Rebirth of an Empire "O Renascimento de um Império" v2.0

Lusitania

Donor
Isn't there a Treaty between Dutch and Portuguese to end the conflict?
They are all part of the same call for peace across separate regions.
Yes like iOTL the peace process called Paris Treaty of 1784 was a multiparty negotiations between Britain, USA, Spain and France. In the TL we have two additional combatants the Dutch and the Portugal. At the peace negotiations Portugal will be negotiating with both French and Dutch. The French with Portuguese and British. The Dutch with the Portuguese and British while Spanish with British. Last but not least the Americans with the British.

Yah Portugal came off good from this war at the moment didn't take huge losses anymore but still had valuable experience from war and further professionalize their millitary and made oversea territories stronger hope they can make gains in peace treaty
That is going to be the tricky for there will be a whole host of countries including the British who do not want the Portuguese to get too big for its britches and others both zealous and angry at the Portuguese. But not impossible.

Is Brazil autonomous enough to be able to acquire territory on its own?
No, but any territory in South America would eventually become another province of Brazil.
But since each province has certain amount of autonomy and that means they do not speak as one voice. With the Southern provinces more supportive of Lisbon and empire while northern provinces are more hesitant since they closer to Europe.

Were these letters offers of submission to Portugal?
Yes the Dutch fleet had been defeated and needed a port to repair and get supplies. The Dutch commander chose the Portuguese instead of British in a political ploy to avoid British not only controlling all of Dutch Africa but its only fleet in the Area.

Why have I the impression this was the last official day of Dutch India having any importance (or even existence)?

After such defeat, how will the Dutch republic fare, whether internally (how many traders will be angry at the government losing their colonies) or externally (how will this affect the national standing)?
It happened iOTL but a bit later, so we see what if any the Dutch hold on and how it will affect the Dutch themselves.

An amazing story as always.
Naval captains should earn even a few minor noble titles, a reward worthy of restoring the Portuguese Empire.
On the other hand, I am interested in how Portugal will be seen internationally, especially Spain because both countries have a very similar culture, language and history (exploration and colonization). There will be blood in the Spanish government when Portugal rises from its decline unlike Spain.

PS: Your maps are great !!!
That's a good point, but i see Spain being far to divided by various factions to ever really rise above their problems.
First off Portuguese have been distinguishing themselves, politically, religiously, economically and militarily from the Spanish who are stuck in the old ways. The Portuguese are sort of transforming into a miniature Britain in some ways and in other ways into a unique country.. But you right Portuguese continued advances be it economically and militarily coupled with it change in Catholicism means it is both envied and reviled by many in Spain.
 
The Three-Years War (1780-1783) - American Revolution

Lusitania

Donor
The Three-Years War (1780-1783) (cont.)

The American Revolution


The Thirteen Colonies – No Taxation Without Representation

Your majesty, what happened there was not, at least principally, a matter of how heavy a tax it was, but that there was a tax at all.”
-Minister Castro to Prince Joseph II

Following the British Victory over the French in North America in 1763, Britain was left as the undisputed ruler of North America, but the war had left the British government close to bankruptcy. While the situation was quite optimistic, as the empire had gained extremely significant gains in the Seven Years War, Britain now faced the delicate task of pacifying its new French-Canadian subjects as well as the many American Indian tribes who had supported France. George III's Proclamation of 1763, which forbade white settlement beyond the crest of the Appalachians, was intended to appease the latter but led to considerable outrage in the Thirteen Colonies, whose inhabitants were eager to acquire native lands.

In 1760, British colonists in the North American coast were proud citizens of George III; they were free, brave, victorious and hopeful for the future as part of the greatest empire in Europe and could not wait to grow in their separate states as strong, loyal subjects from Boston to Charlestown. As Catherine the Great decapitated critics in Russia, as Spaniards imposed inquisition on its own people and as French were, well,… French, the men and women of the Thirteen Colonies could raise their chest high at the thought of raising the flag of Great Britain on the shores of New York, Philadelphia and Virginia, for they could pass their own laws, collect their own taxes and pay their dues to London by just making commerce.

It could then be said, that, for all intents, the Thirteen Colonies were a true model of enthusiastic colonial loyalty.

The costs of maintaining a strong British troop presence in North American to protect the colonies from possible French or Spanish aggression, however, was high, especially with all other concerns the empire had in mind, and the British government wanted the colonist to shoulder the costs temporarily. Starting in 1764, the British parliament in London passed several bills to finance the stationing of British troops in North America namely the Currency Act and the Stamp Act.

The Stamp Act, however, was a truly ridiculous measure; it taxed the most insignificant everyday things, like card decks, as it targeted stamped paper, causing it to be annoying, hard to enforce and, most important of all, an overreach of British parliament, not to mention it would affect lawyers and college students, who had the intelligence and presence to argue against it. Traditionally, the colonists understood themselves to be true judges of how to tax the territories and accepted the situation of having no representation in parliament because parliament, to all effects, could not impose law on them. The Stamp Act, however, was decided by the MPs without consulting, without consent and without sense.

The currency was also affected, as the colonies employed a paper system. There was also strange provisions regarding court documents and ecclesiastic papers that resurrected fears in the colonists, many who had settled there to flee religious persecution in Europe, that religious law would be imposed.

Benjamin Franklin, present in London at the time, tried to call parliamentary attention to the idiocy of the taxes and argued for its repeal. The British colonists were more vocal and objected to the new taxes for the most part because they were not represented in Parliament and had no say in the imposition of taxes. The peaceful slogan ‘No Taxation without Representation’ was born. Samuel Adams also opposed the act, citing how it created an opening for taxation slippery slope and how it affected the stature of colonists in society.

Even merchants from England itself opposed the tax as it affected their trade. In 1765 the first organized group opposed to British imposing taxes on the colonies without representation and to protect the rights of colonists, the Sons of Liberty. They organized public demonstrations, boycotts of British goods, violence and threats of violence to make enforcement of British tax laws were unenforceable. By the end of the year only North Carolina and Georgia had refrained from protest.


Boston Protest against the Stamp Act

The Parliament at Westminster, naturally but politically erroneously, saw itself as the rightful lawmaking authority throughout all British possessions and thus entitled to pass laws and levy any taxes without colonial approval. While only a small minority of British population was eligible to elect representatives to Parliament there was no British living in the colonies that were eligible.[1]

In 1766, the new Rockingham government gave in to the colonist’s demands and repealed the Stamp Act, something met with rejoice in America but eventually boiling into mixed feelings for both sides. A strange precedent had, after all, been created; Parliament had betrayed the colonists by imposing the tax and then humbled London by repealing it.

The Start of Violence

As such the issue was not settled and in 1767 Parliament passed the Townshend Acts that placed duties on paper, glass and tea. Tensions in the colonies increased with many people opposing the new taxes. The British Parliament responded to the unrest by reactivating the Treason Act of 1543 which permitted subjects outside the realm to face trials for treason in England. Matters came to a head in 1770 when British soldiers fired into an angry mob throwing objects at the soldiers, 11 people were hit and 5 died in what soon became known as the Boston Massacre. When the soldiers were acquitted relationship between the Province of Massachusetts and Britain deteriorated.


The Boston Massacre

In Britain, Lord North government came to power in 1770 and withdrew all taxes except the tax on tea. This tax reprieve temporarily resolved the crisis and the boycott of British goods largely ceased, with only the more radical patriots continuing to agitate against British rule. In 1772 American patriots burned a British warship that had been vigorously enforcing unpopular trade regulations.

In 1772, when it became known that the Crown intended to pay fixed salaries to the governors and judges in Massachusetts rather than the colonial assembly, patriots set about creating new Committees of Correspondence, which linked Patriots in all 13 colonies and eventually provided the framework for a rebel government. Throughout the Thirteen Colonies, over 7000 patriots served at the colonial and local level on "Committees of Correspondence", which comprised most of the leadership in their respective communities. The committees became the leaders of the American resistance to British actions, and largely determined the resistance effort at the state and local level. When the First Continental Congress decided to boycott British products, the colonial and local Committees took charge, examining merchant records and publishing the names of merchants who attempted to defy the boycott by importing British goods. British loyalists were not only excluded but in many ways blacklisted.


The British government responded by passing several Acts which came to be known as the Intolerable Acts, which further darkened colonial opinion towards the British. They consisted of four laws enacted by the British parliament: the Massachusetts Government Act, the Administration of Justice Act, the Boston Port Act, and the Quartering Act of 1774.

These acts were passed, once again, without consent or representation from the colonists, further feeding the impression in North American that Britain was purposely being tyrannical. In response, Massachusetts patriots issued the Suffolk Resolves and formed an alternative shadow government known as the "Provincial Congress" which began training militia outside British-occupied Boston.

In September 1774, the First Continental Congress convened, consisting of representatives from each of the colonies, to serve as a vehicle for deliberation and collective action. It was in this congress that the representatives of the thirteen colonies first met and where several prominent Founding Fathers, such as John Adams and George Washington, would work together or even meet for the first time. The Congress approved a plan to obey Parliament voluntarily but would resist all taxes in disguise, insisting on a peaceful, orderly manner to protest against the situation. Congress called for a boycott beginning on 1 December 1774 of all British goods; it was enforced by new committees authorized by the Congress.

Unfortunately, the creation of this unrecognized congress and its unauthorized agreement passing was seen by the English parliament, and even George III himself, as further signs of upcoming treason.


The tension between British parliament and the American colonists continued to grow with the passing of the Quebec Act of 1774 which extended Quebec's boundaries to the Ohio River, shutting out the claims of the Thirteen Colonies. It was intended to win over the loyalty of French Canadians, but also spurred resentment among American colonists. The act protected Catholic religion and French language, which enraged the Americans, but the Québécois remained appreciative and did not rebel. While in America the colonist ignored new laws from London and instead busied themselves with drilling militia and organizing for war, the British retaliated by confining all trade of the New England colonies to Britain and excluding them from the Newfoundland fisheries[2].
[1] Prior to British Parliament reforms in 1832, British Parliament members represented boroughs and the number of electors in these boroughs varied widely from a dozen to up to 12,000. In many of these boroughs the selection of the members was in fact controlled by powerful patrons. The qualification to vote also varied from owning land to living in home with hearth sufficient to boil a pot.

[2] In 1772, though contacts in the Portuguese communities of Rhode Island and Massachusetts, American merchants attempted to enlist the Portuguese Minister of Agriculture and Health, Aaron Lopez, to help the American’s cause. Aaron Lopez refused both personally and on behalf of Portuguese government to help the Americans but discreetly provided several businessmen names. Over the next several years several warehouses on the Azores islands were used by both Portuguese and American smugglers as headquarters for smuggling Portuguese manufactured goods into America. Initial British demands that Portuguese government put a stop to the smuggling was not acted on due to government preoccupation with the religious and political situation in Portugal at time (see Order of Christ Conspiracy) and Portugal’s own combat against British smuggling to Brazil. Only after the Political situation resolved and as part of the Portuguese-British negotiations regarding the betrothal of King George III eldest daughter to King Joseph II did the Portuguese move and close down the warehouses in the Azores.



Note:
We are providing the readers with a summary of the American Revolution due to its impact on both the Portuguese colonial and empire attitude but more importantly it led to Portuguese involvement in the 3 year war. Provided the young king with a British princess as bride and queen. Cemented Portugal's position as an ascending Empire and one continually aligned with Britain. But as we have seen one that was left largely on its own to defend itself against two major European powers.

The American Revolution and subsequent Declaration of Independence is presented as informative story and while all major points and battles are mentioned we are not going into great detail as we have Portugal's own battles. The American revolution and Declaration of Independence happen pretty much as ITOL. As seen in this section the only big difference is that the availability of Portuguese manufacturing albeit smaller than Britain's did provide the Americans with an alternative source. Questions/Comments

Please return on August 23 as we post the concluding post of the "
The Three-Years War (1780 -1784)" titled "Declaration of Independence".
 
The Three-Years War (1780-1783) (cont.)

The American Revolution





The Thirteen Colonies – No Taxation Without Representation


Your majesty, what happened there was not, at least principally, a matter of how heavy a tax it was, but that there was a tax at all.”
-Minister Castro to Prince Joseph II

Following the British victory over the French in North America in 1763, Britain was left as the undisputed ruler of North America, but the war had left the British government close to bankruptcy. While the situation was quite optimistic, as the empire had made extremely significant gains in the Seven Years War, Britain now faced the delicate task of pacifying its new French-Canadian subjects, as well as the many American Indian tribes who had supported France. George III's Proclamation of 1763, which forbade white settlement beyond the crest of the Appalachians, was intended to appease the latter but had led to considerable outrage in the Thirteen Colonies, whose inhabitants were eager to acquire native lands.

In 1760, British colonists in the North American coast were proud citizens of George III; they were free, brave, victorious and hopeful for the future as part of the greatest empire in Europe and could not wait to grow in their separate states as strong, loyal subjects from Boston to Charlestown. As Catherine the Great decapitated critics in Russia, as Spaniards imposed inquisition on its own people and as French were, well,… French, the men and women of the Thirteen Colonies could be proud of the thought of raising the flag of Great Britain on the shores of New York, Philadelphia and Virginia, for they could pass their own laws, collect their own taxes, and pay their dues to London by just making commerce.

It could then be said, that, for all intents, the Thirteen Colonies were a true model of enthusiastic colonial loyalty.

The costs of maintaining a strong British troop presence in North American to protect the colonies from possible French or Spanish aggression, however, was high, especially with all other concerns the empire had in mind, and the British government wanted the colonist to shoulder the costs temporarily. Starting in 1764, the British parliament in London passed several bills to finance the stationing of British troops in North America namely the Currency Act and the Stamp Act.

The Stamp Act, however, was a truly ridiculous measure; it taxed the most insignificant everyday things, like card decks, as it targeted stamped paper, causing it to be annoying, hard to enforce and, most important of all, an overreach of the British parliament, not to mention it would affect lawyers and college students, who had the intelligence and presence of mind to argue against it. Traditionally, the colonists understood themselves to be the true judges of how to tax the territories and accepted the situation of having no representation in Parliament because Parliament, to all effects, could not impose law on them. The Stamp Act, however, was decided by the MPs without consultation, without consent, and without sense.

The currency was also affected, as the colonies employed a paper system. There was also strange provisions regarding court documents and ecclesiastic papers that resurrected fears in the colonists, many who had settled there to flee religious persecution in Europe, that religious law would be imposed.

Benjamin Franklin, present in London at the time, tried to call parliamentary attention to the idiocy of the taxes and argued for its repeal. The British colonists were more vocal and objected to the new taxes for the most part because they were not represented in Parliament and had no say in the imposition of taxes. The peaceful slogan ‘No Taxation without Representation’ was born. Samuel Adams also opposed the act, citing how it created an opening for a taxation slippery slope, and how it affected the stature of colonists in society.

Even merchants from England itself opposed the tax as it affected their trade. In 1765 saw the beginning of the first organized group opposed to Parliament imposing taxes on the colonies without representation and to protect the rights of colonists, the Sons of Liberty. They organized public demonstrations, boycotts of British goods, violence and threats of violence to make enforcement of British tax laws were unenforceable. By the end of the year, only North Carolina and Georgia had refrained from protests.



Boston Protest against the Stamp Act

The Parliament at Westminster, naturally but politically erroneously, saw itself as the rightful lawmaking authority throughout all British possessions and thus entitled to pass laws and levy any taxes without colonial approval. While only a small minority of the British population was eligible to elect representatives to Parliament, there were no British people living in the colonies that were eligible.[1]

In 1766, the new Rockingham government gave in to the colonist’s demands and repealed the Stamp Act, something met with rejoice in America but eventually boiling into mixed feelings for both sides. A strange precedent had, after all, been created; Parliament had betrayed the colonists by imposing the tax and then humbled London by repealing it.

The Start of Violence

As such the issue was not settled, and in 1767 Parliament passed the Townshend Acts that placed duties on paper, glass and tea. Tensions in the colonies increased with many people opposing the new taxes. The British Parliament responded to the unrest by reactivating the Treason Act of 1543, which permitted subjects outside the realm to face trials for treason in England. Matters came to a head in 1770 when British soldiers fired into an angry mob throwing objects at the soldiers, 11 people were hit and 5 died in what soon became known as the Boston Massacre. When the soldiers were acquitted relationship between the Province of Massachusetts and Britain deteriorated.




The Boston Massacre

In Britain, Lord Norths government came to power in 1770 and withdrew all taxes on the American colonies except the tax on tea. This tax reprieve temporarily resolved the crisis and the boycott of British goods largely ceased, with only the more radical patriots continuing to agitate against British rule. In 1772 American patriots burned a British warship that had been vigorously enforcing unpopular trade regulations.

In 1772, when it became known that the Crown intended to pay fixed salaries to the governors and judges in Massachusetts rather than the colonial assembly, patriots set about creating new Committees of Correspondence, which linked Patriots in all 13 colonies and eventually provided the framework for a rebel government. Throughout the Thirteen Colonies, over 7000 patriots served at the colonial and local level on "Committees of Correspondence", which comprised most of the leadership in their respective communities. The committees became the leaders of the American resistance to British actions, and largely determined the resistance effort at the state and local level. When the First Continental Congress decided to boycott British products, the colonial and local Committees took charge, examining merchant records and publishing the names of merchants who attempted to defy the boycott by importing British goods. British loyalists were not only excluded but in many ways blacklisted.

The British government responded by passing several Acts which soon became known as the Intolerable Acts, which further degrading colonial opinion towards the British. They consisted of four laws enacted by the British parliament: the Massachusetts Government Act, the Administration of Justice Act, the Boston Port Act, and the Quartering Act of 1774.

These acts were passed, once again, without consent or representation from the colonists, further feeding the impression in North American that Britain was purposely becoming tyrannical. In response, Massachusetts Patriots issued the Suffolk Resolves and formed an alternative shadow government known as the "Provincial Congress", which began training militia outside British-occupied Boston.
In September 1774, the First Continental Congress convened, consisting of representatives from each of the colonies, to serve as a vehicle for deliberation and collective action. It was in this congress that the representatives of the thirteen colonies first met and where several prominent Founding Fathers, such as John Adams and George Washington, would work together or even meet for the first time. The Congress approved a plan to obey Parliament voluntarily but would resist all taxes in disguise, insisting on a peaceful, orderly manner to protest against the situation. Congress called for a boycott beginning on 1 December 1774 of all British goods; it was enforced by new committees authorized by the Congress.

Unfortunately, the creation of this unrecognized congress and its unauthorized agreement passing was seen by the English parliament, and even George III himself, as further signs of upcoming treason.

The tension between British parliament and the American colonists continued to grow with the passing of the Quebec Act of 1774 which extended Quebec's boundaries to the Ohio River, shutting out the claims of the Thirteen Colonies. It was intended to win over the loyalty of French Canadians, but also spurred resentment among American colonists. The act protected Catholic religion and French language, which enraged the Americans, but the Québécois remained appreciative and did not rebel. While in America the colonist ignored new laws from London and instead busied themselves with drilling militia and organizing for war, the British retaliated by confining all trade of the New England colonies to Britain and excluding them from the Newfoundland fisheries[2].
[1] Prior to British Parliament reforms in 1832, British Members of Parliament represented boroughs and the number of electors in these boroughs varied widely, from a dozen to up to 12,000. In many of these boroughs the selection of the members was de facto controlled by powerful patrons. The qualifications to vote also varied from owning land to living in a home with a hearth sufficient to boil a pot.

[2] In 1772, though contacts in the Portuguese communities of Rhode Island and Massachusetts, American merchants attempted to enlist the Portuguese Minister of Agriculture and Health, Aaron Lopez, to help the American’s cause. Aaron Lopez refused both personally and on behalf of the Portuguese government to help the Americans but discreetly provided several businessmen names. Over the next several years several warehouses on the Azores islands were used by both Portuguese and American smugglers as headquarters for smuggling Portuguese manufactured goods into America. Initial British demands that Portuguese government put a stop to the smuggling was not acted on due to government preoccupation with the religious and political situation in Portugal at the time (see Order of Christ Conspiracy) and Portugal’s own combat against British smuggling to Brazil. It was only after the internal political situation resolved and as part of the Portuguese-British negotiations regarding the betrothal of the eldest daughter of King George III to King Joseph II when the Portuguese moved to close down the warehouses in the Azores.
 
I still hope that the Portuguese have the hegemony in the East Indies and take all the colonies to Holland. It's not as if the Dutch had mercy on the opposite, and the Dutch colonies were highly developed.
I wonder if the migration policy to force the Portuguese language and Catholicism will continue, because Portugal has enough Indian and African population to compensate for its lack of its own population. When you have more land in the East Indies, you can use the Malay and Polynesian population to colonize to a greater extent as well.

On the other hand, shouldn't the people of Portugal have a certain resentment against the British? They practically left them alone against two
great powers. Also, a very solid alliance with the British in the long term means Napoleon. It is a pity that Portugal is tied by marriage to England and has many commercial ties with North Germany. Although I still believe that Portugal should remain neutral as much as possible, let Napoleon bleed out and let the British finance most of the war, after all the Portuguese expanded their dominions recently and fought a war with two powers in support of the British, and not even the British should be able to use the Anglo - Portuguese alliance whenever they want, especially in offensive wars. Although because of the butterflies, Napoleon could lose sooner or perhaps never gain so much power in France.

PS: Your maps are great (all of them) !!
 
I kind of felt this post should have come before the Portuguese wars against the French and Dutch? Well it's not too big of a deal, I imagine the repercussions this will bring to Portugal is the same as OTL, separatists in Brazil.

Looking forward for more.
 
Oh boy, Portugal is going to have to act carefully in future trade in North America to avoid angering their British allies. I know many in the 13 colonies were fans of wine from Madeira so a British block of that trade route will be harmful for Madeira's economy.
 
I would like to know how liberals in Portugal felt about this revolution: sure, they are rebelling against their allies in London but most of their ideology can be related to theirs. Will they try to influe on diplomacy or more realistically inspire themselves for internal reforms?
 

Lusitania

Donor
I still hope that the Portuguese have the hegemony in the East Indies and take all the colonies to Holland. It's not as if the Dutch had mercy on the opposite, and the Dutch colonies were highly developed.
I wonder if the migration policy to force the Portuguese language and Catholicism will continue, because Portugal has enough Indian and African population to compensate for its lack of its own population. When you have more land in the East Indies, you can use the Malay and Polynesian population to colonize to a greater extent as well.

On the other hand, shouldn't the people of Portugal have a certain resentment against the British? They practically left them alone against two
great powers. Also, a very solid alliance with the British in the long term means Napoleon. It is a pity that Portugal is tied by marriage to England and has many commercial ties with North Germany. Although I still believe that Portugal should remain neutral as much as possible, let Napoleon bleed out and let the British finance most of the war, after all the Portuguese expanded their dominions recently and fought a war with two powers in support of the British, and not even the British should be able to use the Anglo - Portuguese alliance whenever they want, especially in offensive wars. Although because of the butterflies, Napoleon could lose sooner or perhaps never gain so much power in France.

PS: Your maps are great (all of them) !!
You bring forth several great points:
1) in regards to population Portugal as such has already enacted many policies to augment it’s smaller population. If you recall it is recruiting emigrants from several European countries. Secondly it is the first European country to outlaw slavery throughout the empire (although still allowed in some provinces in Brazil) and freed all mixed race people even in Brazil, lastly it is bringing Africans, Indians and East Asians to where there is economic need. Plus it is opening up the military, government jobs, trades to non Europeans. All of these actions were instituted to increase the manpower, allow economy to grow due increased manpower and demand and of course military power of the country beyond what it limited size could naturally account for.

As for what the country will be able to keep and integrate from these wars will be posted soon. I know everyone is dying to find out.

As for it’s relationship with Britain. It’s a two edged sword. It’s alliance with England/Britain had since 1640 provided Portugal with a certain amount of protection especially from France and especially Spain. Remember that during the 7 year war it was invaded by Spain and England provided us with the means to expel the vile and rotten Spanish from our lands. So while it may seem a burden is also a good thing. Iotl we were not spared Spanish and French attacks during the Napoleon wars due to our neutrality. Neutrality is a concept that at times has no value.

The alliance with Britain buys the country more time to continue growing and expanding without worry of British designs on our possessions. I think it will be to Portugal’s advantage in the negotiations. It has not suffered for it certainly has been able to handle its two opponents and gain territory So while it may seem like the alliance with Britain is a disadvantage it provides Portuguese with capital, influence and enhances its power projection.

As for butterflies we do not know of any that will influence the French Revolution and Napoleon rise to power. Rest we will leave to future posts.

I kind of felt this post should have come before the Portuguese wars against the French and Dutch? Well it's not too big of a deal, I imagine the repercussions this will bring to Portugal is the same as OTL, separatists in Brazil.

Looking forward for more.
Hm..., I see you point and at one point we only mentioned the ARW in passing as an intro to the 1984 peace treaty. So we added it to give readers a better understanding of the war, points raised by war and mindset of the people. Plus while war outcome may not have changed negotiations due to the involvement of the Portuguese bringing different dynamics might mean that Britain may not do a separate peace agreement with the rebels but its peace treaty with them may be part of overall agreement.

Oh boy, Portugal is going to have to act carefully in future trade in North America to avoid angering their British allies. I know many in the 13 colonies were fans of wine from Madeira so a British block of that trade route will be harmful for Madeira's economy.
You right. Portuguese and rebel smugglers used Azores as a great place for smuggling. So until Portugal ‘s deal with Britain the Portuguese economy and treasury benefited from trade. While the smugglers were bypassing British ships they were operating freely in Portuguese waters. The government collected duty on imported british goods and duties on smuggled Portuguese goods in return for Portuguese government looking the other way. The added Portuguese smuggling, British reversals on the field finally forced them to concede to Portuguese demands and it got the betrothal it wanted but the British were forced to concede on the smuggling issue into Brazil.

The Portuguese have in some ways
I would like to know how liberals in Portugal felt about this revolution: sure, they are rebelling against their allies in London but most of their ideology can be related to theirs. Will they try to influe on diplomacy or more realistically inspire themselves for internal reforms?
We have to remember that Portuguese have instituted several major political reforms of its own prior to the ARW. the Tagus Declaration and agreement was a ground breaking moment for country which together with the current administration provides stepping stone for liberal reforms. Plus Brazil being part of Portuguese Empire but autonomous means it has huge economic and political freedoms that 13 colonies could not do meaning that Lisbon cannot impose taxes on Brazil unless they consent. It is a partner in the empire with Brazilian merchants and businessmen being active throughout the empire. As we saw in the war with France and Holland the Brazilians are able to decide in their own how to respond to threats. Therefore Lisbon cannot simply expect them to support a military action that would be counter to Brazilian interests. This relationship will evolve and as we witness there is a varying amount of disagreement between the various Brazilian provinces.
 
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Lusitania

Donor
The Three-Years War (1780-1783) (conclusion)

Declaration of Independence & American Revolutionary War

In June 1775, hostilities broke out between British troops and colonial forces outside of Boston, where the British had docked and imposed martial law. While the British were victorious, they suffered massive loses and did not attempt to leave Boston again, leaving the remainder of Massachusetts outside the Boston city limits under the control of the patriots.

The remaining Loyalists in all Thirteen Colonies suddenly found themselves on the defensive with no protection from the British army. Patriots overthrew their existing governments, closed courts and drove British officials away. They had elected conventions and "legislatures" that existed outside any legal framework; new constitutions were drawn up in each state to supersede royal charters. They declared that they were states now, not colonies.

The First Continental Congress pleas to King George III for royal intervention on their behalf with Parliament resulted, instead, in the declaration by the King that the states were "in rebellion", and the members of Congress were traitors. Once again, American attempts at peaceful resolution through sense and appeal were being returned with further British harshness.

In March 1776, with George Washington as the commander of the Americans, the Continental Army forced the British to evacuate Boston. The revolutionaries were now in full control of all 13 colonies and were ready to declare independence. While there still were many Loyalists, they were no longer in control anywhere by July 1776, and all of the Royal officials had fled.


British evacuation of Boston

During 1776, the thirteen states either created new constitutions or simply took their existing royal charters and deleted all references to the crown. In May 1776, Congress voted to suppress all forms of crown authority, to be replaced by locally created authority. The new states were all committed to republicanism, with no inherited offices. It was left to each state to decide what form of government it would be governed by, how to select those who would craft the constitution and how the resulting document would be ratified. Some states’ constitution specified Bicameral legislatures and strong governors while others had strong unicameral legislatures and weak governors, but in all states the real power, including the right to elect the future President would still lay in the hands of a few selected. Suffrage also varied, some states required substantial property qualifications for voting and even more substantial requirements for elected positions while others had minimal property requirements for voting or holding office.

On 1 June 1776, a committee was created to draft a document explaining the justifications for separation from Britain. After securing enough votes for passage, independence was voted for on 2nd of July. The Declaration of Independence was slightly revised and unanimously adopted by the entire Congress on 4th of July, marking the formation of a new sovereign nation, which called itself the United States of America.

The Second Continental Congress approved a new constitution, the "Articles of Confederation," for ratification by the states on 15 November 1777, and immediately began operating under their terms. The Articles were formally ratified on 1 March 1781. At that point, the Continental Congress was dissolved and on the following day a new government of the United States in Congress Assembled took its place, with Samuel Huntington as presiding officer.

The British misunderstood the American patriots and their support amongst the colonists. Thinking that the Revolution was the work of a full few miscreants who had rallied an armed rabble to their cause, they expected that the revolutionaries would be intimidated. In their perspective, the vast majority of Americans, who were loyal but cowed by the terroristic tactics, would rise up, kick out the rebels, and restore loyal government in each colony, so the British government decided that by sending a large military and naval force they could overawe the Americans and force them to be loyal again.

The British, using their naval base at Halifax, Nova Scotia as a staging area, massed their troops and ships. They returned in force in July 1776, landing in New York and defeating Washington's Continental Army at the Battle of Brooklyn in August. After winning the Battle of Brooklyn, the British requested a meeting with representatives from Congress to negotiate an end to hostilities. But at the meeting it soon became apparent to the British they had underestimated American resolve and the British demands that the Declaration of Independence be retraction was refused, and negotiations ended. The British then quickly seized New York City and nearly captured Washington's army. They made New York their main political and military base of operations in North America, holding it until November 1783. The city became the destination for Loyalist refugees.

The British also took New Jersey, pushing the Continental Army into Pennsylvania. In a surprise attack in late December 1776 Washington crossed the Delaware River back into New Jersey and defeated Hessian and British armies at Trenton and Princeton, thereby regaining control of most of New Jersey. The victories gave an important boost to Patriots at a time when morale was flagging, and have become iconic events of the war.

In 1777, as part of a grand strategy to end the war, the British sent an invasion force from Canada to seal off New England, which the British perceived as the primary source of agitators. In a major case of incoordination, the British army in New York City went to Philadelphia which it captured from Washington. The invasion army under Burgoyne waited in vain for reinforcements from New York and became trapped in northern New York State. It surrendered after the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777.


The surrender at Saratoga turned the tide in American favor

The capture of a British army at Saratoga encouraged the French to formally enter the war in support of Congress, as Benjamin Franklin negotiated a permanent military alliance in early 1778, significantly becoming the first country to officially recognize the Declaration of Independence. On 6 February 1778, a Treaty of Amity and Commerce and a Treaty of Alliance were signed between the United States and France.[1] William Pitt spoke out in parliament urging Britain to make peace in America, and unite with America against France, while other British politicians who had previously sympathized with colonial grievances, now turned against the American rebels for allying with Britain's international rival and enemy.

In 1779 the Spanish also entered the war hoping to capture Gibraltar on the Iberian Peninsula and the return of Florida. In 1780 the British declared war on the Dutch for their open and blatant contravening of British blockade and selling of arms to the Americans. The Dutch became allies of the French, leaving the British Empire to fight a global with only Portugal as an ally[2]. The American theater thus became only one front in Britain's war. The British were forced to withdraw troops from continental America to reinforce the valuable sugar-producing Caribbean colonies, which were considered more important.

Because of the alliance with France and the deteriorating military situation, Sir Henry Clinton, the British commander, evacuated Philadelphia to reinforce New York City. General Washington attempted to intercept the retreating column, resulting in the Battle of Monmouth Court House, the last major battle fought in the north. After an inconclusive engagement, the British successfully retreated to New York City. The northern war subsequently became a stalemate, as the focus of attention shifted to the smaller southern theater.

The British strategy in America now concentrated on a campaign in the southern states. With fewer regular troops at their disposal, the British commanders saw the "southern strategy" as a more viable plan, as the south was perceived as being more strongly Loyalist, with a large population of recent immigrants as well as large numbers of slaves who might be captured or run away to join the British.

Beginning in late December 1778, the British captured Savannah and controlled the Georgia coastline. In 1780 they launched a fresh invasion and took Charleston as well. A significant victory at the Battle of Camden meant that royal forces soon controlled most of Georgia and South Carolina. The British set up a network of forts inland, hoping the Loyalists would rally to the flag.

Not enough Loyalists turned out, however, and the British had to fight their way north into North Carolina and Virginia, with a severely weakened army. Behind them much of the territory they had already captured dissolved into a chaotic guerrilla war, fought predominantly between bands of Loyalist and American militia, which negated many of the gains the British had previously made.

The British army under Cornwallis marched to Yorktown, Virginia where they expected to be rescued by a British fleet. The fleet showed up but so did a larger French fleet, so the British fleet after the Battle of the Chesapeake returned to New York for reinforcements, leaving Cornwallis trapped. In October 1781 under a combined siege by the French and Continental armies under Washington, the British surrendered their second invading army of the war.

Support for the conflict had never been strong in Britain, where many sympathized with the rebels, but now it reached a new low. Although King George III personally wanted to fight on, his supporters lost control of Parliament, and no further major land offensives were launched in the American Theater.

[1] France was worried that Great Britain would seek peace with United States or alliance and then attack France and seize its Caribbean colonies.

[2] The Portuguese were allied with Great Britain against the French and Dutch but were neutral against United States and Spain. Portuguese navy fought against French and Dutch navies and Portuguese Army and Marines fought the French in India and the Dutch in East Indies and Africa.



Note:
We are providing the readers with a summary of the American Revolution due to its impact on both the Portuguese colonial and empire attitude but more importantly it led to Portuguese involvement in the 3 year war. Provided the young king with a British princess as bride and queen. Cemented Portugal's position as an ascending Empire and one continually aligned with Britain. But as we have seen one that was left largely on its own to defend itself against two major European powers.

The American Revolution and subsequent Declaration of Independence is presented as informative story and while all major points and battles are mentioned we are not going into great detail as we have Portugal's own battles. The American revolution and Declaration of Independence happen pretty much as ITOL. As seen in this section the only big difference is that the availability of Portuguese manufacturing albeit smaller than Britain's did provide the Americans with an alternative source. Questions/Comments?

This concluded the three year war and all of the conflicts that the Portuguese were involved. Now to the dirty, disgusting and vile part the negotiations as diplomats and their special interests try to squeeze more that they deserve from the battlefield or weasel out of a tight predicament.

Please return on September 6 as we start posting the "
The Paris Treaty of 1783.
 
So as expected the US got free. Which in a long term is good for Portugal - a strong British ally is nice, but not an excessively strong one. And besides a lesser strong Britain means a less British India and a stronger Portoguese India.

In a way makes sense that a Portuguese wank has to be a British screw. Naturally, it all has to come after the Napoleonic wars...
 
In an earlier comment, I asked on the influence of the thinking of American Insurgents on Portuguese liberals; I should have asked on whether some British colonial officers would ask themselves if their policies were right, and contrast America to Brazil.
 
I really doubt that the British will change their colonial perspective, they are literally the definition of imperialism and while this allowed them to have the largest empire, it also prevented it from lasting.
In addition, the United Kingdom is much more powerful than Portugal and would never allow itself to become an "equal" in front of a colony, as the royal union / confederation that is Portugal - Brazil. On the other hand, the UK would only have the option of integrating / annexing their colonies, but they never showed any real interest in that, the Isle of Man is the biggest example. Furthermore, France kept Guyana while the UK couldn't keep Canada, Australia or New Zealand, and those colonies felt like ethnic, cultural and religious British (minus Quebec).
On the other hand, I doubt that other countries consider a real union / confederation like Portugal, even Portugal could be seen "weak" as a European power by having Brazil (and other colonies) as equals.
 

Lusitania

Donor
So as expected the US got free. Which in a long term is good for Portugal - a strong British ally is nice, but not an excessively strong one. And besides a lesser strong Britain means a less British India and a stronger Portoguese India.

In a way makes sense that a Portuguese wank has to be a British screw. Naturally, it all has to come after the Napoleonic wars...
I trying not to make it a british screw. All they need not be as successful. The Portuguese due to their position can increase their size and power considerably first and as such deprive other European countries the ability to expand later in those locations. There are a lot of players the Portuguese can take a little from and not screw anyone. Now if Portuguese take a big chunk of western India and prevent Britain from expanding in same area later when they did iotl I don’t consider that a british screw.

I also think that by 1783 the British are relatively same strength with few additions but don’t want to say those before posting treaty. The Portuguese gains have come mostly from other countries not even European ones. But you right the areas of Portuguese expansion will have a negative impact of size snd strength of British empire in the 19th century when they would of expanded into those areas.
In an earlier comment, I asked on the influence of the thinking of American Insurgents on Portuguese liberals; I should have asked on whether some British colonial officers would ask themselves if their policies were right, and contrast America to Brazil.
The British and rest of Europe did not look upon the Portuguese model with any enthusiasm on the contrary they had privately derided the Portuguese for their treatment of colonials and even worse non Europeans as equals. The Portuguese had a huge population disadvantage as compared to Britain or France. When we compare American colonies population vs British isles population % and Brazil vs Portugal we see American were much less than british while Brazil and Portugal had about same number. Therefore Portuguese came up with what was considered at time a radical idea that not only elevated Brazil to co-kingdom. This also required treating them as equals and giving both taxation and freedom within empire. Again totally radical for its time.
I really doubt that the British will change their colonial perspective, they are literally the definition of imperialism and while this allowed them to have the largest empire, it also prevented it from lasting.
In addition, the United Kingdom is much more powerful than Portugal and would never allow itself to become an "equal" in front of a colony, as the royal union / confederation that is Portugal - Brazil. On the other hand, the UK would only have the option of integrating / annexing their colonies, but they never showed any real interest in that, the Isle of Man is the biggest example. Furthermore, France kept Guyana while the UK couldn't keep Canada, Australia or New Zealand, and those colonies felt like ethnic, cultural and religious British (minus Quebec).
On the other hand, I doubt that other countries consider a real union / confederation like Portugal, even Portugal could be seen "weak" as a European power by having Brazil (and other colonies) as equals.
You articulated that as well as I could.
 
Portugal is in the unique position of being relatively neutral and starting their rearmament so late into the race and thus it must be allowing them to save money, resources and time by looking at what works from other nations and empires, i'm curious to know what the naval program and situation is during the action around India and what it will be afterwards, Will Portugal focus on a backbone of 86gun Lines with 2nd rate heavies as flagships? i assume she'll need a solid frigate design for anti-piracy, what about cannon any R&D on that front?
 

Lusitania

Donor
The Paris Treaty of 1783


The Peace of Paris of 1783 was the set of treaties which ended the American Revolutionary War, the global conflict of the Anglo-Luso Alliance against the Franco-Dutch interests and finally the war between Great Britain and Spain. On 3 September 1783, representatives of King George III of Great Britain signed a treaty in Paris with representatives of the United States of America. For the Portuguese, it would be the end of the Three-Years War, one of the most significant conflicts it faced prior to the Napoleonic period.

The representatives of King George III and representatives of King Joseph II of Portugal also signed treaties at Versailles with representatives of King Louis XVI of France and representatives of the States General of the Dutch Republic. Moreover, representatives of King George III of Great Britain also signed a treaty with representatives of King Charles III of Spain. Lastly, representatives of King George III signed accord with representatives of King Joseph II of transferring several conquered territories between them, settling disputes in India and Africa.

This treaty was made possible by a number of developments:

  • British House voting against further war with America on the 27 February 1782 after news of several surrenders and losses in the Thirteen Colonies, including Yorktown and Saratoga;
  • Loss of British Menorca to Spain and prospects of losing critical West Indian possessions to France;
  • Spanish acceptance to sign ceasefire with Britain due to protracted siege at Gibraltar and Portuguese threats to offer further diplomatic assistance to London;
  • Rapid melting of French finances, collapse of its Indian ambitions and ceasefire signed with Lisbon;
  • Countless losses in the Dutch Empire to both London and Lisbon, both in terms of actual territory as well as human and naval assets, which led to several unfavorable ceasefires across the globe;
  • An informal agreement between the lesser parties (mainly Amsterdam, Madrid and Lisbon) backed by Vergennes to limit British colonial expansions;
These appalling conditions set in stone that virtually no countries would come out as total victors, with only Spain and Portugal able to brag to have had a (technical) net positive. The British also entered the table with a lot of hesitation, having the refusal of American independence as a precondition for negotiation and banking on the possibility of French bankruptcy to see their end through.

This treaty would not only end the war but set the stage for the Napoleonic age twenty years later. The territorial changes were also integral for not only the balancing of power but the diplomatic gaming that would occur from then on that would be critical to the blossoming of some players and the degradation of others. It was also a settling of affairs from several resentful powers with British gains in the Seven-Years’ War.


The Negotiation Process
The mood in the table is one of complete conspiracy against England’s interests.
-Count of Barca, describing the negotiations in Paris

King Joseph II had been the main figure in Portugal interested in peace, even without securing gains first, so much that he had been criticized for his naiveté by jingoists and (in many people’s eyes shamefully) his wife, Queen Charlotte. Therefore, he was elated to take a proactive role in guiding the diplomatic corps. His motivations were not only the lambasting he suffered for his failed attempt at an early peace in the Nantes Negotiations but also a need to prove himself a valuable king, as this was the first opportunity for critical territorial gains for Portugal in a major European conflict since the War of Spanish Succession, where the country was denied territorial gain promises in Galicia and Extremadura in 1714.

The main ambassador chosen to lead Portuguese efforts in the peace negotiation was Count Anthony of Barca, a friend of the Duke of Lafões and an extraordinary ambassador to the court of Hague.



Count António of Barca
Born 14 May 1754
Died 21 July 1817
Scientist, Diplomat, Writer and Politician
Headed the Portuguese delegation in the peace of Paris[1]

Count Anthony had a number of challenges and objectives ahead of him:

  • Assure peace with all parties for Portugal, even if the overall conflict would not be resolved;
  • Demand financial compensations and the seizing of captured ships (mainly the captured French and Dutch ships) for the Portuguese Navy;
  • Protect the direct gains obtained in the war (such as the capture of Malacca and Cochin)
  • Secure the indirect gains, mainly the demarcation of the expanded Portuguese sphere of control in South East Asia, aka Greater Timor;
  • Placate the Dutch Empire and, if possible, even form an alliance with Amsterdam to prevent the re-spark of Luso-Dutch rivalries in the future;
Complicating the peace process was the fact that France, under its completely separate treaty of alliance with Spain, could not make peace without Spanish agreement; indeed, not without a guarantee that the British stronghold of Gibraltar, commanding the narrow entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean, would be handed over to its old Spaniards owners. Spanish and French forces had tried besieging Gibraltar for nearly three years without success, till September 1780 when a joint British and Portuguese naval force broke the naval siege and drove the French and Spanish navies off forcing them to retreat to French and Spanish ports.[2]

The Portuguese government waited in the wings hoping that peace would come. The Great Britain – Spanish war so far had not involved them, but they were weary of Spanish political situation. The two countries still had no diplomatic contact since the Order of Christ Conspiracy and Spanish Ambassador’s implication and subsequent murder by angry Portuguese mob. Portugal’s ambassador was still held in Madrid’s jail and King Joseph II’s uncharacteristically threatening letter was seen by the high court as a form of backstabbing by their Iberian siblings. The armies of both nations had also maintained a major standoff in all their common borders from Europe to South America.

Meanwhile, the Portuguese military actions against France and Dutch had ended but the navy continued to patrol the Atlantic Ocean for French and the odd Dutch ship. One particular advantage Portugal had in the negotiation process that would allow it to be proactive in offering peace terms was the fact that Lisbon was not engaged in North America at all; despite being on opposite sides, Portugal and the Thirteen Colonies had virtually not fought one another and had no common interests and disputes, thus alienating Lisbon from investment in the main artery of the conflict.


This would allow Lisbon to play a mediating role in issues between France, Spain and Britain in North America. On the French side, for example, they were seriously opposed to the Americans receiving access to the rich Newfoundland fishery and felt that any American fishing rights would negatively impact the French. In terms of the size and makeup of the United States, the French were also concerned about the American insistence on the Mississippi River as a western border. The Spanish also voiced its concerns since it would impact Spain's territories in Louisiana (New France) and the newly re-conquered West Florida). Both countries felt severely threatened if the American trend of economic growth based on land-grabs continued.

At a meeting with British Prime Minister Lord Shelburne, the Portuguese Ambassador provided the first suggestions and comments about Portugal being of the opinion that it was willing to trade several recently captured Dutch assets with the British and the British East India Company, a suggestion the Lord Shelburne was very receptive to, on the grounds that Portugal would be allowed to secure its own gains as well as an amicable relationship with the Dutch Empire.

A great risk all parties faced, however, was that the British would attempt to turn this loss into an overall repeat of the great expansions they made in the Seven Years War by pursuing an amicable trade relation with the US, so the Count of Barca aligned himself with French Foreign Affairs Minister Vergennes and his Ohio River border proposals to the North American theater, which not only limited US size by playing into British resentments but also put the two powers at odd with one another for the foreseeable future.

This, however, opposed the charters given to American colonists giving them right to expand westwards with total disregard to other nations and the European parties would have to oppose this vehemently if the growth of not only the US but Great Britain too was to be limited.


Finally, Lisbon took the unexpected stance of reaching out to Amsterdam. Arguing that provided its gains in South East Asia and India would not be contested under any circumstances and that all financial compensations be negotiated reasonably, the Count of Barca offered to argue in favor of protecting Dutch possessions in Africa from British grabbing and support the status quo in Amsterdam itself. This bought into Dutch fears of political instability and colonial collapse after the disaster of the war when the party that captured most of its Indian possessions and wrecked its Batavian Fleet was willing to be merciful and bolster bilateral relations.

The Dutch ambassador Matheus Lestevenon was the one that negotiated with Count Anthony of Barca the peace terms between Portugal and the Netherlands and, based on the events in the African Theater, he agreed with the Portuguese King and the Portuguese ambassador that the best course of action was to achieve a final power balance between the two in all theaters so they could begin an alliance in politics, trade and institutions as soon as possible to withstand the tide of rising Franco-British powers.



Matheus and Anthony award Admiral Struffen with a golden sword, thanking him for defending interests of both their nations

The New Globe

After a long, strenuous negotiation process, the Treaty of Paris and the Treaty of Versailles were signed in late 1783. The British lost their Thirteen Colonies, with only the US western border still up for debate between the powers. The territorial and asset exchanges were wide and far-reaching, not to mention they made use of intrigue, diplomatic card playing and stalling for each party to ensure gains were hoarded. While final peace between London and Amsterdam was not signed till 1784, by the end of the previous year the fighting was unlikely to continue at all.

Indian Theatre Terms

The Franco-Dutch forces in India has succeeded in stopping Anglo-Luso advances into Ceylon until 1782, but the pressing of British forces from Bengal ultimately impeded Admiral Struffen from stopping the Portuguese from capturing Dutch Malabar and besieging by sea Ceylon itself. French Indian possessions in India were safeguarded on the eastern coast and Struffen even succeeded in dealing humbling defeats to the British that allowed Paris to strengthen Pondicherry, but their foothold on the western coast was lost and the Comorin Cape was now virtually unpassable to them.

The British wished to greatly expand their Indian dominions, feeling their stake in this competition had partially caused their disagreements with the Americans to begin with and thus they should grab as much power as possible, but they lacked the actual territorial gains to go any further south than Pondicherry. The agreement between Hammershark and Struffen reached the zenith of its importance here as the French found themselves in a delicious position to shoot down British greed in India as well as prevent Pondicherry from being outflanked, something that motivated Vergennes to side with the Portuguese Indian interests back in Europe as a power balance move.

The Portuguese themselves were adamant about their demands to annex Dutch Malabar but showed complete willingness to negotiate with the Dutch the attenuation of their losses, especially at Ceylon and regarding their settlers. Vice-Admiral Rebelo guaranteed Governor Flack and the heads of the VOC that he would not harm a single Dutch citizen or steal a single florin provided the Dutch showed equal respect to Portuguese gains. Seeing this as a way to lose ground to an enemy far less threatening than the British, the Dutch hesitantly agreed to sign Portuguese demands.

The terms of the Paris Treaty for the Indian Theater were, thus, the following:

  • Portuguese Annexation of Dutch Malabar and French Mahé: All French and Dutch ports on the western Indian coast were to be annexed by Goa as part of their ‘Portos Velhos’ string of enclaves. These ports included mainly Mahé (Maia), Cochin and Quillon (Coulão);
  • British Annexation of Dutch Coromandel: All Dutch ports and factories north of Pondicherry were to be annexed, namely Pulicat and the Dutch factories already surrounded by British Coromandel;
  • Luso-Dutch Settler Agreement: Dutch settlers in Malabar were allowed safe, unmolested stay in Coulão and Cochin as well as religious freedom and citizen rights pending an acceptance to surrender significant arm caches, release any owned slave and an oath swear to the Portuguese crown, under penalty of having to move to Ceylon or other Dutch territories;
  • Luso-Dutch Financial Compensation: The Portuguese accepted to pay 3,000,000 livres upfront as compensation for Dutch territorial losses in India;
  • Luso-Dutch Indian Trade Agreement: Tariffs between Dutch and Portuguese possessions were to be half as low as with any other power in the area to prevent monopolization and monopoly-derived war aggression in the future and foment the development of the colonies;
  • French, Portuguese, Dutch and British Recognition of the Division of Control Spheres: The maritime claim gridlock set at Comorin Cape between the three major powers (Dutch, Portuguese and British) was recognized by all four powers as legitimate control spheres;

India post-Paris Treaty (1783)
Portugal was now the dominant maritime power in the western Indian coast
The Dutch were now confined to a compact colonial power over the Tamil and Sinhalese
The French were reduced solely to their Pondicherry enclave
The British were now the uncontested lords of the Bengal Bay

These changes reflected conquests made in the war almost directly and pitted Mysore almost entirely against Portugal now as the only European with possessions on their factual territory (although the southeastern coasts were also under Tipu’s domain), not to mention it was a significant achievement on Goa’s part. The new maritime situation dictated that the Dutch were the rightful masters of the Comorin Strait and Ceylon but also that their time as colonizers of the mainland was on the brink of the end, with Nagapatnam barely rescued in negotiations thanks to French naval efforts to protect it and Portuguese diplomatic support.

The Portuguese accepted to pay 3 million livres to the Dutch as compensation for their losses, but the wealth they would extract in commerce in the densely populated areas around Cochin and Coulão as well as the privileged position they now had in Southwestern India as a whole would pay back this amount several times over the years. Moreover, this payment paved the path to a peaceful assimilation of Dutch settlers, for a bilateral trade treaty and, ultimately, for the Luso-Dutch Alliance as a whole.

Desperate for on-site white settlers and collaborators that would help them keep a stance against the highly-populated area of the Travancore region, the Portuguese also accepted to sign a Settler agreement that would protect the life, integrity and right to resettle of the Dutch burghers living in Cochin and Coulão. Approximately 70% stayed to protect estate as well as avoid the hardship of travel and uprooting and 50% of those that left did so to protect slave possessions. These settlers that chose to stay also included some descendants of the Portuguese living in these outposts from before the Dutch annexations during the First Luso-Dutch War that raged one hundred to two hundred years earlier.

The same agreement was not extended to the French in Mahé (now called Maia based on the etymological name of the Maya river crossing it) who were expected to adapt to the Portuguese administration with no compensations or protection. While this enraged the French present at the fortified colony, it did not bother the Parisians who signed the treaty, who preferred to look at the whole matter as a necessary sacrifice to prevent greater losses to the British.

Speaking in geostrategic terms these acquisitions were also significant when paired with the recently signed Luso-Hyderabad Alliance against Mysore, who now perceived the Goans as a significant threat and provocation power not just to Mysoreans, but to Indians as a whole. It was safe to assume a Second Luso-Mysore War was on the way and making sure the Dutch would not be vengeful supporters of Tipu was critical.


South East Asia Terms

The South East Asia theater was the second main spectacle of operations for the Portuguese in the Three Years War and the Portuguese had optimal ground not only to demand significant territorial gains but also be justified in doing so, as they were attacked in violation of the Hague Treaty’s established spheres of control. It was in this theater that not only the casus belli had originated from, but where most of the bad blood between the Portuguese and the Dutch originated from and, last but not least, where the most important battles between the two powers occurred not only in this war but throughout history.

It was also the only theater where the Portuguese were on their own against the Dutch and, worse yet, fighting in their colonial headquarter territory (discounting the short involvement of the British in the early part of the war when they attempted to cross the Malaysia strait only to be intercepted by the Dutch Batavian Fleet). William ‘Piranha’ Távora and, to a much lesser degree, Coronel Lecor where the main military figures behind the unfolding of the events that led to the destruction or capture of a major arm of the VOC fleet and the capture of Kupang and Malacca (news of the later conquest was received with great furor both in Goa and Lisbon).

Further twisting the arm of the Dutch was the fact that the Luanda Squadron captured the political prisoners near St. Helena, namely the Muslim kings of Tidore and Ternate, in the African Theater, which allowed Portugal to press the charges that it now held the legitimate power over the islands.

The section of the Paris Treaty signed between the Count of Barca and Matheus Lestevenon included the following terms:

  • Portuguese Annexation of Malacca and Kupang: The important points of control of Malacca (now shortened to Maláca) and Kupang (now renamed Concordia both in honor of the historical Dutch fort and the agreement between the Portuguese and the Dutch) were now to be part of the Portuguese Empire;
  • Dutch Recognition of the Greater Timor Area: The capture of Concordia allowed the Portuguese to monitor the southern waters of Timor and, combined with Dili, control the influxes and outfluxes of the Timor island completely, forcing the Dutch to lift their claims to West Timor and Flores and allowed the line between the spheres of influence of the two powers to be moved west of Sumbawa and Sunda;
  • Portuguese Recognition of Dutch Expansion in Sumatra, Java, Makassar and Borneo: The Portuguese were forced to fully accept Dutch claims to the major landmasses of the archipelago, admitting it lacked the firepower and historical claims to contest these regions;
  • Luso-Dutch Uplift of the Spice Islands as an FTZ: This term obligated the Dutch to lift their direct control over the islands where the blunt amount of the fabled spices originated from (Tidore and Ternate) but also barred the Portuguese from establishing their own monopoly, forcing both powers to cooperate to reap the benefits of these territories as a Free Trade Zone;
  • Luso-Dutch Administrative Agreement: The two powers agreed to support each other’s administrations by removing restrictions in government positions between the two and adopting a free citizen flow policy in the area;


South East Asia Post-Paris-Treaty
Malaysia (Malaca) and ‘Greater Timor’ were now in Portuguese control
Luso-Dutch border was now marked between Sumbawa and Flores, Makassar and Flores and, finally, Malaysia and Sumatra
The Spice Islands monopoly was once again broken, and the territories were made part of a free trade zone

The Dutch East Indies Company was forced to abandon all interest in Timor and Flores as well as the surrounding small islands to the Portuguese, which was only a very small portion of their East Indies territory. The loss of Malacca was far more devastating, just as it had been for the Portuguese one hundred years earlier, as it surrendered control over the most important commercial strait in the East to Lisbon. Thanks to the establishment of Padang as a colony, however, the VOC maintained its own private route to Ceylon and stable trade links in the Dutch Empire network were maintained.

The Spice Islands of Tidore and Ternate were surrendered by both powers as a Free Trade Zone akin to Cabinda in the Congo Basin; this was not done to Portuguese liking, but rather as something to motivate the greater powers involved in the Three Years War (France and Britain) to accept Portuguese demands fully. This particular term was only possible due to the capture of the major political prisoners in the South Atlantic, which broke the Dutch throat-hold on the islands’ legitimate power systems, and the Portuguese had initially intended to use these prisoners as justification to annex Dutch trading posts in these islands as well.

Instead the two powers were forced to do what was best for European commerce in the area as a whole by establishing the Spice Island’ Free Trade Zone, destroying the possibility of monopoly over the critical goods for anyone. The share of the transportable goods that the powers were now able to steer commerce in depended entirely on the network of trading posts each empire could maintain towards these islands, rather than in the islands themselves, meaning the control over the areas surrounding the Spice Islands would dramatically increase in importance in the following decades. Another important factor was how safe each country could make its transportations, something that had also been tipped against Dutch favor after the very significant warship losses it suffered all over its empire during the war.

The situation immediately after the theater was that the Dutch maintained a much greater commerce capacity than anyone else (up to 71%), but the Portuguese now controlled a significant chunk (up to 18%) of the wealth share due to the proximity and increasingly efficient administration and dock power of Greater Timor, with the remaining powers, Europeans and not, accessing the market to export only a small, but gradually increasing share in the single digits.

This would lead to a gradual decrease in spice trade spices over the years on top of its already greatly diminished importance in the world and would cripple the VOC growth for decades to come for as long as the FTZ was respected, motivating further violent expansions in the archipelagos well into the 19th and 20th centuries.

The retaking of Malacca also shifted dynamics in two senses; the strait of Malaysia was now under Portuguese watch and, most importantly to its own empire, Portugal now had a major resting point between Goa, Dili and Macau. In the former, it was debatable how this affected the interests of local powers; it was the interpretation of London, Paris, Madrid, Batavia and even the local maritime and commercial powers such as Siam and China that the Portuguese lacked the firepower and numbers to be threatening choke-holders, so the annexation was not interpreted as dangerous. British merchants and ships, in fact, were allowed entrance and rest in Portuguese markets and ports freely ever since the redraft of the Methuen Agreement in 1764 so the territory transfer was nigh-insignificant to them, if not beneficial.

The importance of the latter sense, however, could not be overstated. Ever since the first loss of Malacca in 1641, the Portuguese had lacked a resting point between its Indian and its Asian ports, being forced to rely on very long voyages between Goa and the two possessions of Macau and Timor to relay any kind of new orders, reinforcements or news. The psychological impact alone in the administration was immense and the governors of Timor became confident that the colony would no longer stagnate so long as Malacca was held in their hands as a (relatively) nearby outpost of Christianity and Portuguese coin.


Finally, the reaction of the locals was almost uniform from Malacca to Tidore; their memories of resentment towards the Portuguese and their vassals made the news of the treaty bitter, but the latest century had given them their share of Dutch double-crossings as well, so it was now pretty clear to all native powers that the Europeans had no intentions to help the South East Asian kingdoms. The sole exception to this were the Tidore and Ternate kings who, despite holding some of the fiercest resentments towards the Lusitanians, were thankful for the commercial liberation of their island as well as their return home from Dutch imprisonment.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

[1] iOTL Queen Maria’s intrigue against her enemy Dom Rodrigo Coutinho impeded Barca’s peace treaty with France from being ratified for a while.

[2] iOTL while the naval siege had been broken the Spanish were still unwilling to negotiate and in July of 1782 attempted another assault on Gibraltar resulting in over 10,000 casualties but again was unsuccessful and the British garrison held on. iTTL the Spanish agreed to ceasefire in Europe in 1780.


Note:
We now can see that while the Portuguese did not receive everything they desired or hoped the Portuguese had changed the position of Portuguese East Indies by greatly increasing its size and power while at same time weakening VOC by forcing it to give up its monopoly in the Spice Trade. Its dominance in western India coast was cemented with with capture of both French and Dutch Malabar. Aside from the two small British enclaves of Bombay and Surat the Portuguese had established themselves as undisputed European power along the Western Indian coast. A fact that was not lost of the Indian powers in the region. But what would become for the Portuguese the most important piece in its Asia colonial possessions was capture of Malaca back to the Portuguese Empire. For that city right in the center of Portuguese trade routes between Goa, Macau and Dili provided not just a resting place for Portuguese ships but more importantly a central port connecting the various colonies as well as allowing it to increase its power projections. Questions/ Comments???


Sorry for delay in posting had computer issues,

Please return on September 20 as we finalize the "
The Paris Treaty of 1783.
 
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Nice, the Portugese came out as victors in the negotiations too.
About African expansion though, wouldn't it be easier on Portugal with their African descended Subjects and Army being able to operate deep within the continent? Are they taking advantage of that before Europeans start focusing on Africa?
 
While the Dutch lost a lot, I feel it might be a good thing since this will allow them to focus on the territories they have remaining instead of spreading their attention thin.
 
Seems as I got some changes right...I'm a bit disappointed in Ceylon remaining on Dutch hands...but I'm likely biased given all much I spent writing about Ceylon...Everything seems balanced which was the aim of treaties in this timeframe and I'm glad Portugal managed to get all those concessions. I'm curious to see a map of the United States given that everyone seemed against them stretching all the way to the Mississipi...

Waiting patiently for more.
 

Lusitania

Donor
Portugal is in the unique position of being relatively neutral and starting their rearmament so late into the race and thus it must be allowing them to save money, resources and time by looking at what works from other nations and empires, i'm curious to know what the naval program and situation is during the action around India and what it will be afterwards, Will Portugal focus on a backbone of 86gun Lines with 2nd rate heavies as flagships? i assume she'll need a solid frigate design for anti-piracy, what about cannon any R&D on that front?
First I want to apologize for not responding earlier. It was both due to computer malfunctions and oversight. Thanks for the comment.

To answer your questions and comments, you are correct and in several posts in past we had mentioned that the Portuguese had agents in the UK and it’s embassy in London was extensively being utilized as an intelligence center. Its staff and importance had continually grown since 1755 so that by 1780 it had moved 3 times (each times to a larger premise) to accommodate its increased workload.

As you indicated and we had earlier written the Portuguese were able to use the same principle that helped Germany and other European countries industrialize without making the same errors that British had done. By using lessons learned principle.

As for navy the Portuguese from 1760-1780s concentrated on building 2nd rate ships since they were easier and cheaper to build but more importantly easier to man. (manpower always an issue).

In the later part of the naval rebuilding program during that time period the Portuguese shipbuilding capacity has continually increased with additional shipyards also existing in Brazilian provinces and India. We also been upgrading Portuguese naval gun programs. Unfortunately that is all I can discuss at this time because we will delve into this extensively in the Minster of Navy and colonies section.

What we can say is that as we get into the 1790s the Portuguese will need to increase its capital ships and have more ship of the lines to protect its interests.
 
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Lusitania

Donor
Nice, the Portugese came out as victors in the negotiations too.
About African expansion though, wouldn't it be easier on Portugal with their African descended Subjects and Army being able to operate deep within the continent? Are they taking advantage of that before Europeans start focusing on Africa?
Yes there lots of good stuff to come still. We still need to determine what Africa will look like and of course what about North America.

African continent will be dealt with in due course but remember that the Portuguese are already stronger in Angola and Mozambique along with rest of its African territories as of 1780 and that colonization is a slow process. We have a transition from slave trade to resource and commodities treating occurring which only happens in the middle to late 19th century iotl. Here it is starting in the late 18th century.

the treaty will start providing Portuguese with more colonization and development options and the movement inland will follow.

While the Dutch lost a lot, I feel it might be a good thing since this will allow them to focus on the territories they have remaining instead of spreading their attention thin.
Yes the late 18th and early 19th century was a historical low for the Dutch as they lost Africa, India and part of Dutch East Asia to the British. Here the Dutch lost additional territory to the Portuguese but maintained Ceylon. But they still vulnerable to British or French whims and as a smaller to medium colonial power it would be in their best interest to align themselves to another colonial power for strength and stability. Will it be Portuguese or British. We will need to see.

Seems as I got some changes right...I'm a bit disappointed in Ceylon remaining on Dutch hands...but I'm likely biased given all much I spent writing about Ceylon...Everything seems balanced which was the aim of treaties in this timeframe and I'm glad Portugal managed to get all those concessions. I'm curious to see a map of the United States given that everyone seemed against them stretching all the way to the Mississipi...

Waiting patiently for more.
yes North America is next up. We can say that iotl the US feeling betrayed by French, Spanish anti American opinion struct an independent treaty with the British but as we have indicated the one a only ally the British had in the war, Portugal, has prevented that and the US must take into account the interests of its “allies” when negotiating its independence and borders. So the question is will US stay independent, the answer yes. The British loses have stopped any talk of British holding any of the rebelling 13 colonies but will an independent US look the same as iotl? We will have to see.
Note: there was an earlier section that hinted at one option. Lots to post and additional follow up sections dealing with ramifications.

as for Dutch loses to Portuguese and British they are much better than Portuguese could hope. For loss of Ceylon to a British be bad for Portuguese. The Portuguese got Malaca and greater Timor. Two extremely important developments.Malaca giving it foothold on the Malay peninsula and an historical and strategic port for the Portuguese while greater Timor gives the colony much more economic opportunities and potential.

Portuguese Malabar cements Portugal control and dominance over the Indian west coast and further limits british opportunities on that part of India. The strengthening of French power around Pondicherry and leaving the territory south of it open to Dutch expansion means that British while dominant in the Bay of Bengal has been checkmated in its expansion south. All this means that Indian subcontinent will develop and be colonized much differently resulting in a much less unified area. It can also mean that some of the Indian kingdoms could survive or develop differently.
 
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