north in the country they went, the more successful were their efforts to convince the Democratic-Republicans to join the Liberty Party rather than the Democratic-Republican, although there were exceptions to this, with young and upcoming Georgian William H. Crawford joining the Liberty Party, and Aaron Burr taking on the role of leader of the Democratic-Republicans. For Adams and his fellow supporters of the Liberty Party, they became exiled from the Federalist Party, which now fell solely under the control of Hamilton, as almost all of Adams supporters had followed him to the Liberty Party. With this, the seeds for the 1st U.S. Party System were planted.
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Aaron Burr, leader of the Democratic-Republicans and Alexander Hamilton, leader of the Federalists​

[1]: Adams would come along with John Marshall, Henry Knox, Charles Lee, Samuel Dexter, and Benjamin Stoddert. Jefferson would come with James Madison, James Monroe, Albert Gallatin, Nathaniel Macon, Frederick Muhlenberg, George Clinton, John Langdon, Robert Livingston, Henry Dearborn, Peter Muhlenberg, and John Breckinridge. Also present at the meeting were the three hosts, Benjamin Rush, Edmund Randolph, and Elbridge Gerry.
 
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Just for anyone who is curious, the P.O.D. of this TL is actually not the letter that John Adams wrote, but the decision to include a position for Madison in it. IOTL, he wrote Jefferson the letter, and decided to try and get Madison on board by the same promise but conveying it through word of mouth by friends between the two men, including Benjamin Rush. Due to the verbal nature of it, Madison was very mistrustful of this, which he also spread to his compatriot Jefferson, and the offer was ultimately rejected at Washington's farewell banquet.
Where devoted to Hamilton. Quote

Where should be were.
I'm not quite sure what you are asking.
 
Chapter Two: The Adams' Presidency, 1797-1801
Chapter Two: The Adams' Presidency, 1797-1801

President John Adams
As soon as Adams assumed office, his cabinet fell to pieces. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering, Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott Jr., and Secretary of War James McHenry all resigned, as Hamilton had instructed them to abandon the president who he viewed as a traitor to his party. Adams had been expecting this, as he knew those three cabinet members held a greater loyalty to Hamilton and the Federalists than himself and the Liberty Party. In response to this, Adams began preparing to fill the three senior roles in his cabinet. For Secretary of State, Adams would turn to the former Federalist turned Liberty Party member he trusted most: John Marshall. For Secretary of the Treasury, Adams would go with Elbridge Gerry, after briefly considering Frederick Muhlenberg, who was currently serving as House Speaker after narrowly being elected over Federalist Jonathan Dayton and Democratic-Republican Samuel Smith. For Secretary of War, Adams would initially turn to former Secretary of War Henry Knox, who declined saying he wanted to stay in retirement. After briefly considering Senator Peter Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania, Adams would finally decide to offer it to former New York Governor George Clinton. Adams' reasons for nominating Clinton were three-fold. First, Adams wanted a New York man in his cabinet to help to secure the state as a Liberty Party state. Second, Adams knew that Hamilton had a disliking of Clinton, and by nominating him, he was making it clear that he and his former Federalists in the Liberty Party were fully independent from Hamilton's influence. Finally, despite having run against each other for the vice-presidency in the 1792 election, Clinton was able to work more harmoniously with Adams than many other people, although they would occasionally come into conflict. With Attorney General Charles Lee staying at his post, and making it known that he was of the Liberty Party, Adams' cabinet was complete.

Adams' new secretaries: John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, and George Clinton
One of the immediate problems Adams faced upon taking on the office of the presidency was foreign relations with France. Although France had helped the United States gain its independence, and they had signed a treaty of alliance in 1778, Adams was unsure about to handle them in foreign policy. The Federalists were in favor in supporting Great Britain in the fighting caused by the French Revolution and subsequent Napoleonic Wars. The Democratic-Republicans favored siding with the French. While opinion varied from Liberty party member to member, they tended to gravitate towards trying to seek negotiations with both sides, although not in a way to the disadvantage the U.S.. By now, both the British and French navies were harassing American merchant ships, and Adams hoped to find a way to halt this practice. To do this, he formed a diplomatic team to send to France to negotiate for an end of the harassment. The team was headed by James Madison, as Adams had promised in the letter that had started the Liberty Party, and was further consisting of Elbridge Gerry and New York Chancellor Robert R. Livingston. When the diplomatic trio arrived on French shores and tried to present their credentials, they were refused to allow their diplomatic overtures to be heard until bribes had been paid to both the French government, and the French Foreign Minister Charles Talleyrand. The French diplomats who informed the Americans of this referred to themselves merely as "X", "Y", and "Z" Stunned by this breach of diplomatic protocol, Madison would refuse the offer, and write to Adams informing him of the development. After a four-month period in which the three diplomats awkwardly boarded in Paris without any formal recognition, Adams' reply was received, in which he refused to offer payments, and told his diplomats that if the French refused to recognize them without payments, then they should consider their mission over, and return home. Once again, the French refused to recognize the Americans without payment, and Madison, Gerry, and Livingston returned home. This event would subsequently be known as the "XYZ Affair".

American diplomat Robert R. Livingston, a political cartoon satirizing the XYZ Affair, and French Foreign Minister Charles Talleyrand
When news of the "XYZ Affair" broke, and became public knowledge, many in the general public, especially Federalists, were outraged. They could not believed that not only was their former ally seizing their property, but they had also refused to recognize American diplomats, in effect refusing to recognize them as a sovereign nation. Many believed that the only result of this could be war. Adams was also enraged by the display of French arrogance, but was not quite ready for war yet. He did approve, however, sending out American ships to harass French ships in return for their harassment of American ones. This begun an unofficial war known as the "Quasi War". In recognition of this, Adams would approve an increase in the size of the American navy, and he also created a new cabinet post, the Secretary of the Navy. After Commodore John Barry turned down the position, Adams would offer it to Marylander Benjamin Stoddert, who would accept the post.

Naval Secretary Benjamin Stoddert​

He would also agree to increasing the size of the U.S. in preparation for any hostile French actions, although he made clear that this army would solely be used in self-defense. For command of the newly-expanded force, Adams would turn to America's oldest hero, George Washington. Despite rather enjoying his retirement, Washington agreed to serve his nation once more, although it was clear that almost all decision-making would fall into the hands of his second-in-command. Each of America's political parties supported a different candidate. The Liberty Party came out in support of Henry Knox, who was eager to come out of his retirement if it meant serving with his beloved commander once more. The Federalists originally seemed to support Hamilton for their candidate, but Hamilton declined any interest in the role. Many at the time expected this to be the result of a presidential run Hamilton was rumored to be planning. The Federalists would eventually coalesce around Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, an American Revolution veteran and former minister to France. The Democratic-Republicans wanted James Wilkinson, the former senior army officer before the arrival of Washington to be given the post. Eventually, the squabbling politicians appealed to Washington himself. After some deliberation, Washington informed them of the order he wished the men to be ranked, with Knox as second-in-command, Pinckney as third, and Wilkinson as fourth. This would be greeted by some mumbling by the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans, but it was the words of the man the country revered above all, and they were put into effect.
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Henry Knox, Charles C. Pinckney, and James Wilkinson
As if to spite the Federalists after their defeat in getting the man they wanted nominated to second in command of the army, Adams would also send out a second diplomatic mission to France consisting of Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth and North Carolina Governor William R. Davie to attempt again to negotiate, and to work alongside William Vans Murray, who had been serving as U.S. Minister to the Netherlands, and who Adams had made the unofficial Minister to France. The deliberations would continue throughout the rest of the Adams presidency. Meanwhile, as the wave of anti-French feelings was reaching its climax, the Federalists created a bill they intended to use to help target one their rival parties. The bill, known as the Alien and Sedition Bill, made citizenship harder to attain for immigrants, and made it a crime to speak out against the government. Both of these were targeted measures at the Democratic-Republicans, as immigrants were an important base of support for the party, and they had been the one party to speak out against President Adams' actions. By including the provision about speaking out against the government, which was currently in a slight Liberty Party majority, the Federalists hoped to coax members of the Liberty Party into voting for the bill, and for President Adams to sign it. In the Senate, Federalists Theodore Sedgwick of Massachusetts, Jacob Read of South Carolina, and John Laurence of New York were able to get it narrowly passed over the objections of John Langdon of New Hampshire and John Breckinridge of Kentucky for the Liberty Party, and Alexander Martin of North Carolina and Pierce Butler of South Carolina for the Democratic-Republicans. In the House, however, the bill would meet its end, as James Madison, Nathaniel Macon, Henry Dearborn, and Albert Gallatin were able to convince the Liberty Party to work together with the Democratic-Republicans to prevent a bill which they claimed was intending to strangle the free rights of America. The most famous speech of the debate would Tennessee Representative and Democratic-Republican Andrew Jackson's response to a eloquent oratory delivered by Massachusetts Representative and Federalist Fisher Ames in favor of the bill. Jackson would famously show off his scarred forehead, and declared that he had not faced the wrath of a British officer during the American Revolution only for his rights to be taken away now. This speech would be heavily applauded by Democratic-Republicans, and Vermont Representative Matthew Lyons would claim it was the best he had heard since he was first elected to the House. The bill would be defeated in the House.

Tennessee Representative Andrew Jackson
As the debates of the Alien and Sedition Bill died down, the fruits of Adams' second diplomatic mission to France began to appear. This time, the French had been willing to negotiate, and a treaty was produced. Although the French were not required to give payments for all the property they had stolen, they did agree to stop attacking American merchant ships, with the Americans agreeing to do the same, thus ending the Quasi War. These negotiations would be known as the Convention of 1800. All of this information would not be known until after the Election of 1800, however. During his time in office, Adams would appoint three judges to the Supreme Court. First, Adams would appoint Bushrod Washington, nephew of the famous hero, to replace James Wilson. Second, Adams offered the post vacated by Justice's James Iredell's death to Senator John Langdon of New Hampshire, but he would decline. Eventually, Adams would nominate Samuel Dexter, a man agreeable to almost everyone in the Liberty Party. Finally, the role of Chief Justice was left opened by Oliver Ellsworth after his retirement due to poor health. Adams would consider several men for the post. Jefferson advocated for Elbridge Gerry, Robert R. Livingston, James Sullivan, or Levi Lincoln Sr. for the post. In the end, Adams would decide to go with his Secretary of State, John Marshall, for the highest judicial position in the land. Jefferson, who had a rivalry with Marshall ever since both served in Adams' administration, would make clear that he disproved of the decision, but would do nothing to stop it. As the election of 1800 drew near, the country braced for a tight race, and began wondering who would put themselves into the running.

The Convention of 1800​

Adams and his cabinet:
President: John Adams
Vice-President: Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of State: John Marshall
Secretary of the Treasury: Elbridge Gerry
Secretary of War: George Clinton
Attorney General: Charles Lee
Secretary of the Navy: Benjamin Stoddert
 
from what i can tell, looks mostly similar to Adams presidency IOTL, minus the OTL squabbling between the Feds and the Dem-Reps having a third member. I wonder what will happen with TTL
 
I'm curious on the three party system. I wonder if we get multiple parties in the House or within other states.
 
Very interesting. With Jefferson and Adams allies instead of enemies, I wonder if this means Adams could become a two term president like Washington before him.
 
The answer to your question will come in the next chapter. Any predictions for the ticket for any of the three parties?
I predict Hamilton on the outright Federalist ticket, no idea for vice president.

As for the Democratic-Republicans? No idea actually.
I wonder how long this alliance between Adams and Jefferson is going to last.
I also see that as a major bone of contention between the two of them.
 
Election of 1800 tickets:
Liberals: John Adams-Thomas Jefferson
Federalists: Alexander Hamilton-Charles C. Pickney
Dem-Reps: Aaron Burr-George Clinton

Liberals win. I think Jefferson will get elected in 1804 and again in 1808, maybe Madison follows him. Or, Hamilton gets elected in 1804. Or Aaron Burr. It seems like the Liberals have G. Washington's blessing (the historical figure) through the second-in-command thing
 
Chapter Three: The Election of 1800
Chapter Three: The Election of 1800
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A Democratic-Republican political cartoon depicting Thomas Jefferson as an enfeebled dog under the ownership of John Adams
With the upcoming election of 1800, many saw it as a test of whether the Liberty Party would be able to hold together. Everyone knew Adams would seek a second term, but the question was whether or not vice president Jefferson would put himself up as a candidate for the presidency. All worry of the collapse of the party, however, would be put to rest when Jefferson declared that he would not seek the presidency, and would be contented to continue with the vice presidency as long as Adams wanted to continue seeking the presidency. A concern would later be raised midway through the campaigning season that Jefferson might attract faithless electors from the Democratic-Republican Party, and accidentally receive the presidency by gaining more electoral votes than Adams as a result of this. Jefferson affirmed, however, that if the Liberty Party was to win the election, and he received more electoral votes than Adams, then he was step aside, and allow Adams to remain in the Executive Mansion. Adams' wife Abigail would call this "...one of the most admirable declaration of an admirable career." and comparison of Washington's rejection of absolute power was soon drawn in comparison of this.

John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
As the Federalists gathered, they were unsure of their ticket at first. Hamilton, the figure head of the party, had made no statements to any the leaders saying he was going to seek their nomination. Small factions formed around men such as Theodore Sedgwick, John E. Howard, and Charles C. Pinckney, but none of the men were able to gather much support other than the people who supported them from the start. After several hours of rather directionless and pointless debate, the door of the room the congressional nominating caucus was using burst open. Into the meeting walked Alexander Hamilton, followed by a group of supporters including Rufus King, John Laurence, Philip Schuyler, Thomas Pinckney, Timothy Pickering, Oliver Wolcott, and James McHenry. It is generally agreed by historians in modern times that Hamilton did this as a way of showing the Federalist Party how rudderless they were without him, and that they needed him to get things done. As soon as Hamilton arrived and announced he would be willing to be nominated for the presidency, he was unanimously selected for the Federalist presidential nomination. For the vice-presidential nomination, the man Hamilton supported, Thomas Pinckney, would be chosen. Hamilton's performance at the caucus is generally considered brilliant by historians, and it helped firm up the lines drawn between the Federalist and Liberty Parties.

Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Pinckney
Unlike Hamilton, Burr made it clear as soon as he became head of the Democratic-Republican Party what his ambitions were. Stepping on the toes of the tradition of the time, which required men to act as if they were disinterested in power, Burr declared his intent to run for the presidency, which shocked his supporters by the breaking the precedent, and soon came under fire from the Liberty and Federalist Party. For his vice-presidential running mate, he would turn to South Carolina representative, Revolutionary War hero, and Carolina Gamecock Thomas Sumter. Sumter had little interest in governing from the executive branch, but could appeal to veterans and had a war hero status, all of which Burr was quite fine with.

Aaron Burr and Thomas Sumter
As soon as campaigning season began, the critical state in the election appeared to be New York. The Democratic-Republicans were expected to carry the Southern states, while the Middle and Chesapeake states seemed likely to vote Liberty. With New England seeming firm in the Federalist pocket, with the possible exception of Massachusetts, this left New York as the biggest battle ground state for the three parties. For the Democratic-Republicans, the hope of carrying New York seemed like a lost cause until Burr ran as their candidate. He had many connections in the state, and was certain he would carry it for his party in the election. Hamilton also hoped to use his connections and popularity in the state to carry. The Liberty Party, meanwhile, hoped that arch-rivals Burr and Hamilton would exhaust themselves fighting each other in the state, leaving it only a matter of the Liberty Party coming in and putting both parties in their place. The western states of Kentucky and Tennessee also seemed like they would be hard-fought, but only the Liberty and Democratic-Republicans seemed to have any chance of winning the states. Scandals broke out for all three campaigns. For Hamilton is encompassed the dredging up of the Reynolds Affair again, with Hamilton making no public comment on it. When asked why he would not respond to the attacks, Hamilton would explain that he already had, and brought up the 1797 Reynolds Pamphlet. For Jefferson, however, a new scandal would appear when Democratic-Republican muckraker James T. Callender would allege that Jefferson had engaged in a scandalous affair with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings. To the accusation, Jefferson would make no public response, although he would secretly back newspapermen including Benjamin F. Bache and Philip Freneau in their writing of stories denying the claim. The scandal targeted at Burr would hit closest to home, however. It told of Burr sending off his beautiful socialite daughter, Theodosia Burr, to engage in affairs with powerful men to secure their support, with the list of men he reportedly sent her off to including Andrew Jackson, DeWitt Clinton, and Joseph Alston. Unlike Hamilton or Jefferson, Burr would explode at the unsubstantiated rumors. Despite the suave appearance of calm he normally projected himself as, he would erupt and fiercely and publicly decry anyone who spread the story, or even mentioned that he would send off his beloved daughter in such a way. Despite the rumor being through discredited come election day, both the Liberty and Federalist Party were able to portray Burr as unstable man with short fuse that could be set off by the slightest provocation.

Theodosia Burr
When the results came in, John Adams had been narrowly reelected. Adams would secure 76 electoral votes from Kentucky, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Massachusetts. Meanwhile, Hamilton would finish second with 35 electoral votes from New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Burr would finish third with 27 electoral votes, securing North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina, and Georgia to his cause. For the vice-presidential candidates, Jefferson would receive 75 electoral votes, Pinckney would receive 34 electoral votes, and Sumter would receive 27 electoral votes. The thrown away vice-presidential vote for the Liberty Party went to John Marshall, while for the Federalists it went to Theodore Sedgwick. The Democratic-Republican who was supposed to cast his vote for a different candidate for the vice-president failed to do so, but it did not ultimately affect the election. This election made clear that the bars of dignified politics had been broken, and that personal attacks were no longer off limits for the supporters of the candidates, even if the candidate himself would not dare to publicly start one.
 
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Chapter Four: The Adams' Presidency, 1801-1805
Chapter Four: The Adams' Presidency, 1801-1805

President John Adams
When Adams entered his second term in office, it was generally agreed that national division was at an all-time high, but an event would shake the nation and, albeit briefly, put a halt to the increasing trend. This event would be the death of the man almost unanimously viewed as the father of the United States, George Washington. With Washington's death, an outpouring of national grief began, and Adams, despite never being personally close to the man or viewing him as a friend, declared a time of national mourning. People looking to the future, however, worried if America would be able to hold together without him. For the present, however, the nation was united in their sorrow for his passing.

George Washington (1732-1801)
It was in this time of the nation coming closer together that Adams and his supporters guiding through Congress a new amendment. In this amendment, it set apart the presidential and vice-presidential electoral vote. Now, instead an elector casting two votes, and the winner becoming president with the runner-up becoming his vice-president regardless of political affiliation, the members of the electoral college could cast one vote for president, and one vote for vice-president. Despite this amendment originating from the Liberty Party, it enjoyed bipartisan support, and was easily passed through Congress. Another initiative that Adams wanted to start with his new term was to find a new secretary of state, as John Marshall had gone on to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. After much deliberation, Adams would offer the post to former Chief Justice and new elected senator Oliver Ellsworth. Despite some initial hesitations, Ellsworth would accept the post, and be confirmed by the Senate. Ironically, his replacement would be the man he had defeated in his run to again assume a seat in the Senate, Uriah Tracy. Ellsworth, however, was content to leave most of the complex workings of diplomacy to Vice-President Jefferson, while he stayed on as figure head.

Oliver Ellsworth
With diplomacy on the mind, President Adams began to draw up plans concerning the French Louisiana Territory, especially New Orleans. Despite his recent success in reestablishing Franco-American relations, Adams was still wary about the large swath of French territory to their west, especially considering the volatile nature of France now, and that there were rumors that Napoleon Bonaparte intended on using it as a launching ground for taking over the United States and creating a French empire in America as well as in Europe. France also controlled New Orleans, the key to the all important Mississippi River. It was Adams' goal to gain control of this all important port, and to accomplish this mission, he would form a three main diplomatic team: Vice-President Jefferson, Senator Madison, and veteran diplomat Livingston. Adams would have preferred to include a former Federalist in the team, but was well aware of the importance of this mission's success, and knew that the French generally preferred former Democratic-Republicans to former Federalists. When the team arrived in France, they quickly found out that France was offering them a much better deal than they expected. They offered not only New Orleans, but all of the Louisiana Territory for a mere 16 million dollars. Surprised and perplexed by the offer, they would accept it quickly before the French changed their mind. Debate on the reasoning behind this offer continues to the modern day, but it is generally believed that it came down to Napoleon, seeing the amount of men, money, and resources being bogged down in Haiti, deciding to abandon his dreams of an American empire, and deciding to commit his attention to Europe. Whatever the reasoning for the decision, when news of it reached America, it met an eager populace. It also divided both the Federalist and Democratic-Republicans. Although some Federalist supported the vast increase in territory, other Federalists, led by Hamilton, argued against it in an attempt to deny Adams such a large victory. Meanwhile, almost all east coast Democratic-Republicans opposed it, as they viewed it as overstepping the power given to the president by the Constitution. Democratic-Republicans in Western states, however, would see the great opportunity presented in the offer, and decide to go against the party in supporting it. Despite it being clear that the measure was going to pass, Virginia representative John Randolph of Roanoke would make a name for himself because of his opposition to the it. His fervent speeches against it launched him into the national spotlight, but would ultimately prove to be not enough to stop it. To explore the newly acquired territory, Adams would turn to his scientifically-gifted vice-president Thomas Jefferson to form a team to explore the new land. To head the newly formed "Corps of Discovery", Jefferson would turn to his inquisitive secretary, Meriwether Lewis, who would in turn ask William Clark of the U.S. Army to join him in leading the expedition. These two men, along with 43 other individuals, would go out and explore the territory. The fate of the exploration would not be known until 1806.

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
Despite the brilliant diplomatic victory that Adams and Jefferson had just won, in their next major diplomatic event, they found themselves in opposition to each other. Ever since America's independence had begun, they had become subject to the raids of the pirates of the Barbary Coast. An American ship, the Enterprise, had also engaged in a skirmish with a Barbary ship that appeared to be preparing to attack a nearby American merchant ship during its patrols in the Quasi-War. Jefferson wanted Adams to take strong actions against the pirates, with him even considering war as a possibility, rather than pay the bribes they demanded to cease their actions. Adams, however, would continue in the precedent of Washington, and agree to pay the bribes. All of this was in correspondence with Adams trying to wind down America's military. While he is not in favor of weakening America's navy, he was also not in favor of putting it to any test for the moment. He also shrunk down the American army, as he believed that the time of national crisis that had necessitated its increase in size had passed. Despite weakening the American military, however, Adams would also sign into law the bills establishing a national military institute to train young men into officers for the U.S. Army. To serve as president of this new college, Adams would turn to a man who had been working to try and form one since the American Revolution, Henry Knox. Knox eagerly accepted what he viewed as the retirement of his career in service to his country, as well as the financial stability he hoped it would provide.

The skirmish between the USS Enterprise and the Barbary ship
With his second term in office winding to a close, Adams announced he would follow the example of Washington, and not seek a third term. With office now opened a new man, members of each political party prepared to pursue the the role of the presidency for the election of 1804.
 
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