The Greeks do have some connections to their Byzantine/Roman heritage mostly in regards to names of offices, people, locations, etc. The reasoning for the strong push to orient Modern Greece towards Ancient Greece lies with the Great Powers and the Philhellenes who really disliked the Byzantine Empire. They considered the Byzantine Empire to be this decadent, oppressive, corrupt entity, while at the same time praising Ancient Greece as this sophisticated and cultured society. As the Powers held great power and infleucne over Greece both IOTL and ITTL there will be a strong Classical Greece flavor although probably less so than OTL given the lack of Otto of Bavaria, who was a major supporter of Ancient Greece over Byzantine Greece.

Another thing that doesn't help is the fact that the Ottomans adopted a lot of the Byzantine Empire's institutions and bureaucracy for themselves when they took over. The Ottomans also hold a lot of the core territory of the Byzantine Empire, namely Constantinople, Thrace, and Asia Minor. Should the Greeks ever secure that then a bit of a Byzantine revival could occur in Greek society.

To tell the truth I'm at somewhat of a loss on what exactly this is supposed to be. The average Greek of the time or later is not feeling much of a conflict between his ancient and Byzantine identity. And Constantine Paparrigopoulos https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_Paparrigopoulos is just around the corner.
 
An army of 20000 is about twice the paper strength of OTL, the country is richer and more populous in TTL but this still is in the high end. The only practical way I can think of is copying the Prussian system with universal military service (3 years at the time) followed by Landwehr and Landsturm equivalents. This actually have multiple strategic advantages for a country that needs to take on the Ottoman empire sooner or later. At the current TTL population you'd have a yearly intake of about 4,000 hence 12,000 in total plus 8-10,000 volunteers for 20,000 total in peacetime. And as soon as Ethnofylaki (national guard) fills out in about a decade you'll be able to field in wartime about 55,000 men without taking into account population growth.
Technically that 20,000 figure is a nominal total, but that probably is a little high for the time given the population and expenses involved.
Edit: I've adjusted it down to a nominal total of 16,000. Its still on the high end, but certainly more reasonable for a peace time army. I've also included the Ethnofylaki which should double the men under arms for the Greeks to 32,000 when it is fully staffed.

What else? Mountain guard was a gendarmerie unit I can't really see either them and the gendarmerie proper as part of a guards unit. And the mixed support battalions are anachronistic (so are to an extend the mixed divisions) and artillery as an arm will not be part of it for certain, you'd probably have an artillery regiment or more and same for the cavalry.
So I just checked my sources and the Mountain Guards were created in 1836 after the Evzones were reduced from 10 battalions down to 4, with 8 mountain guard battalions created in their place. I guess I made an assumption that they were one in the same with two different names. I'll make the corrections regarding the guard units and the composition of the other forces.

To tell the truth I'm at somewhat of a loss on what exactly this is supposed to be. The average Greek of the time or later is not feeling much of a conflict between his ancient and Byzantine identity. And Constantine Paparrigopoulos https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_Paparrigopoulos is just around the corner.
I completely agree, it wasn't so much of an internal Greek conflict as it was the Powers pushing the Ancient Greek identity over the Medieval Byzantine one.

In my rush to produce new content I miss important details like these so I appreciate all your input and assistance to keep this timeline as plausible as possible.
 
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(Unless, of course, Britain and France are able to step in and rescue the sick old man).
Britain, maybe. France, I have my doubts.

All depends on the PM and how much he wants the balance of power vs allying with the Ottomans. Sick man of Europe they may be, but underestimating them is very bad for your health.
 
They might not even need the Straits so badly if they can conquer their way to the Mediterranean through Turkey. They could seize Cilicia and make Tarsus a major port.

On the other hand, this would be such a major catastrophe for the Ottomans that I can’t see Britain and France letting it come to pass.

Very interesting, since any Russian push to Tarsus would put the strategic secondary route to Persian and India in the Tsar's hands.... something that the british obsession with the balance of power (or less cynically any threat to their own interests) wouldn't tolerate. In fact, UK "discovered" Armenian Question after the russian encroachment became obvious.

Maybe after a pirrhic victory for the Russians in the Caucasus theatre we would see some sort of Armenian Eastern Rumelia-like autonomous entity emerge.
 
Very interesting, since any Russian push to Tarsus would put the strategic secondary route to Persian and India in the Tsar's hands.... something that the british obsession with the balance of power (or less cynically any threat to their own interests) wouldn't tolerate. In fact, UK "discovered" Armenian Question after the russian encroachment became obvious.

Maybe after a pirrhic victory for the Russians in the Caucasus theatre we would see some sort of Armenian Eastern Rumelia-like autonomous entity emerge.

Historically the Russians seriously outfought the Ottomans in the Caucasus in 1854-56, 1878 and again 1914-18. ATL they are starting from a better position already. But nevertheless I suspect that how Egypt plays out in the ATL with the Egyptian fleet intact, Muhammad Ali having somewhat closer ties with Britain and possible complications in Belgium will be the one shaping things to come. After all the natural border of an Egyptian Syria north would be in the Taurus mountains which leaves the Cilician ports in the Egyptian side...
 
Did the peace treaty that officially created the state of Greece have a timer on when either the Greeks or the ottomans could declare war on each other? and if so, besides beefing up the military and getting some alliances, is Greece planning on instigating a conflict to get more land if the ottomans hit a rough spot and have to deal with a disaster?
 
Did the peace treaty that officially created the state of Greece have a timer on when either the Greeks or the ottomans could declare war on each other? and if so, besides beefing up the military and getting some alliances, is Greece planning on instigating a conflict to get more land if the ottomans hit a rough spot and have to deal with a disaster?
There isn't so much a truce timer, but part of Leopold's "demands" for the Greek Throne included a continued British, French, and Russian military presence in Greece for five years while the Greek Government establishes itself in its territories. So by virtue of that, Greece essentially is guaranteed by the three Powers until the end of May 1835.

Technically the Greeks or the Ottomans could declare war on each any time they want, but it probably wouldn't be a good idea for either of them. Greece will take many years to fully recover from the war and quite honestly the Ottomans have other things they need to worry aside from Greece for the next few years, like a particular vassal in Egypt. Once Greece is fully recovered, say in the late 1830's/early 1840's they may start to rock the boat although Leopold will likely try to dampen that fervor as best he can.
 
Technically the Greeks or the Ottomans could declare war on each any time they want, but it probably wouldn't be a good idea for either of them. Greece will take many years to fully recover from the war and quite honestly the Ottomans have other things they need to worry aside from Greece for the next few years, like a particular vassal in Egypt. Once Greece is fully recovered, say in the late 1830's/early 1840's they may start to rock the boat although Leopold will likely try to dampen that fervor as best he can.
Issue is, he goes on the aggression against a Ottoman Empire that's been busy reforming, well, the Great Powers might not approve.
 
There isn't so much a truce timer, but part of Leopold's "demands" for the Greek Throne included a continued British, French, and Russian military presence in Greece for five years while the Greek Government establishes itself in its territories. So by virtue of that, Greece essentially is guaranteed by the three Powers until the end of May 1835.

Technically the Greeks or the Ottomans could declare war on each any time they want, but it probably wouldn't be a good idea for either of them. Greece will take many years to fully recover from the war and quite honestly the Ottomans have other things they need to worry aside from Greece for the next few years, like a particular vassal in Egypt. Once Greece is fully recovered, say in the late 1830's/early 1840's they may start to rock the boat although Leopold will likely try to dampen that fervor as best he can.

Actually there was a war scare around 1836 or so (can't remember the exact year ) with Machmud massing up troops in the Thessalian border and the Greeks catching on this and responding in kind. Nothing at all came out of it and no details are available but it does match the pattern of Machmud restoring centralized control on the empire (Iraq and ayans in Anatolia was in 1832-33, Lybya in 1835) and then turning after breakaway provinces with Egypt left for last in 1839.
 
Part 36: To Secure a Dynasty
Part 36: To Secure a Dynasty

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Queen Marie of Greece

Since the death of his wife Charlotte, the Princess of Wales, in 1817, Leopold had remained unmarried as a show of devotion to his dearly beloved. However, he did not remain alone for the entirety of the 13 years since her passing. Many days were spent in the company of his sister the Duchess of Kent and her daughter the heir presumptive Princess Alexandrina Victoria. Others were filled with old friends and acquaintances from years gone by. Most of his time was spent abroad in Coburg or at the spas of Carlsbad to tend to his health. But it would be on a chance visit to Berlin in 1828, that Leopold came across the beautiful Caroline Bauer.[1]

An actress by trade, Caroline Bauer bore a striking resemblance to the late Princess of Wales, both in her physically appearance and in her mannerisms. Leopold was smitten immediately and took the woman for his mistress, and for a short while it would have seemed as if the fire had returned to Leopold’s soul. Caroline believed it as well and followed Leopold back to Britain and resided with him at Claremont for several months. Not a moment too soon however, Leopold began to fall back into his depression, the resemblance between Caroline and Charlotte rather than improving his disposition only made his doldrums worse and by the Fall of 1829, Caroline had had enough. She had been faithful to him for over a year, loving him, supporting him and residing with him, yet he had neglected her both socially and intimately with his dull and dreary behavior, and so she left him, never to return.

The return to a solitary existence wouldn’t have been a problem in years past for Leopold, but with his nomination and later acceptance to the Greek Throne, he very quickly recognized the need for a wife, if not for love then at least for an heir. Matters of the state quickly took priority over his search for a bride, but by the Fall of 1831, the multitude of issues facing Greece began to wane as some sense of stability took hold in the young kingdom. With Greece secure, Leopold turned his attention once more to securing his own dynasty. The only issue was who to choose. As a King in desperate need of legitimacy and security, Leopold needed a princess of equal or higher standing for a bride. As a King of an Orthodox country, Leopold preferably needed an Orthodox princess. Of all the options, available to him the best would have been a Russian Grand Duchess. Sadly, in none were available, there was a daughter of a Grand Duchess available, Princess Marie of Württemberg.

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Princess Marie Friederike Charlotte of Wurttemberg

Born on the 16th of October 1816 to King William of Wurttemberg and his wife Queen Katharina Pavlovna, Marie Friederike Charlotte was the niece of Russian Tsar Nicholas through her Mother Katharina, Nicholas’ sister. The Grand Duchess Katharina was originally married to Duke George of Oldenburg as a part of a greater string of marriage alliances her grandmother Catherine the Great and her father Tsar Paul were constructing with the principalities of Germany during the early days of the French Revolution.[2] Her marriage in 1809 to George was happy and together they had two sons before tragically, George succumbed to Typhoid fever in 1812. Four years later she would marry her cousin the Württembergian Crown Prince William and together they had two daughters.

Sadly, the Grand Duchess Katharina died soon after the birth of Marie’s sister Sophie in 1818 leaving the infant sisters in the care of their father and his family. Marie’s childhood would be relatively quiet. As the daughter of a King and a Russian Grand Duchess, she carried herself with grace and dignity, learning the responsibilities of royalty. Like her mother, she engaged in charitable works from a young age and was a regular patron of the common folk in Württemberg. Due to her Russian connection, she originally came to the attention of Leopold in the Spring and Summer of 1830 when he first began his search for a prospective bride. One thing acting against her candidacy for Leopold’s wife was her young age, at only 13 in 1830 she was little more than a child, but her close relation to the Russian Tsar was invaluable for Leopold’s reign. As the King of an Orthodox country, it behooved Leopold to connect himself by blood to his most obvious patron and ally, Russia. So, it was that on 10th of January 1832, Leopold sent his longtime friend and secretary Doctor Stockmar, along with a contingent of Greek diplomats to Stuttgart to ascertain as to the Princess’ eligibility and agreeability for the match.

Upon his arrival in Stuttgart two months later, Stockmar was pleased to find that the young Princess Marie had blossomed into a lovely young woman who was charming, intelligent, courteous, and well cultured. Stockmar dispatched a steady stream of information back to Athens regarding’s the girl’s appearance, character, health, and hobbies. If the King approved of the match, Stockmar argued that she would make a fine Queen of Greece. Her father King William was generally open to the idea, but he remained resistant to giving a final approval to the marriage of his daughter. Only when Leopold himself arrived in June 1832 did he manage to win over King William. After some negotiations regarding, religion, children, a dowry, and the date of the wedding ceremony, an arrangement was reached and without too much fuss, the match between King Leopold and Princess Marie was approved. With the marriage license agreed to, organization of the wedding went ahead with the ceremony scheduled for early November that year after her 16th birthday.

The only person unhappy with the arrangement was Princess Marie herself. The thought of marrying a cynical widower more than twice her age and whose greatest asset his famed good looks, which were beginning to fade by 1832, appalled the poor girl. Leopold’s attempts to charm her also did little to win the princess over either. And while the idea of traveling to distant Greece was certainly romantic, it would take her far away from her family and friends and proved to be an unappealing prospect to Princess Marie as well. Still she did her duty as was demanded of a King’s daughter and prepared herself for her new life with Leopold as best she could. When the day of the wedding finally arrived on the 8th of November, Princess Marie and King Leopold were married in a somber ceremony in Stiftskirche Church.

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Stiftskirche, The Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Stuttgart

Leopold, Marie, and their entourage would remain in Württemberg for another two weeks on a honeymoon of shorts before departing for Greece in mid-November. The moment their carriage crossed the border from Württemberg to Bavaria, Queen Marie burst into tears and would remain so for much of their journey. However, by the time their company reached the port of Patras two months later she finally began to come around to her husband. Leopold, while certainly dour and depressing at times, was by all means a kind and gentle man and generally amenable to his new wife. She came to appreciate his considerate and tactful personality and while he may not have loved her intrinsically, he genuinely cared for her wellbeing.

The people of Greece also came to admire their new queen as a vivacious and beautiful woman whose elegant yet youthful style captivated both men and women alike. She also expanded upon her charitable activity in Greece winning the hearts and minds of the Greeks. After arriving in Athens, the couple held a second wedding ceremony in the Church of the Holy Apostles one week after their arrival in early February before embarking on another journey, this time across Greece. Everywhere they went cheering crowds gathered to catch a glimpse of the Royal couple as they passed through each town and village from the islands, to Crete, the Morea, and then Central Greece before finally returning to Athens in late July.

Leopold’s and Marie’s typical day together began relatively late. They attended mass at ten in the morning, then followed by breakfast together and would then go for a long walk around Athens with their Kokoni.[3] While Leopold attended to the affairs of the state in the afternoon, Marie engaged in her charitable works around the capital or indulged in horseback riding and falconry. On some occasions she would read, while other times she would walk through the gardens with her ladies. In the evening, Leopold and Marie dined together, sometimes alone, but usually with company. After dinner Marie and the ladies would leave to do embroidery and gossip, while Leopold and the men discussed politics and the economy. When their guests departed, Leopold and Marie would retire to their separate chambers for the night before doing the same activities the next day.

This monotonous lifestyle would continue for much of 1833 until September when the young Queen announced she was pregnant with the King’s child. The news was met with joy by the people of Greece and consternation by King Leopold, who waited anxiously for the result. On the 10th of June 1834 Marie gave birth to the couple’s first child, a son. This boy would be named Constantine. Young Constantine was soon joined by a brother in 1836 named Alexander and a sister named Aikaterini in 1838. The rapid birth of three children in quick succession wore out the Queen and their fourth attempt at a child ended in tragedy. In February 1840 a third son, named Nicholas was born sickly and small. Despite the best efforts of Leopold’s physicians and the prayers of the people, the young boy would sadly die little over a week after his birth. His death devastated King Leopold and Queen Marie spending them both into a deep despair. Marie had also suffered terribly in the birth of their fourth child and was encouraged to refrain from having any further less they risk her health in the future, Leopold agreed.

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The Royal Family circa 1844
(Crown Prince Constantine left, King Leopold center-left, Princess Aikaterini center, Queen Marie center-right, Prince Alexander right)

Of their three children, Leopold doted on young Aikaterini the most. While he had initially been disappointed that she had been born a daughter as opposed to another son, Leopold quickly changed his mind and embraced the girl with all his heart. He showered her with praise, he gifted her exotic jewels and dresses, most importantly he gave her the finest education a man, or woman, could achieve at the time. She was energetic, curious, and extremely driven in all her pursuits mastering them all with ease and grace. Of all their children, Aikaterini inherited the best looks of their parents, her brilliant brown hair framed her elegant face. Her youthful vigor and beauty earned her the accolades of the leading Princes of Europe who called her the very visage of Helen of Troy reborn.

The boys, Constantine and Alexander, in comparison, were relatively mundane. As the heirs of the Throne of Greece, both enjoyed a rigorous and strict upbringing at the hands of their parents to prepare them for the difficulties and responsibilities of leadership. Constantine was a particularly shy and aloof little boy with hardly any passions or skill, yet surprisingly of all three, he would be the most ambitious and grandiose. He exhibited little talent in the way of military leadership and as a physical specimen he was relatively poor, his most distinguishable feature being a large nose. He generally failed in the administration of government or matters of jurisprudence as well. His main, if only, redeeming skill seem to have lied within his masterful handling of money and his eye for architecture. His brother Alexander was a more outgoing and gregarious boy and tended to be their mother’s favorite. Born healthy and strong, Alexander was groomed for a military career from a young age but a riding accident in his childhood would unfortunately physically impair his right leg ending any chance he might have had in a military career. However, his mind remained incredibly sharp and would become his greatest feature in later years.

Despite his qualms with his oldest son, King Leopold’s succession was secure and his place in Greece established along with it. As Greece finally entered a period of peace and stability the same could not be said of the other states of Europe and Asia which exhibited rebellions, revolutions, and wars of their own.[4]

Next Time: Crisis in the East


Author's note: I'm using pictures of Marie's sister Sophie in this part primarily because I can only find two pictures of Marie, one which is a portrait with her father and his family circa 1839, and the other is from 1875 when she is 59. I'm also using some events from Leopold's OTL marriage with Louise of Orleans as I had a some trouble finding any specific information on Princess Marie aside from her charitable work and her marriage to Count Alfred von Neipperg.

[1] Caroline Bauer was also the cousin of Leopold’s good friend and physician Baron Christian Friedrich von Stockmar. Some accounts indicate that she actually married Leopold, but there really isn’t any evidence that supports this. The date of their separation is also debatable with some saying she left Leopold in 1829 and others saying she left him in 1830. For the sake of simplicity, I’m going with the notion that she never actually married Leopold and that she left him in 1829.

[2] There was talk of her marrying Ludwig I of Bavaria, but this plan was ended by her mother who opposed the match. Apparently, Napoleon also offered his hand in marriage to Katharina but was also rejected for obvious reasons. Katharina’s sisters were married to various German Dukes and Princes during this time as well with her eldest sister Alexandra marrying the Archduke Joseph of Austria, her sister Elena marrying the Hereditary Duke Frederick Louis of Mecklenburg Schwerin, her sister Maria marrying Grand Duke Charles Frederick of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, and her younger sister Anna marrying the King William II of the Netherlands.

[3] A Kokoni, or Small Greek Domestic Dog is a dog breed commonly found in Greece. Leopold had a strong affinity for dogs and had several throughout his lifetime so it seems fitting he would have one now.

[4] Now it is time to say goodbye to Greece for a little while as we finally cover the events happening across the rest of the world, starting with Greece’s next-door neighbor, the Ottoman Empire.
 
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Good update. I see Leopold is more or less OTL Leopold II. Don't you think the children would get more traditional Greek names instead of Leopold, Charlotte and William, which don't even translate in Greek?
 
Good update. I see Leopold is more or less OTL Leopold II. Don't you think the children would get more traditional Greek names instead of Leopold, Charlotte and William, which don't even translate in Greek?
Well one of the kids is named Constantine while the girl is compared to Helen of Troy, so I think the kids have enough Greek nostalgia around their names and charecter to seem Greek enough for the Germans they really are. Besides having your heir with your first name seems pretty normal for a father to do, even if he is a German ruling over Greeks. Besides, Leo could also change his name when he ascends to the throne.
 
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Well one of the kids is named Constantine while the girl is compared to Helen of Troy, so I think the kids have enough Greek nostalgia around their names and charecter to seem Greek enough for the Germans they really are. Besides having your heir with your first name seems pretty normal for a father to do, even if he is a German ruling over Greeks. Besides, Leo could also change his name when he ascends to the throne.
The fact that they are Germans is the point.You need the child to have as much legitimacy as possible and a name without a Greek equivalent doesn't help, even if it's no deal breaker on its own. I think that at least Constantine and Leopold should have their names switched. Besides, OTL Leopold II was technically the second son.
 
The fact that they are Germans is the point.You need the child to have as much legitimacy as possible and a name without a Greek equivalent doesn't help, even if it's no deal breaker on its own. I think that at least Constantine and Leopold should have their names switched. Besides, OTL Leopold II was technically the second son.
That's why I said that Leo can change his name at his coronation, before then I don't expect many Greeks will pay close attention to the prince until he become king so his name for now dousnt matter.
 
Speaking of events happening across the world, I have to wonder if the earlier ending to the Greek War of Independence has in some way affected the OTL 1830 Hatt-i sharif signed sometime in October. I can assume that the peace signed between the Russians and Ottomans in 1829 effectively ensured that the OTL 1829 Hatt-i sharif remained as per usual, and with it still remaining there's nothing that could logically prevent the 1830 one from being signed, or even the subsequent 1833 Hatt-i sharif, since things probably won't be getting better for the Ottomans.

I mean, all these ponderings and more will probably be answered in the next part, since Serbia is still de jure Ottoman.
 
The fact that they are Germans is the point.You need the child to have as much legitimacy as possible and a name without a Greek equivalent doesn't help, even if it's no deal breaker on its own. I think that at least Constantine and Leopold should have their names switched. Besides, OTL Leopold II was technically the second son.
I think I've found a good solution hopefully, full names. Leopold II's full name is Leo Georgios Christian Friedrich, Constatine is Konstantinos Friedrich Wilhelm, Charlotte is now Maria Aikaterini Sarlot, and the last child was changed from William to Nicholas Friedrich Wilhelm. Its an imperfect blending of German and Greek but hopefully it works.
 
This makes more sense. This way the parents can use the German name and the Greeks can't feel slighted.
 
Plus as time goes on, the names of the dynasty will slowly become more and more Greek as they assimilate the culture and people of the land.
 
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