The Anglo-Saxon Social Model - The Expanded Universe

Abolished in the social reforms of the 1960s.
Interestly, the ban was only tightened in 1980, from 1917 till 1980, a Priest could hold political office with the pomission of his Bishop. Therefore I could see the Pope allowing Catholic Bishops to take lords spritual seats in the House of Lords if the ban was never tightened.
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Interestly, the ban was only tightened in 1980, from 1917 till 1980, a Priest could hold political office with the pomission of his Bishop. Therefore I could see the Pope allowing Catholic Bishops to take lords spritual seats in the House of Lords if the ban was never tightened.
I did not know that - how interesting. Let's say that the 1980 ban is butterflied away (I might do some more thinking about the circumstances that would happen - I've been meaning to revisit TTL's Papacy at some point soonish) and that the Catholic Lords Spiritual formally ask the the relevant authority for permission. Although who would the Archbishop of Westminster ask for permission in this case? Himself? The Nuncio? The Pope directly? I could see the asking of a foreign head of state might stir some residual anti-Catholicism but nothing too grand.
 
Although who would the Archbishop of Westminster ask for permission in this case? Himself? The Nuncio? The Pope directly?
How does it work in Andorra, where the Bishop of Urgell is one of the Co-Princes (along with the Head of State of France)?
That would be the most comparable situation I can think of.

I suspect that a papal dispensation or other papal bull might need to be issued, not that I know at all anything about those.
 
How does it work in Andorra, where the Bishop of Urgell is one of the Co-Princes (along with the Head of State of France)?
That would be the most comparable situation I can think of.

I suspect that a papal dispensation or other papal bull might need to be issued, not that I know at all anything about those.
That's down to convention - I suspect that it's been that way for so long that no one's bothered to change it.
 
View attachment 536328

The Royal Navy is the Commonwealth’s naval warfare force. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the Tudor maritime reforms of early 16th century England (although warships were used by the various English, Scottish and Irish kings beforehand). The oldest of the Commonwealth’s armed services, it is known as the Senior Service. From the middle decades of the 17th century, and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch and French navies for maritime supremacy. From the mid-18th century onwards, it has been the most powerful navy in the world. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the preeminent world power during the 19th and 20th centuries, remaining the world’s foremost blue-water navy into the 21st. Due to its historical prominence, it is common, even in non-Commonwealth circles, to refer to it as the “Royal Navy” without qualification.

Unusually amongst global military institutions, the Royal Navy is a single fighting force which is shared amongst the sixteen member states of the Commonwealth. In 1906, as part of the Asquith Reforms, the fledgling Australian and Canadian navies were scrapped and control of the Empire’s naval capacity was centralised under the Imperial Chiefs of Staff (renamed the Commonwealth Chiefs of Staff in 1953). Following British entry into the Great War in 1917, the Royal Navy proved key to the ultimate defeat of the Central Powers, winning a decisive victory over the Imperial German Navy at the Battle of Jutland in October 1917. Foreseeing the increased obsolescence of battleships, during the interwar years the Royal Navy successfully transitioned to a carrier-based force, with several aircraft carriers being commissioned as part of the “People’s Home” program. It played a central role in the defeat of the Axis Powers in the World War, winning notable victories over the Spanish and Italian navies in the Mediterranean and the Chinese navy in the Pacific.

Following the World War, the Royal Navy transformed again into a power projection and anti-submarine force, active around the world. Its primary combat doctrine remains based around carrier fleets transporting advanced air and amphibious elements to deliver overwhelming firepower to combat zones. In the post war environment, it provided key logistics and fire-support capacity to conflicts such as the Malayan Emergency and the Third and Fourth Anglo-Boer Wars. It is the largest blue-water navy in the world in terms of the number of carriers (although the US Navy has a greater number of commissioned ships) with the ability to project force in a variety of theatres such as the Pacific, Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. It is also capable of engaging in forward deployments during peacetime, making it a frequent actor in non-military Commonwealth foreign policy.

The Royal Navy is part of the Commonwealth Armed Forces and its professional head is the First Sea Lord, who is an admiral and member of the Commonwealth Chiefs of Staff. The senior administrative body of the Royal Navy is based out of Portsmouth Station in the United Kingdom. Below Portsmouth Station, there are six ‘Fleet Stations’ around the world: Gibraltar Station, Singapore Station, Bermuda Station, Trincomalee Station, Stanley Station and Sydney Station. With the exception of Stanley Station, each Fleet Station is supplied with sufficient ships to maintain two carrier strike groups and remain (at least in theory) self-sufficient. The fleet at Stanley Station is different, being operated under a unique force-sharing agreement with the Argentinian government. It thus consists of a single carrier strike group, with the Argentinian Navy acting as a force-multiplier.

Portsmouth Station retains overall administrative competence over all of the Fleet Stations beneath it, as well as direct control over the 188 inactive or mothballed ships in the Royal Navy Fleet Reserve and the 169 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (which includes 23 container ships, 41 oilers and 36 brown-water patrol vessels). In addition to Portsmouth and the Fleet Stations, the Royal Navy maintains a network of 27 smaller bases around the Commonwealth and 14 naval bases in foreign countries around the world, all of which come under the direct authority of one Fleet Station. Divided between its Fleet Stations, the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines, including 12 aircraft carriers, 11 cruisers, 22 helicopter carriers, 22 destroyers, 55 frigates and 22 submarines.

As one of the earliest Commonwealth-wide institutions, the Royal Navy retains a significant public profile around the Commonwealth as a symbol of unity and of the Commonwealth’s global influence. The concept of ‘Navy families’ - where multiple generations of a single family serve - remains common, particularly in the United Kingdom, Ceylon and the Pacific Islands and naval vessels continue to play prominent parts in civic Commonwealth celebrations such as Commonwealth Day, the monarch’s Official Birthday and Queen Elizabeth II’s Golden and Diamond Jubilee celebrations.
Is the RAF organised similarly along a pan-Commomwealth basis? It would be interesting to know its capabilities and what hardware it used.
 
Baseball: MLB New
Major League Baseball (MLB) is an American professional baseball organization containing the oldest of the major professional sports leagues in North America. A total of 32 teams play in MLB: 8 teams in each of the National League (NL), American League (AL), Southern League (SL) and the Western League (WL). The four leagues were formed as separate legal entities in 1876, 1901, 1920 and 1960, respectively. The NL and AL have cooperated since 1903, with the SL joining that agreement in 1932. The WL has cooperated with the other three leagues since its foundation in 1960. From 1932 to 1968, the SL was known as the Negro League. All four leagues operated as legally separate entities until they merged into a single organization led by the commissioner of baseball in 2002.

Baseball’s first openly all-professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, were founded in 1869, although teams had secretly paid players for many years before that. The period before 1920 is known as the dead-ball era, during which players would rarely hit home runs. The sport survived an enforced break during the Great War and then a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series. It rose to popularity in the 1920s and survived potential downturns during the World War.

During the 1920s and 1930s, MLB was made up mostly of teams in the northeast of the country, where the sport originated. In the South, meanwhile, teams in the Negro Leagues predominated, attracting large crowds of mixed black and white spectators. Competition between the Negro Leagues and the NL and AL for players led to the teams from the Negro National League joining MLB as the third league in 1932, which provided for an organized system of player trades between the three leagues.

In the 1950s, as commercial air travel became more common it became possible to include locations in the far west. Officials from Los Angeles attended the 1956 World Series with the intention of moving a team (rumoured to be Brooklyn Dodgers) to the West Coast. However, in response, MLB and various state governments instead collaborated on the creation of the WL, with seven new major league teams, who began playing in the 1960 season. The only East Coast franchise to relocate were the Philadelphia Athletics, who moved to become the San Francisco Athletics.

Today, MLB is composed of 32 teams: 30 in the United States, 1 in Canada and 1 in Cuba. Teams play 90 games each season, six against league rivals and two against every other team in MLB. The winner of each league advances to the postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series that dates to 1903.

Today, MLB is the most popular sports league in the United States, with 33% of Americans describing it as their favorite sport. It is particularly known for its popularity amongst African Americans and Latino Americans. The games of the World Series are amongst the biggest club sporting events in the world, with the individual games often accounting for many of the most watched television programs each year. As well as its popularity in the United States, baseball, and by extension MLB, is also the national sport of a number of other countries including Cuba, Mexico, Japan and Korea. MLB is the wealthiest professional sports league in the world by revenue.

A total of 28 teams have won the World Series since it began in 1903. The New York Yankees are the most successful team in the competition, with 12 titles. The most successful teams in the NL, AL, SL and WL are the Brooklyn Dodgers (31 pennants), New York Yankees (39 pennants), Kansas City Monarchs (24 pennants) and San Francisco Athletics (14 pennants, with a further 9 AL pennants while the Philadelphia Athletics), respectively.

Screenshot 2020-09-24 at 13.02.28.png
 
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