What became of Hamilton and Burr ITTL?
Hamilton had a hard time in the first year after the collapse of the US, but would later grow to become a relevant political figure again in his home state thanks to his correct assessment of what economic policies should the Union follow, being one of the promotors of the First Bank of the Union. He would eventually become governor of New York and Secretary of Treasury in the 1820's, but his bid for presidency would fail and he dies shortly after.

As for Burr, he would create a bank that would gain a lot of power in trade along the Ohio river, being a relevant figure in downstream politics, and even financing a certain rebel group in Louisiana.
So the situation in Spain is not so much of a ulcer, yet.
Doubt it is given enough time to grow much more, the French will soon have much more pressing commitments.
 
Hey is this TL still alive? I’m just curious as I really enjoy this TL and want to see more.
Yes, actually I was about to publish a new chapter. I got burn out from doing so many French Revolution / Napoleonic Wars chapters in succession. That, combined with me having to deal with univerisity projects, an unhealthy dosis of writer's block and a PC crash have prevented me from publishing. And I am terribly sorry for that. I seem to have regained some inspiration lately by doing a chapter about India, where this TL started after all. So yeah, after this Napoleonic chapter that I had in the back up, we'll go back to the subcontinent.
 
Yes, actually I was about to publish a new chapter. I got burn out from doing so many French Revolution / Napoleonic Wars chapters in succession. That, combined with me having to deal with univerisity projects, an unhealthy dosis of writer's block and a PC crash have prevented me from publishing. And I am terribly sorry for that. I seem to have regained some inspiration lately by doing a chapter about India, where this TL started after all. So yeah, after this Napoleonic chapter that I had in the back up, we'll go back to the subcontinent.
Oh great.
 
Chapter 26: The Fifth Coalition
~ Chapter 26: The Fifth Coalition ~

Austrian troops mobilised with a good amount of enthusiasm as the Empire prepared for a new round against the French. Even with the successful reforms of Archduke Charles there was no guarantee of winning, even if the French were very busy in Spain. Napoleon was aware that war was coming, however the real magnitude of the conflict evaded his thoughts. The reality was that Austria, Prussia, Russia and Britain were preparing simultaneous offensives against France to bring the empire down. France had already fought against similar coalitions and came out on top, and this time France started with a vantage point compared to the Third or Fourth Coalitions, as France had a secure control over Germany, an ally in the Duchy of Warsaw, and a Prussia that was militarily occupied by a force of some 10,000 men, garrisoning the towns of Glogau, Küstrin, Stettin and the Spandau fortress of Berlin. In all honesty, King Frederick William III of Prussia was not supportive of the plan, and most of the actual negotiations and planning was carried out by his wife Louise and a clique of men such as vom Stein, von Hardenberg, Gneisenau or Scharnhorst [1].

The Prussian reformers created a system of reserve forces dubbed the Landwehr, which by employing reserve troops only for part of the year managed to train a larger force than that imposed by the limitations of the Treaty of Tilsit (42.000 men, just 2,000 men larger than the French occupation force). Out of the 143 generals the Prussian Army had when the War of the Fourth Coalition started, said number was reduced to only three, with the entire officers corps being depurated and granting the middle class access to higher ranks in the army, thus breaking the monopoly the nobility had on the matter. Von Scharnhorst created a Ministry of War to better manage the military on Christmas Day 1808, replacing the older military institutions that often overlapped each other, and he also opened a War Academy, albeit this one would not open before Prussia joined the war.

The Prussian intelligentsia was also very busy in the months before the War of the Fifth Coalition. The writings of philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte promoted the ideas of a German idealism and nation, defending the idea that Germany needed to be reborn with the ideas of patriotism and the mythification of the Germanic past. The ideas of previous thinkers such as Immanuel Kant spread further thanks to Fichte, and it extended to many in the Prussian upper spheres, which led to the creation of secret webs and societies hoping to initiate a new era of German glory, such as the League of Virtue or Tugendbund [2]. These ideas were not effective in mobilising the peasants for war and would ultimately fail in their primary objective [3], but would prove to be an useful asset in the war.

Scharnhorst.jpg

Gerhard von Scharnhorst, the architect of the reformed Prussian Army

The War of the Fifth Coalition officially started when the Austrian Army under Archduke Charles crossed the Inn River into Bavaria on April 10. The forces of Jean-Baptiste Broussier [4] pulled an ordained retreat as bad weather hampered the Austrian advance, stopping at a defensive line near Ingolstadt. The Austrian offensive, however, was defeated by the French at multiple battles, such as those of Abensberg, Ratisbon or Teugen-Hausen, with the Austrian Landwehr retreating across the border with Napoleon himself in pursuit. It was not after the Battle of Ratisbon, when he was recovering from an artillery shot landing near him and hurting his ankle, that Napoleon received news of the Prussian uprising and Russia’s refusal to aid him. Napoleon considered that the best course of action was to continue the campaign in Austria and ignore the myriad of rebellions that rose up all across the French dominions, and Masséna’s bloody assault at Ebelsberg on May 3 1809 opened the gates to Vienna.

When Austria invaded Bavaria, the kingdom called for a mobilisation of its population in all of its territories, which had been greatly expanded by becoming a French ally. One of those possessions was Tyrol, which had been obtained in 1805, and was not happy at all with its new status as three Bavarian districts. When a group of young boys fled Axams to avoid conscription, a general uprising began commanded by Andreas Hofer that rapidly dispatched the Bavarians sent to suppress them at the Battle of Sterzing, and then set up a trap which the hard-drinking French general Bisson set up and resulted in the capture of over 2,000 Frenchmen and copious amounts of equipment, as well as an imperial eagle, an affront to French pride. In early May Napoleon sent general Broussier to Tyrol, where he relieved the Bavarian garrison trapped at the Kufstein Fortress, but was soundly defeated at the Battle of Rattenberg on May 14, failing to capture Innsbruck [5].

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Tyrolean rebels

Stories of the success of the Tyrolean militias spread like wildfire all across Napoleonic Europe. In Italy, when the Austrians under Archduke John launched an invasion across the Alps after scoring a victory at the Battle of Sacile, with Napoleon’s stepson Eugène de Beauharnais retreating behind the Adige river fearing to be attacked by Austrian forces coming from the Tyrol. The Austrians rallied the Venetians to their cause and a general mutiny in Venice destroyed taxation and conscription records and laying siege to Ferrara, however the Austrian Army was unable to keep up with their promise of help as Archduke John retreated most of his forces across the Alps to protect Vienna, followed by Stoichewich’s Dalmatian Army.

In Germany, former Prussian officer Friedrich von Katte launched an uprising at the town of Stendal on April 2, which succeeded in taking over the town of Magdeburg five days later from Michaud’s surprised French garrison [6], securing a crossing of the Elbe river for the upcoming Prussians under Ferdinand von Schill, who had departed Berlin earlier, and defeated the Franco-Westphalian forces at Sülzetal on April 12, with a good chunk of the Westphalian troops deserting to the Prussian Army. By late April, the French garrisons in the Prussian fortresses had either been overwhelmed or had capitulated, which allowed the core of the Prussian Army to attack French-allied Saxony in May, defeating the Saxon forces at the Battle of Herzberg on May 27 and pushing towards Leipzig. At the same time, Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick, raised the flag of rebellion and joined forces with the Austrians, causing a general chaos in the eastern part of the Confederation of the Rhine. In Poland, the Austro-Prussian forces launched simultaneous offensives, which the Poles managed to grind to a halt, however when Russia officially joined the War of the Fifth Coalition on May 24 the Polish Army was pushed into a desperate situation, which only grew worse when the (theoretical) Duke of Warsaw, Frederick Augustus, who was also King of Saxony, switched sides as Austrian forces took Dresden on June 8 and the Prussians captured Leipzig.

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Prussian charge at the Battle of Herzberg

By late May, however, Napoleon’s army was very close to Vienna, albeit he still needed to cross the Danube River. He chose to do so at the island of Lobau, distributing his forces between the towns of Aspern and Essling, managing to bring 40,000 troops to the Marchfeld, crossing the river uninterrupted as Archduke Charles wanted the French to cross in order to trap them in the left bank of the river. Fighting broke out on May 21, and despite the increasing danger of crossing the unstable bridges the French kept advancing and launched fierce attacks on the Austrian forces even after the main bridges shattered. The Austrians then launched a counterattack and quickly took over Aspern, with the battle for Essling extending all throughout May 22, resulting in an Austrian victory and having Jean Lannes, one of Napoleon’s personal friends, mortally wounded on the leg as he was struck with an artillery round. The Battle of Aspern-Essling was a victory for the Austrians, and the first time a large Napoleonic force had been defeated in open battle outside of Spain.

However, the victory was so unexpected that the Austrian Army did not capitalize on the situation and allowed the French to regroup on the other bank of the river. During the six weeks it took Bonaparte to reassemble his forces, the Prussians were advancing through Westphalia and a Russian contingent of 30,000 men under Peter Wittgenstein arrived to reinforce the Austrians. The fate of Austria would be decided when 150,000 [7] Frenchmen crossed the Danube and headed towards the Coalition Army of 170,000 men.

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Napoleon visits a mortally wounded Lannes at Essling

[1] - Frederick William was extremely shy and indecisive, barely taking part during the Treaties of Tilsit, and it was usually the duty of Queen Louise to control the matters of the state, especially when it came to taking decisions.

[2] - Minister vom Stein was staunchly opposed to these secret societies as he considered them to be too radical, however he did not take action against them as they were a useful asset against the French.

[3] - Major spoiler here, if you can read between lines.

[4] - Lefebvre IOTL. Lefebrve himself is replacing Claude Victor in Spain as he was dismissed from command and is now commanding a cavalry regiment in Westphalia.

[5] - IOTL this force was commanded by Lefebvre and defeated the Tyroleans at Wörgl a day before TTL’s Rattenberg.

[6] - IOTL the uprising failed as the French captured Eugen von Hirschfeld, one of Katte’s collaborators and he disbanded his forces on the night of April 5 without trying to take Magdeburg.

[7] - 188,000 men IOTL, French units are busy elsewhere.

Note: I am terribly sorry for not posting an update in well over a month, I have been busy and dealing with writer's block. Again, can't promise regular updates, but just to let you know this TL is not dead.
 
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Go go Coalition forces!

So far so good for them at least, but one bad battle might very well reverse their fortunes in the war.
 
Chapter 27: The Tiger of Mysore
~ Chapter 27: The Tiger of Mysore ~

The constant fluctuations of the balance of power in India had been a constant throughout its history, and ever since the European powers started exercising influence on the subcontinent during the first half of the 18th century, the competition between the Indian states had only increased in violence and intensity. The Fourth Carnatic War, fought parallel to the American Revolutionary War, had pitted the British East India Company and their puppet Maratha regent Raghunathrao against a coalition composed of the Maratha Empire, the French East India Company, Hyderabad and Mysore. The rise to dominance of the British in the subcontinent, which seemed secure after the Third Carnatic War, was stopped, and the rivalry between the two European powers intensified [1].

The war had left the British discredited among the Indian kingdoms and states. The Marathas had defeated the Company Army at Wadgaon, and the traitor Raghunathrao was imprisoned, with the regency of the young emperor Madhavrao II in the hands of Nana Phadnavis, a man obsessed with control that secluded the child emperor and took charge of the matters of the state. When Madhavrao II attempted to commit suicide in 1795 [2], his seclusion was only increased as he suffered a psychotic breakdown, albeit he was not declared unfit to rule so Nana Phadnavis could continue his regency. Said regency increased in brutality as time progressed, thanks to police commissioner Gashiram Kotwal [3].

Phadnavis.jpg

Madhavrao II and Nana Phadnavis

This political crisis was combined with the Doji Bara Famine of 1791-1792, caused by a particularly strong ENSO [4]. Lack of food translated into troop mutinies and when rebellious troops looted the temple of Sringeri the head of the temple contacted Tipu Sultan, sultan of Mysore since Hyder Ali’s death in 1782, for help. Tipu Sultan was busy at the time, as he invaded the Sultanate of Travancore when they purchased two Dutch fortresses at Cochin [5] and the Travancoreans put up more resistance than he had anticipated. French mediation would ultimately result in the cession of said fortresses to Mysore and Travancore becoming effectively a Mysorean protectorate.

In 1792 the United Kingdom and France went to war again. However, this conflict would never result into a Fifth Carnatic War and a new battle for supremacy on the subcontinent, as Governor-General of French India, Pierre Suffren, refused to recognise the French Republic at Paris, and proclaimed that the French East India Company and all of its assets, employees and territories would remain loyal to the House of Bourbon. This action placed the British and French on the same side for once in a lifetime, specially in the Indian subcontinent, and left a power vacuum on India as the French could no longer receive support from Europe.

Tipu Sultan never really forgave the actions that occurred inside the Maratha Empire, and used them as an excuse for a new conflict with the Marathas. Tipu Sultan contacted secretly with the son of Raghunathrao, Baji Rao, and together with figures opposing the dictatorship of Nana Phadnavis launched an uprising. The initial stage of the uprising was badly prepared and the rebels were mostly dispersed at the Battle of Bassein of July 12 1799, while Tipu Sultan was still gathering his forces. This initial setback was not enough to persuade him, especially when the British agreed to support Baji Rao’s claim as Peshwa, declaring Madhavrao II incapable of ruling.

Tipu Sultan.jpg

Tipu Sultan, Sultan of Mysore

In 1800 the army of Tipu Sultan crossed over into Maratha territory and headed due north towards the fortress of Pune, defeating the forces personally commanded by Nana Phadnavis at the Battle of Nasrapur on May, resulting in the death of Nana Phadnavis when a cavalryman murdered him with his lance. The news of the disaster of Nasrapur threw the Maratha regency into a panic and a dispute over who would become the new regent soon started. Most historians agree that the Disaster of Nasrapur was the factor that caused the collapse of the Maratha Empire, however the empire had been weak for decades ever since the death of Madhavrao I back in 1772.

The vassal states of Jodhpur and Jaipur rebelled, while the British supported an uprising in Gujarat that resulted in the Company controlling the east shore of the Gulf of Khambhat. Hyderabad, which until that point had been neutral, jumped at the opportunity and invaded the territory of Berar, controlled by the Maratha rajas of Nagpur [6]. When the monsoon season of 1800 ended, the Maratha Empire had lost military control of much of Gujarat and Rajputana, and foreign forces invaded the territories of Delhi, Nagpur and Pune, with the de facto capital of the empire (the fortress of Pune) besieged by Tipu Sultan.

On January 3 1801 a BEIC army commanded by Gerard Lake crushed the Maratha defenders of Delhi commanded by the still loyal King of Gwalior, who surrendered the former Mughal capital to the Europeans and was allowed to continue to rule on his own over Gwalior, albeit king Daulat Rao Sindhia would always claim to be subject to the Marathas of Pune. In that same city, the last resistance spearheaded by Gashiram Kotwal was subdued in April, and Baji Rao was crowned as the new Maharajadhiraj of the Maratha Empire as Baji Rao II. The rest of local governors across the empire quickly pledged allegiance to the new ruler, excepting those of Gujarat and Rajputana. Madhavrao II was incarcerated and deposed, albeit his new life as a prisoner proved to be healthier for him [7].

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British East India Company forces assault Delhi

As the Maratha Empire collapsed as a sovereign force (Baji Rao II was a puppet of Tipu Sultan after all, and his control outside Pune was only nominal) other kingdoms rose to prominence in the outskirts of the subcontinent. Notably, the Gurkhas of Kathmandu launched a series of successful military campaigns east and west, forming the Kingdom of Nepal. In Punjab, the followers of a new religion, Sikhism, were gaining momentum and began absorbing nearby territories in the Upper Indus Valley, promoting tolerance with the majority Muslim population and forming a new power in the area.

As for Burma, the splendour of the first years of the Konbaung dynasty had disappeared and the current monarch Bodawpaya was discontent with the British still holding on to Negrais island. Burma had gone through a chaotic period in the early 1780’s, and then king Bodawpaya had gone to war with the Siamese twice, conquering the Tenasserim coast. He caught wind of a supposed court conspirancy supported by Britain, and attacked the fortress of Negrai in 1798. The attack was unsuccessful and the BEIC retaliated with a punitive expedition to the Irrawaddy Delta. The First Anglo-Burmese War only lasted a little over a year, but resulted in the British securing the port of Syriam [8], further strengthening the influence of the BEIC over the Gulf of Bengal.

[1] - Rivalry only, none of the parties implied could afford a new war as the debt contracted during the Seven Years’ War was still massive, albeit circumstances would force both to go to war with each other again despite the economic malaise.

[2] - IOTL he jumped off the walls of the Shaniwarwada Palace of Pune, arguably because he could not endure the highhandedness of Nana Phadnavis. This happened when at age 21 he opposed the regent for the first time.

[3] - Who was never executed ITTL as Phadnavis has even more of a sway over Madhavrao II.

[4] - El Niño Southern Oscillation. Just a shorter way to refer to the term. In a nutshell, this phenomenon causes a reversal of the rain patterns of western South America and Asia Pacific, triggering massive rains in the Andes and droughts across Asia and Oceania. As a curiosity, a phenomenon dubbed “La Niña” causes an even more extreme version of normal conditions across the Pacific, leading to floods in Asia.

[5] - Different diplomatic settings means that the Treaty of Mangalore was never signed ITTL, thus Travancore is no British ally, and the Third Anglo-Mysore war never begins.

[6] - The dispute over Berar is as old as the State of Hyderabad itself as Nizam I claimed to be the sovereign of the area. Later, IOTL, the are was nominally controlled by Hyderabad during the British Raj until 1833, when it was conceded to the British East India Company.

[7] - He developed severe psychological issues and suffered a neurotic attack that killed him in 1804.

[8] - Currently referred to as Thanlyin IOTL. This port was desired by the British ever since they first took Negrais Island.
 
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Glad to see this back!
I have some free time now as I have a Christmas break from university, albeit I also have to study for my exams. Curiously it was me knowing I have to study that drove my procrastination back towards this TL. Again can't guarantee continuity, nor much less the "chapter each two days" I was able to pull out in September, but I'll still try to get this going.
 
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