I think it is kind of too early for a possible unification of Cyprus with Greece. I kind of doubt that the support is big enough there to warrand a unification, plus the nationalistic spirit that came later in WW1 hasn't yet been established and let us not forget that Cyprus was an important island for the Ottoman Empire as both a resupply base and a rich territory which served to fill the coffers.

Overall, by having Cyprus unite with Greece this early you are losing a significant trump card for the later wars, and giving a huge boost to Greece.

Arguably the support was big enough for something close to 1% of the population of the island to escape Cyprus to go fight for the revolution in the mainland, despite the apparent difficulties this posed particularly in the 1820s. But what matters here is first how the actual revolt of Theseus fares and second how the international diplomacy plays out. There TTL Greece has an advantage it didn't have in OTL in the close ties of the Greek dynasty with Britain.
 
IMO an Ottoman Cyprus or a free Cyprus would be the more likely, because few great powers would allow another one to get this territory.

Five country are interested by Cyrpus
France, the problem is that the Englishs, Ottomans, Greeks would not accept that and France want to avoid an escalation of the conflicts.
England could claim this land, but they didn't have enough claim to do this, and France will not accept this, the situation is too much complicated between them and if England pressure them to leave Cyprus I don't see them giving this strategic land especially if they are in the pro-ottoman side.
Egypt does not seem in a position to claim Cyprus or to be able to keep it and the pro-ottomans great power would not accept this.
Greece, get a lot of reason to claim this territory, but seen they don't want to get involved and they risk to lose the great power protection if they do this and provoked the ire of the ottomans, they will surely refuse to get this land (which can cause a scandal)

Here, the French get only two solution, try to reduce the tensions and get some honorable peace, leaving Cyprus to the Ottomans in exchange of some concessions to appease French people and kept their pride,


Or support the Cypriot rebels put an end to the blockade for Cypriot ships, provide them with weapons, money, .... And help them to establish independence of the island, after leaving them independent they could agreed with a sort of an agreement peace, Cyprus would be independent and neutral all the great power guarantee them their independence this would allow the French to kept their pride humiliate and weaken the ottoman without provoking the ire of the other great powers and seen they helped them to become independent they would easily create some friendly relation with them that could be useful in the future conflict between the ottomans and the Egyptians
 
IMO an Ottoman Cyprus or a free Cyprus would be the more likely, because few great powers would allow another one to get this territory.

Five country are interested by Cyrpus
France, the problem is that the Englishs, Ottomans, Greeks would not accept that and France want to avoid an escalation of the conflicts.
England could claim this land, but they didn't have enough claim to do this, and France will not accept this, the situation is too much complicated between them and if England pressure them to leave Cyprus I don't see them giving this strategic land especially if they are in the pro-ottoman side.
Egypt does not seem in a position to claim Cyprus or to be able to keep it and the pro-ottomans great power would not accept this.
Greece, get a lot of reason to claim this territory, but seen they don't want to get involved and they risk to lose the great power protection if they do this and provoked the ire of the ottomans, they will surely refuse to get this land (which can cause a scandal)

Here, the French get only two solution, try to reduce the tensions and get some honorable peace, leaving Cyprus to the Ottomans in exchange of some concessions to appease French people and kept their pride,


Or support the Cypriot rebels put an end to the blockade for Cypriot ships, provide them with weapons, money, .... And help them to establish independence of the island, after leaving them independent they could agreed with a sort of an agreement peace, Cyprus would be independent and neutral all the great power guarantee them their independence this would allow the French to kept their pride humiliate and weaken the ottoman without provoking the ire of the other great powers and seen they helped them to become independent they would easily create some friendly relation with them that could be useful in the future conflict between the ottomans and the Egyptians

That is quite an awful choice and one the Bourbon monarchy just can’t make this decision cause this is like the decision that pisses off all the powers. Britain is pushing for the continental system the balance has to be maintained its one thing for Egypt and the Ottomans to fight or pull some crappy hill lands from the Ottomans in Greece. But the island of Cyprus a major Mediterranean island for a lot of parties is just too far, its France trying to reassert itself just 15+ years after the continent united to put it down. This is war with Britain and Austria period, cause simply put where does it end? Today Cyrpus, tomorrow Italy?, the Low Countries?, Or Germany!?! Nope this is France reaching too fast

France wants to save face as does the Ottomans cause realistically the Greek separatists demands just aren’t materializing past a few known agitators. So France wants to seek a diplomatic victory somehow without pissing off the powers, and the Ottomans want one as well to show it’s not gonna be pushed around. And the others well aside from Russia the rest want France to be humbled and back down. They don’t want war but they will of France wants to try and invade Cyprus, hell even Egypt probably doesn’t want France their cause while they’ll happily take their cash and weapons, having them that close to Syria and Egypt isn’t a prospect the Sultan or Khedive want.

Greece is nervous but considering their monarch has close ties to Britain should take the British side cause its one thing to stage a rebellion its another to fight a war, a war the Ottomans only need to contain Greece if they fought. And if they do try anything it’s a break with Britain for France a nation on whose monarch is on flimsy foundations currently.
 
I'm glad to see there is a lot of speculation going, but I'm pretty confident that what I've decided upon for Cyprus at this time will leave many of you thoroughly disappointed. I hope that's not the case and hopefully the next part serves as a good rationale for my decision making regarding Cyprus at this time.

Speaking of the next part, I'll try to have it up at some point later today.
 
IMO an Ottoman Cyprus or a free Cyprus would be the more likely, because few great powers would allow another one to get this territory.

Five country are interested by Cyrpus
France, the problem is that the Englishs, Ottomans, Greeks would not accept that and France want to avoid an escalation of the conflicts.
England could claim this land, but they didn't have enough claim to do this, and France will not accept this, the situation is too much complicated between them and if England pressure them to leave Cyprus I don't see them giving this strategic land especially if they are in the pro-ottoman side.
Egypt does not seem in a position to claim Cyprus or to be able to keep it and the pro-ottomans great power would not accept this.
Greece, get a lot of reason to claim this territory, but seen they don't want to get involved and they risk to lose the great power protection if they do this and provoked the ire of the ottomans, they will surely refuse to get this land (which can cause a scandal)

Here, the French get only two solution, try to reduce the tensions and get some honorable peace, leaving Cyprus to the Ottomans in exchange of some concessions to appease French people and kept their pride,


Or support the Cypriot rebels put an end to the blockade for Cypriot ships, provide them with weapons, money, .... And help them to establish independence of the island, after leaving them independent they could agreed with a sort of an agreement peace, Cyprus would be independent and neutral all the great power guarantee them their independence this would allow the French to kept their pride humiliate and weaken the ottoman without provoking the ire of the other great powers and seen they helped them to become independent they would easily create some friendly relation with them that could be useful in the future conflict between the ottomans and the Egyptians

When you put it that way... I suppose that the independent Cyprus is the preferable choice for almost all involved but such a strike against the Ottomans would seriously undermine them. Let us not forget that they have suffered significant defeats in the form of too many losses of territory just a few decades previously, and such a case could provoke a new series of hostilities with Armenians, Kurds and possibly even the Italian - Ottoman war earlier than intended. After all the Italians will surely try to take advantage of that weakened enemy in order to capture some of the islands from the Ottomans, especially Crete. Plus there is also the Russo-Turkish War that could erupt any time now considering Cyprus is revolting right now and that will most definetely spark another revolt in Crete or other Greek islands prompting heavy repercussions from the Ottomans which in turn would force Russia to intervene in turn in order to save the orthodox christians of them.
 
When you put it that way... I suppose that the independent Cyprus is the preferable choice for almost all involved but such a strike against the Ottomans would seriously undermine them. Let us not forget that they have suffered significant defeats in the form of too many losses of territory just a few decades previously, and such a case could provoke a new series of hostilities with Armenians, Kurds and possibly even the Italian - Ottoman war earlier than intended. After all the Italians will surely try to take advantage of that weakened enemy in order to capture some of the islands from the Ottomans, especially Crete. Plus there is also the Russo-Turkish War that could erupt any time now considering Cyprus is revolting right now and that will most definetely spark another revolt in Crete or other Greek islands prompting heavy repercussions from the Ottomans which in turn would force Russia to intervene in turn in order to save the orthodox christians of them.

Let me just note that Crete is Greek in TTL and Italy doesn't exist yet, we are still in 1840. My guess it that unless Kapodistrias and Leopold manage to pull one or more rabbits out of their hats either the rebellion fails or at most leads to some limited autonomy like Samos between 1830-1912.
 
When you put it that way... I suppose that the independent Cyprus is the preferable choice for almost all involved but such a strike against the Ottomans would seriously undermine them. Let us not forget that they have suffered significant defeats in the form of too many losses of territory just a few decades previously, and such a case could provoke a new series of hostilities with Armenians, Kurds and possibly even the Italian - Ottoman war earlier than intended. After all the Italians will surely try to take advantage of that weakened enemy in order to capture some of the islands from the Ottomans, especially Crete. Plus there is also the Russo-Turkish War that could erupt any time now considering Cyprus is revolting right now and that will most definetely spark another revolt in Crete or other Greek islands prompting heavy repercussions from the Ottomans which in turn would force Russia to intervene in turn in order to save the orthodox christians of them.


Greece already has Crete ITTL and Italy doesn't exist yet. Any move by the russians would result in a counter response by both the British and French as the Russians have already made large gains in the east and they don't want russia to be in any stronger position, than they are now.
edit: ninja'd by lascaris
 
Part 50: The Labor of Theseus
Part 50: The Labor of Theseus

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Nicholas Theseus Landing at Polis Chrysochous

Originating from a wealthy Greek Cypriot merchant family from Marseilles, Nicholas Theseus was every bit the idealist and nationalist as his countrymen in the Ottoman Empire. Upon the outbreak of war in 1821, young Theseus would return to Greece with all the speed he could muster, ready to fight and determined to win the independence of his ancestral homeland. Despite coming from wealth and enjoying a life of comfort and luxury in the diaspora, Theseus would dedicate his life and his fortune to the liberation of Greece, an endeavor that would consume the next twenty years of his life. He would distinguish himself in battle during the battle of Bralos in 1825 and again in the Second Battle of Nafpaktos the following year, before he joined in the expedition to liberate Cyprus when the Egyptians withdrew from the island in late 1827. Sadly, the expedition was complete disaster as the Ottomans arrived in force on the island in early 1828 and ruthlessly crushed all dissent on Cyprus, forcing the paltry Greek force to flee.

Instead of escaping to Greece alongside his comrades, Theseus would remain behind on Cyprus where he would plan for a second revolt against the Ottomans when the time was right. That time would come in early 1833 following the abject humiliation of the Ottomans in the war with Egypt and coincide with the ongoing revolts in Albania and Bosnia. Moreover, the island of Cyprus had been subject to a serious of Sultan Mahmud II’s reforms which reduced the island’s autonomy and increased taxes on the population making conditions ripe for a revolt. Theseus, proving to be a charismatic figure, effectively turned the agitation of the people of Cyprus against the Ottoman authorities and for a time his revolt had some signs of life with the Cypriots capturing the cities of Larnaca, Nicosia, and the villages of Lakatamia and Stavrovouni. Theseus even managed to secure the support of numerous Turkish Cypriots in his rebellion despite their past differences and hostility towards one another. Yet despite his early successes, Theseus’ endeavor would meet with failure thanks to the guile of Sultan Mahmud II.

With his armies occupied fighting in the hills of Albania and Bosnia, and his navy still rebuilding from the war against Egypt, Sultan Mahmud II responded by modifying his tax proposals for Cyprus in a bid to alleviate some of the concerns of the Cypriots. This in turn dealt a major blow to Theseus’s cause as many of Theseus’ followers would desert him in the days following the Sultan’s proclamation as a result. The revolt would limp along for several more weeks, but when the Ottoman army finally arrived in force on Cyprus later that Spring, Theseus and his followers were forced to flee to the Kingdom of Greece. Two other uprisings would take place in Cyprus later that year, but both would meet with similar fates, leading to the flight of hundreds, if not thousands of Greek Cypriots to the Kingdom of Greece over the course of 1833.[1] Now seven years later, Theseus and his followers prepared for their return home, but to that end they needed support.

They received some aid from like-minded individuals in Greece, mostly from other Greek Cypriots and their fellow exiles from the Ottoman Empire, but their efforts to reach out to the Greek Government fell on deaf ears. King Leopold refused to hear any details of the plot and many other members of the government, while certainly sympathetic, offered little assistance beyond vague promises and moral support. A meeting between Nicholas Theseus and Greek Prime Minister Ioannis Kapodistrias would bring similarly mixed results. While Kapodistrias personally supported the Cypriots and their effort, he had organized the failed expedition to Cyprus in 1827/1828, he recognized the inherent dangers such a venture would bring to Greece if he did anything to aid them in his official capacity as Prime Minister. As such, he was forced to stay his hand for the moment, with the only aid he could offer being his prayers for their endeavor and whatever personal funds he happened to have on hand at the time of their meeting.

Theseus and his comrades would receive more concrete support from the French Ambassador to Greece, Marie Melchior Joseph Theodore de Lagrene. Lagrene was a career diplomat for the Kingdom of France serving in various capacities as both an envoy and ambassador to several different countries over the years from Spain to Russia. Lagrene would prove to be the Cypriot adventurers’ greatest benefactor, as he provided them with an unrecorded number of French Francs to purchase arms and munitions for their endeavor. With these funds the Cypriots and their allies would purchase enough rifles, musket balls, and gunpowder to equip a small regiment. They even managed to acquire three old 12 pounders for their enterprise. More importantly, Lagrene provided them with the necessary paper work and credentials to make their way through the French Blockade and onto to Cyprus.

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French Ambassador to Greece, Marie Melchior Joseph Theodore de Lagrene
(Second from the left)

Whether Lagrene was simply enamored with the personal charisma of Nicholas Theseus or if he was operating under the orders of the French Government none, but Lagrene can say as all evidence regarding any role of the French Government might have played in supplying and funding the Cypriot revolt of 1840 were conveniently lost in a fire at the French Embassy less than three weeks later. Regardless, Lagrene’s efforts, whether they were of his own doing or those of his government, were instrumental in the organization of Theseus’ escapade. All told, 571 Greek adventurers, Cypriot expats, and Albanian journeymen would take the long voyage to Cyprus where they would arrive in early September, nearly two months after the initial incident at sea between the Ottomans and the French.

Landing at the secluded seaside fishing town of Polis Chrysochous, on the island’s northwest coast, Theseus and his followers promptly declared a state of rebellion against the Ottoman rule of the island before heading inland to make camp. Citing the unjust increase in taxes to support the war against the Egyptians, the recent murder of Greek Cypriots by their Turkish oppressors, and the failure of the Ottoman authorities to restore law and order to the island in the wake of this unrest; Theseus and his followers declared the Sublime Porte and its agents to be unfit rulers of Cyprus and declared themselves for independence. Suffice to say, the outpouring of support from the locals left something to be desired as only 62 Cypriots would arrive in Theseus’ camp outside the rural village of Prodhromi during the first week of their “rebellion”. This lack of support from the Cypriot people was unsurprising given the great suffering they had endured in the previous 20 years following their prior attempts at revolt.

Despite having little direct involvement in the War itself, the Greek community on Cyprus suffered mightily during the first months of the Greek War of Independence.[2] Any signs of unrest were brutally squashed before it could metastasize into an open revolt on the island, the Cypriots were thoroughly disarmed, and their leadership was summarily arrested and then executed by the Ottoman authorities. Even the island’s ecclesiastical leader wasn’t spared from the Ottoman repression as Archbishop Kyprianos along with the Bishop Chrysanthos of Paphos, Bishop Meletios of Kition, and Bishop Lavrentios of Kyrenia were executed for their support of the revolution on the mainland in 1821. Added to this were the ensuing pogroms and executions by the Ottomans following the failed 1828 uprising and the three revolts of 1833 and it was no wonder that the Cypriots were reluctant to join in yet another rebellion.

However, as it became apparent that the Ottomans would not or rather could not do anything to immediately subdue Theseus or his followers, some Cypriots slowly began to take the jump to rebellion. By the end of September, another 403 men would join with Theseus’ band bringing his total number to a little over a thousand men and boys. Even still, this number was much lower than Theseus had hoped for and far lower than was needed if they were to have any success at all in liberating Cyprus. Most Cypriots recognized that while the Ottomans were still distracted with the war against Egypt and the ongoing blockade of Cyprus by the French fleet it was blatantly obvious that they would not last forever. Moreover, the Ottoman army would simply return in force to Cyprus ready to inflict their retribution upon all those who revolted against them once the war with Egypt and the French blockade finally met their end. As a result, most Greek Cypriots simply chose to endure the current situation rather than strive to change it.

To achieve any measure of success for his venture, Theseus needed to attract more men to his cause, furthermore, he needed outside support if he was to have any realistic chance of success and to achieve that he needed a victory over the Ottomans and he needed to do so quickly before the French fleet was forced to withdraw. Therefore, he made his move against the nearby port town of Paphos located on the Western edge of the island. While it was one of the smaller cities on the island, more akin to a large town than a small city, its harbor was one of the finest on the island and its isolated nature made it an ideal target to attack. More importantly, Paphos possessed one of the weakest garrisons on the island at only 912 men compared to the several thousand Ottoman soldiers at Nicosia, Limassol, or Larnaca. With their target set, Theseus and his followers made quick progress through the foothills and forests of the Troodos Mountain, arriving outside Paphos on the 4th of October.

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The Cypriot Rebels Arrive at Paphos

After a brief skirmish outside the town, the Ottoman soldiers withdrew behind the walls of Paphos Castle, effectively ceding control of the town to the Cypriot rebels. Within a matter of minutes, Paphos had been liberated by Theseus and his compatriots, but very quickly events began to turn against him. While the “liberation” of Paphos was a victory, it was incomplete so long as the castle remained under Ottoman control and his attempts to capture left something to be desired. The assault against the castle's walls was a complete failure and the three cannons that Theseus had brought along from Greece made little progress against the walls of Paphos Castle, forcing Theseus to resort to starving its defenders out. Sadly, outside events would undo all of Theseus’ efforts, as news of their revolt had reached the ears of the British and Austrian Governments.

By the beginning of October, both London and Vienna had grown tired of the French blockade of Cyprus which had continued much longer than anticipated. While they had originally hoped that France would quickly come to its senses and leave peacefully, it had become increasingly apparent that the French were being anything but sensible. Moreover, the news of the latest uprising on the Cyprus did little to improve the British or Austrian opinion of the blockade especially when reports of a French connection began to emerge. While they had little evidence to support their allegations, both were under the impression that Theseus’ uprising had been spurred on at the insistence of France, or at the very least they had aided in its cultivation. This was simply too much for the British or Austrians to ignore.

When the British Ambassador to France, Earl Granville met with French Prime Minister Adolphe Thiers in late October, Granville, made it abundantly clear that the British Government would not tolerate French aggression and sedition against the Ottoman Empire. Thiers for his part feinted ignorance to the charges of supporting sedition on Cyprus and continued to play the part of the aggrieved victim who was simply seeking the justice it deserved. Granville would have none of it however. Moreover, he stated that should the French blockade of Cyprus continue into the new year, then a state of war would exist between the British and the French, with the Austrians and Ottomans joining in against them. Much to his chagrin and with no other choice, Thiers recalled the French fleet.

The news of the uprising on Cyprus also caused the British Government to approach the Greek Government to discern their involvement in the affair. While the British admittedly assumed the French were the primary actors behind the plot, they also suspected Greek involvement to some extent as well. A meeting between British Ambassador to Greece Sir Edmund Lyons and Prime Minister Ioannis Kapodistrias would indicate this suspicion as Lyons in no uncertain terms made clear the consequences any such involvement would have. At best, the Greeks would suffer a small diplomatic humiliation, while at worst they would face war with the Ottoman Empire without the support of the British. Despite their limited involvement in the plot, the Greek Government had known about the plot and done little to prevent hundreds of their citizens from traveling to a foreign country to sow unrest, an act which was akin to an act of war.

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Sir Edmund Lyons, British Ambassador to Greece

To ensure that there were no “misunderstandings” or salacious rumors made against the good name of the Kingdom of Greece, Lyons encouraged the Greek Government make a declaration condemning the violence on Cyprus. In truth though, this suggestion was much more than a simple request and one which the Greeks could not lightly ignore [3] Following the meeting with Lyons, Prime Minister Ioannis Kapodistrias proclaimed his and the Greek Government's support for an immediate end to the violence on Cyprus and their support of a peaceful resolution of the unrest in Cyprus. For all intents and purposes this would prove to be a death knell for the Cypriot revolt, as many would abandon the rebel camp outside Paphos in the following days. It would only worsen from there for Theseus and his followers as the Ottoman army transported 6,000 soldiers onto the island once the French Fleet finally withdrew from Cyprus in early November. Without any outside support, the Cypriot revolt effectively collapsed in the face of the Ottoman army.

With Greece effectively closed off to them, Theseus and his remaining followers were forced to retreat into the Troodos Mountains, where they managed to elude the Ottoman authorities for several months before they were finally cornered in early February 1841 at the mountain monastery of Kykkos. For two and a half days, 78 Cypriot rebels would successfully fend off nearly 4,000 Ottoman soldiers before they were ultimately overwhelmed by the Turkish soldiers opposing them. In a final act of defiance, Theseus and his compatriots detonated their remaining stock of gunpowder as the Ottomans broke into the Monasteries’ courtyard killing all that entered in a fiery explosion. Miraculously, the frescoes and collection of holy icons housed at Kykkos Monastery were largely unharmed in the three days of fighting. When the smoke cleared, several hundred Turks and all 78 Greek Cypriots lay dead, including Nicholas Theseus.

By all accounts, the Cypriot revolt of 1840 was an abject failure as Cyprus remained firmly planted within the Ottoman Empire and it would remain so for many years to come. However, Nicholas Theseus’ final stand at Kykkos would provide the Cypriot cause with more fuel than any of his earlier efforts as his heroic stand at Kykkos would galvanize future Cypriots. Despite his death, rumors about a possible escape from Kykkos and his continued escapades against the Ottomans would tantalize the countryside of Cyprus for many months leading the Greeks and the Turks to speculate as to his true fate. The end of Nicholas Theseus’ revolt would also bring an end to the Cyprus Affair, as France left the region utterly humiliated and their influence significantly curtailed. Though they would later join Austria, Britain, and Russia in opening Ottoman markets to European goods in 1844, this was small recompense for their lost prominence in the Eastern Mediterranean following the collapse of Egypt. With their only ally forced to withdraw from the region, Ibrahim Pasha, still acting as his father’s regent, was finally forced to the negotiating table and together on the 21st of January 1841 the Sublime Porte made peace with the Khedivate of Egypt.

  • The Khedivate of Egypt is reaffirmed as a constituent territory of the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Eyalets of Adana, Aleppo, Sidon and Tripoli shall be restored to the domain of the Sublime Porte.
  • By the grace of the Ottoman Sultan Abdulmejid I, the Eyalets of Damascus and Hejaz shall be bestowed upon Ibrahim Pasha until the time of his death, at which time they shall revert to the Ottoman Crown.
  • The rights and privileges of the Kavalali of Egypt, the Shibab clan of Lebanon, the Abd al-Hadi clan of Palestine, and all those who opposed the Ottoman Empire shall be guaranteed and affirmed by the Ottoman Porte.
  • In his magnanimity, the Sultan Abdulmejid I shall issue a general amnesty for all his Egyptian, Syrian, Lebanese, and Palestinian subjects that sided against the Empire during the previous conflict.
  • The Egyptian Army shall be reduced to no more than 40,000 men and the Egyptian Navy shall be reduced to no more than 50 warships.
  • Finally, peace shall be established between the Ottoman Porte and the Khedivate of Egypt.
The Cyprus Affair and its surrounding events would lead to a worsening of relations between France and Britain that would plague the two countries for the next few years. Although they were by no means as poor as they had been during the Napoleonic Wars, the immediate aftermath of the Second Syrian War would represent a nadir in relations between them during this time. For Greece the Cypriot Affair would mark the end of Ioannis Kapodistrias’ Premiership. After nearly 14 years in power, the Count had chosen to fall on his sword for Greece, sacrificing his reputation with the people for the good of the country. Kapodistrias' resignation would also signal a greater changing of the guard in Greek society as the older generation began to give way to the newer generation.

Next Time: Changing of the Guard


[1] The Three 1833 Cypriot Uprisings are generally the same as OTL here.

[2] About 1,000 Cypriots would fight in the Greek War of Independence. Most Cypriots, however, refrained from partaking in the fight themselves during the early stages of the war, choosing instead to send money and supplies to the Greeks on the Mainland. Their efforts were discovered unfortunately and as a result nearly 2,000 Cypriots would be killed by the Ottoman Authorities to prevent a general uprising on the island. The Cypriots would attempt a revolt of their own in 1828 at the encouragement of Ioannis Kapodistrias in OTL, but he was unable to provide them the necessary support to help them win their independence, ultimately resulting in their defeat.

[3] Despite being relatively friendly early on in their relationship, Edmund Lyons would become increasingly antagonistic towards King Otto of Greece in OTL for his absolutism as well as his general “unfriendliness” to Britain. Moreover, he constantly acted to subvert Otto’s legitimacy and authority in Greece. I suspect that had Ioannis Kapodistrias survived, Lyons would have a similar relationship with Kapodistrias given the British Government’s widely held belief that he was nothing more than a Russian puppet in OTL.
 
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so ends the war and Greece’s chance of getting Cyprus for now it Seems the Ottomans got a better deal out of it and the Egyptians got Took down a peg
 
so ends the war and Greece’s chance of getting Cyprus for now it Seems the Ottomans got a better deal out of it and the Egyptians got Took down a peg
Yeah despite my best efforts it really wasn't all that plausible for Greece to get Cyprus at this time, but in the future...

Its also important to note that Egypt actually managed to come out ahead of their OTL counterpart, although they obviously don't know that. In OTL, the Khedivate of Egypt was reduced to the Eyalets of Egypt and the Sudan, here it managed to retain Damascus and the Hejaz as well for the remainder of Ibrahim Pasha's life. The reason for this is due to the lessened interference by the Powers in the Egyptian Ottoman War and due to the fact that Egypt still controls these areas ITTL. So for the TTL's Egypt, the Second Egyptian Ottoman War was a terrible defeat, but not to the degree of OTL's collapse.
 
Part 50: The Labor of Theseus


To ensure that there were no “misunderstandings” or salacious rumors made against the good name of the Kingdom of Greece, Lyons encouraged the Greek Government make a declaration against Nicholas Theseus and his followers. In truth though, this suggestion was much more than a simple request; it was a demand made from on high by an agent of a Great Power to that of a minor power. To reject this demand would be tantamount to inviting disaster; but to accept would likely harm the public’s faith in the Government. Try as they might, there was no possibility of the Greek Government refusing the demands of Lyons or the British. The only debate was over who would make the declaration against the Cypriot rebellion and there again Lyons made the British Government’s opinion known. As they did not want to implicate her Majesty’s uncle, King Leopold in any such affair, the British Government felt it best if Prime Minister Kapodistrias be the one to make the declaration against the Cypriot uprising. [3]

Under pressure from the British Government, Prime Minister Ioannis Kapodistrias was forced to publicly denounce Nicholas Theseus and his supporters for their rebellion against the Ottoman Empire. Moreover, Kapodistrias proclaimed his support for the territorial integrity of the Ottoman State and a swift end to the violence on Cyprus.

Frankly that's... not going to happen. Any 19th century Greek government is more likely to accept the risk of a British blockade or outright war with the Ottomans than go publicly and condemn a Greek revolt. Unless they want to see the revolt starting in the streets of Athens itself and most of the army joining the rebels. Declare for peaceful resolution to the revolt and telling Theseus to pack up and go is one thing. Openly condemn the revolt and refuse to offer sanctuary to the rebels entirely different. For that matter Kapodistrias accept a dictat of this kind? Not in character even if he disregards the accusations of treason that are certain to find their way to the history books.
 
Am I surprised? No.

Am I disappointed? Kinda ;)

An early Greek Cyprus would be nice, but I agree that it would be wildly implausible.

Anyway, cool update! I’m wondering if the Egyptians might end up holding onto Syria for longer than this treaty suggests...


Hmmmmmm.

Pontus is an interesting sort of region in that there wasn’t ever really a big Pontic Greek revolt in the 19th century. The Greeks of the region had coexisted with Turks for close to a thousand years—they didn’t have the types of struggles that Greeks elsewhere in the Ottoman Empire did until the rise of the Young Turks.

There is one way that we might possibly see an independent Pontus, and moreover one that doesn’t look to Greece: Russia. ITTL Russia has a stronger foothold in the Caucasus and given that this is a Greek TL I expect the Ottomans to eventually fall apart, giving the Russians a major opportunity. Butterflies will probably handle the Bolsheviks, meaning that when the Ottomans collapse Russia will be able to capitalize on it and move into Anatolia. What better way to do that than revive the old Trapezuntine state? It wouldn’t irritate the Brits the same way that seizing Cilicia would. This Trebizond would look to Russia as its savior, placing a major obstacle to Greece claiming to be the center of the Hellenic world.
 
Frankly that's... not going to happen. Any 19th century Greek government is more likely to accept the risk of a British blockade or outright war with the Ottomans than go publicly and condemn a Greek revolt. Unless they want to see the revolt starting in the streets of Athens itself and most of the army joining the rebels. Declare for peaceful resolution to the revolt and telling Theseus to pack up and go is one thing. Openly condemn the revolt and refuse to offer sanctuary to the rebels entirely different. For that matter Kapodistrias accept a dictat of this kind? Not in character even if he disregards the accusations of treason that are certain to find their way to the history books.
Okay I've edited it to be less of an open repudiation of the Cypriot uprising by Kapodistrias and the Greek Government, and more of a general call for peace.
 
Yeah despite my best efforts it really wasn't all that plausible for Greece to get Cyprus at this time, but in the future...

Its also important to note that Egypt actually managed to come out ahead of their OTL counterpart, although they obviously don't know that. In OTL, the Khedivate of Egypt was reduced to the Eyalets of Egypt and the Sudan, here it managed to retain Damascus and the Hejaz as well for the remainder of Ibrahim Pasha's life. The reason for this is due to the lessened interference by the Powers in the Egyptian Ottoman War and due to the fact that Egypt still controls these areas ITTL. So for the TTL's Egypt, the Second Egyptian Ottoman War was a terrible defeat, but not to the degree of OTL's collapse.

You still have Egypt forgo it's own tariffs, I short of understand thas given the expenses Egypt was running Ibrahim should be more interested in keeping these than in keeping these than in keeping Damascus.

But overall... Theseus might have lost but by blowing himself up at Kykkos is going to have far flung effects, far more than he'd otherwise have.
 
Okay I've edited it to be less of an open repudiation of the Cypriot uprising by Kapodistrias and the Greek Government, and more of a general call for peace.

You could have had Kapodistrias commit suicide right after he delivers his statement, but somehow this looks to me rather more Japanese in nature. :p
 
Well this is perhaps the best outcome, although it gives a small boost ITTL's Egypt in comparison to OTL, so all bets are off in whether that will have a different outcome in their history later on. Also the outcome of the Cypriot affair is perhaps the best for the occasion considering that it creates the least butterflies of all possible scenarios. Am I to guess that it is going to rapidly go over some facts and then fast forward towards the other wars in sight, or are we examining all possible butterflies?

You could have had Kapodistrias commit suicide right after he delivers his statement, but somehow this looks to me rather more Japanese in nature. :p

Nah, it was in Kapodistrias' nature to sacrifice himself in order to protect his country, but judging by his actions I am guessing here that if something similar happened, he would retire entirely from the obvious political scene and try to help the country as much as possible by the shadows. Do not misunderstand me, I don't mean illegally, just not in a way that would focus the spotlight on him.
 
Well this is perhaps the best outcome, although it gives a small boost ITTL's Egypt in comparison to OTL, so all bets are off in whether that will have a different outcome in their history later on. Also the outcome of the Cypriot affair is perhaps the best for the occasion considering that it creates the least butterflies of all possible scenarios. Am I to guess that it is going to rapidly go over some facts and then fast forward towards the other wars in sight, or are we examining all possible butterflies?
Next up on the docket is the fallout from Kapodistrias' retirement, his prospective replacements, and various other changes in the Greek Government and society since the last Greek centered update. After that, I have the long awaited American update which I have been putting off for a while now and then I'm open to suggestions on what everyone would like to see ITTL's world before I progress into the next arc of the story, this timeline's analog to the 1848 Revolutions.

You still have Egypt forgo it's own tariffs, I short of understand thas given the expenses Egypt was running Ibrahim should be more interested in keeping these than in keeping these than in keeping Damascus.

But overall... Theseus might have lost but by blowing himself up at Kykkos is going to have far flung effects, far more than he'd otherwise have.
You would rate the tariffs above Damascus? In that case I'll fiddle with the peace treaty a little bit.

You could say that Theseus' popularity exploded overnight...:p

So theseus's revolt was like a small spark that ignited the cypriot powder keg
Yes, yes you can.:biggrin:
 
I’m not surprised, I’m glad the Ottomans came ahead and hope that their tanzimat reforms bring about the changes necessary to ensure their core regions in Europe remain, and they take back the entirety of Egypt from the Khedive cause it seems peace to regroup and reform looks finally possible.

The Austrians certainly have no interest in stirring the pot lest they incite their own ethnics, and they have their own issue in Italy, and the German Confederation. So Vienna while always wary is happy to keep the Balkans under the Ottomans if only as a partner against Slavic uprisings, and ally against Russia.

Russia is actually not a friend to Greece in this cause Russia in the 1830’s had a plan the exact opposite of what it usually tried with the Ottomans. It’s a strange concept called being...”Friends...I know it sounds silly but apparently the idea instead of wasting time, money, diplomatic influence, and effort taking apart the Ottoman Empire the Russians could simply move into the spot Great Britain currently holds as the sort of patron protector of the Empire. This led to the Ottoman-Russian Treaty if Hunkar Iskelesi, which gave Russia exactly what it wanted at which point the whole “Slavic-Orthodox Brotherhood” went right out the window cause apparently the Turks are only oppressors if their not allied with Russia.

Hell it was this treaty that scared the British into finally seeing how important the Ottomans were placed Geopolitically cause if Britain should ever find itself at war with Russia, the Ottomans with their lands theoretically stretching from Tunisia to Arabia could threaten trade with India. So losing the Ottomans to Russia would be almost as bad as if the Empire was partitioned.

Course TTL France and Great Britain are at odds with the Ottomans particularly not liking the French, Russia still needs to be wary of a British, Austrian, Prussian coalition but France being at odds with them, and the Ottomans certainly makes the “Great Game” all the more fun.
 
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