Chapter 37: Heart of Dixie
~ Chapter 37: Heart of Dixie ~

In many cases the political background of a state is the result of the work of a group of educated men, or even the work of a single man. This was the case in the former United States, where a group of men assembled drafted a binding document for many states, without dramatically altering the constitutions of said states. However, the Articles of Confederation proved to be too feeble to hold together states with competing interests and trends that followed different tracks. The most basic divide between the states was that between the northern and southern states, a difference that also materialised upon the breakup, as the northern states managed to coalesce and pull themselves back together under the Commonwealth of New England and the Atlantic Union; while none of the southern states merged with each other until the 1830s [1]. This was despite attempts of politicians such as James Madison to form a Confederation of the South, an idea that was quickly rejected by the Carolinas, and that left Georgia, the sole state interested in a larger union due to its small population and vulnerability, isolated.

Virginia, by virtue of size and population, soon emerged as the most relevant of the Southron Republics, a leadership that was further reinforced by the influence of their politicians, most notably, Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson was a former governor of the state, as well as a respected politician and a member of the political clique behind the Articles of Confederation that, now that the experiment had failed, was free to push his agenda forward in the new Commonwealth of Virginia. Jefferson’s idea of a society was different from that supported by northern intellectuals and politicians, as Jefferson distrusted the urban masses and banking institution, favouring a more agrarian view of society, where farmers would constitute the core of the nation by acting as defenders of their rights and liberties in a rather decentralised government; a way of thinking that mirrored what he saw in his home state of Virginia, with its small cities and mostly rural lifestyle [2].

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Thomas Jefferson, President of Virginia (1789 - 1797)

Jefferson would become the man to adjust the constitution of Virginia for its new purpose as the legal background of a newly independent state upon becoming the first elected president of the newly independent Commonwealth. These adjustments to the constitution would essentially consist of: the power of the national government must be limited and kept in check by the people, the separation of church and state (especially against the Church of England), the exemplification of civic virtue in the agricultural classes, and that defence of the freedom of speech was paramount to keep the state in check. However, Virginia’s political legacy would not consist of Jefferson’s work alone, for in a country so focused on the rights of the individual there was a lack of description of said rights. Enter James Madison, also a prominent local politician, spent hundreds of hours revising documents and proposals for rights across the former USA, eventually drafting a document known as the Bill of Rights in 1793 [3].

The Bill of Rights and the concept of Jeffersonian Democracy would spread over the South, with Georgia adopting a similar Bill of Rights in 1794, followed by the Carolinas and Maryland the year after. This model of democracy heavily favoured the interests of the southern aristocracy, mostly composed of planter elites; while it found little support in the more industrial and merchant northern republics, where support was the strongest for a more powerful central government, especially after taking the brunt of the damage during the American Revolutionary War and almost being the starting grounds for a coup against the US government [4]. This climate of similar government structures helped prevent any conflict between the Southron Republics for decades, despite their fierce competition regarding prices for cotton and tobacco.

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James Madison, father of the Bill of Rights, later President of Virginia (1797 - 1801)

While conflict would not erupt between the republics, this does not mean that their armed forces, or rather, militias, would stay idle, as for the provisions of the 1783 Treaty of Paris the states had inherited large tracts of land extending from the Appalachians to the Mississippi, which, in Georgia’s case, more than doubled the original size of the state. Unlike in the Great Lakes Basin, the southern lands west of the Appalachians were almost devoid of Angloamerican presence barring parts of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers. As for other powers involved in the area, Spain, despite officially sticking to the northern border of Florida being set at the parallel 32° 22′ N, unofficially stated that Florida’s border was the Tennessee River, with Spanish officials pushing further north from places like Fort Toulouse on the Alabama River to negotiate with the local tribes, especially those known as the Four Civilised Tribes: the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Creek [5].

Spanish interference would dwindle to a halt once the Peninsular War broke out and the scarce Spanish garrison in the area was sent to take back Louisiana from the Napoleonic Empire. This decrease in official contact opened new gates for Angloamerican settlers in West Florida, Georgia, and the Carolinas to begin contacting the tribes and gain more power in the area. There was some division between those that defended the Indians could be civilised and integrated into Angloamerican society once embracing christianity and western customs, and those that defended that Indians were inherently primitive and had to be expelled to make room for new settlers and plantations. An example of the first type can be seen in Benjamin Hawkins’ “Account of the Tallushatchee Indians”, a book where he described his experiences in the “Civilising Mission” among the members of the Cherokee tribe. His work gained a lot of traction in Georgia, by far the less populated of the Southron Republics, whose government quickly backed up the assimilation plans, limiting land grabs west of the Appalachians, as there was plenty of free land already in the eastern part of the country.

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A map of the Four Civilised Tribes superimposed over OTL borders

Georgia’s policy of amity with the native tribes deeply contrasted with that of South Carolina, whose claim to the western territories was only a thin strip of land coming from a dubious border demarcation, which led to the South Carolinians pushing aggressively against the Cherokee tribes on their way, displacing them south towards Georgia, affecting the local balance of power between the tribes, and generating a split among the Cherokee community between those embracing western customs and those that fiercely resented Angloamerican encroachment, a division that would soon spread to the Creek tribes downstream. Over the following decades, violence within the same tribes would escalate to the point of active civil war, with the Georgian government having to spend increasing amounts of resources to prop up the pro-western faction, attracting money from northern bankers willing to contribute to the civilising mission under a Republican regime [6], as natives had essentially been cleared out of North Carolina and Virginia. The difference in the treatment of natives would have consequences decades down the line, when the first war among Columbian Nations begins.

As time passed, Angloamerican traders began to control the area that was officially recognised as Spanish West Florida, despite Georgia’s claim to the lands west of the Apalachicola River. Sensing the weakness of Spain, the settlers rose up in 1811 following the example of Louisiana, proclaiming the Republic of West Florida. Mere months after the proclamation of independence, West Florida asked the Republic of Georgia for protection, an act which was quickly responded by president Josiah Tattnall, annexing the Republic of West Florida in October of 1811, with the Spanish delegation in Saint Agustine issuing a mild response. However, wishing to avoid any sort of conflict at a time during which Indian violence was at its peak, Tattnall approached the Spanish government offering to purchase West Florida for a token sum of money, which a Spain desperately in need of cash accepted, thus securing Georgia’s access to the Gulf of Mexico. However, the Georgian purchase was met with fear in New Orleans, as the capital was now mere miles away from a potentially hostile power, with Louisiana soon issuing a statement claiming the land to the west of the Perdido River, on the basis of Biloxi being founded by the French, which would eventually lead to tensions and conflict [7].

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Contemporary map of Georgia after the West Florida purchase

[1] - A spoiler, take your guess at which two states will and under what conditions, the second part may surprise you more than the first.

[2] - I’m not accusing Jefferson of chauvinism but his ideal society resembles pretty much Virginia at the time.

[3] - Fairly similar to the OTL version, barring some changes that were done by the senate. However, this version of the Bill of Rights successfully passed a guarantee of protection of the individual against actions by state governments, riding the wave of Jeffersonianism in Virginia at the time. This would ultimately result in Virginia’s weak government being co-opted by agrarian elites, but Virginian democracy was solid during its first decades.

[4] - Check Chapter 10, but in a nutshell, French naval actions butterflied the southern British campaign, with the main thrust coming instead towards the Hudson and Delaware valleys.

[5] - The Seminoles are not present on the list as they would end up on the opposite side of the cultural border.

[6] - No way New York bankers and elites are going to finance that in the British-controlled Great Lakes, although this does not stop individuals from marching west to create new illegal settlements in British territory. This migration would reach a climax in the year 1815, when very poor harvests across the American northeast due to ash expelled from the eruption of Mount Tambora would result in thousands heading west in a quest for new lands.

[7] - Just setting the table for a large-scale North American war later down the line. Yes, I'm also aware that New Orleans land claims come from a ridiculous argumentation.
~ North America in 1812 ~

View attachment 770468
Wow, this water edit is so cool, I wonder who made it:). Jokes aside, I really like that the Tecumseh's confederacy is surviving, I almost never see it survive in TL's, also the northern Louisiana Indians are in a far stronger position than OTL. Here's hoping Georgia doesn't do anything harsh with the five civilized tribes....
Wow, this water edit is so cool, I wonder who made it:). Jokes aside, I really like that the Tecumseh's confederacy is surviving, I almost never see it survive in TL's, also the northern Louisiana Indians are in a far stronger position than OTL. Here's hoping Georgia doesn't do anything harsh with the five civilized tribes....
Heh, nothing to add to the first part XD. Regarding the Indian Confederacy, sadly I can't see it surviving for long. British / American presence is increasing by the day, and the natives are growing restless as more and more colonists cross into their lands and establish settlements. The last chapter gives a hint for that in Note 6. As for Georgia, nah, they'll try to have a good relationship with the Indians and assimilate them. When you have disputes with both of your neighbours you simply can't enrage a third party. Although that doesn't mean the natives will reciprocate.
So when does Texas get everything north and east of the Rio Grande?
Depends on how the rest of Mexico fares. They have a window of opportunity as the Spaniards and Mexicans are too focused on their own things, but Texas is very, very weak at the moment even if it has support from Angloamerican filibusters and mercenaries. Texas' best chance would be to attack whenever Mexico is weak or on the brink of collapse. My plans for Mexico aren't solid rock at the moment, so who knows.

I'm curious to see how independent Maryland will fare in the long term.
I envision Maryland as some sort of "Middleman of the Americas", being a small nation with very exposed borders and a sort of mix between northern and southern Americans. Maryland is definetely not going to be a land power, but due to its fishing industry (including whale oil), I can see it becoming a small, but rich mercantile nation a-la Netherlands, trapped between the much more powerful Virginia and the Atlantic Union. Should they ever go to war, Maryland would be in an awkward position.
Chapter 38: Chaos in the Land of Silver
~ Chapter 38: Chaos in the Land of Silver ~

As the year of 1810 went by, the power exercised by Martín de Álzaga over the city of Buenos Aires continued to dwindle, undermined by the actions of the criollos and even some peninsulares that doubted his leadership. Chief among those opposing Álzaga was Mariano Moreno, a lawyer with keen interests in economic thanks to his contact with peninsular merchants such as Domingo Matheu and Juan Larrea, who also had contact with masonic lodges after Matheu himself took him to a meeting of the Independence Lodge [1]. Both Moreno and de Leyva, the other two members of the triumvirate that de-facto ruled Buenos Aires (as vicerroy Ruiz was powerless), began to conspire against Álzaga, empowering the criollos and frequently changing the duties and placements of the peninsular garrisons, those most likely to oppose a coup from the criollo faction. Meanwhile, Moreno conducted an economic study of the Viceroyalty, publishing it under the title “La Representación de los Hacendados” (The Representation of the Landowners), in which he defended that the best course for La Plata was to get rid of Álzaga’s protectionist policies and engage in free commerce with other powers [2], and submitted it to the Cabildo, where he got the support of the majority of the assembly.

Feeling that he was about to fall from power, Álzaga rallied his loyal garrisons and in March of 1811, as news arrived of Ferdinand VII’s return to Madrid, ordered the peninsular militias to seize the Cabildo by force and crush the criollo faction. However his plan had been busted by deserters, and when the troops arrived at the main square of the town they were surrounded by local militias headed by Juan Martín de Pueyrredón, who quickly disarmed the peninsulares and incarcerated their leaders. Thanks to his natural charisma, Pueyrredón replaced Álzaga as the new member of the criollo-led junta, which officially deposed the viceroy as “his services were no longer of any need to the people of Buenos Aires”. After reshuffling the cabinet, a constitutional text was drafted that proclaimed the formation of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, calling for a federal republic comprising of the provinces of the viceroyalty. Such a loose agreement managed to convince the leaders of the Andean Republiquetas, that sided with the new government of Buenos Aires, albeit their loyalty was weak.

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Territories controlled (dark) and claimed (light) by the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata

However, there was a massive obstacle regarding the union of the Andes and the coast, and that was the city of Córdoba, as former viceroy Liniers had managed to escape from his confinement at the jail of Carmen de Patagones and, aided by the natives of the Southern Pampas, reached Córdoba, from where he proclaimed loyalty to viceroy Cisneros with the backing of the royalist militias of Juan Gutiérrez de la Concha. Now the government of Buenos aires had enemies on three sides: Liniers’ counterrevolution in Córdoba, the Paraguayans to the north [3], and Cisneros’ Viceroyalty of La Plata in Montevideo, that had just repelled an attempt by local patriots to force independence at the Battle of Las Piedras and executed their leader, José Gervasio Artigas. Luckily, Buenos Aires was strong enough to face their enemies if they were isolated, and Moreno judged that the best course of action would be suppressing the Córdoba uprising and, hopefully, the Paraguayans and Spaniards would wear each other down.

Moreno assembled an army of 5,000 men and granted command to Pueyrredón in order to keep him as far from the capital as possible, as Moreno feared a potential coup. However, they had not expected that the Andean towns of San Luis, San Juan, Río Cuarto and La Rioja, had sided with Liniers due to pressures from the landed oligarchy, which gave Liniers a chance to fight back as he gathered 800 troops from those cities [4]. Both forces clashed at the Ferreyra Pass [5], south of Córdoba, in a prolonged battle that lasted enough for Liniers to flee to the north with a good portion of his army, outflanking Pueyrredón and heading towards the Paraná River, successfully avoiding capture until he met with the Royalists at Santa Fe. As for Pueyrredón, he decided to push west and not turn back towards Buenos Aires, forcing the Andean loyalists to surrender and cementing Buenos Aires’ control over the western part of the former viceroyalty, aiming at recapturing Charcas and its rich silver mines to finance Buenos Aires’ war effort.

Pueyrredón advanced rapidly through the Andes and entered the Altiplano in 1813, heading straight towards Lake Titicaca after gathering men and supplies from the local Republiquetas. The Spanish mounted a temporary defence at the Yuraicoragua Pass, however this time it was Pueyrredón who pulled a flanking manoeuvre and defeated the Spanish under José de Córdoba y Rojas, capturing the Spanish commander and executing him by firing squad [6] as Pueyrredón proclaimed the incorporation of Charcas into the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata. Months later, in 1814, news came of an uprising in the city of Cuzco against the Spanish headed by the Angulo brothers and brigadier Mateo Pumacahua, and Pueyrredón opted to intervene without waiting for orders from Buenos Aires.

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Royalist and Patriot forces clash in the Altiplano

When he arrived at Cuzco, the city was being laid siege by Spanish general José Manuel de Goyenche, who knew of Pueyrredón’s incoming forces thanks to a spy. Pueyrredón himself was ill at the moment and command fell to his right hand, Castelli, who was unable to repel an attack from the Spanish cavalry in Huarcapay, that crushed the vanguard of the Platinean army and forced them to retreat back along the Vilcanota valley, a long and narrow valley that extends all the way from Cuzco to the Altiplano, where due to the hasty nature of the retreat and local royalist guerrillas, the Platinean Army reached Juliaca depleted, rendering it unable to operate for the rest of the year, and giving the Spanish time to subdue Cuzco.

To the South, the Paraguayans and Spanish had signed a temporary truce that allowed the royalist army under the recently arrived general Enrique José O’Donnell to cross the Paraná river at Rosario once the mercenary fleet of Buenos Aires had been defeated by the Royalist Navy [7]. Buenos Aires struggled to respond, and despite having competent leaders their troops lacked training and supplies, leading to their defeat at the Battle of Baradero of March 4 1814, that was followed by the siege and blockade of Buenos Aires. This forced Pueyrredón’s army to abandon Upper Peru and march all the way back to Buenos Aires, abandoning the Republiquetas to a slow, agonical end.

As the year of 1815 began, Pueyrredón was back at Córdoba with a recomposed army, and a secondary force had managed to contact the British and receive some supplies at the port of Arica, but he had to leave a similarly-sized force at Mendoza to prevent a Spanish attack from the recently-reconquered Chile [8], a force that included many Chilean exiles that helped bolster his command. Now, with Buenos Aires and its representatives under siege, Pueyrredón was the only figure of authority left in the United Provinces, biding his time and only heading towards Buenos Aires once he received news of Moreno’s surrender. Those few that had managed to flee from the Spanish flocked to his side as he marched towards the city, defeating O’Donnell and his overstretched peninsular forces at the Battle of Junín, liberating Buenos Aires and proclaiming himself as Supreme Director [9] of a restructured Junta as the Spanish retreated behind the Paraná River, protected by their navy. This resulted in a long stalemate that lasted for years as neither side was capable of defeating the other, a stalemate that would eventually materialise in the permanent division of the former viceroyalty.


Juan Martín de Pueyrredón, Supreme Director of the United Provinces and Commander in Chief of the Patriot Armies

[1] - Masonry played a key part in organising resistance against Spanish rule in America, with many of the leaders of the movements being masons, especially in La Plata.

[2] - Thus officially breaking with the façade of following the Spanish policy of no trade with third parties.

[3] - The OTL Paraguayan May Revolution of 1811 has been butterflied away, but a similar congress in 1812 results in the province declaring independence and refusing to submit to Buenos Aires.

[4] - IOTL San Juan supported with 400 men and La Rioja with 100. Also, the city of Mendoza, also in the general area, is supporting Buenos Aires.

[5] - Near the OTL town of Villa María.

[6] - The same fate of Córdoba IOTL, just in a different place.

[7] - A slightly different version of the fleet OTL’s Argentina had under Guillermo Brown. The Spanish Navy is doing better ITTL since improvements were added after the American Revolution, and they have some ships to spare and deal with the Porteños.

[8] - An attack which would never happen, as we've seen in Chapter 36.

[9] - Effectively a dictator.
Chapter 39: Guerra a Muerte
~ Chapter 39: Guerra a Muerte ~

During the torrid summer of 1812 the tide of the conflict in the Caribbean began to turn. The Spanish reinforcements to Mexico had gained a semblance of organisation despite the death of general Calleja due to tropical fevers, and the passage of ships from Spain had permitted a great deal of supplies to reach the port of Veracruz, enough for a push towards Mexico City. Sebastián de la Calzada, the commander of the relief expedition, left Veracruz in September, aware that the hurricane season would soon end and a steady flow of supplies would continue to arrive at the busy port of Veracruz. Unknown to him, the lands across the Sierra Madre mountains had descended into chaos. The main factor was the leadership of priest Manuel Hidalgo, who encouraged the Indians to rise up against their criollo overlords and seize the lands for themselves in a wave of religious fervour that scared the elite of Mexico City. While in the rest of Spanish America the Indians comprised the bulk of the Royalist forces and the criollos were the leaders of the Patriot Armies, Mexico was reversing that trend.

The large amount of manpower drafted by the Mexicans had depleted the fields, and with many crop fields changing hands or being destroyed the food situation in Mexico began to worsen [1], especially in the core of the viceroyalty around the Mexico Valley. As for the rest of New Spain, the reactions to the regime in Mexico City were mixed. The Northern Provinces, most of them sparsely inhabited, experienced revolts by the natives, especially gruesome in New Santander [2] and New Leon, while the revolts were crushed to the west, and the northernmost provinces (New Mexico and the Californias) were so isolated they weren’t affected by the events down south; while in the southern Province of Guatemala, the locals were frightened by the Republican Regime and flocked to the Royalist cause.

The recomposed Spanish Army was quick to wipe out the first Mexican strongholds on the base of the Sierra Madre, obtaining successive victories at Fortín de las Flores, Orizaba and Esperanza, bursting open the gates to the Valley of Mexico. Allende gathered his remaining forces and launched a counterattack at Texmelucán in December, however his forces were thwarted by the Spanish artillery, forcing the government to flee Mexico City as Sebastián de la Calzada entered the city and by a decree from Madrid was proclaimed as the new Viceroy of New Spain on February of 1813. With him assuming the charge of viceroy, the command of the armies was given to Pablo Morillo, who promptly began to silence any sign of resistance with violence and repression, earning him the hate of the New Spanish society as a whole [3]. Morillo then launched a series of campaigns towards Guadalajara, Acapulco and Oaxaca that crushed formal resistance, leaving only guerrillas hidden in the mountains of southwestern Mexico.

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Pablo Morillo, known in Mexico as "El Carnicero" (The Butcher)

Despite the collapse of the Mexican Republic, other Patriot Armies had better luck in the first years of the 1810s, namely in the former Viceroyalty of New Granada, where a certain Simón Bolívar reacted to an uprising against the Spanish in Cumaná with an expeditionary army that marches along the Andes Mountains and took over Venezuela, turning Bolívar into a national hero. However, his success in Venezuela was short lived as yet another military commander, this time José Tomás Boves, rose up from the Llanos and defeated Bolívar’s republic, the the man himself forced into exile in Jamaica. Many members of the Patriot Armies retreated west towards the Andes and New Granada proper. However, and as if it was some sort of cliché, Boves proved to be a despicable and cruel man, who executed thousands for collaborating with the Patriots, or even for made-up crimes such as “allowing Caracas to fall to them” [4]. Boves’ reign of terror would end swiftly as he died at the Battle of Úrica in December of 1814, leaving the Venezuelan Llaneros leaderless. They then flocked to the figure of José Antonio Paéz, a patriot leader that, like Boves, opposed the rule of the Mantuanos [5].

From his exile, Simón Bolívar gathered troops, resources and money both from the British and the friendly Haitian Republic, and launched two expeditions towards the Venezuelan region of Los Cayos, the first being a disaster, but in the second he managed to pass through and organise a resistance in the Orinoco Basin, and from there, with reinforcements coming from New Granada [6] he managed to subdue the Royalists in Venezuela by 1818. Spanish troops tried to retake New Granada later in that same year, but they were defeated and pushed back to the sea. By 1819, the only areas Spain controlled in South America were Peru, Cisplatina [7], and the Malvinas and Chiloé islands.

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Simón Bolívar, "El Libertador", and strongman of the Republic of Colombia

Bolívar’s popularity skyrocketed after the liberation of Venezuela and he managed to rally enough supporters at the Congress of Angostura to merge Venezuela and New Granada into the Republic of Colombia, a combined state that would last as long as Bolívar himself. While in Northern South America a process of unification took place, the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata went in the opposite direction. Much like in the early days of New Granadan independence, the differences between those supporting a unitarian regime (mostly in Buenos Aires, the capital) and those defending a federal structure for the country emerged to the surface once the immediate threat of Spanish reconquest vanished. Key to these disputes was Pueyrredón himself, who supported a centralised form of government and was disposed to do anything in his power to achieve national unity [8]. Pueyrredón was also a closet monarchist, and he tried to message several European princes asking them to come to Buenos Aires and be crowned king, an offer every single prince refused fearing a Spanish response.

Opposition to his rule began to coalesce in the western parts of the country under the figure of Estanislao López, eventually resulting in the provinces of Mendoza, Salta, Santa Fe, La Rioja and Córdoba proclaiming a separate congress in Córdoba, denying the Unitarian Constitution, and proclaiming the Andean Confederation in opposition to the regime in Buenos Aires. The civil war in La Plata would have presented a great opportunity for reconquering the Viceroyalty if the Spanish were not dealing with active guerrillas in Entre Rios and Misiones that prevented a second thrust towards Buenos Aires. The civil war lasted from 1818 to 1821, with neither side capable of defeating the other in open battle and as the differences between the western and eastern parts of the country only grew more over time (the west was more rural and Indian, while the east was more urban, mercantilist and European), both sides, exhausted, agreed to the Convention of San Luis, that effectively split La Plata in two, with the Andean Confederation now controlling everything west of Córdoba and south of Tarija [9], while the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, soon to be renamed as The Argentine Republic under a new constitution, controlled the western bank of the Paraná River.

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Charge of the Patriot Army in one of the many battles in the Andes

As the conflict in La Plata dwindled to a halt due to exhaustion, the uprising in Mexico flared up as a response to Morillo’s tyrannical regime. Having overcome most of their differences during the period of the Reconquista, the Mexicans rallied under new figures such as Francisco Xavier Mina. The revolution was quickly supported by the western and northern provinces, however it lacked the military means to defeat the Spanish. That was until an emboldened Morillo decided to crush them personally and was captured, imprisoned, and later executed at the Battle of Zamora of 1818. The Spanish forces crumbled as an uprising took place in Mexico City, retreating again towards Veracruz and the fort of San Juan de Ulúa, that the Spanish would hold for years after the collapse of their authority in the rest of Mexico. Thus, the Second Mexican Republic was proclaimed, however their attempts to take over Central America were repelled by the locals, who preferred to continue under Spanish rule, as did the formerly New Granadan province of Panamá, separated from the rest of the viceroyalty by the impenetrable jungle of the Darién [10].

The final act of the Spanish American Wars of Independence took place in the Andes as Simón Bolívar gathered his forces at Santa Fe de Bogotá and marched south in 1822 to finally subdue the royalist stronghold of Pasto. After a siege of two months, the Patriot Army shattered the defences of the city and the assault was followed by an orgy of violence and reprisals against the locals, many fleeing south towards Quito, with Bolívar on their feet. In a successful campaign, he advanced through Ipiales and Ibarra, where Bolívar encountered a force commanded by the royalist warlord Agustín Agualongo. In the subsequent Battle of Ibarra, Colombian forces easily crushed the ill-equipped royalists of Agualongo and captured the city of Quito as Agualongo was unable to cover the southern flank of the battlefield [11], the royalist leader managed to avoid capture and fled south, reaching Guayaquil on August 7 with only a handful of his men, but this would be more than enough to alert the Peruvian authorities about the looming threat. In Lima, the new viceroy José Manuel de Goyenche [12], decided to retreat south of Quito and wait for Bolívar’s attack in fortified positions. In 1823, Bolivar launched repeated attacks to break the Spanish at Jaén that did not succeed and only resulted in massive loss of lifes for both sides. The truth was that by 1823, more than a decade of constant war had depleted the manpower, resources and will to fight off most of the Americas and Spain. The war was increasingly unpopular at home, and the American leaders lost confidence in their ability to reach a decisive victory and expel the Spaniards from the continent. Combats ceased in 1824 almost everywhere, as an eerie peace was born out of exhaustion. The leaders in Spanish-controlled America agreed to recognise the new governments as legitimate, an act that king Ferdinand VII would never make official, insisting until the end of his days that a full reconquest was possible. Whatever happened, a new age had begun in the Americas.

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Flags of the newly independent American Republics, from left to rifht: Second Mexican Republic, Republic of Colombia, Republic of Chile, Andean Confederation, Argentine Republic and Republic of Paraguay

[1] - Out of all the theatres of OTL’s Spanish American Wars of Independence, Mexico was the bloodiest one. Casualties have been estimated between 300,000 to a million dead, out of a population of little more than six million in 1810, of which Indians comprised 60%. ITTL, even if the war is shorter, it will be no less bloody.

[2] - Tamaulipas. New Santander was the name of the province prior to Mexican independence.

[3] - IOTL, Pablo Morillo was the commander of the Spanish expedition that recaptured Colombia in 1816. Despite most of the population siding with the Spaniards, Morillo’s ruthlessness soon caused resentment and destroyed Royalist sympathies. Mexico is going to get an even more extreme version.

[4] - This is IOTL. Cruelty during the Spanish American Wars of Independence was never seen before on the Americas since the times of the Aztec Empire and its ritual sacrifices and slave raids. Arguably, Boves’ cruelty could be considered as a response to Bolívar’s “War to Death” decree of 1813, which stated that any Spaniard not actively collaborating with the Patriots would be executed.

[5] - Mantuano is a term referring to the white criollos of Venezuela who considered the other races (blacks, mestizos and indians) as inferiors to be ruled by them. As for the Venezuelan Llaneros, they were simply fed up with any form of government, so they sided with whoever could rally them.

[6] - No Spanish Reconquista of Colombia ITTL.

[7] - The lands west of the Paraná River: the Argentine provinces of Misiones, Entre Ríos and Corrientes; Uruguay; and parts of Brazil.

[8] - IOTL he was the man behind the Portuguese-Brazilian invasion of Uruguay, he was perfectly willing to concede a couple provinces to a foreign power in order to crush the entrenched federalist presence in the area.

[9] - The Spanish had crushed all resistance in Charcas (Bolivia) by this point.

[10] - IOTL both Central America and Panama only jumped the bandwagon at the last moment due to some clever manoeuvres by the local elite. These are aborted ITTL.

[11] - As a result, Agualongo ordered a disastrous retreat, that is known as the “Massacre of Ibarra”.

[12] - The man who defeated the Platineans at Huarcapay, later granted the title of Count of the Andes.
And so the Spanish American Wars of Independe are over, with a much more balanced outcome than IOTL. Spain still has control of many parts of the American mainland, those being Central America, Panama, Chiloé, Perú, Bolivia, and the eastern part of La Plata. Plus the Malvinas, that were never abandoned ITTL and will remain in Spanish hands (Yes, no Falklands for you). I feel that this latest chapter felt a bit rushed, but I think I couldn't have split in two parts due to the lenght of the text. Oh well. If you're asking for a map, I'm unsure over waiting for some events elsewhere before publishing a world map, or doing a map of the Americas right now, what do you say?
And so the Spanish American Wars of Independe are over, with a much more balanced outcome than IOTL. Spain still has control of many parts of the American mainland, those being Central America, Panama, Chiloé, Perú, Bolivia, and the eastern part of La Plata. Plus the Malvinas, that were never abandoned ITTL and will remain in Spanish hands (Yes, no Falklands for you). I feel that this latest chapter felt a bit rushed, but I think I couldn't have split in two parts due to the lenght of the text. Oh well. If you're asking for a map, I'm unsure over waiting for some events elsewhere before publishing a world map, or doing a map of the Americas right now, what do you say?
I would prefer a Map of America first.
And so the Spanish American Wars of Independe are over, with a much more balanced outcome than IOTL. Spain still has control of many parts of the American mainland, those being Central America, Panama, Chiloé, Perú, Bolivia, and the eastern part of La Plata. Plus the Malvinas, that were never abandoned ITTL and will remain in Spanish hands (Yes, no Falklands for you). I feel that this latest chapter felt a bit rushed, but I think I couldn't have split in two parts due to the lenght of the text. Oh well. If you're asking for a map, I'm unsure over waiting for some events elsewhere before publishing a world map, or doing a map of the Americas right now, what do you say?
I would like a map at first to see who got what and how these new states are set in the world :D
They are and they have a theme, what exactly do the blue, white, red and yellow stand for? Is it a Pan-American/ Hispanicamerican thing like pan-African Colors?
Well the first Chilean Republic historically used the blue, white, and gold, but I don't know what they meant nor whether in OTL the flag displayed the Compostela Cross, but it's a nice touch on this version.
They are and they have a theme, what exactly do the blue, white, red and yellow stand for? Is it a Pan-American/ Hispanicamerican thing like pan-African Colors?
They don't have any common theme to them, or at least not more than the flags of Latin America IOTL (all of them are yellow, white, red, blue and green combined in some way). The only ones not from OTL are that of Mexico (taken from the colours of the 1815 flag instead of the OTL 1821 flag), and that of Argentina (added grey onto it, the colour of silver), the rest are historical.

Well the first Chilean Republic historically used the blue, white, and gold, but I don't know what they meant nor whether in OTL the flag displayed the Compostela Cross, but it's a nice touch on this version.
The flag which is shown in the post has the arms of the country as well as the Cross of Santiago as it was the state flag, while the flag withot any of these symbols was the merchant and civil flag.
Man, I hope that from now on the Spaniards do well. Because in independent Hispanic America things do not seem to improve.
As long as Ferdinand VII is king, things will not go well, it's more about trying to minimise the damage. However, TTL's Spain will perform better than IOTL, give it some time. As for Hispanic America... it's complicated.