The Queen is Dead!: Katherine of Aragon dies in 1518

Epilogue I: Lionel
  • I have been dying to get this chapter out, so you're getting it a day or two early. Enjoy!

    Queen Christina has gone down in English history as one of the greatest patrons of the arts this country has ever known. Indeed, you’d be hard-pressed to find a town that doesn’t have a ‘Queen Christina’ theatre, school, library or gallery within its boundaries. It might surprise some then, to realise that Christina was never meant to be England’s Queen at all. When the possibility of her coming to England was first raised, in the winter of 1530, it was assumed that she would marry Lord Richard, Duke of York and Normandy, for Prince Lionel was promised to the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal.

    Indeed, this is where we get the expression ‘storm-sent lovers’, for had it not been for the stormy autumn of 1531, Lionel and Christina would never have met, and the course of English history would have taken a very different turn.

    For it was the storms that kept Christina’s father King Christian in port long enough for him to have to abandon his attempt to regain his throne that year. He might have gone the following year, but her brother John died that spring, and without a male heir, her father King Christian considered his cause lost, abandoned by God. It wasn’t until the summer of 1534 that King Henry and the Emperor managed to persuade King Christian that it was his holy duty to try to reclaim Denmark from his heretical uncle King Frederick. He agreed, but only under the condition that he didn’t fight alone.

    King Henry didn’t need asking twice. Fired with zeal for the ‘crusade of Denmark’, as he called it, King Henry gathered together a force of 4000 men and sailed to meet King Christian off the Norwegian coast, leaving the thirteen-year-old Lionel as nominal Regent in his absence.

    What King Henry didn’t expect was for King Christian to send his daughters, Dorothea and Christina, the other way, to act as living reminders of their host’s pledge to fight at their father’s side. Dorothea and Christina landed at Great Yarmouth in September 1534, a month after King Henry had set sail to join their father.

    The girls would spend the next thirteen months in England as Lionel’s guests, while their fathers fought (successfully) to reinstate the senior line of the House of Oldenburg on the Danish throne. At some point during that time, Lionel and Christina must have become infatuated with one another.

    The details of how and where they married are sketchy, although it is most likely to have been in the summer of 1535, for Lionel turned 14 that May, and was therefore of age to marry. What we do know is that, when King Henry returned to England in the October of 1535, having paused in Paris and Rouen to visit Princess Maria and Lord Richard on his way home, Lionel met his father at Dover with Christina on his arm as Princess of Wales.

    There was uproar. King Henry castigated Lionel for breaking his betrothal to the Infanta Beatrice without permission and threatened to have the marriage to Christina annulled on the grounds that Lionel hadn’t been free to marry. Lionel, meanwhile, declared he’d give up his right to the throne before he’d give up Christina, famously saying ‘Do your worst, Father! I’d rather beg my bread in the streets with Christina as my wife than be monarch of all of Christendom with the Lady Beatrice!”

    While King Henry spluttered, the newly-weds fled to the County Palatine of Chester, which Lionel held largely independently of his father, but not before swearing an oath to the Archbishop of Canterbury himself that they had made their marriage in good faith and before witnesses – Christina’s older sister Dorothea among them.

    The matter, however, was far from over, and had Christina’s belly not swollen with child that winter, King Henry might have succeeded in forcing the two apart, especially with the King of Portugal furious that his sister had been jilted and willing to back any attempt to untie Lionel’s union with Christina. The possibility of a Duke of Monmouth, however, sealed the matter. Henry VIII could hardly allow his eldest grandchild to be born a bastard, particularly not when Lionel and Christina had both been of age and of sound mind when they took their vows. The Portuguese were pacified with the promise of twenty years free trade with England and Normandy and a queenly jointure for Infanta Beatrice if they allowed Lord Richard to take his brother’s place as her groom, and Lionel and Christina were welcomed back to Court for Easter, four months before their first son, named John for Lionel’s godfather and Christina’s deceased brother, was born.

    The young Duke of Monmouth was soon followed by two brothers and a sister: Lord William (b.1538), Lady Mary (b.1541), and Lord Henry (b.1545).

    Many say that Queen Christina’s passion for education stemmed from her days as Princess of Wales, when she seems to have been largely focused on her children. But I cannot do justice to Christina’s role as a mother and teacher here, for it is so wide a topic it deserves a chapter of its own….

    ________ Sarah Rose, ‘Christina: The Queen England Was Never Meant to Have’​
    Epilogue II: The Boleyns of Ormonde and Pembroke
  • …Fortunately for the hopes of the Boleyn dynasty, neither Edmund nor his sister Matilda inherited their parents’ fertility issues. Matilda managed six surviving children with the 4th Earl of Derby, one of them the famous circumnavigator of the globe, Sir Edmund Stanley, and Edmund fathered twelve children on Lady Grace Fitzroy, nine of whom lived to adulthood.

    Over the next three centuries, the Boleyns rose to become prominent Anglo-Celtic lords, their lands stretching across both sides of the Irish Sea. Unlike many other powerful Marcher dynasties, however, they never wavered in their loyalties to the Tudors in London. In fact, the families were so closely interwoven that more than one Boleyn girl became Queen of England or Duchess of York and Normandy down the generations.

    As such, when Ireland was made a Kingdom in 1848 as part of the Tudor effort to bind the Irish more closely into the Crown, for fear they might seek to take advantage of the turmoil that was setting large swathes of Central Europe ablaze, it seemed only logical to name a Boleyn as head of the vice-regal government in Dublin.

    Charles Edward Boleyn, 12th Earl of Ormonde, 11th Earl of Pembroke and 11th Baron of Upper Ossory, was named to the post of Viceroy of Ireland in August 1848. Indeed, in a grand imperial acknowledgement of Boleyn loyalty, the post was made hereditary two years later. Unlike the titles, however, the Vice-regal post was entailed to male heirs only. As it happens, that hasn’t mattered, for the Boleyns have always run to sons as well as daughters. The current holder of all four glittering posts is the 20th Earl of Ormonde and 19th Earl of Pembroke, Ralph Boleyn.

    It is my aim, within these pages, to trace the rise of the ‘thrice-titled dynasty’, as Shakespeare once called the Anglo-Celtic Boleyns, and also to flesh out the personalities of each successive Earl and Baron, who are so often limited to the cold glory of their impressive string of peerages. It is my hope that, one day, this book will stand as, if not a seminal joint biography, then, at least a key primer in understanding the Boleyns, and with them, Ireland, and its place in the Tudor Empire.

    ______________ Rachel Wincraft, ‘“Introduction”, The Thrice-Titled Dynasty: The Boleyns of Ormonde, Pembroke and Upper Ossory’​
    Epilogue III: Maria (I)
  • “If Maria had stayed in England, or taken her sister Caitlin’s place as Queen of Scotland, then all would probably have been well. Unfortunately for Maria, she was Dauphine of France, and France operated under Salic Law, where only a male could take the throne…”

    ______ Eoin Peniston, ‘“The Fruitless Pomegranate”: Maria Tudor 1516-1558​

    Chenonceau, 1546

    “She’s useless, Diane, I tell you! Useless!” Henri, Dauphin of France stormed through the chambers he shared with his mistress, Diane de Poitiers, red-faced with fury.

    Diane glanced up at his entrance, laying aside the shirt she was sewing, “Oh, but Henri, what’s the cause of this? I heard only this morning that the Dauphine had given birth to another beautiful girl. Surely you should be delighted at being a father again?”

    “Yes, precisely. She gave me a girl. Again! Does she not realise we’re in France; that only a boy will be able to take the throne after me? Thirteen years we’ve been married! Thirteen! And in all that time she’s only managed to carry three children to term. All of them girls!”

    “The boys will come, Henri, I’m sure of it,” Diane reached up and touched her lover’s cheek as he stalked over to her. He pulled away, grimacing, and threw himself down at her feet petulantly.

    “They’re being damn shy about it!”

    “What have you named the new Princess?” Diane asked, knowing from previous experience that once Henri started ranting about Maria, he could go on for hours, and hoping to head him off before he built up too much steam. But he wasn’t to be distracted this time.

    “Louise, for my grandmother,” he snarled, before growling under his breath, ignoring her murmur of, “Jeanne, Diane and Louise. Three pretty names for three pretty Princesses.”

    “Nothing’s gone right since Maria came into my life! Nothing!” he burst out, “She was supposed to bring me half of Normandy as her dowry, but she couldn’t even manage that! No, instead of fighting for what was due to me as her husband, she just tossed her pretty head and let her father hand it to her baby brother on a silver platter. Oh, she got the sop of the Irish Clarence lands, but what good is that to me? What I am supposed to do with Irish lands, with all of England in the way between us?”

    “She was only nine,” Diane protested, but Henri scoffed.

    “We’d been promised in marriage since she was four. Nine’s old enough to know her duty,” Henri exhaled, “I might have forgiven her the slight, one day, if she’d at least given me a son to be the Petit Dauphin, but she can’t even manage that!”

    “Maria’s a devout girl. I’m sure she’s praying for one.”

    “Faith without works is dead!” Henri snapped, snatching up the goblet of wine that stood at Diane’s side and dashing it against the wall, “I need her to stop praying and actually do it! And if her previous history is anything to go by, it’ll be years before she even falls with child again, never mind gives me a son!”

    In the face of Henri’s temper; of the well-trodden paths of his rage, Diane suddenly found her own patience waning. Henri could be such a petulant child sometimes, she secretly wondered whether his years as a Spanish hostage had stopped him from growing as he should have.

    “If you’re so sick of your English mare, why don’t you get rid of her? You’re not a boy to be dictated to anymore. You’re a man; you’ll be the King of France one day! Act like it!”

    She regretted the biting words the moment they were out of her mouth, but Henri seized on them. A dangerous light flashed in his eyes.

    “I will!” he cried, leaping to his feet and pulling her up to swing her round, “My father would never be strong enough to ask, but I will. I swear on St Denis himself that if Maria hasn’t given me a son by the time my father dies, I’ll petition the Pope to have our marriage annulled!”
    Epilogue IV: Maria (II)
  • As her father-in-law’s condition worsened, storm clouds gathered over Maria’s head. Everyone at the French Court knew that, while King Francis might respect her maternal ties enough not to seek an annulment of her union with the Dauphin, Prince Henri himself had no such qualms. There was no doubt that Henri’s first move as King would be to send proctors to Rome seeking an annulment.

    Tudor that she was, Maria wasn’t going to go down without a fight. Rather than wait for the matter to come to her, she struck pre-emptively. In March 1547, as the rest of the French Court gathered around King Francis’s bedside, waiting for the end, Maria fled Rambouillet for St-Germain-de-Laye. Collecting her daughters, nine-year-old Jeanne, four-year-old Diane and six-month-old Louise, on the pretext of wanting to take them to Court to farewell their grandfather, she disappeared into the night and didn’t stop until she’d reached her brother Richard’s Ducal Court in Rouen, 120km away.

    It would be fair to say that Richard and his wife Beatrice were more than a little astonished by her arrival in the dead of night. However, they didn’t let their surprise stop them welcoming her with all the pomp and honour her rank and blood ties to them merited. In what was one of their few coordinated manoeuvres, Maria was escorted through the streets of Rouen with the fleur-de-lys of France and the dolphin of the Dauphin flying high above her head. Her two older daughters were also present at the ceremonial event, Jeanne perched on Richard’s saddle and Diane on Beatrice’s as they flanked her mother through the streets.

    Never shy to retaliate, Henri had no sooner acceded to the throne of France than he sent an ambushing force to Ireland, seeking to stake his claim to Maria’s jointure lands of the Irish Clarence estates. The venture was a futile one, however, for bad weather and unfamiliar terrain hindered its progress, so that the English force under the command of the Baron of Upper Ossory, had little difficulty in expelling the French from Anglo-Irish shores.

    Henri’s diplomatic efforts bore more fruit than his military ones, however. In 1550, three years after Maria's midnight flight to Rouen, Pope Julius III granted him his annulment on the grounds of Maria’s desertion, and ordered Maria to hand her daughters over to their father’s custody.

    Richard, furious on his sister’s behalf and chary of the Pope’s influence over European affairs at the best of times, bristled and declared that if Henri wanted the girls, he should damn well act like a father and come and get them himself rather than hiding behind the skirts of an interfering old man. Maria wept and begged God for mercy, prevaricating all the while. For a while, it looked as though she might dig her heels in against the Papal edict, despite her fervent Catholicism, but then her former mother-in-law, Dowager Queen Eleanor, interceded.

    Eleanor had been one of Maria’s few friends at the French Court, the two women bridging the gap in their ages by bonding over their shared Spanish heritage and the fact that their would-be courtiers hated them both.

    Eleanor wrote to Maria, pleading with her to accept the Pope’s verdict and promising that, were the younger woman to give up the custody of her daughters, then she, Eleanor, would take them into her household, rather than let King Henri hand them over to the care of his mistress.

    Since Diane de Poitiers’s presence in Henri’s life and that of their daughters had always been a major thorn in Maria’s side, and a large part of why her marriage to Henri broke down as far as it did, Queen Eleanor’s offer removed a major stumbling block from the proceedings. Most likely relieved that she wouldn’t have to choose between her love as a mother and her duty as a daughter of the Church of Rome, Maria yielded. Two months later, she handed her daughters over to the young Duke of Guise, whom their father had sent to collect them, with a pale composure that won her more than a few sympathisers, even amongst the French, who, up to that point, had resented her for abandoning her husband. It was there, on the steps of Rouen Cathedral, on a cool, damp October day in 1550, that Maria saw her three daughters, 13-year-old Jeanne, almost eight-year-old Diane and newly 4-year-old Louise, for the last time.

    __________Eoin Peniston, ‘“The Fruitless Pomegranate”: Maria Tudor 1516-1558’

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    Epilogue V: Maria (III)
  • Following her daughters’ departure for Paris, Maria retreated to her estates in Ireland, where rumour soon started to fly about her relationship with her Master of Horse, the nineteen-year-old Sir Barnaby Fitzpatrick. The eldest son and heir of the last titular King of Osraige, Barnaby Fitzpatrick had been raised in the household of the Earl of Pembroke and Ormonde, where he had found a talent for riding and caring for horses before leaving for the Marquisate of Clarence at the age of fifteen. Historians have suspected for centuries that Sir Barnaby found it too painful to watch as his ancestral lands were governed by others, particularly when those others were an Anglo-Irish Lord and the daughter of the King who had pressured his father into giving his lands up in the first place.

    Whatever the truth, by the beginning of 1552, Barnaby was firmly ensconced in Maria’s household, riding and laughing with her by day, dancing and making merry with her by night.

    If King Henry had still been alive, he would most likely have violently disapproved of his eldest daughter’s relationship with her ‘Irish Hare’, as Maria fondly christened her young favourite, but Lionel, no stranger to displeasing their father himself, given his rebellious marriage to Queen Christina, was far more blasé about the scandalous rumours coming from the Clarence estates. Indeed, he even created Barnaby Baron Carrickfergus in 1554, saying ‘even a former Queen must have her lords about her’.

    When Edmund Bonner, the Bishop of London, protested this elevation – and, no doubt, the reasons behind it – Lionel is reputed to have said, ‘My sister has served her penance since she was seventeen, my Lord of London,” before dismissing him and refusing to see him at Court again for more than a year. It is in moments like these, that we, looking back over the gap of four and a half centuries, can truly glimpse the depths of Lionel’s devotion to his older sister.

    Even Lionel’s protection of the couple wasn’t enough to stem the tide of talk, however, particularly not with Maria being almost twice Barnaby’s age. Things came to a head in 1556, when Maria retreated into the ramshackle Ferns Castle in County Wexford, with only her closest circle around her – Barnaby, Lady Siobhan Fitzgerald and two of her young Upper Ossory cousins chief among them. Her extended seclusion – which many historians have put down to the onset of the lupus and subsequent kidney damage that ultimately killed her - gave rise to talk that Maria was pregnant with Lord Carrickfergus’s child, talk that turned out to be so persistent that, upon her recovery, Maria was forced to swear before the Archbishop of Dublin himself that ‘though she loved him dearly…nothing unseemly had ever passed between them’ or risk Barnaby being forced to leave her household.

    Despite her solemn oath before such a high-ranking churchman, which, we must remember, a pious Catholic like Maria would have taken only with the utmost gravity, however, Maria managed to do no more than to quell the rumours for a year or so. Her sudden gain in weight in the early months of 1558, followed by her sudden death at Barnaby’s stronghold of Carrickfergus Castle that September, reignited the belief that she and Lord Carrickfergus were lovers and that she had died of the complications of a geriatric pregnancy. It is my solemn hope that the final chapter of this book, which I have dedicated specifically to Maria’s health throughout her adulthood, will quash those rumours once and for all.

    ________ Eoin Peniston, ‘“The Fruitless Pomegranate”: Maria Tudor 1516-1558’​
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    Epilogue VI - Dickon
  • What is it about Richards, @aurora01 ? ;)

    “Having converted publicly at the age of seventeen, Richard, Duke of York and Normandy remained a passionate Calvinist until his death a full twenty years later. Many of the great Reformers of the age praised his beliefs and his protection of them, saying only that he had one great flaw that he never managed to conquer – his equally fervent passion for the gentler, prettier sex.

    Differences of religion and a mutual resentment of their forced match served to drive Richard and his Duchess, Beatrice of Portugal, apart, rather than bond them together, and, while Richard managed to do his duty often enough to ensure the Norman branch of the Tudor Rose took root in the form of their son Edward, he was always happier in another woman’s bed.

    Many of Dickon’s mistresses have been lost to time, but there are two we know for certain, for their children tied their fates to that of the young Duke irrevocably. First is Anne Cecil, a woman who came over to Normandy on a visit in Lady Lancaster’s train in 1542 and never left, acting as Lady Governess to Lord Edward of York and Normandy in the later 1540s. Her own daughter, Cateline, was born in 1543, two years before Anne married Sir Edward Harington of Ridlington, one of Richard’s favoured retainers. As if that wasn’t proof enough of Cateline’s royal paternity, she was raised alongside Lord Edward in the nursery and bore the surname FitzYork, for Richard’s English Duchy.

    The other mistress is the intriguingly nicknamed ‘Minette’. Despite redoubtable scholarly efforts, ‘Minette’ has never been categorically identified, but she was clearly Richard’s favourite mistress, indeed, possibly even the love of his life. Minette bore Richard three children, all of whom he acknowledged, and in a letter dating to c. 1553, Richard claimed that, ‘were it not for the sake of my dear son, in whom all my father’s French hopes once rested, I would throw off the yoke that binds me to Portugal and name you, Minette, my Duchess for all our days, not just a day by the river.’

    Of their three children, the daughter, Madeleine, married George Hastings, later 4th Earl Hastings, while their elder son, Henry, became Captain of Calais and Le Havre, and the younger, named Francis for Richard’s schoolroom companion, Francis Hastings, won himself renown as a soldier in the wars in the Spanish Netherlands.

    It is my hope that this book, the first to examine Richard’s extramarital life rather than his tempestuous marriage to Beatrice of Portugal, will build up a fuller picture of the women Richard chose to surround himself with, and, in so doing, will show an as yet unexplored side to the first Duke of York and Normandy.

    ____________________‘“Rosebuds of Normandy”: The Loves and Bastards of Richard of York and Normandy’ by Susanna Filrein

    Epilogue VII - Religion 1500-1600
  • Many Protestants in England trace the seeds of their break with Rome to 1530, when the Marchioness of Lancaster persuaded Queen Mary to make Sir Edward Seymour one of her son Richard’s tutors. Bright and curious, and surrounded by the Huguenot exiles his father found it politically expedient to allow to shelter in his French domains, the young Duke of York and Normandy took to the new school of Christian thought like a duck to water, publicly converting to Calvinism in 1541 at the age of 17. His son, Edward, whom many believe to have been named for Edward Seymour, was likewise raised a Calvinist, despite the protests of his mother, the staunchly Catholic Beatrice of Portugal.

    The more central Tudor domains, however, remained orthodoxically Roman Catholic throughout the reigns of Henry and Lionel. It wasn’t until Edward’s only surviving child, his daughter Joan, married John of Monmouth’s son, George and became Queen of England, in 1578, that Reformed believers were openly allowed to worship as they liked. Fifteen-year-old Joan, a staunch Calvinist, scarred by the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre that had taken place in France five years earlier, insisted on freedom of worship being part of her marriage contract. George overrode his council’s protests on the matter, famously saying, “Normandy is worth more than Rome. Let us make no windows into My Lady’s soul.” Three years later, after the birth of their first son, Lionel, George would, in thanks for Joan’s safe passage through childbirth, make freedom of worship universal. Young Lionel would take the throne at just five years old, after disgruntled Catholics had succeeded on assassinating his father. Raised alongside his brother, Lord Henry, and his sisters the Princess Anne and Lady Joan, under a Regency headed by his mother, George was, as might be expected, England’s first Calvinist King. England is alone in the nations of Europe in having had its official state religion change with only minimal bloodshed. It is the purpose of this book to explain how and why this was able to be so.

    ______________ Graham Banworth, ‘“Make No Windows into My Lady’s Soul”: Religion in the Tudor Empire, 1500-1600
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    Epilogue VIII - The Dangerous Decades
  • “Looking at the latter half of the 16th Century, one might be forgiven for thinking the Tudor dynasty was cursed. Starting with the death of Katherine of Aragon in 1518, but gathering pace in the 1550s and 1560s, not a single one of the immediate royal family died of old age.

    Henry VIII was the first to go, falling victim to his old nemesis, the Sweat, in 1551. What appears to have been lupus killed Maria Tudor in 1558, and Dickon lost his battle with smallpox in October 1562. Like her namesake, Caitlin died in childbirth with her final child in 1554, while Marie died shooting the bridge in London in 1553.

    Surprisingly, given her fragile health as a child, Jacquetta was to outlive all but one of her older siblings, dying in 1570 in a fire at Syon Abbey.

    Lionel’s son and heir, John, died in the same outbreak of smallpox as his uncle Richard, while Lionel himself died after a riding accident in 1575.

    With all of that in mind, it is almost astonishing that a Tudor still sits on the throne at Whitehall today, particularly when you consider that Lionel’s eventual successor as King, King George I, was assassinated by disgruntled Catholics for his tolerance of Calvinism and other nonconformist beliefs in 1586.

    This book will trace each of the fatal occurrences in turn, using new scholarship and fresh readings of primary source material to try to make sense of those dangerous decades: the thirty years when Death seemed to stalk anyone with the surname Tudor and mark them for his own.”

    ____________________‘“The Gall In The Crown”: The Deaths and Final Illnesses of the House of Tudor, 1550-1586’ by Robert Greenhaigh​
    Boleyn Family Tree
  • Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Ormonde m 1499 Lady Elizabeth Howard (a)

    1a) Mary 'Marie' Boleyn, Queen of England (1500-1553) m 1520 Henry VIII, King of England (1491-1551)​
    • Lionel, Prince of Wales (1521 -1575) m 1535 Christina of Denmark
    - John, Duke of Monmouth (b. 1536)
    - Lord William Tudor (b.1538)
    - Lady Mary Tudor (b 1541)
    - Stillborn girl (b.1543)
    - Lord Henry Tudor (b.1545)
    • William, Duke of York and Normandy (1522)
    • Richard, Duke of York and Normandy (1524-1562) m 1538 Beatrice of Portugal
    - Miscarriage (1542)
    - Lord Edward Tudor (b.1544)
    By Anne Cecil:
    - Cateline FitzYork (b.1543)
    By 'Minette':
    - Henry FitzYork (b.1546)
    - Madeleine FitzYork (b.1549)
    - Francis FitzYork (b.1551)
    • Katharine, Queen of Scotland (1524-1554) m 1538 James V of Scotland
    • Jacquetta (1524-1570)
    2a) Thomas Boleyn (1501-1508)

    3a) Stillborn daughter (b.1502)

    4a) Henry Boleyn (1503-1517)

    5a) George Boleyn, Earl of Pembroke (b.1504) m 1521 Lady Katherine 'Kathy' Stafford
    • Edmund Boleyn, Viscount Branksome and Rochford (b.1522) m 1539 Lady Grace Fitzroy, Baroness of Upper Ossory (b. 1523)
    - 12 children, nine surviving
    • Miscarriage (1524)
    • Miscarriage (1525)
    • Miscarriage (1526)
    • Lady Matilda Boleyn (b.1527) m 1546 Henry Stanley, 4th Earl of Derby (b.1529)
    - 6 Surviving children, including Sir Edmund Stanley
    6a) Catherine Boleyn (1506-1510)

    7a) Anne Boleyn, Marchioness of Lancaster (b. 1507) m 1523 Henry Percy, Marquis of Lancaster
    • Lady Margaret Percy (b.1523) m 1536 Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset (b.1520)
    • Lady Philippa Percy (b. 1525) m 1541 Henry Brandon, Earl of Lincoln (b. 1523)
    • Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland (b.1526) m 1541 Katheryn Howard (b.1521)
    • Lord James Percy (b.1528)
    • Lady Elizabeth Percy (b.1532)
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    Tudor Family Tree
  • Henry VIII (1491-1551) m 1509 Katherine of Aragon (1485-1518) (a) m 1520 Mary 'Marie' Boleyn (1500-1553) (b) exm. Elizabeth 'Bessie' Blount (c) and Honour Fitzgerald (d)

    1a) Princess Mary, Marchioness of Clarence (1516-1558) m 1533 Henri, Dauphin of France (marriage annulled 1550)
    • Jeanne, Fille de France (b. 1537)
    • Diane, Fille de France (b.1542)
    • Louise, Fille de France (b.1546)
    2c) Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset (b.1520) m 1536 Lady Margaret 'Maggie' Percy (b.1523)
    • Henry Fitzroy (b.1537)
    • Arthur Fitzroy (b.1538)
    • Charles Fitzroy (1540-1542)
    • Christina Fitzroy (b.1540)
    • Miscarriage (1542)
    • Blanche Fitzroy (b.1543)
    • Charles Fitzroy (b.1546)
    • Alice Fitzroy (b.1548)
    • Miscarriage (1549)
    • Eleanor Fitzroy (1551)
    • Gilbert Fitzroy (b.1551)

    3b) Lionel, Prince of Wales (1521-1575) m 1535 Christina of Denmark (b.1521)
    • John, Duke of Monmouth (1536 -1562) m 1555 Magdalena of Austria (b.1532)
    - Lady Christina Tudor of Monmouth (b.1557)
    - Lord George Tudor of Monmouth (1559-1586) m 1578 Joan of York and Normandy (b.1563)
    Anne Tudor (b.1579)
    Lionel, Prince of Wales (b.1581)
    Henry, Duke of York and Normandy (b.1582)
    Christina Tudor (1583-1584)
    Miscarriage (1584)
    Joan Tudor (b.1586)
    - Lady Elizabeth Tudor of Monmouth (b.1563)
    • Lord William Tudor (b.1538)
    • Lady Mary Tudor (b.1541) m 1554 João Manuel of Portugal (b.1537)
    • Stillborn girl (b.1543)
    • Lord Henry Tudor (b.1545)
    4b) William, Duke of York and Normandy (1522)

    5d) Lady Grace Fitzroy, Baroness of Upper Ossory (b.1523) m 1539 Edmund Boleyn, Viscount Rochford and Branksome (b.1522)
    • 12 children, nine surviving
    6b) Richard, Duke of York and Normandy (1524-1562) m 1538 Beatrice of Portugal (b.1521)
    • Miscarriage (1542)
    • Cateline FitzYork (b.1543)(by Anne Cecil)
    • Edward, Duke of York and Normandy (b. 1544) m 1560 Anna of Saxony (b.1544)
      - Joan of York and Normandy (b.1563)
    • Henry FitzYork, Captain of Calais(b.1546) (by 'Minette')
    • Madeleine FitzYork (b.1549)(by 'Minette') m.1567 George 4th Earl Hastings(b.1552)
    • Francis FitzYork(b.1551) (by 'Minette')

    7b) Katharine, Queen of Scotland (1524-1554) m 1538 James V of Scotland (b.1512)
    • James, Duke of Rothesay (1539-1544)
    • Marjorie (b.1540)
    • Mary (b.1542)
    • Alexander, Duke of Rothesay (b.1543)
    • Arabella (1545-1547)
    • Miscarriage (1547)
    • James, Duke of Ross (b.1548)
    • Stillborn daughter (1551)
    • Alice (b.1553)
    • Isobel (b.1554)

    8b) Jacquetta (1524-1570)

    Notes: Joan isn't Edward's only child by Anna of Saxony, just his only surviving child. I imagined Joao Manuel of Portugal living until 1556/1557 ITTL, just long enough to have a child by Mary of Monmouth.
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    Joy's Legacy Cast (2013) - I
  • "The Year is 1535. Fresh from his triumphs in Scandinavia, Henry VIII returns home... to find that Lionel, Prince of Wales has chosen his own bride. 'Joy's Legacy', the masterful follow-up to 'Time of Grace', opens on the scandal that rocked 16th-Century Europe and very nearly destroyed the longest-running alliance in the world. Lionel, Dickon, Maria and Caitlin, as Henry's four eldest were affectionately known, were Tudors to their core, and this show seeks to emphasis that. Not a single key moment of their lives is left out, from Lionel's determination to marry Christina of Denmark to Maria's fiery defence of her relationship with Barnaby Fitzpatrick, barely a year before she died. We'll never know exactly how the key players of the period felt...but I'd venture to suggest that this costume drama comes pretty close. Not to be missed!" - Review of 'Joy's Legacy' on Frock Flicks, May 2013

    Henry VIII - Sam Heughan

    Henry VIII.jpg

    Queen Marie - Carey Mulligan

    Queen Marie.jpg

    Lionel, Prince of Wales - Rupert Grint


    Christina of Denmark - Eliza Bennett

    Christina of Denmark.jpg

    Princess Mary - Sarah Bolger

    Maria as Dauphine.jpg

    Henri of France - Timothy Innes

    Henri Valois.jpg

    Dickon of York and Normandy - William Moseley

    Dickon of York and Normandy.jpg

    Beatrice of Portugal - Bruna Marquezine

    Beatrice, Duchess of York and Normandy.jpg

    Anne Cecil - Anna Popplewell

    Anne Cecil.png

    Minette - Amelia Gethin

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    Joy's Legacy Cast (2013) - II
  • Caitlin, Queen of Scotland - Eloise Smyth


    James V of Scotland - Ewan McGregor

    James V.jpg

    Jacquetta - Tamzin Merchant


    Hal Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset - Alexander Ludwig

    Hal Fitzroy.jpg

    Maggie Percy, Duchess of Richmond and Somerset- Katie McGrath

    Maggie Percy.jpg

    Grace Fitzroy, Baroness of Upper Ossory - Amber Marshall

    Grace Fitzroy.jpg

    Edmund Boleyn - Thomas Brodie-Sangster

    Edmund Boleyn.jpg

    Diane de Poitiers - Helen McCrory

    Diane de Poiters.jpg
    Joy's Legacy Cast (2013) - III
  • Barnaby Fitzpatrick - Devon Murray

    Barnaby Fitzpatrick.jpg

    Meg Douglas, Countess Hastings - Jessica Brown Findlay

    Grown-Up Meg Douglas.jpg

    Siobhan Fitzgerald - Millie Brady

    Siobhan Fitzgerald.jpg
    Bibliography - The Books Every TTL Scholar of the Period Must Have
  • ‘“The Thrice-Titled Dynasty”: The Boleyns of Ormonde, Pembroke and Upper Ossory’ by Rachel Wincraft

    ‘“Make No Windows into My Lady’s Soul”: Religion in the Tudor Empire, 1500-1600’ by Graham Banworth

    ‘Christina: The Queen England Was Never Meant to Have’ by Sarah Rose

    ‘“The Fruitless Pomegranate”: Maria Tudor 1516-1558’ by Eoin Peniston

    ‘Taking Root: The first Century of the Tudor dynasty: 1485-1575’ by Connor FitzSutton

    ‘“England's Second Conqueror”: A Life of Henry VIII, 1491-1551' by Amelia Morris

    ‘“Rosebuds of Normandy”: The Loves and Bastards of Richard of York and Normandy’ by Susanna Filrein

    ‘“The Gall In The Crown”: The Deaths and Final Illnesses of the House of Tudor, 1550-1586’ by Robert Greenhaigh

    ‘“Lions Rampant”: The Campaigns of Henry VIII, 1520-1540’ by Alexander Hickman