Chapter 1 Battle of Manila, And Events From 1899 to Mid June 1900s
Chapter one: Battle of Manila 1899 - Mid June 1900s



Prelude:

Shots had been fired, war has started. The Filipinos had now realized that the Americans are not here to liberate the islands, but they are here to invade the Philippines for themselves, their personal imperialist ambitions. It started in Early Febuary 1899 when PVT. William Grayson had shot a Filipino soldier, which turned into a shootoout. And when Aguinaldo asked Dewey for a ceasefire, Dewey did not agree, instead Americans had Filipino positions attacked.



"It is my duty to maintain the integrity of our national honor, and that of the army so unjustly attacked by those, who posing as our friends, attempt to dominate us in place of the Spaniards. "Therefore, for the defense of the nation entrusted to me, I hereby order and command: Peace and friendly relations between the Philippine Republic and the American army of occupation are broken and the latter will be treated as enemies with the limits prescribed by the laws of War."

Emilio Aguinaldo – After the formal declaration of war against the Americans had been declared.

Aguinaldo had ordered the Filipino forces at Manila to hold the Americans at all costs, and ordered all American position outside Manila must be sieged. He rallied twenty five thousand Filipino soldiers, fifteen thousand which are armed with rifles and the rest are armed with whatever they got, with their local commanders at February 10 1899. He arrived with the reinforcements at February 15 1899. He with the other generals had cooperated to plan and coordinate with each other to take the American positions in Manila. March 1 1899 they launched a well coordinated attack at the American Forces in Manila. The Americans had twenty thousand soldiers and the Filipinos had sixty five thousand, fifty thousand whom are armed with rifles, and the remaining fifteen thousand armed with mostly bolos.
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The Filipinos had successfully drove out the Americans out of Manila while giving them significant casualties. This is a blow on the American war support on the campaign against the Philippines. President McKinley has vowed for a revenge and counterattack to take all of the Philippines. While that was happening The American Anti Imperialist League has gain lot's of traction. Democratic Party Candidate William Bryan promises to end the war as soon as he won the election.

"Dont they have the right to be free? They Filipinos wanted to be free... If the American dream is based on Freedom, why are we supporting the tyranny. Why do we want to enslave them and use them for our own personal gain. Is that the American Dream... Is that what the founding fathers had wanted...Are we promoting liberty in imperialism?"

William J. Bryan - campaign speech after the Disastrous Battle of Manila.

The Americans tried Multiple times to retake Manila but they had little success they have only retook their previous territory and are always getting pushed back by the Filipinos. This continued until the end of the war

The Americans had started to invade other parts of the Philippines. The separate republics in the archipelago had joined the central government in Malolos after the battle of Manila making them officially part of the Philippines. In respond to the invasions, Aguinaldo decreed to expand the Armed forces and local militias of the Provinces. Which halted the American advance and even driven them out in some areas.

It has been a stalemate, The only major advance is the Americans successfully retaking their previous gain in Manila and holding it to constant Filipino counterattacks. Outside Manila Filipinos are largely successful on driving the Americans out of the provinces.

Differences compared to OTL
[1] The Filipino forces are more well equiped, as the USA gave 40,000 Nagant rifles, bought mostly from the American manifacturers who make Nagant, (as it was cheaper than the Krag and any alternatives, It was no different than the Russian made, than where it is made) including bullets during the Span Am war. Sun Yat Sen sent the 10,000 rifles to the filipinos earlier and Japan did the same and it arrived and did not get sunk(Mostly Remington roling blocks are sent by Japan and Sun, Totalling 20k rifles with bullets). While The US gave them 50 Model 1885 and 1890 light field artillery. 350 De Bang Canon Field artillery, Used as coastal artillery, and Japan sending them 10 artillery pieces. And other types of supplies and financial aid. A total of a year worth of supplies including for training is donated by the Americans, as the Americans anticipated the Spanish American War to last for a few years. As they believe Spain would fight to the last to maintain their prestige and honor to the European powers (As they heard news of the bulk of the spanish navy going to the Philippines to reconquer them, which is true but they are recalled after the treaty of Paris.). In order to support the American ships while they battle the Spanish Armada, the Filipinos can shoot the Spanish ships down.

[2] The Filipino forces had it's armed forces trained, under the leadership of Antonio Luna after the Americans capture Manila. Most soldiers had at least a month of basic military training, Trained by Filipino officers, Captured Spanish officers and defectors, and American officers (US officers will train the Filipinos from the start of training until the treaty was signed, as hostilities with Spain is still not over) Antonio Luna is in charge of the training of all Filipino troops, which was successful . The training was actually ordered by Aguinaldo, as many nations wanted to take the Philippines, So they will have a decent army when the Americans leave. They are trained after the style of British and American fashion under the leadership of Luna. Majority of the former Spanish and loyalists officers and soldiers had already defected to the Philippines, and they retained their role to the military. More Loyalist and Spanish soldiers had defected, instead of captured as the Filipinos went to Manila.

[3] Aguinaldo handled the army personally, instead of placing Luna an inexperienced general. Instead he made him his aide. And Replaced Ricarte with Goyo as Chief Of Staff of the Army [As Goyo has more Loyalty and shown capable of command]. Though most issues are handled by Aguinaldo himself.

[4] More journalists and press had went to the Philippines to interview and report about the area. This happened after Andrew Carnegie offered the US government 20M dollars to free the Philippines, and Mark Twain gone there to see the innaguration of the republic. Which gained more alot of the area, the feracity and determination of the Filipinos had caught their eye in the war against the Americans. They portrayed the USA as a bully. And deemed it unnecessary, as the American public had seen that the Philippines already had a working government and already ruling themselves effectively. As more than a hundred reporters had went to the inauguration of the Malolos Republic. It brought the nostaligia of the American revolutionary war, where they still fought for freedom. The unexpected war would bring more reporters, as they wanted to see why. They interviewed the revolutionaries and heard that the Americans had attacked first. This caused outrage to the American publics as they are the aggressors.

[5] The Filipinos Bombard the American position day and night, with the artillery they got. The cadets and training had been done in the battlefield, to train and weaken the American position. Though some shells would luckilly hit American ships, as they ressuply the Americans. That is how they are training the artillery corps
 
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Chapter 2: Manila Offensive, End to American Imperialist dreams
Chapter 2: End to American Imperialism

"It's so clear that the Filipinos really wanted to be free", "Stop the War!"
- An excerpts at an anti imperialist Newspaper

It is late July 1900 and a major Filipino offensive just started. The Americans at the outer trenches had been caught off guard after the surprise attack last night. It has been a slaughter of American soldiers, friendly fire between Americans plus the gunfire from the Filipino soldiers had made the Americans rout in panic. WJ Bryan had his polls skyrocketed, and the support for the war plummeted. Meanwhile McKinley has his polls on a
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downward
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trend after the battle.
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McKinley had ordered a counterattack which is successful at taking back the lost ground but both sides had suffered greatly. The public now war weary wants to stop the war, due to the massive casualties and cost it gotten into.
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WJ Bryan had won the election, he immediately sues peace, recognized and open relations with the Philippines

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Treaty of Manila January 1901

The United States will recognize the Philippines
The United States will open diplomatic relations with the Philippines
Hostilities between the Philippines and United States will stop

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Chapter 2: Recognition, Unfair Treaty, and Peace
After the surrender of General Arthur MacArthur the recognition of the Philippines many nations had consider to recognize the so called Republic of Philippines as the Filipino diplomats say. Knowing that the Philippines is at a strategic location and has very close proximity to their colonies, Britain and the Dutch recognized it. Not wanting to risk a war or to get it balkanized between European states which will risk a huge war between many nations, Britain even goes further by guaranteeing the Philippines independence up to the 1920s. After the British and Dutch recognition the Qing Empire hoping to have future allies and due to the huge Chinese minority and long history of friendly relations dating back to thousands of years. Teddy Roosevelt after the surrender of MacArthur has ordered another offensive to take the Philippines. The American public now weary of the war and unsupportive of it, mainly because the letters sent by mainly African American soldiers on the maltreatment of the Filipino people and the surrender of MacArthur. Due to this the American Anti Imperialist League had gained popularity and traction, Mark Twain, steel magnate Andrew Carnegie and many others had pressured the United states to sue peace. Roosevelt's abandoned his imperial ambitions to regain his popularity for the next elections and orders the remaining American holdouts to surrender. William Taft and the Americans in Manila surrendered upon hearing the surrender of the United States. A few weeks later all the remaining holdouts had surrender one by one.
Aguinaldo told the Americans that the POWs will remain until the treaty is made. Filipino And American diplomats fled to Manila to discuss the treaty.
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Treaty of Manila

The United States will pay one hundred million Dollars ($100,000,000) for the people that got affected by the war
The United States will pay fifty million Dollars ($50,000,000) for the damages cause by the war
The United States will pay two hundred million Dollars ($200,000,000) for war reparations
The Philippines will open relations with the United States vice versa
The Philippines would freely allow American businessmen in the Philippines
Filipino products can go to the United States without tariffs until the 1910s
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The public in America is outraged due to the unfairness of the treaty but because of European pressure to America to accept the treaty. European powers wanting to weaken America to stop it from being a superpower, hoping it will have an economic crisis. Several European powers mainly France, Britain, and Germany guarantees the Philippines and urges Latin American countries to do the same in exchange for debt forgiveness and aid to force America to accept this unfair treaty.
The Qing empire did not have "a long history of friendly relations dating back thousands of years" with Britain. Firstly the Qing dynasty didn't come to power until the 1600s. Secondly, the British seized Hong Kong as a colony during the first Opium War, enlarged it during the second Opium War, and further enlarged in 1898 after strong-arming the Qing into leasing the New Territories (and Weihai, but Weihai was never part of Hong Kong).

Around the turn of the century, Britain was looking for allies against Germany because they were averse both to the growing power of the Imperial German Navy and because they didn't want any one power to dominate the European mainland. That's why they mended fences with their old foes Russia and even France. The USA was at the top of the list of countries they wanted ally with, not just because of the German situation, but because of shared language, history, and culture; remember this was the age ethnolinguistic nationalism. During the Spanish-American War Britain remained neutral but tacitly backed the American cause. They told the Spanish Navy they couldn't refuel in Egyptian waters on the grounds that doing so would violate British neutrality, while allowing Americans to purchase all the coal in certain British ports and even letting the US Navy use Hong Kong as a base of operations for the conquest of the Philippines. Sailors of the Royal Navy cheered for sailors of the US Navy as they left Hong Kong for Manila. I don't see them strong-arming or opposing the Americans on this.

The contest between Germany and the USA over who would feast on the remnants of the Spanish Empire was nasty, so I can absolutely see Germany opposing the United States, but the most likely form this would take would be supplying and equipping the Filipino guerillas, and in any event it would probably be part of a plan to turn the Philippines into a German colony, since as I said, Germany's reason for opposing the USA would be a dispute over who could have Spain's colonies.

Also note, winning independence is one thing. Getting reparations is another. If the Filipinos say the POWs won't be released until reparations are paid, it's not just going to outrage American imperialistic warhawks. It's going to be seen as extortion, and the USA does not have track record of paying ransoms. Demanding reparations for the release of POWs who at this point the American public would see as hostages since an armistice has taken place to allow negotiations, would undermine the political position of American anti-imperialists. War-weariness would be replaced with cries of "Rescue our boys!" Aguinaldo knew the only way to gain independence was to get the USA to stop fighting. He's not going to do something that would ensure the electoral defeat of the anti-imperialists.
 
A resource-rich archipelago without any European or American protection. How will you turn the IJN's lustful gaze away from the Philippines?
 
A resource-rich archipelago without any European or American protection. How will you turn the IJN's lustful gaze away from the Philippines?
Everyone wants them, what country would risk a huge costly war just to get them. Imagine you are at japans or any other countries pov. It might be good if I invade this archipelago, but there are many other countries who wants this this might anger some nation who wants this so this might drag into a huge costly war with nations that has interest in the Philippines
 
The Qing empire did not have "a long history of friendly relations dating back thousands of years" with Britain. Firstly the Qing dynasty didn't come to power until the 1600s. Secondly, the British seized Hong Kong as a colony during the first Opium War, enlarged it during the second Opium War, and further enlarged in 1898 after strong-arming the Qing into leasing the New Territories (and Weihai, but Weihai was never part of Hong Kong).

Around the turn of the century, Britain was looking for allies against Germany because they were averse both to the growing power of the Imperial German Navy and because they didn't want any one power to dominate the European mainland. That's why they mended fences with their old foes Russia and even France. The USA was at the top of the list of countries they wanted ally with, not just because of the German situation, but because of shared language, history, and culture; remember this was the age ethnolinguistic nationalism. During the Spanish-American War Britain remained neutral but tacitly backed the American cause. They told the Spanish Navy they couldn't refuel in Egyptian waters on the grounds that doing so would violate British neutrality, while allowing Americans to purchase all the coal in certain British ports and even letting the US Navy use Hong Kong as a base of operations for the conquest of the Philippines. Sailors of the Royal Navy cheered for sailors of the US Navy as they left Hong Kong for Manila. I don't see them strong-arming or opposing the Americans on this.

The contest between Germany and the USA over who would feast on the remnants of the Spanish Empire was nasty, so I can absolutely see Germany opposing the United States, but the most likely form this would take would be supplying and equipping the Filipino guerillas, and in any event it would probably be part of a plan to turn the Philippines into a German colony, since as I said, Germany's reason for opposing the USA would be a dispute over who could have Spain's colonies.

Also note, winning independence is one thing. Getting reparations is another. If the Filipinos say the POWs won't be released until reparations are paid, it's not just going to outrage American imperialistic warhawks. It's going to be seen as extortion, and the USA does not have track record of paying ransoms. Demanding reparations for the release of POWs who at this point the American public would see as hostages since an armistice has taken place to allow negotiations, would undermine the political position of American anti-imperialists. War-weariness would be replaced with cries of "Rescue our boys!" Aguinaldo knew the only way to gain independence was to get the USA to stop fighting. He's not going to do something that would ensure the electoral defeat of the anti-imperialists.
The pow thing was the actual plan of the filipinos to make america sue peace and to recognize them
thanks for ur opinon and Ima use this as inspiration in the next parts.
 
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Everyone wants them, what country would risk a huge costly war just to get them. Imagine you are at japans or any other countries pov. It might be good if I invade this archipelago, but there are many other countries who wants this this might anger some nation who wants this so this might drag into a huge costly war with nations that has interest in the Philippines
Well suspect number one is of course Germany, who did risk a serious war with the US in an attempt to get in on the action, given the times Germany almost started a general war anyways in this time period (1905 and 1911 for a start) that won't really dissuade them. Suspect number 2 is Japan, who just won a big war with China and is a couple years from winning a big war with Russia, and with Russia out of the way the only powers who can really stop them are Britian, their ally, and the US, who now doesn't want it, so isn't really risking a war as France and Germany can't project power that far effectively (they could beat the Filipinos, but they can't defend their logistic lines from someone with a real navy)

Also how does one cut off a port like Manila from someone who has naval supremacy in the first place? Why would MacArthur surrender rather than say withdraw to Guam for more reinforcements, or take one of the smaller islands as a base to build up on to retake Luzon later?
 
The United States will pay one hundred million Dollars ($100,000,000) for the people that got affected by the war
The United States will pay fifty million Dollars ($50,000,000) for the damages cause by the war
The United States will pay two hundred million Dollars ($200,000,000) for war reparations
I don't think so tbh. Can the Philippines defeat the Americans on land? I guess... I don't know much about the land campaign, but they have the numbers and could theoretically opt for a long guerilla war. Can they force the US to pay reparations? No. The US has complete control over the seas, they can strangle the islands and bombard cities indiscriminately.
 
I don't think so tbh. Can the Philippines defeat the Americans on land? I guess... I don't know much about the land campaign, but they have the numbers and could theoretically opt for a long guerilla war. Can they force the US to pay reparations? No. The US has complete control over the seas, they can strangle the islands and bombard cities indiscriminately.
And even then, there's this issue of provisioning themselves with munitions and other supplies and as well as the (rather inherent) factional issues and pro-collaboration sentiments within the main front (Luzon), leaving alone the differences between the nominally pro-Republican Visayan governments.

I doubt that someone besides Japan would also like to supply the rebels given that 1) the sale of Philippines is already a done deal with the very much-binding and recognised Treaty of Paris and 2) they had their concessions in China anyways, so a neutral entrepot wouldn't be desperately needed. If they do, then they had the rest of South East Asia anyways, those specifically being French Indochina and British Malaya. Sending representatives would only do good even without the immediate recognition, but they won't do so until they can prove that the nascent republic could reliably resist. America is a nasty enemy after all.

Actually, there's a chance that America could buckle once Japan became much more involved by menacing the Asiatic squadron with their already significant number of protected cruisers and three battleships and making the fronts Vietnamese-style hells (tactics could easily develop from there on, I believe) if it could invigorate the pro-peace and anti-imperialist sentiments, but then America's yellow newspapers are fickle mistresses, and one that was already invested in depicting Filipinos as savages, n---rs even.

Also, the Qing would also be too focused with funding the government and its arsenals anyways to aid in any significant way for Philippines' republican cause.
 
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