The timeline shall be the first of a series of TLs about an ATL Spanish Philippines, established by Legaspi and slowly decentralizes into numerous states upon the dawn of the 18th century, before I eventually return on continuing the Novales timeline.
Beginning and Territorial Expansion

Lakandula, later Don Carlos Lacandola, the last lakan and first king of Tondo​

After the initial recognition of Spanish authority by the Triumvirate of the Pasig River Delta (Dula, Matanda and Sulayman), Tondo was transformed into a vassal like any other Philippine polity that submitted to Spanish rule (e.g like Cebu and Madyas). Lakandula was baptized as Don Carlos from being a animist-Hindu(?), and retained his regnal name, becoming Lacandola I. He was then declared king, but still mostly functioned as lakan, as he thought that the title king was a great addition to his already honorable title of Lakan, as well as being lord of other polities.

Kalamayin of Namayan, which was another lakan east of Tondo, made his realm de facto part of Lacandola's kingdom, thus beginning the expansion of Tondo's territory since the times of Lontok. With the Spaniards' advice, he granted Matanda, his cousin the village of Maalat[1] as his fief, making him the Lord of Maalat. He then tried to give his nephew the same title, somewhat making the uncle and nephew co-rulers of this small village, but Sulayman refused, rebelling against Spanish authority and fled to Pampanga, making an alliance with Tarik, a Pampangan datu of Macabebe.

On the day of June 3, 1571, about 40 karakoas laden with 2,000 warriors made an appearance by gathering at the Bangkusay channel near the capital of the same name ready to oppose the Spanish. The Spanish which was lead by de Goiti were ordered to be fastened two-by-two which created a solid mass formation which seemed to be an easy target. The native warships were lured by this deception and they surrounded the Spanish. The Spanish, surrounded by the native boats, opened fire and the native fleet was scattered and destroyed. Tarik was killed in the fight while Sulayman fled for his safety. He was later captured, and subsequently pardoned by his uncle. He later accepted the title "Lord of Maalat", making once more a diarchy between the two.

June 24, 1571, marked the formal establishment of Intramuros as the capital of Spanish Philippines, replacing Arevalo in Iloilo which had been the capital from 1569 to 1571.

With the aid of the Spanish, Lacandola's kingdom gradually incorporated many polities, either by force or by cooperation. One example is in Butas[2], where the natives thought they would effectively resist the Spanish that ended in their town being burned and looted.

After this initial defeat, some datus of Pampanga surrendered to the Spanish.

Another is in Cainta where the local leader, Gat Maitan, initially withdraw his offer of friendship to the Spanish as they noted that their forces are small and that they were capable in defending themselves. Salcedo was sent to "pacify" the town, where he lay siege to the city, and eventually found a weak spot on the wall. The final Spanish attack over 400 residents of Cainta killed including Maitan himself. The town was incorporated into the domain of Namayan.

The establishment of Pampanga as a separate kingdom under personal union with Tondo was established after the surrender of the Betiseños when the secret entrance towards their heavily fortified fort was discovered through the help of a Betis enemy. Later the rest of Katagalugan south of Namayan and those surrounding Laguna de Bay became part of the Spanish empire. Lacandola then divided Pampanga from being a single kingdom to a monarchy consisting of alcadias and the corregimeinto of Bataan.


The Kingdom of Tondo, Spanish provinces, Caboloan, and minor polities and tribal lands at the time of Lacandola I's death on 1575​

[1] - Renamed Malate sometime in the 17th century, now exists as a district of Manila
[2] - Renamed Navotas in the later years

Note: Map format and design largely derived from a pre-colonial map made by Deliriumaps and Maharlika.
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Final Years of Lacandola I
In the last years of his life. Lacandola continued to manage internal affairs in his newly established kingdom. He also continued trade with the Ming, although as vassals of the Spanish. He had also recently gained Maragondon area as part of the Bataan Corregimiento.

In 1572, both Legaspi and Matanda died, and the position of governor-general passed on to Legaspi's successor, Guido de Lavezares. Lavezares ultimately removed the special privileges of the vassal states, one of which was Tondo. Lacandola responded by cutting off relations with the Spanish, and threatening to reinstate Tondense independence by sending an official envoy to China.

The climax reached on the year 1574, where Lacandola, along with his nephew Sulayman, briefly revolted. They later repented and returned to Spanish rule after Lavezares restored their historic privileges.


Limahong, the Chinese pirate that raided Manila in 1574
It was also in this year that Limahong, a Chinese wokou pirate, accompanied by Sioco, attempted to take the city two times by force, of which Lacandola supplied the Spanish some troops along with Ilocanos recruited by Salcedo in the north. Taking advantage, Lacandola once more revolted by capturing friars and priests as well as captives that were tortured by fire on the feet. He later reverted to Spanish rule once again.

On his deathbed on the year 1575, he instructed his eldest son, Batang Dula to be his successor. He later died on an illness that day of February 25, 1575. However, he passed it onto his brother Magat Salamat, but Salamat himself refused the position and instead wanted to become the lord of Hagonoy, Bulacan. Thus, he passed it again to Agustin de Legaspi, his cousin and an eldest son of Sulayman's brother who died in the late 1560s.
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Early Reign of Agustin I
Agustin de Legaspi, originally called Matangbal[1] before his baptism as a Christian, was a son of the unnamed sibling of his uncle-stepfather Sulayman of Manila, who was born in the year 1550. He first encountered the Spanish when they entered Sulayman's new residence at Maalat, and was baptized as Agustin the year of 1571. The additional name of de Legaspi was selected for unknown reasons, but it is mostly came from the fact the Miguel Lopez de Legaspi highly sponsored his baptism at the Manila Cathedral.

Upon his declaration as king of Tondo and of La Pampanga in February 28, 1575 by Lacandola's associates, he took his Christian name as his regnal one and thus, becoming Agustin I. He granted the request of his cousin Magat Salamat to become the lord of the Hagonoy fief. He made his son, named Sebastian Incan his crown prince and thus heir apparent to the throne.

Months after his ascension as king, Fransisco de Sande, Lavezares's replacement, arrived on the day of August 25 due to reports of abuse and corruption that occurred during Lavezares's term. The vassal monarchs of Madyas, Tondo and Cebu recognized de Sande as the new governor-general, as they hoped that he would reverse and fully restore the privileges that the previous had eliminated as a greedy desire for glory and riches himself.

In 1576, he assisted the Spanish in defeating Limahong, which was discovered to have established a settlement in an island of the Agno River up north in Pangasinan. Since there is no monarch to lead the Pangasinense polity, the leadership was passed unto Agustin I. He established the title of "Grand Duke of Pangasinan" rather than being another king for unknown reasons.

He allowed the monastic orders, although with suspicion, the spread and teaching of Christianity in his realm, as with other places in the Philippines during this period. He initially encouraged the preservation of Baybayin, the literary script of the Tagalogs, as well as the Kulitan of Pampanga to be used in daily life of the kingdom.

[1] - Actual precolonial name of Agustin remains unknown
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Castilian War and the rest of the 1570s
In the year 1578, de Sande officially declared war against Brunei in 1578, and began preparations for an expedition to Borneo. He regarded the sultanate as an imminent threat to Spanish plans of conquest and religious conversion of the Philippines. Immediately, Cebu and Madyas sent voluntary forces to assist the Spaniards in conquering Brunei.

However, Tondo's stance was divided between the Spanish and Moro sides. Agustin I himself had supported the Bruneians due to his good relations with the sultan and the fact that he had a sultan's female relative married to him, that later converted to Christianity, a stance that alarmed the Spanish since Agustin might use this relationship as a tool to expel and challenge Spanish authority in the islands, while most of his ministers sided with the Spanish. In the end Agustin decided to accompany the Spanish in person, although without any brewing tension as he was forced to fight against his own relatives. He nevertheless, proved his prowess in battle as a military commander. The end of the Castilian War in in after 3 months in June intensified Agustin's disgruntlement with the Spanish. As a result, he began to develop a master plan for the final overthrow of the Spanish.

The last two years of the 1570s saw numerous changes in the Philippine archipelago. In the territories of the kingdom of Tondo, the entirety of the Alcaldia de Bulakan and Tagalog parts of the Alcaldia de Calumpit was separated and merged as the duchy of Bulacan on August 15, 1578. The remaining alcaldias were elevated into their respective statuses, with Betis y Lubao becoming the duchy of Betis-Lubao, Candaba becoming a principality, and the remaining territories of the Calumpit alcaldia were reorganized as the duchy of Macabebe. Bataan was raised from a corregimiento to a principality in its own right. A large swath of Candaba was separated and had become the duchy of Arayat. Enconmiendas, according to a decree by de Sande, were to be reduced, and some of that territory was given to the Tondo aristocracy.

Namayan was formally consolidated as part of the Kingdom of Tondo after the last ruling lakan, known by his Christian name Martin, relinquished control of Kalamayin's realm, in the year 1579.

Note: It is unclear on whether Martin had actually succeeded his father as lakan of Namayan or he had become an official in the early Spanish period. OTL Namayan became part of Manila province (1571-1901) starting in the year of the Spanish arrival in Luzon.
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Tondo throughout the 1580s
Tondo, as one of the few states to retain its relative independence as a vassal, found itself under increasing suspicion by the Spanish as Agustin expressed his support for the Bruneians during the Castilian War. The monarch had to be careful in expressing his actions, both internally and domestically, as one wrong move would result in his subsequent
overthrow. The Spanish, indeed, have been finding an alternate candidate among the deceased Lacandola's sons, but 3 of them are either lords allied to Agustin, one that is planning to join the Augustinian order, one that is also an official of Agustin but refused to intervene, and the last is a female which is deemed unfit to become a ruler of her own due to the parlance of the times. Their only choice now was Luis Salugmoc, a son of Lacandola from one of his wives before he converted to Christianity.

Nevertheless, Tondo throughout the 1580s remained relatively calm but without any signs of unrest and problem. In 1582, Tondenses were drafted in order to defeat the Japanese pirates led by Tay Fusa who had conquered Cagayan two years earlier in 1580. In the end, Tay Fusa surrenders, then accepts Christianity and declared himself grand duke of Cagayan under the regnal name of Fusilo I. The Tondenses later returned months later.

Tondo was particularly affected by a fire that ravaged Manila in 1583, since the fire spread to some household neighborhoods due to the strong winds that blew the Philippines at that time. A decree by Santiago de Vera ordering that all future buildings must be made of stone was replicated by Tondo's own decree issued by Agustin I, this time ordering that huts should be at least, not too close or crowded.

In 1585, a group of Kapampangan datus attempted to start a rebellion after encomenderos in Agustin's territory refused to honor their privileges given by them from Spanish authorities. It involved a plot to storm Intramuros, but was discovered when a Filipina married to a soldier revealed the plot to his husband, who then revealed to the Spanish government. The leaders were then subsequently executed for treason. Although not involved, the Spanish suspected the Tondense monarch of sponsoring the rebels, increasing their suspicions even further.

And so, the faithful year of 1588 had arrived...

Note: In OTL, Tay Fusa was either killed in the Cagayan battles or fled after his defeat. In ATL, he surrenders, and later accepts Christianity as a sign of Spanish allegiance.
Tondo Conspiracy

Magat Salamat​

In the year 1588, having enough of the Spanish being masters of their land. Agustin I gathered his ministers, prominent figures of Tondense society and datus onto his house at the capital to start a plan of rebellion. Those present are the main leaders:
  • Magat Salamat, datu of Hagonoy
  • Luis Amanicalao, member of the maginoos
  • Felipe Amarlangagui, a maginoo from Catanghalan[1]
  • Pedro Balingit, datu of Pandacan[2]
  • Pitongatang, a maginoo from Tondo proper
  • Dionisio Capulong, a datu from Candaba
  • Felipe Salonga, datu of Polo[3]
  • Fransisco Acta, another maginoo from Tondo proper
  • Omaghicon, datu of Nabutas
  • Martin Pangan, a maginoo of Tambobong[4]
  • Gabriel Taumbasan, brother of Agustin I
  • Geronimo Basi, another brother of Agustin I
  • Agustin Manuguit, a maginoo of Maysilo[5]
All conspirators went planning for three days, pretending to be merely celebrating and drinking as they were keeping their planning under the covers. As they recalled the good old times before the Spanish conquest, they had strengthened their unified bond. Subsequently, they agreed that they would always protect each other and if the Spaniards' initiatives toward the freedom of the datus' slaves were reinforced, they would unite in preventing this to come into fruition.

They also sought the help of Juan Gayo, a Japanese captain known by this name of the Spanish. With Dionisio Fernandez acting as an interpreter, he was able to communicate and sign an agreement, in which Gayo were to assure the conspirators of weapons they could use for the revolt. Possibly also included are Japanese warriors that would reinforce the planned rebellion in which they would act as peaceful traders, and once they had arrived, they would storm the Spanish and help Legaspi declare his states' independence.

They also tried getting assistance from Brunei, as his wife was a member of the House of Bolkiah, the ruling family.

This goes on as merely a plot just in case the Spanish reared their ugly head that would result in rebellion. That moment came nearly a year later, it formally became an organized conspiracy when Pangan met with Esteban Taes, a maginoo from the duchy of Bulacan, in which an uprising of the Tagalogs shall be realized in a matter of time. Pangan also tried to recruit the Kapampangan nobility in joining their cause, but refused since although they protested slaves that were freed under the Spanish, they nevertheless, in favor of the government. They also tried recruiting other chiefs from Bulacan and of the Spanish provinces of Laguna[6] and Batangas[7] but in vain.

Salamat left the Philippines as an envoy to Brunei, where he could fully communicate the plan to Rijal. On his way, he docked at the island of Cuyo, and he was able to recruit a native chief named Sumaclob. He was also able to recruit another Cuyonon under the name of Antonio Surabao. However, it turned out to be a deadly mistake, as Surabao was actually a servant of Pedro Sarmiento, an encomendero in the area. Surabao reported the conspiracy to his master, which in turn reported it to de Vera by sending one of his servants on a boat. de Vera, surprised and shocked at this discovery, immediately ordered the arrest of those involved, and a trial began at the Real Audiencia.

The trial sentenced Pangan, Salamat, Basi and Taes to death, with Pangan himself had his dead body beheaded and then placed in iron cages of Fort Santiago. Fernandez was hung, Sumaclob had his datu title revoked by Sarmiento while Salonga, Pitongatan, Amanicalao, Balingit, Manugit etc are either exiled to Mexico or removed from their respective positions. Agustin I's trial against de Vera by far has been the most controversial since the Audiencia find it difficult to sentence a ruling king to death. In the end, it was decided that he would be overthrown and exiled onto the island of Caca[8], Batangas.

However, when the day came for Agustin's exile, he refused, and a standoff ensued. Agustin was later killed when shot by a Spanish bullet in the head on the day of November 5, 1588. He was replaced by Salamat's half-brother, Luis Salugmoc, which became only known by his second name when he became king.

[1] - Now part of Obando, Bulacan
[2] - Now part of the city of Manila
[3] - Split into Polo and Valenzuela in 1960, reunified in 1963 as Valenzuela, and separated from Bulacan in 1975 to become part of Metro Manila
[4] - The first name of modern-day Malabon, which was renamed sometime in the later years
[5] - Previously part of Polo (Valenzuela) before its separation as part of Novaliches in 1859, which was now divided between Caloocan and Quezon City
[6] - Laguna from 1571-1590 included Rizal (excluding Antipolo, Rodriguez, San Mateo, Cainta and Taytay), Quezon province south of Real, and a part of northeastern Cavite. Also included Batangas(?) until 1580
[7] - Batangas from 1580-1614 included Marinduque, the Mindoro provinces and Cavite (excluding the northeastern part and pre-1857 Maragondon, which was then part of Pampanga through Bataan. Bataan itself was only created in 1754, separating the Maragondon part and annexing it to Cavite)
[8] - Now entirely part of Tingloy

Note: In OTL, Agustin was among those executed due to his participation of the Tondo Conspiracy.
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A brief pre-reign background of Salugmoc the Reformer
Luis Salugmoc, or Luis Taclomao by some, is a son of Lacandola I from another wife, possibly orphaned just when he was merely an infant in the 1550s. He was then subsequently adopted by Lacandola into his actual family. Although at first he was refused by his half-siblings and stepmother, overtime he was gradually accepted as part of the family. He encountered Legaspi in 1571 and was among those baptized as a Christian.


Salugmoc the Reformer depicted in 19th century fashion
In the first years of Tondo as a full-pledged kingdom, he was largely leftout from the affairs of the state, but he began to gain attention when, his relative Agustin I had strained relations in the past years starting in the conclusion of the Castilian War. He was then, groomed by the Spanish to replace Agustin, as a puppet monarch.

His ascension as monarch came on the day of October 30, 1588, when Agustin I was overthrown by on the direct orders of de Vera and was subsequently killed after a standoff.

Note: Actual portrait shows a 19th century principalia, dated December 15, 1859
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Reign (1588-1603)
Upon his ascension as king of Tondo in 1588, he immediately took in charge of the government.

His first task was to repair the strained relations between Tondo and the colonial government in Manila. He started by sending some of his ministers in the capital to convince de Vera to officially send a resident in Tondo, as well as sending their own resident in Intramuros. The governor-general refuses as his previous stance of the House of Tondo remained conscious and alarmed due to Agustin's actions. The request would not be fulfilled until the term of de Vera's successor, Gomez Perez Dasmariñas after de Vera's retirement on 1590.

It was also during his term reigning as king that exiled members of the Tondo Conspiracy returned to the Philippines from Mexico after serving their sentence. Some of them still harbor hate due to had what happened in 1588, while others moved on and lived the rest of their lives as peaceful citizens or served in Salugmoc's government. Since he didn't produce a heir of his own, he stated that in the event of his death, one of his siblings not implicated in the Tondo Conspiracy shall be designated as his successor.

During his reign, he founded towns during his 15-year reign across the Pampangan monarchy, the duchy of Bulacan, grand duchy of Pangasinan and the kingdom of Tondo. It was to provide better service as well as to manage the area more effectively since some municipalities are large, some even attaining province-size borders. He also ordered boundary commissions to redefine municipality borders.

After Dasmariñas was appointed governor-general of the Philippines in 1590, Salugmoc's request for a residence was fulfilled, thus restarting the relations between the two states, which had been invalid from 1578 to 1588.

In 1591, the first census was conducted in the Philippines based on tributes collected, in Salugmoc's domains it numbered about 98,000[1] in total.

In 1594, Binondo was established by Dasmariñas upon the recommendation of the Spanish, to replace the Parian up north and to keep a better eye on the growing prominence of Chinese industries. Salugmoc gave a small plot of land to the Spanish for the building of a new town.

In 1595, he established the principality of Ibon[2], initially composed of vassal polities and settlements organized for the purposes of preaching Christianity and settlement of uninhabited lands. The new principality was tied to the Pampangan monarchy after its creation.

Salugmoc believed that a local militia should be realized to protect the common folk from bandit attacks, as well as to keep peaced and order throughout his territories. Thus, he established the Guardia Local in Bulacan, Tondo, Pampanga and Pangasinan. It was initially composed, at the time of its creation in 1596, locally raised troops and some from the Malabon and Pasig disciplinaries. It was the first modern police force to be established in Asia even though it relied mostly on conscription.

He tried to put Spanish laws regarding the slow abolition of encomiendas, however he faced backlash from the encomenderos who resisted such a move.

Also in 1596, a rebellion occurred on the Cagayan Valley led by Magalat due to his desire to regain Cagayense independence. To prove his loyalty to the Spanish for some who was still suspicious due to the Conspiracy, he employed around 500 troops to join the army sent by Fransisco Tello de Guzman that was led by Pedro de Chaves.

Throughout his reign, one his main goals was to expand trade with China, reestablishing the monopoly that Tondo had before Kalangitan's overthrow in 1500. He did this by reviving the same process that his father had did before, although this time under the Spanish ordinances of monopoly. Goods were given to the Tondenses, then the latter would sell them to the Spanish, earning both of them profit.

He also decided that a new flag shall be used for all of his domains. The red-white bicolor replaced the previous same red-white, but triangular flag, reported to be in use since Kalangitan (1450-1500).


Standard of the House of Lakandula, also the flag of its domains (adapted 1594)


Tondo flag from 1450 to 1594[3]


Tondo, Bulacan, Pampanga and Pangasinan in the 12th year of Salugmoc, 1600
[1] - Taken from the 1591 census, which records the Philippine population at around 661,712 people. Pampanga (includes Bataan, Nueva Ecija, much of Aurora and southern Tarlac as well as eastern Bulacan(?)) and Bulacan had a population of 75,000 combined, while the population of Pangasinan is unknown.
[2] - The first recorded name of Gapan, Nueva Ecija
[3] - Actually disputed on whether this was an actual flag of Tondo, or just merely a red banner the Spanish had seen while in Lakandula's territory.
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The First Sangley Rebellion
Tensions between the Spanish (including their vassal states particularly in Luzon) and the Chinese have been high due to Chinese domination of most industries and especially during Limahong's invasion in 1574.

By 1586, the Spanish had become concerned with the amount of profit the Chinese were making from trade. They were also concerned about being far outnumbered by the Chinese, who totaled 10,000 in Manila in comparison to 2,000 Spaniards. The Spanish forced the Chinese out of the city to a swampy area northeast of the city walls. Despite the setback, the Chinese soon developed this as a thriving town with a pond in its center. By 1590, in addition to trade, the Chinese dominated industries such as bread-making, book-binding, tavern-keeping, and stone-masonry.

In 1603, rebellion broke out in Binondo on the night of October 3. That night when a thousand Chinese surrounded the capital of Tondo Kingdom, Juan Bautista de Vera visits Pedro Bravo de Acuña to inform him of what was happening. Thinking that de Vera was in cahoots with them, Acuña throws him into prison. The Chinese, noting de Vera’s absence, appoint another Christian sangley, Juan Untae, de Vera’s godson, to replace him.

Violence erupted on October 5, when the Chinese killed Untae when they realized that de Vera isn't going back. It was also the same day when the Parian residents north of Intramuros formally joined those of Binondo. They began raiding, looting and ravaging everything they passed. The situation was so violent that Salugmoc was forced to flee in nearby Malabon[1] for refuge. The Spanish locked the city gates to prevent any Chinese from coming inside. The attack in Tondo was repulsed by a combined force of Spanish and Filipino troops, but Tondo was ravaged so great that it did not recover for some time.

Thinking that the rebellion had been liquidated by the Spanish, Salugmoc went back from Malabon to Tondo, only to find himself and his company of 30 men killed in a standoff.

The Spanish led by Luis Perez Dasmariñas unsuccessfully confronted the Chinese outside of the city walls, which resulted in his entire army including himself being killed. On October 6, the Chinese launched a siege of Intramuros where they attempted to storm it by using ladders and siege towers. The captured ammunition as well as the towers and ladders gave no effect to the walls, where they were instantly repulsed and was chased down by Japanese and Spanish troops.

An armada of Pintados suddenly makes its way through the river and blasts the Chinese lines with cannons. They then slaughtered Chinese they have captured.

The rebellion of the Sangleys is over in Tondo, but not in other places such as in Batangas and Laguna. Tondo and nearby towns was devastated to the extent that it looked like they were never going to recover in a long time. In the times of rebellion, the Spanish declared, along with Salugmoc's ministers, Dionisio Capulong, as the new king of Tondo.


Largest extent of the Sangley Rebellion of 1603 (Inaccurate)​

[1] - Included Navotas until 1856. Remerged again in 1903 then separated once more in 1906
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The Capulong Era
Dionisio Capulong, another son of Lacandola I, was first invloved in the Tondo Conspiracy as one of its leaders, but for some unknown reason, the Spanish decided to pardon him of charges of treason and rebellion. Thus, he was the only participant not executed, nor exiled neither removed as a datu when the rest suffered the mentioned consequences and fates.

This was something that made Capulong officially picked as king of Tondo by the luck of draw as Capulong I as when his half-brother Salugmoc was killed en route back from his exile at Malabon, in 1603. As an act of revenge, he deported numerous involved Chinese that fled the rebellion and sent to be deported back to China or slaughtered.

Due to the great damage that Tondo had received, and fearing another rebellion in the future, Capulong officially relocated his court to Mexico, a town, and also capital of Pampanga at the time. Mexico became the primer town of the House of Tondo-Candaba, a branch of the ruling family. The capital of Tondo soon had its southern borders highly militarized. To respond more effectively against any signs of rebellions, the local militia had the disciplinary groups of Malabon, Tondo and Pasig merged as the Tondo Militia. It was in par to the militias of Pampanga and Bulacan. The militia numbered about 5,000 in 1606.

Unfortunately for Capulong I, his reign was cut short when he died[1] of an illness on March 3, 1607, so one of his sons, named Juan Gonzalo Capulong took over and became Capulong II.

Capulong II was declared king when the Japanese of Dilao rebelled when a Spaniard murdered the son of a Japanese migrant. Not wanting a 1603-like scenario, he helped the Spanish in putting an end to the rebellion immediately. As such, it ended in a piecemeal. Although unlike the Chinese, the Japanese never rebelled again to avoid such horrid things from happening.

The time when Capulong II became king was also a time of great change in the Philippines, politically, socially and economically. Decentralization slowly began due to such sheer number of revolts that occurred in the past 40 years of Spanish rule. After the Sangley rebellion of 1603, southern Katagalugan saw itself being balkanized into numerous states, particularly Laguna, where several municpalities became de facto independent. Those that became principalities are Lilio (Liliw), Paquil (Pakil), Panguil (Pangil), and Sinoloan[2]. Large towns became duchies such as Tabuco[3], Nagcarlan[4] and Lumban[5]. Tayabas, being established in 1590, was also balkanised. The towns-turned principalities of Panguil and Paquil separated from Paete.

Capulong took this as an advantage to expand some territory. In 1608, he purchased some lands south, forming the modern borders of Cavite, Tondo and Laguna. A year later, he sponsored the voyage of seven Franciscan missionaries, led by Fray Blas Palomino, founded the settlement of Baler[6] on the east coast of Luzon in August. Earlier, in June, another voyage, sponsored again by Capulong, resulted in the founding of Casiguran[7] on June. He also attempted to gain influence on the raveling Spanish province of Zambales, but failed.

In the year 1614, a group of 300 Japanese Christians led by Takayama Hikogoro, which was also known as Justo Takayama Ukon due to his conversion to Christianity, arrived at the shores of Manila, where they were welcomed. Luis de Silva, the current governor, tried to provide him with an income to support him and his relations but he declined this offer since he said he was no longer in a position to offer his services in exchange for income but neither did he wish to act like a lord. He then settled in Dilao, in Tondo kingdom's territory. Capulong sent an offer to become one of his ministers regarding Japanese migrants here, but he refused. Also in this year was the independence of Cavite as a province. Capulong ordered the organization of this separated land in Mariveles as its own barrio to prevent its annexation to Cavite.

He enlarged the size of the Tondo Militia through conscription and reached about 7,000 in 1623.

In 1630, he relocated the capital of Tondo from the town of the same name to the newly created municipality of Marikit-na, later named Marikina just to make sure that the seat of the Tondense government and power would not be threatened by such rebellion and the fact that it is defensible due to its interior location. Marikina was then surrounded by bamboo forts built on the orders of Capulong II. He also

Capulong II died on October 4, 1638[1], and left his young son Juan Macapagal in the throne. As such, the throne has been contested by his relatives ever since.


Central Luzon at the time of Capulong II's death in 1638​

[1] - Actual dates of death currently unknown, as well as their birthdates
[2] - Included Santa Maria until 1602, Mabitac until 1613, and Famy until 1910
[3] - The former name of Cabuyao and once included Biñan until 1688 (itself included San Pedro until 1725(?)), Calamba until 1742 and Santa Rosa until 1792
[4] - Included Rizal, a municpality of Laguna until 1919
[5] - Included Santa Cruz until 1602, Pagsanjan until 1668 and Cavinti until 1907
[6] - Included Maria Aurora until 1949, Dipaculao until 1950 (itself included Dingalan until 1962(?)), and San Luis in 1962
[7] - Included Dilasag until 1959 and Dinalungan until 1966
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The Split
Division soon rolled over the ruling house on whether who should be able to inherit Capulong II's throne after his death. One faction argued that Juan Macapagal (1620s-1683) should be the next king, while another wanted Enrique Ygnacio Salamat (1588-1680), son of the executed Magat Salamat to become king.

Both sides sought the help of Spanish officials stationed in Intramuros. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, the governor-general, decided to intervene and stated an agreement with the factions. He suggested the division of Lacandola I's lands to solve the issue. They initially refused at first, but in the end conceded as it was the only way for the division of the house to die down. de Corcuera knew that in the future, this division would soon become rivalries, and that Spain would have an advantage by allying one of them, that is Pampanga since it was one of the most loyal regions under Spanish rule.

The agreement was made according to de Corcuera: Juan Macapagal became king Macapagal I of the Pampangan monarchy as well as being the grand duke of Pangasinan, Enrique Ygnacio Salamat became Magat I Enrique in honor of his father, duke of Bulacan and Nicolas Lacandola becoming Lacandola II of Tondo. The split was made official on October 30, 1638.


Division of Lacandola I's lands​
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Overthrow of Lacandola II
Turns out that Lacandola II proved to be an unpopular king among the Tondenses as he largely favored Pampangan interest over Tondense ones. As if that wasn't enough, another Sangley rebellion occurred the next year that caused severe damage to Tondo, which further increased Lacandola's unpopularity among the common Tondo folk. The militia during his time severely deteriorated as he was busy trying to forge relations with his brother up north, and the possibility of a union state between Tondo and Pampanga.

Meanwhile, in Bulacan, at the town of Malolos, the people caught a man's attention named Pedro Ladia. Ladia, who was born in Borneo most likely in the late 1610s, migrated to the Philippines in the 1630s and bought some land. This land was later confiscated by the Spanish. He thought that it was about time that they stage an uprising and put himself as King of the Tagalogs in 1643.


A 19th century illustration of the brief Ladia revolt
He first rebelled at the said town, but was later repulsed by a force of 500 sent by Magat. However, Magat later made Ladia as his general to gain the throne in Tondo by overthrowing his nephew and placing himself instead as king. Supplied by Magat with over 400 men, Ladia marched down from his base at Bulakan, down to the town of Malabon. To his surprise, the town welcomed him warmly and expected that he would replace Lacandola II as king.

News of Ladia's army present spread throughout Tondo like a typhoon, and one by one each town accepted Enrique as king. Ladia arrived at Marikina days later, and Lacandola II's ministers unilaterally declared him as king. For his service, he was granted the position of gobernadorcillo in Malolos. He also married one Magat's daughters named Maria Zosima. They had two children, named Miguel Sancho in 1647 and Antonio Fidel in 1650.

It was later Lacandola II realized that he was overthrown as king of Tondo when a letter sent by de Corcuera to Macapagal I informed of the latter that a new king was crowned of Tondo in March. He tried to persuade his brother by sending an army to regain his throne back but his brother snuffed at the idea. Macapagal I compensated him by making him a military officer, and granting the position of gobernadorcillo in Candaba.

Note: The picture shown above originally depicts some foot soldiers having a skirmish with the Negritos, or tribesmen.
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First Half of Magat I Enrique (1643-1660)
Magat formally arrived at the Tondense capital from his capital at Bulacan on March 13. On his entry to the kingdom, he was warmly greeted by the civilians on every town he passed. Upon his arrival, he was greeted by Ladia who was waiting for his arrival.

His first action was to declare all treaties of Pampanga and Tondo regarding union null and void, and also adapted a clause that barred Lacandola II from ever returning to Tondo. All of his property there was confiscated and divided it equally to the monarch himself, Ladia and his siblings. This caused the formal split of the House of Tondo into two: the House of Salamat which ruled Bulacan and Tondo, and the house of Capulong which ruled Pampanga and Pangasinan. He established a precedent in which the monarch shall visit Tondo and Bulacan twice in every month to check on the subjects.

In the first years, he also redefined municipal boundaries, and encouraged landless peasants as well as those who wanted to relocate to cultivate the sparse, barren lands of eastern Bulacan and Tondo outside of the major towns. It increased agricultural produce, and populating previous sparse places throughout his domains. He also invited several monastic orders to help him baptize the people since they haven't fully become Christian due to the fact that animistic practices were still mostly present in the lives of his subjects, as the case of all Indios until the 18th century.

1646, the year when the Dutch attacked Manila in an attempt to seize the islands for themselves. The time was also a time when the first local naval force, the Tondo Navy, was established as a sub-part of the Spanish Navy, although as a coastal guard. At the time of its creation in 1646, it was only composed merely of 7 juangas built from Pampanga commissioned by Magat himself. Magat offered to help the Spanish in the naval fight, but Diego Fajardo declined, saying that such vessel would be instantly destroyed by a much larger and powerful Dutch ship. Nevertheless, along with the Armada de los Pintados, it was one of the earliest naval force established in the Philippines.


An illustration of a juanga


The earliest iteration of Tondo's naval jack in the mid-17th century[1]
During the 1650s, Magat also tried to continue the habit of expanding Tondo's territory started by his uncle Capulong I. However, he was unsuccessful in this pursuit, although he did succeed in acquiring Balayan[2] in 1652, a large municpality in Batangas, assumed in the past as a Tondense territory long before the Spanish had arrived.

He reorganized the Tondense militia, as well as establishing the Bulacan Guard by acquiring the provincial militia from the Spanish. He also adapted a military standard, in the style of the military flag of New Spain he had seen during his visits to Manila. A prescribed uniform was also introduced, although it is only reserved for military officers. Regulars wore only the baro[3], a common shirt worn by both the nobility and commoners of Katagalugan alike since the pre-colonial period.


Military standard of the Tondo Militia. Also used by the Bulacan Militia, with a green background


Flag of the Bulacan Militia
It was also during him that decentralization in Spanish Philippines reached its peak, at the coming decade. The first states in the Philippines to adopt coat of arms was Tondo and Bulacan, under his reign. The first flag of Bulacan was also adopted at the same period.


Flag of Bulacan


First CoA of Tondo (1653-1752)


CoA of Bulacan (adapted 1653)​

[1] - OTL Flag of Manila Province, in use from 1846 to 1898
[2] - Included Calaca until 1835, Tuy until 1866 (reannexed back in 1903 and separated in 1911), Calatagan until 1912 and Lian until 1915 (itself included Nasugbu until 1947(?))
[3] - The first version of the modern Barong Tagalog
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The War in Pampanga and near Intramuros
Towards the end of the year 1660, a major revolt broke out in Pampanga under the leadership of Fransisco Maniago. They are rebelling now since the Spanish forced them to stay even after their term ended and responded with ruthless brutality once they started complaining. It was also due to the severe situation of starvation back in their homeland, where crops were sparse in numbers even though the neighbors tried to help each other.


Fransisco Maniago, the leader of the revolt
Macapagal I initially dealed with the situation for a while, and it seems he is gonna claim victory, however another revolt twice as violent occurred in his domain of Pangasinan led by Andres Malong. To make matters worse for Macapagal, Malong sent letters to various Spanish-controlled provinces in the Philippines, including Maniago's zone of rebellion, to recognize him as king. Fortunately, he arrived just in time to block Arayat, the main town connecting the road from Pampanga to Pangasinan that would assist the Kapampangan rebel in his bidding. However, their fate was twisted days later.

Battle of Arayat
Taking advantage of the situation, he sent his general Ladia with a 5,000 strong army to try at least capture some territory or even claim the Kapampangan and Pangasinense thrones on January 8, 1661. Ladia first captured the town of Apalit[1] then advanced towards Candaba. He, unknowingly led his forces to Arayat, where they are surprised with Macapagal's forces stationed there.

Macapagal thought that they were soldiers sent by Spain to help him against the rebels. However, he later realized that they were the soldiers of Tondo and Bulacan, initially sent by Magat to capture his throne. He thus, decided to battle the Tagalogs since he thought that they were mostly composed of irregulars. He did one mistake however, he sent a message to the Tagalogs to peacefully leave through the fires of cannons. However, Ladia thought that this was an attack against him so charged at the enemy, inflicting heavy casualties, of about 1,500 to Macapagal. The Kapampangan king was forced to retreat towards San Bartolome at night[2], not knowing that Melchor de Vera's forces sent on the orders of Malong were also nearby.


A musketeer(?) and a drummer at the battle of Arayat
The battle was considered to be Tondo's first significant military victory since the battle of Manila in 1365[3] against Majapahit forces.
Battle of Minalin
After the victory in Arayat, Ladia initially think of chasing Macapagal's forces down. However, he instead on January 10, decided to march towards Minalin[4] by passing from Candaba to Apalit, and from there, Minalin. He initially avoided Mexico[5], the Kapampangan capital since it might trigger another attack from former Tondense king Lacandola II.

Once he had reached Minalin, he encountered Spanish forces in the area, initially there continuing their pacification of the area from Macabebe[6]. He decided to enter and assist the Spanish in their pacification campaign. However, confusion took place, resulting in a standoff between the two sides. Formal battle took place when gunfires were exchanged on January 12.

Ladia decided to divide his forces, since the Spanish were only small in numbers. However, they didn't expect that thousands of Kapampangans joined him from Macabebe since the the interpreter of de Lara's message, named Amang Uensis distorted the message to something more sinister who continued their revolt anyway despite Sabiniano Manrique de Lara's agreement to tackle the situation they have been in, For a day they returned back to Spanish rule after the lie has been raveled, but continued it for the third time when they thought a large reinforcement force (Ladia's army) coming from Maniago was sent. The battle lasted for 3 days, with most of the Spanish soldiers being either captured, killed or severely wounded.

The battle also began to worry de Lara, who initially believed that Enrique might have ambitions to attack and take Intramuros for himself. He thus sent an envoy to Francisco de Figueroa, one of his generals to defend the capital in case an attack happens. He also devised a plan to truly punish the Kapampangans for their violation of the agreement.

Alliance of Tondo and Malong's forces
Malong recently learned, through his general de Vera that returned from San Bartolome, the combined army of Tondo and Bulacan roaming around Pampanga. He also learnt of the victories that Ladia had achieved in Arayat and Minalin, particularly the former that allowed the entrance of Maniago's reinforcements from Pangasinan. Upon the advice of several ministers, he decided to make a formal alliance with Tondo by sending de Vera to Ladia's camp.

When de Vera did finally arrived at Ladia's camp at Minalin, Ladia was preparing for another battle, but does not know on what location this battle would be conducted. de Vera initially suggested that in order to divert Macapagal and his generals' forces, a siege of Mexico shall be conducted. Ladia initially considered it, but was reluctant since he had alarmed the Spanish due to the last two battles and also because of Malong's brutality in war. Later the Pangasinense general requested a formal alliance from Malong to be signed, Ladia then sent a force of 100 back to Marikina to inform Enrique of the matter.

When the request arrived at Marikina on January 21, Magat was pleased: now he could potentially create an alliance of states: Bulacan, Pangasinan, Tondo and possibly the rebelling Ilocos under Almazan to counter the much powerful Pampanga. He confirmed the alliance, and all and all except the clause of Malong becoming king, he suggested, along with his Ilocano counterpart instead to retain and gain the grand duke title respectively. He sent the force back to Ladia's camp and arrived at January 23.

The reply was then sent back to Malong on January 25, and Malong was greatly pleased because of this.

Battle of San Juan del Monte
Word of the Tagalog-Pangasinense alliance had given the authorities in Manila panic and worry, de Lara in particular. The general in-charge of the defense of Manila, de Figueroa ordered the the consolidation of soldiers at Sampaloc[7], a town near Manila to act as his base of operations for defense.

However, rumors began circulating that Tondo was planning an attack on Manila to claim the capital for themselves, and therefore, claim the islands under their rule. Another rumor, this time for the Tondenses that the Spanish would launch an attack on their capital. Both sides moved out their armies, led by de Figueroa and Magat in person respectively from their respective bases in Marikina and Sampaloc and met each other at the town of San Juan del Monte[8], in between Manila and Marikina.

The Spanish general, de Figueroa initially ordered his men to halt their advance, and position their cannons directly to the enemy force, the same thing was done for the Tondense side. To execute a maneuver of the enemy forces, Enrique decided to scatter his forces into 6 small armies, with two of them staying in the same position as it was before, while the other four shall make a retreat-like movement to deceive the enemy. Oddly enough, a scout reported to de Figueroa that the Tondense forces were retreating back to Marikina. He took this as good omen and ordered his men to attack the remaining troops that were left in the retreat.

Having the Spanish took the bait, Magat's forces that retreated suddenly appeared, and surrounded the Spanish on both sides. Enrique then ordered the remaining two to also surround the Spanish and bring hell upon them. The Tondenses fired numerous barrages of artillery on all sides, the Spanish returned by doing the same thing on the northern flank of the Tondense army.


Spanish troops under artillery fire in San Juan del Monte, 1661

de Figueroa attempted to break the siege by sending an armed force of cavalry, numbering 300, to attack the southern flank since it is the least tight of all flanks. When it was executed, the encirclement broke up and chaos ensued. The Spanish, however, was badly beaten by the well-trained infantry of the Tondense army as well as another series of artillery barrages between the two sides.

The Spanish retreated to the town proper itself, and urban fighting occurred in the streets. The gobernadorcillo, with the help of friars and the cuadilleros (police) evacuated most inhabitants to the fields or to the barrios of San Fransisco and Santa Lucia. The soldiers beat each other by fist, gun or by throwing objects. One incident records that 10 soldiers from the Tondense side unleashed carabaos from farms that attacked the Spanish.

The battle ended at 6am on January 30, and the Tondenses are victorious.

The Treaty of Marikina
The news of the battle reached de Lara's camp on Feburary 4, and he was highly disappointed about the outcome. This led to him also fearing Tondo even more than Pampanga.

Fortunately for de Lara, Macapagal at this point repelled the rebels back to the October 1660-status, with Maniago at this point along with his colleagues fleeing to either Pangasinan or Bulacan after they made peace. Although he could not stop the rapid success of Malong's rebellion resulting in Pangasinense independence. This temporary ceasefire also allowed Malong to support the rebellion of Pedro Almazan in Ilocos, north.

The governor-general called for peace, and all sides met at the Tondense capital, Marikina. Tondo gave a series of demands to the Spaniard of the following:

  • Recognize Pangasinense and Ilocano independence
  • Sign a clause that barred any Spanish intervention in Tondense affairs for another 50 years, and
  • Ordered a share in Spanish monopoly regarding trade
Tondo also issued a demand giving the Tondense king a say in Spanish colonial affairs, as well as the power to assist the Spanish in their conquest of Mindanao. The demands given by Enrique to de Lara was shocking for its time, for a native monarch could not challenge the governor-general in colonial affairs. However, having no choice, de Lara conceded, and the treaty was signed between the Spanish, Tondo, Bulacan, Pampanga, Pangasinan and the Ilocos states on May 4, 1661.

[1] - Included parts of San Simon until 1771
[2] - Comprised of Concepcion, Tarlac and Magalang, Pampanga until it was destroyed by a flood in 1860
[3] - Current status of whether it actually happened is disputed
[4] - Included Santo Tomas until 1792
[5] - Included parts of San Fernando until 1754
[6] - Included Masantol until 1878
[7] - Formerly an independent town until 1901 and included Santa Mesa until 1911
[8] - Included the part of San Fransisco del Monte until it was ceded to Quezon City in 1939

Note: War paintings depict Spanish troops in the Thirty Years' War.
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Second half of Magat I Enrique (1661-1680)
Much of Magat's remaining years of reign was spent in peace, and improvement of the two polities. The war in Pampanga had given the armies of Tondo and Bulacan fame throughout the Indios, and even Spaniards who otherwise had an army in the sparse hundreds.

After the war in Pampanga, Magat knew that he had greatly alienated both the Spanish and Kapampangans alike, particularly Macapagal I who was apparently had to spent the rest of his reign repairing the damage the war did to his domains. He sought to repair relations by assisting the Spanish in defending Manila from an invasion threat made by Koxinga that never happened due to his death in 1662. This greatly caused massive dissent for the Luzonense, and some rebellious Visayan monarchs including Magat himself since numerous troops and and moments spent for the preparation of the defense were wasted in an invasion that never happened.

Nevertheless, he supported the policies of Diego de Salcedo to revitalize the stagnant trade industry, which was hampered by the Dutch invasion, Moro raids, natural calamities and the recently concluded war in Pampanga.

In 1666, he tried to reestablish relations with Pampanga but Macapagal refused, therefore sowing the seeds for the upcoming Tondo-Pampanga rivalry in the near future. He, however remained out of the coup that occurred two years later against Salcedo.

The rest of the 1670s saw Tondo remaining under the era of peace, although with minor raids of Negritos and highlanders against his subjects.

On December 14, 1680, on his deathbed because of his weakening body he caught while visiting the town of Paombong, Bulacan north of Tondo, he ordered that his domains shall be divided between his eldest son, Antonio Federico for Bulacan and Miguel Sancho, son of Pedro Ladia for Tondo. He then succumbed to his illness. Although detested by the Spanish because of his participation in the war 2 decades ago, he was mourned by everybody in the capital due to his attempts at reestablishing relations with the Spanish.


Central Luzon at the day of Magat I Enrique's death in 1680​
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Ascension of Magat II Sancho
BEWARE: All monarchs of Tondo from 1680 onwards, some wives and all children as well as descendants shall be fictional.

Miguel Sancho Ladia y Sy de Salamat was a son of Pedro Ladia (1610s-1677) and Maria Zosima (1618-1715), born on March 3, 1647 in the town of Malabon where Ladia's forces were garrisoned at. Witnesses at Zosima's birth to Miguel described him as "similar to the looks of the grandfather of his father-in-law Lacandola I, albeit having a mole on his left neck, and an aquiline nose". He was then baptized in the church of San Bartolome 3 days after his birth. He was initially raised in the town of Malabon since his father settled the area in 1652, just two years after the birth of his brother, Antonio Fidel on June 30, 1650, in the town of Bigaa[1], Bulacan. Throughout his pre-reign life, he was trained to be ready to reign as king of Tondo since Magat's eldest son, Antonio Federico had no interest in managing Tondo since he had more experience in ruling Bulacan as Magat's governor over the area.

Miguel served as a camp-de-aide to his father in the Pampanga war, and present in the battles of Minalin and San Juan del Monte.


Miguel Sancho and his wife in a 1720 illustration
He married Marcela Binatong (c. 1643-1700) They had four sons, in order: Sancho Marcos born in 1685, Pablo Juan born in 1686, Estanislao Erico in 1688 and Andres Felipe in 1690. Of these, the second died due to smallpox in 1689, while the third died only at the age of 14, in 1702 due to smallpox. His fourth son went on to become the commander of the Malabon Regiment in the 1720s. Thus, just like any male heir of a monarch he groomed Sancho to become the successor in an event of his death.

On the night of December 14, 1680. Magat died in Paombong, and automatically the ministers at Bulakan and Marikina proclaimed Antonio Federico as duke of Bulacan and him as king of Tondo respectively three days later. Antonio took his name as Antonio I while Miguel decided to use the regnal name of Magat II Sancho. He chose the name Sancho as part of the name instead of Miguel since in his own words, "too much m's in the name that is unpleasant to the ears". Antonio of Bulacan started the famed view of Bulaqueño monarchs that generally lasted until their old ages between 80-100.

[1] - Renamed Balagtas in 1966

Note: Portrait actually shows Angel Pantaleon de Miranda and spouse, the founder of Angeles, Pampanga in 1797.
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The rest of the 1680s and 1690s
In 1681, a Zambal uprising occurred in the town-state of Playa Honda[1], in the then unraveling Spanish province of Zambales. The governor-general Juan de Vargas Hurtado had gotten enough of the reports made by friars and principalias and decided to formally end the situation by force. He formed an army of Spanish soldiers, mostly Mexicans, warriors from Pampanga recruited with Macapagal I's permission, and some descendants from the Catholic Ternateans who fled with the Spanish after the threat of Koxinga's invasion from Taiwan never happened, as well as some mardikas.

Magat initially offered his services to assist Vargas in his bid to end the rebellion, but Vargas initially refused since Macapagal had a demanded a clause in which the governor-general could not use Pampanga's highly trained troops (recovered by the late 1670s) if Tondense troops are also present in his army even though he wanted both of them in the army to help him repress the Zambal rebellion. Nevertheless, the rebellion was defeated, with its leader Tumalang surrendering to the Spanish and took an oath that he would be an everlasting friend of the Spanish. He later assisted in establishing barrios and baptized under the name Alonso.

In 1683, he tried again but later snuffed at the idea when he had received the news that the Zambals later stopped their second rebellion after their initial fear of the heavily fortified Spanish fort.

In 1687, Andres I of Pangasinan, Pedro (Gumapos) I of Ilocos-Vigan, Pedro (Almazan) I of Ilocos-Laoag and Magat signed a treaty in Marikina establishing a formal alliance between the states that ratified it. This led to the paranoia of Pampanga under Macapagal II, successor of Macapagal I in 1683 in increasing. It resulted in the strengthening of the military of Pampanga to over 9,000 men by 1690.

Also in 1687, he signed a treaty with the Spanish in which he gave Spanish authority to the towns of Dilao[2], Tondo south of Kaloogan[3] area, Santa Cruz, Santa Ana[4] west of its barrio Namayan, supposed to be the seat of the state of the same name before the Spanish arrival in 1571, Malate[5], San Miguel, Quiapo, Sampaloc[6], San Nicolas, Binondo and Ermita. One reason is that these areas are becoming suburbs of the nearby colonial capital Manila.

In 1690, he ordered the resettlement of impoverished people as well as landless subjects to the sparsely populated villages of the interior. He ordered that they shall cultivate and improve the land in the hopes of developing potential towns and villages as well as to uplift their lives. A year later he ordered several expeditions to study the fauna, wildlife and topography of the mountains and flatlands barely void of human presence. These findings were later stored in Magat's archives in Marikina.

Magat emphasized the importance of the Tondense army for defense and war capabilities, so he issued mandatory conscription, and service would generally last for only 2 months. He also issued uniforms, but to set apart from their Spanish counterparts, he ordered that the uniform shall be modeled after the common baro worn by men, while the officers' uniforms shall be based on it. Usually the officers are determined differently from soldiers by having European=styled insignia over the shoulders.


Soldier baro of the Tondense army, c. 1695​

By 1697, the army had reached a number of 11,000 troops out of a population of 190,000.

[1] - Renamed Botolan much later
[2] - Renamed San Fernando de Dilao in 1791, then Paco de Dilao and eventually Paco
[3] - One of the first names used for Caloocan before its separation from Tondo in 1815
[4] - Santa Ana from 1623 to 1841 included Mandaluyong (when separated it became San Felipe Neri), before its incorporation as a suburb of Manila in 1901 and some portions of San Andres Bukid until post-Commonwealth era
[5] - Included a part of San Andres Bukid until after WW2
[6] - Included Pandacan until 1712 before incorporation to Manila in 1901, and Santa Mesa until 1911
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Assassination of Magat II Sancho
Unfortunately for Magat, his reign would end immediately at the start of the 18th century, due to various causes.

On June 5, 1703, Magat along with his then 18-year old heir Sancho visited his uncle-in-law, also Bulacan duke Antonio, more popularly known as Matandang Tonyo due to his old age when he became duke, for discussion of improving relations between Tondo and Bulacan, as well as military and economic cooperation between the two.

Around 1pm on June 9, he decided to take on a stroll on the fields with his son as well as two guards of the Bulacan militia. Around this time, Sancho caught a couple's attention fighting over the man's affair with a mistress. He decided, for unknown reasons to this day, intervene to resolve on what is going on. The two guards also accompanied Sancho on his way.

An unnamed man, only known by "Curting", happened to also pass the king's carabao cart. There, due to the death of his father in the battle of Minalin as well as his hate for Tondo, he stabbed Magat in the back, resulting in intense bleeding. Luckily, one of the guards returned and immediately disarmed the culprit, although not sustaining scars on his arms himself. However, it is too late, as Magat continued to lose blood rapidly. Sancho after learning of the incident rushed him back to Antonio's residence, but sadly, he was declared dead by male catalonans[1] upon their arrival.

Sancho mourned his father for 5 days, as described by his brother Andres in his memoir dated 1736. The assailant was captured, then sentenced to death publicly by hanging in the Bulakan plaza, on July 10, 1703.

[1] - the Tagalog term for babaylan, which was a Visayan term more commonly used. During the Spanish period, some male catalonans were friars' assistants in converting the populace to Christianity
Brief Reign of Magat III
The assassination of Magat II Sancho led to the succession of his son, also named Sancho on August 1, 1703. Upon his ascension, he took only the name "Magat", therefore becoming Magat III.

However, just like his father, his reign would also end in the early 18th century, only spanning until the year of 1710.

Despite this though, he did some progressive reforms and actions for his kingdom. In 1705, he ordered the establishment of schools throughout towns, villages and hamlets throughout Tondo.

He also ordered the establishment of a shipyard in 1706, on the banks of the Kinabutasan area[1] of the town of Malabon. Another was constructed, in the village of Longalo[2] in Parañaque[3]. The purpose was to construct karakoas and joangas for trade and to assist the Spanish in battling Moro raids and their campaigns in Mindanao.

In 1708, he ordered the construction of the Barangka Line, a system of bamboo forts, barracks and military installations surrounding the capital Marikina to protect it from possible invasions. He also ordered the construction of bamboo towers throughout the main roads.

Throughout his reign, he supported the friars' bid in maintaining the pre-colonial baybayin script, which, was still the most widely used script in the Philippines although it is experiencing death in following years. He ordered that all documents shall be in baybayin, and that Latin letters should only be used, limited to the friars. However, he could not stop the accelerating usage of the Latin alphabet in daily life.

1710, was when his wife, Juanita Ginamitan (b. 1688), died due to tuberculosis at the age of 32, three days shy before her birthday at April 8. In an eerie coincidence, his only son, born in 1707, died at at young age due to polio in August 13. Depressed, and the fact that the people blamed him for poor harvest in the towns of San Mateo[4], Antipolo[5], Pasig and Cainta, he hung himself on the night of August 17. Friars and ministers who visited his residence to discuss policies regarding baybayin were shocked at his death, and he was immediately buried on the San Bartolome church on the 21st.

[1] - an early name of what is now Navotas
[2] - one of the many various names for Don Galo, a barangay in Parañaque
[3] - Included Las Piñas until either 1762 or 1797. Reannexed in 1903 and separated again in 1907
[4] - Included Rodriguez (also Montalban) until 1871. Reannexed in 1903 and separated again in 1906
[5] - Antipolo's territory only comprised of its western territory from 1591 to 1903 when the municipality of Bosoboso was annexed. Teresa was also annexed but later separated in 1919
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