A pity there is no church called "ill". Winston would had loved it.
Interestly, the ban was only tightened in 1980, from 1917 till 1980, a Priest could hold political office with the pomission of his Bishop. Therefore I could see the Pope allowing Catholic Bishops to take lords spritual seats in the House of Lords if the ban was never tightened.Abolished in the social reforms of the 1960s.
I did not know that - how interesting. Let's say that the 1980 ban is butterflied away (I might do some more thinking about the circumstances that would happen - I've been meaning to revisit TTL's Papacy at some point soonish) and that the Catholic Lords Spiritual formally ask the the relevant authority for permission. Although who would the Archbishop of Westminster ask for permission in this case? Himself? The Nuncio? The Pope directly? I could see the asking of a foreign head of state might stir some residual anti-Catholicism but nothing too grand.Interestly, the ban was only tightened in 1980, from 1917 till 1980, a Priest could hold political office with the pomission of his Bishop. Therefore I could see the Pope allowing Catholic Bishops to take lords spritual seats in the House of Lords if the ban was never tightened.
How does it work in Andorra, where the Bishop of Urgell is one of the Co-Princes (along with the Head of State of France)?Although who would the Archbishop of Westminster ask for permission in this case? Himself? The Nuncio? The Pope directly?
That's down to convention - I suspect that it's been that way for so long that no one's bothered to change it.How does it work in Andorra, where the Bishop of Urgell is one of the Co-Princes (along with the Head of State of France)?
That would be the most comparable situation I can think of.
I suspect that a papal dispensation or other papal bull might need to be issued, not that I know at all anything about those.
Except, the Pope has no earthly superior - at least in theory. He's answerable to them upstairs, as it were.I mean by the same logic the pope would be breaking the rules too, since he is also a head of state.
Is the RAF organised similarly along a pan-Commomwealth basis? It would be interesting to know its capabilities and what hardware it used.View attachment 536328
The Royal Navy is the Commonwealth’s naval warfare force. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the Tudor maritime reforms of early 16th century England (although warships were used by the various English, Scottish and Irish kings beforehand). The oldest of the Commonwealth’s armed services, it is known as the Senior Service. From the middle decades of the 17th century, and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch and French navies for maritime supremacy. From the mid-18th century onwards, it has been the most powerful navy in the world. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the preeminent world power during the 19th and 20th centuries, remaining the world’s foremost blue-water navy into the 21st. Due to its historical prominence, it is common, even in non-Commonwealth circles, to refer to it as the “Royal Navy” without qualification.
Unusually amongst global military institutions, the Royal Navy is a single fighting force which is shared amongst the sixteen member states of the Commonwealth. In 1906, as part of the Asquith Reforms, the fledgling Australian and Canadian navies were scrapped and control of the Empire’s naval capacity was centralised under the Imperial Chiefs of Staff (renamed the Commonwealth Chiefs of Staff in 1953). Following British entry into the Great War in 1917, the Royal Navy proved key to the ultimate defeat of the Central Powers, winning a decisive victory over the Imperial German Navy at the Battle of Jutland in October 1917. Foreseeing the increased obsolescence of battleships, during the interwar years the Royal Navy successfully transitioned to a carrier-based force, with several aircraft carriers being commissioned as part of the “People’s Home” program. It played a central role in the defeat of the Axis Powers in the World War, winning notable victories over the Spanish and Italian navies in the Mediterranean and the Chinese navy in the Pacific.
Following the World War, the Royal Navy transformed again into a power projection and anti-submarine force, active around the world. Its primary combat doctrine remains based around carrier fleets transporting advanced air and amphibious elements to deliver overwhelming firepower to combat zones. In the post war environment, it provided key logistics and fire-support capacity to conflicts such as the Malayan Emergency and the Third and Fourth Anglo-Boer Wars. It is the largest blue-water navy in the world in terms of the number of carriers (although the US Navy has a greater number of commissioned ships) with the ability to project force in a variety of theatres such as the Pacific, Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. It is also capable of engaging in forward deployments during peacetime, making it a frequent actor in non-military Commonwealth foreign policy.
The Royal Navy is part of the Commonwealth Armed Forces and its professional head is the First Sea Lord, who is an admiral and member of the Commonwealth Chiefs of Staff. The senior administrative body of the Royal Navy is based out of Portsmouth Station in the United Kingdom. Below Portsmouth Station, there are six ‘Fleet Stations’ around the world: Gibraltar Station, Singapore Station, Bermuda Station, Trincomalee Station, Stanley Station and Sydney Station. With the exception of Stanley Station, each Fleet Station is supplied with sufficient ships to maintain two carrier strike groups and remain (at least in theory) self-sufficient. The fleet at Stanley Station is different, being operated under a unique force-sharing agreement with the Argentinian government. It thus consists of a single carrier strike group, with the Argentinian Navy acting as a force-multiplier.
Portsmouth Station retains overall administrative competence over all of the Fleet Stations beneath it, as well as direct control over the 188 inactive or mothballed ships in the Royal Navy Fleet Reserve and the 169 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (which includes 23 container ships, 41 oilers and 36 brown-water patrol vessels). In addition to Portsmouth and the Fleet Stations, the Royal Navy maintains a network of 27 smaller bases around the Commonwealth and 14 naval bases in foreign countries around the world, all of which come under the direct authority of one Fleet Station. Divided between its Fleet Stations, the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines, including 12 aircraft carriers, 11 cruisers, 22 helicopter carriers, 22 destroyers, 55 frigates and 22 submarines.
As one of the earliest Commonwealth-wide institutions, the Royal Navy retains a significant public profile around the Commonwealth as a symbol of unity and of the Commonwealth’s global influence. The concept of ‘Navy families’ - where multiple generations of a single family serve - remains common, particularly in the United Kingdom, Ceylon and the Pacific Islands and naval vessels continue to play prominent parts in civic Commonwealth celebrations such as Commonwealth Day, the monarch’s Official Birthday and Queen Elizabeth II’s Golden and Diamond Jubilee celebrations.