~ Chapter 19: The War Crosses the Pond ~
Spain’s entry into the war marked a turning point for the balance of naval power. The Spanish fleet possessed 26 ships of the line in the main fleet commanded by José de Córdoba y Ramos , enough to crush the 15 ships of the line that the British Mediterranean Fleet possessed, and the British retreated from the islands of Elba and Corsica fearing to get bottled up in the Mediterranean if the Spanish captured Gibraltar, allowing the French to take over both islands. The Spanish did not lay siege to Gibraltar, but instead preferred to use their navy more offensively despite being at a disadvantage in the greater scheme of things. The Spanish lacked any semblance of coordination with the French fleet which would have allowed them to gain superiority, and as the French fleet focused mostly in the North Atlantic, the Spanish focused on the Central Atlantic.
The most relevant engagement of the Anglo-Spanish war was the Battle of Cape Saint Vincent in 1797, where Admiral John Jervis managed to defeat the Spanish in a close engagement, but his inferiority in ships and the notable improvement in defences of the Spanish vessels prevented a fatal outcome for the Spanish navy. The Royal Navy lost 2 vessels while the Spanish lost the same number plus another one captured . The British goal of establishing a blockade on the Spanish fleet failed to bear fruit, which changed British war plans as they could not attack the Spanish colonies at will. The Royal Navy attempted to blockade Cádiz nevertheless in April 1797 but were repulsed by strategically placed gunboats commanded by José de Mazarredo. Recently promoted Admiral Horatio Nelson then decided to sail for Tenerife, hoping to capture the large quantity of spices in the Príncipe de Asturias that had recently arrived on the island. The attempted capture of Tenerife was another disaster for the Royal Navy, with the British suffering over 500 casualties compared to a meager Spanish 70. Nelson himself was hurt by a musket ball which fractured his humerus at multiple points, leaving him left-handed for the rest of his life.
Nelson wounded at Tenerife
The remaining British vessels close to Cádiz were not enough to stop the Spanish from breaking the blockade and the Royal Navy was dispersed, with those forces joining back with Nelson’s fleet and sailing back to Britain for repairs. In the Caribbean, Henry Harvey’s fleet  temporarily captured the island of Trinidad before in a rare show of cooperation a Franco-Spanish fleet took the island back. Further British raids in the Caribbean only succeeded at capturing Dominica, and in 1798 Harvey’s fleet had to sail north to counter the fleet of the Union of Atlantic States that had recently declared war on the United Kingdom.
The Northwestern War, also known as the War of 1798, proved that American forces had fallen behind their European counterparts. The first actions of the war involved a Union siege of the British forts on Lake Ontario and its vicinity, succeeding at capturing Fort Oswegatchie in the Saint Lawrence River, followed by the fall of Fort Ontario in April 1798. Fort Niagara would prove to be a much tougher nut to crack as the British fleet delivered supplies to the garrison, impeding the Atlantics from capturing the fort quickly. Further west, the Union mounted an attack on Fort Miami on the Maumee River, however the native tribes of the area proved very hostile to Union encroachment and conducted a series of guerrilla raids that hampered the Atlantic advance and delayed them until August 1798, giving the British enough time to fortify improve the fortifications, so general Arthur Saint Clair had to lay siege to Fort Miami. On September 23 he sent a scout expedition to locate nearby Indian warriors, encountering a mostly Shawnee force at Fallen Timbers , defeating the Indians and clearing the lower Maumee River out of resistance.
Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada Peter Russell was ignorant of prior actions taken in Upper Canada as when the prior governor John Graves Simcoe departed in 1796 he took most of the paperwork with him , so Russell was now the commander of Upper Canada and having almost no military experience, he opted for a defensive posture, pumping more soldiers to the forts already in British control. The command of military operations then fell upon Peter Hunter, who acted as commander of the military forces of Upper and Lower Canada. As Lower Canada was protected by the existence of New England as a sovereign nation, he moved these forces to the upper Saint Lawrence, and after waiting for the spring of next year to arrive, he marched south with his 20,000 strong army in May 1799.
Atlantic troops fighting natives and redcoats at Fallen Timbers, 1798
Hunter assaulted Fort au Fer on May 27 after a three-day siege, opening the way south to Lake Champlain, then defeating an Atlantic army mostly composed of New Yorkers  at the Battle of Plattsburgh on June 3 and proceeding to march further south, mostly following Burgoyne’s steps during the Saratoga Campaign, reaching Fort Ticonderoga two weeks later and laying siege to it. On the sea, the British dispatched a fleet under John Duckworth to blockade the ports of New York and Philadelphia, often exchanging fire against the forts on the coast as the pitiful Union navy retreated behind their protection, only performing ocasional sorties that did not achieve much success. The Atlantic fleet also suffered defeats at lakes Erie and Ontario. The Union attempted to cross the Niagara river and take Fort Erie in Upper Canada, but the attack was repulsed.
Fort Ticonderoga fell on September 23 and Hunter decided to stop offensive operations and wait for the next campaign season, hoping to receive reinforcements from Canada and maybe a landing in New York or Long Island. These were unlikely, as the United Kingdom considered the UAS as an annoyance compared to the massive threat posed by the Franco-Spanish alliance, and thus barely committed any forces to North America as there were more pressing needs elsewhere. The British were still determined to teach a lesson to their former colonists and planned a landing somewhere in 1800. For the rest of 1799, the war in the Ohio Country was mostly static, with the only major change being the fall of Fort Miami to Atlantic forces in November. The Union tried to mediate with other Columbian nations for support, but the Southern nations were anti-French given their abolition of slavery (which could set a dangerous precedent) among other reasons such as French attacks on neutral American ships, an act that led to Maryland and South Carolina declaring war on France .
Thus, when Hunter remused the march in April 1800, the Union of Atlantic States found itself in a dire situation. On paper, Union forces were numerically superior, albeit slightly, but the average soldier was nothing but a glorified conscript with only a few weeks of training, compared to the (mostly) professional soldiers the British had, not taking into account their Indian allies. Hopes for a victory returned when Hunter was given a bloody nose by James Livingston at Kingsbury on May 2, but quickly deteriorated when the Royal Navy intensified their attacks on Union ports, landing a contingent of troops at Fort Billingsport  and capturing the fort at night with most of the garrison being asleep. With the batteries protecting Philadelphia disarmed, the British crossed the river and stormed the Federal capital of Philadelphia on June 23 1800, with the government fleeing west to Wayne and parts of the city being torched by the British, who occupied the capital for the duration of the war.
The Burning of Philadelphia
Only days later, Hunter would defeat Livingston at Greenwich, quickly going south and isolating the Union garrison at Saratoga, capturing Albany on July 16. In the Northwest, Atlantic forces were more successful, laying siege to Fort Detroit and clearing the Ohio Country out of Indian presence. However, their victories in the west could not compensate for the defeats in the east, and a federal government alarmed at the news of British forces landing in Staten Island, opted to capitulate. The British were not interested in a harsh peace, and in the Treaty of Westminster of 1801 the Union of Atlantic States renounced all claims to the Northwestern Territory, with the border being set at the Maumee River, keeping the state of Ohio. The Union was also forced to repeal their 1795 Treaty of Alliance with the French Republic and prevented from trading with the French or their allies for the duration of the war, as well as giving up part of their fleet to a Royal Navy in need of vessels. The colonials had defied their former masters, and they had been crushed.
 - Spanish losses during the American Revolutionary War were higher, but thanks to naval reforms in the prior decades the Spanish fleet is better prepared than IOTL.
 - IOTL losses were 4 captured Spanish vessels and no British ships. ITTL the ship Santísima Trinidad isn’t as badly damaged as IOTL so it will be ready again in a couple years instead of the eight it took IOTL.
 - Abercromby is fighting in Ireland.
 - Which is pretty close to the location of Fort Miami, or at least the OTL Battle of Fallen Timbers was.
 - As in our Timeline.
 - Despite the existence of a Federal Army most army units are composed exclusively of recruits from any given state.
 - But not declaring war on Spain or the UAS.
 - At the time there were no other forts in the Delaware river.