Looking forward for more posts..... I'm especially intrested in the way TTL wil deal with the land reform issue.....IMHO the toughest nut to crack
Well its certainly a tough nut for me to crack as well and I have the benefit of hindsight, still I have some ideas.
 
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Well its certainly a tough nut for me to crack as well and I have the benefit of hindsight.

I don't see it really going much different from OTL. The state had a vented interest in a strong freeholder class. If anything Kapodistrias was even more supportive of it than the governments under Otto. On the other hand actual titles to the "national lands" were not granted till 1871. The one major difference I can think about is trying to establish a national cadastre though. That could lead to an earlier grant of titles as well.
 
I don't see it really going much different from OTL. The state had a vented interest in a strong freeholder class. If anything Kapodistrias was even more supportive of it than the governments under Otto. On the other hand actual titles to the "national lands" were not granted till 1871. The one major difference I can think about is trying to establish a national cadastre though. That could lead to an earlier grant of titles as well.

The little I've been able to read tells that the whole scheme was doomed to the failure from the start;


- The plots allocated to every family were too small, bellow the minimum for subsistence.

- To make matters worse, land in TTL & OTL liberated Greece was hard to cultivate, and a bigger plot didn't always mean more profits.

- Corruption was rampant during the entire process of land distribution. Something that has more to do with intermediate and local officials than with a capable Governor at the top.

- The Notables are still there.....they will try to get / increase their estates in order to safeguard their privileges and strenghten their position vis-a vis the central government.
 
The little I've been able to read tells that the whole scheme was doomed to the failure from the start;


- The plots allocated to every family were too small, bellow the minimum for subsistence.

- To make matters worse, land in TTL & OTL liberated Greece was hard to cultivate, and a bigger plot didn't always mean more profits.

- Corruption was rampant during the entire process of land distribution. Something that has more to do with intermediate and local officials than with a capable Governor at the top.

- The Notables are still there.....they will try to get / increase their estates in order to safeguard their privileges and strenghten their position vis-a vis the central government.

All of which are unchanged from OTL. The only thing changed is the central government has more resources and more human talent available to support its own ends.
 
Of course if reconsidered, lacking a strong agriculture sector doesn't necessariy mean economic failure.....

If OTL expands cultivation of cash-crops & developes basic food industry (olive, grape, wine....) and tobacco for exports at faster speed than OTL, the balance of payments will look probably better, considering that net importers of staple crops (wheat) benefitted greatly of the price drop of cereals during the 2nd half of 19thy century.

If combined with a strong shipping sector, the picture reminds loosely that of Norway in the mid 1800s (hit by emigration waves).....but OTL Greece will need to attain poltical stability earlier. Expanding and improving educational system will help a lot too....

Impossible is nothing !!
 
Of course if reconsidered, lacking a strong agriculture sector doesn't necessariy mean economic failure.....

If OTL expands cultivation of cash-crops & developes basic food industry (olive, grape, wine....) and tobacco for exports at faster speed than OTL, the balance of payments will look probably better, considering that net importers of staple crops (wheat) benefitted greatly of the price drop of cereals during the 2nd half of 19thy century.

If combined with a strong shipping sector, the picture reminds loosely that of Norway in the mid 1800s (hit by emigration waves).....but OTL Greece will need to attain poltical stability earlier. Expanding and improving educational system will help a lot too....

Impossible is nothing !!
Actually cash crops(Corinthian raisin in particular)were quite widespread simply because the limited and not-so-fertile land area and little rainfall made it impossible to make a living through staple crops. The problem was that remittances from Ottoman and diaspora Greeks kept the value of the drachma high and imports were cheaper than developing a domestic industry of any kind. At the same time the state didn't have the money, authority or farsightedness to encourage serious industrial growth, infrastructure was non-existent for a long time, and the educational system encouraged theoretical studies over STEM. These are problems that don't have easy solutions.
 
Of course if reconsidered, lacking a strong agriculture sector doesn't necessariy mean economic failure.....

If OTL expands cultivation of cash-crops & developes basic food industry (olive, grape, wine....) and tobacco for exports at faster speed than OTL, the balance of payments will look probably better, considering that net importers of staple crops (wheat) benefitted greatly of the price drop of cereals during the 2nd half of 19thy century.

If combined with a strong shipping sector, the picture reminds loosely that of Norway in the mid 1800s (hit by emigration waves).....but OTL Greece will need to attain poltical stability earlier. Expanding and improving educational system will help a lot too....

Impossible is nothing !!
Greece has a few cash crops like cotton, grapes and wine, Corinthian raisins as Algaz said, and olives/olive oil, but their production is nothing compared to that of the American South with its cotton industry or Britain with its textile industry, so breaking into a pre existing industry will be tough. Realistically, Kapodistrias and Leopold can only do so much to develop industry in Greece given the circumstances they faced at the times, things will certainly be better economically than OTL, but not that much better.
Actually cash crops(Corinthian raisin in particular)were quite widespread simply because the limited and not-so-fertile land area and little rainfall made it impossible to make a living through staple crops. The problem was that remittances from Ottoman and diaspora Greeks kept the value of the drachma high and imports were cheaper than developing a domestic industry of any kind. At the same time the state didn't have the money, authority or farsightedness to encourage serious industrial growth, infrastructure was non-existent for a long time, and the educational system encouraged theoretical studies over STEM. These are problems that don't have easy solutions.
Sadly money is still an issue for TTL's Greece, but it could put more of an emphasis on engineering, math, and science in its schools than it did in OTL. Leopold for instance was incredibly interested in railroads and industrialization so he can certainly make a better showing than Otto did in this regard.

Also apologies to everyone for the delay on the next part, but I should have something ready by tomorrow.
 
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Actually cash crops(Corinthian raisin in particular)were quite widespread simply because the limited and not-so-fertile land area and little rainfall made it impossible to make a living through staple crops. The problem was that remittances from Ottoman and diaspora Greeks kept the value of the drachma high and imports were cheaper than developing a domestic industry of any kind. At the same time the state didn't have the money, authority or farsightedness to encourage serious industrial growth, infrastructure was non-existent for a long time, and the educational system encouraged theoretical studies over STEM. These are problems that don't have easy solutions.


Interesting...... that caused the speculation which greek currency suffered along that period....but OTOH a foreign source of capital like that can be a blessing if well-invested.

About the need of farsightedness for encouraging (modest, minimal) industrial takeover... well, the Egyptian Mehmet Ali pulled his own Meiji around that period, and he did know the importance of a domestic secondary sector. Of course, Mehmet Ali had at his disposal capital and corvee manpower Greece lacked. But we are talking about different rates of development.

Greece has a few cash crops like cotton, wine, and olive oil, but their production is nothing compared to that of the American South with its cotton industry during the first half of the 19th Century. Realistically, Kapodistrias and Leopold can only do so much to develop industry in Greece given the circumstances they faced at the times, things will certainly be better economically than OTL, but not that much better.

That's right, but my comment were focused on the mid-term....OTL Greece facing the last quarter of century in a better shape is not out of the question.

But that reminds me that having an independent emerging state in Eastern Med was the kind of situation that the Brits hardly tolerated....
 
That's right, but my comment were focused on the mid-term....OTL Greece facing the last quarter of century in a better shape is not out of the question.

But that reminds me that having an independent emerging state in Eastern Med was the kind of situation that the Brits hardly tolerated....
Oh definitely, Greece will certainly be better off in the medium to long term once they finish recovering from the war and figure out their current economic issues.

Having Leopold as King will also go a long way in avoiding a lot of the shenanigans that Britain pulled on Otto and Greece in OTL.
 
If combined with a strong shipping sector, the picture reminds loosely that of Norway in the mid 1800s (hit by emigration waves).....but OTL Greece will need to attain poltical stability earlier. Expanding and improving educational system will help a lot too....

Speaking of similarities between Norway and Greece, both have massively outsized merchant marine fleets—Greece has the largest in the world today. I guess they’ll be reaching that point sooner ITTL...
 
Greece has a few cash crops like cotton, grapes and wine, Corinthian raisins as Algaz said, and olives/olive oil, but their production is nothing compared to that of the American South with its cotton industry or Britain with its textile industry, so breaking into a pre existing industry will be tough. Realistically, Kapodistrias and Leopold can only do so much to develop industry in Greece given the circumstances they faced at the times, things will certainly be better economically than OTL, but not that much better.

Sadly money is still an issue for TTL's Greece, but it could put more of an emphasis on engineering, math, and science in its schools than it did in OTL. Leopold for instance was incredibly interested in railroads and industrialization so he can certainly make a better showing than Otto did in this regard.

Also apologies to everyone for the delay on the next part, but I should have something ready by tomorrow.

Otto famously or infamously depending how you see it was putting resistance to the establishment of a Greek steamship company. Which was used against him on the way of his overthrow. The rumors this was causing that he was doing so to help the Austrian Lloyd hardly helped even if spurious as the actual reason had more to do with poor Otto's mental issues. (as at the time during the Crimean war when with British and French troops in Piraeus he was taking up the time of his foreign minister who was about to leave for Paris and London to explain the extremely important issue on whether the army should replace bungles or not)

That said Kapodistrias was planning among other things setting up a small iron industry taking advantage of the coal in Euboea and the iron deposits on the opposite coast and generally supporting industrialization. Even limited state support for industrialization beginning in the 1830s as opposed to waiting for Trikoupis should be quite important, particularly as it takes place at a time when transport costs are still higher.
 
Otto famously or infamously depending how you see it was putting resistance to the establishment of a Greek steamship company. Which was used against him on the way of his overthrow. The rumors this was causing that he was doing so to help the Austrian Lloyd hardly helped even if spurious as the actual reason had more to do with poor Otto's mental issues. (as at the time during the Crimean war when with British and French troops in Piraeus he was taking up the time of his foreign minister who was about to leave for Paris and London to explain the extremely important issue on whether the army should replace bungles or not)

That said Kapodistrias was planning among other things setting up a small iron industry taking advantage of the coal in Euboea and the iron deposits on the opposite coast and generally supporting industrialization. Even limited state support for industrialization beginning in the 1830s as opposed to waiting for Trikoupis should be quite important, particularly as it takes place at a time when transport costs are still higher.
That's a very interesting point regarding the coal and iron on Euboea and one I haven't really considered. From what I could find on a cursory glance, coal mining began at Aliveri in 1873 in an effort to begin modernizing and industrializing Greece. I would assume that Kapodistrias knows about the coal and the iron and he certainly would have the drive to take advantage of them so that is a pretty important jump start at 40 some years. That could be pretty significant in some regards to industrialization for Greece.
 
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That's a very interesting point regarding the coal and iron on Euboea and one I haven't really considered. From what I could find on a cursory glance, coal mining began at Aliveri in 1873 at the behest of Trikoupis' efforts to modernize and industrialize Greece. I would assume that Kapodistrias knows about the coal and the iron and he certainly would have the drive to take advantage of them so that is a pretty important jump start at 40 some years. That could be pretty significant in some regards to industrialization for Greece.
A Greek Steel industry.
 
A Greek Steel industry.
Considering steel means railroads and steam ships, this bodes well for for Greece assuming it can remain stable enough, and attract enough foreign investment, to utilize those resources.

A few questions though:
Would the introduction of railroads create a new class of wealthy citizens who own them assuming they are private, or would the land owners be the primary beneficiaries?
Or would the railroads be state owned, and how would the various factions of government try to manipulate the main route?
In terms of steam ships would they be bought primarily domestically as the ship owners try to gain an advantage in international trade or would they be sold internationally as a cheaper alternative to the British? or would they not be cheaper at all?
 
A Greek Steel industry.
Considering steel means railroads and steam ships, this bodes well for for Greece assuming it can remain stable enough, and attract enough foreign investment, to utilize those resources.

A few questions though:
Would the introduction of railroads create a new class of wealthy citizens who own them assuming they are private, or would the land owners be the primary beneficiaries?
Or would the railroads be state owned, and how would the various factions of government try to manipulate the main route?
In terms of steam ships would they be bought primarily domestically as the ship owners try to gain an advantage in international trade or would they be sold internationally as a cheaper alternative to the British? or would they not be cheaper at all?
Unfortunately, the Bessemer process won't be invented for another 23 years, so the Greeks probably won't be setting the world on fire with their steel production. Most likely, they will be making wrought iron for whatever train tracks or steamships they make. While it won't be as good quality as steel it will be less expensive and it will do alright until better steel production techniques are invented.

The people most likely to benefit from industrialization are the large land owners and the big investors, although the government and to a lesser degree the people get some benefits as well, namely tax income and jobs. Railways will most likely be publicly owned and operated institutions, but its certainly possibile that they start as private entities working with the Greek Government under a contract. The factories will most likely be privately owned but operating under contracts with the Greek Government and the raw materials they are using are almost certainly Greek.

Steamships are an interesting topic, primarily because I'm not entirely sure where I want to go with them. The Greeks made their own steamship company in 1857 at which time steam was no longer a novelty invention. They will almost certainly create their own Steamship company earlier in TTL as Otto was strongly against them for whatever reason, while Leopold and Kapodistrias are largely in favor of them. Most likely, they will be sold to both local and international merchants, and they could certainly be seen as a cheaper alternative to British steamships.
 
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Part 33: Reformation
Part 33: Reformation
Lion+near+Hymettus.jpg

The Colossal Lion of Hymettus

Meeting on the 5th of January 1831, King Leopold, Ioannis Kapodistrias, the members of the Greek Government, and numerous delegates and representatives from across Greece assembled in the city of Nafplion to address the issues facing their country.

Political Reforms:

First on the docket was the abolition of the Office of Governor of Greece. With the arrival of King Leopold, and his status as Head of State and Commander in Chief, many of the powers bestowed upon the Governor now came under the purview of the King. As such, the Office of the Governor of Greece was abolished and in its place, Ioannis Kapodistrias was elected Prime Minister of Greece. As Prime Minister, he would serve as Head of Government and direct the King’s Cabinet. He would also oversee the Legislature and set its agenda. Kapodistrias would serve a four year term and could be removed or reappointed at the discretion of the King.

Next was citizenship. All Greek peoples residing within the Kingdom of Greece as of the 29th of May 1830 were granted Greek citizenship, as were any Greek tradesmen or diplomats working abroad on behalf of the Greek State. Greek citizenship was also bestowed to the Aromanians, the Arvanites, the Romaniotes, the Souliotes, and the Philhellenes who remained in the country following the War for Independence. Citizens of the Kingdom of Greece were entitled to equal protection under the laws of Greece and the right to vote in local and national elections. Universal suffrage was established for all men 25 years or older in Greece.

Moving on, the next series of reforms proposed during the Assembly dealt with the complete reorganization of the administrative division of Greece. During the War for Independence and its immediate aftermath, Greece generally continued to follow the province structure established by the Ottoman Empire despite the differences in administration and territory between them. Another issue was much of the infrastructure and bureaucracy for those provinces had been lost during the war leaving the Greeks with little to take control over. As such, a new system needed to be established from the ground up. The old provinces were dissolved and in their place, new units called Nomoi (Counties or Prefectures), were created to serve as the basis for the national government’s administration.[1] The extent of each Nomos was determined with geography, demographics, and history in mind. In total, there were to be 14 Nomoi:

1. The Nome of Argolis and Corinthia
2. The Nomos of Arcadia
3. The Nomos of Laconia
4. The Nomos of Messenia
5. The Nomos of Achaea and Elis
6. The Nomos of Attica and Boeotia
7. The Nomos of Phthiotis and Phocis
8. The Nomos of Euboea
9. The Nomos of Aetolia-Acarnania
10. The Nomos of Arta
11. The Nomos of the Archipelago
12. The Nomos of Chios and Samos
13. The Nomos of Chania
14. The Nomos of Heraklion
Timeline Greece Nomos Map 1831.png

Each Nomos shall be directed by an Nomarchos (Governor) and an Advisory Council. The Nomarchos shall be selected by the King, with the advice and consent of the Senate, from a prepared list of candidates submitted by the Nomos’ Council. Each Council shall be comprised of popularly elected representatives from their respective Nomos, with the size of the councils being restricted to 30 Councilmen. Together, the Governor and the Advisory Council shall enforce the laws of the state and manage the administrative and local affairs of their respective Nomos. Each Nomos shall be divided amongst several municipalities, directed by a locally elected mayor or chieftain. In addition, each Nomos shall send representatives to the Vouli (House of Representatives), proportional to the total population of the Nomos. To determine the number of representatives for each Nomos, a new census shall be called to take place immediately following the Assembly’s conclusion and elections were to be held following its completion.

The Legislature was reformed as a bicameral legislature, with the House of Representatives being established as a new legislative body working in conjuncture with the Senate. It was to be an elected chamber, with its members selected by popular vote. Each representative would be elected to a 4-year term and could serve as many terms as they were able. Each representative would be a resident of their respective Nomos. The House of Representatives had the power to craft legislation and establish committees but it did not have the powers of advice and consent with the Monarch, which was granted solely to the Senate. The Senate remained an exclusive chamber of the legislature, with its members appointed directly by the King with the advice and consent of the Prime Minister. The Senate was restricted to 30 Senators, whose members would serve until death or retirement from office. The Senate had the power to approve treaties, craft legislation, establish committees, and confirm the Monarch’s appointments to the Governorships, the Cabinet, and the Judiciary.

Turning to the Monarch’s cabinet, it was established at 8 members; the Prime minister, the Foreign Minister, the Minister of War, the Minister of the Navy the Justice Minister, the Internal Affairs Minister, the Finance Minister, and the Commerce Minister. Each Minister would have responsibility over their respective Ministries and would serve at the discretion of the King. The Prime Minister would serve as the Head of Government, leading the King’s cabinet, and setting the agenda for the legislature. The Ministers appointed in 1831 were:

Prime Minister – Ioannis Kapodistrias
Foreign Minister – Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Minister of the Army – Richard Church [2]
Minister of the Navy – Andreas Miaoulis
Justice Minister – Christodoulos Klonaris
Internal Affairs Minister – Spyridon Trikoupis
Treasury Minister - Georgios Kountouriotis
Commerce Minister – Andreas Zaimis

The Assembly of 1831 also finally established the Judiciary of Greece as its own institution, separate from the Monarchy and Legislature as had been originally intended in the Constitution of 1823. The Judiciary of Greece was to be composed of three High Courts, the Supreme Court of Greece, the Council of State, and the Court of Audit. The Supreme Court of Greece, would serve as the supreme judicial body for civil and criminal law, having ultimate jurisdiction over all national and local courts in the Kingdom of Greece. The 20 Judges of the Supreme Court would be appointed by the King with the advice and consent of the Senate and serve until death or retirement. Its members would examine the accuracy of each judgement given by the lower courts by ensuring in its decisions their compliance with the laws of Greece. The Lower appellate and municipal courts shall be established by their respective Nome, with the Judges of those courts appointed by the local Eparchos and Advisory Council.

The Assembly also established a Council of State, in the vein of the French Conseil d'État, to serve as a legal advisory body to the King, his Majesty’s Cabinet, and the Legislature regarding administrative and judicial disputes of the state. It was given the power to review prospective pieces of legislation to determine their compliance, or violation, with the Constitution and convey this information to the King, the Cabinet, and the Legislature. The Council of State was constituted as a twenty-member chamber headed by the Prime Minister, serving as the Council’s President, or in his absence, the Justice Minister. Seven additional members appointed by the King are seated upon the Council’s presiding board, with the council itself being comprised of 12 Privy Councilors and Associate Judges serving on the Council. Each member of the Council shall serve a 4-year term.

A Court of Audit shall be established and tasked with the advising the King, the Cabinet, and the Legislature on financial and legislative audits. The Court of Audits shall have the power to control state spending, both national and local and to audit individuals and institutions, both public and private, for financial records. It is also responsible for the accountability of public officials and administrators and jurisdiction in salary cases for civil servants. It shall be a chamber composed of 20 judges and lawyers, appointed by the king and serving for a period of four years. An academy for Judges shall be established for the proper training and teaching of prospective Judges for all the courts of the Kingdom of Greece.

One last political amendment, was the relocation of the capital of the Kingdom of Greece. Since its liberation in December 1822, Nafplion had served as the capital of Greece dutifully providing the bare necessities for the governance of the country. It was strategically located along the coast of the Argolic Gulf, it was protected by a series of fortifications dating from the early 1700’s, and it’s economy was flourishing relative to the far flung regions of the Kingdom. However, there existed a multitude of issues with the city of 6,000 people. Many of Nafplion’s roads were little more than dirt trails which were heavily rutted, and the few paved roads in the city were generally few and far between. Litter and debris had been strewn across the city during the war and remained there long after it had ended. Most worryingly, the aqueduct system in the city was in poor repair, and had proven unable to support the increase in residents following King Leopold’s arrival and coronation the year prior. It was a Medieval city more akin to a provincial town, than a modern capital of a strong state. Many of the Greeks had recognized these problems as well and while some had planned to develop Nafplion, others were looking to abandon it in favor of other more illustrious cities.

Several candidates for the new capital were proposed from Amphissa, Missolonghi, Patras, and Tripolitsa among many others. While each proved relatively popular, each was summarily rejected by the Assembly. Amphissa was too far North and too remote to be the capital. Missolonghi, despite its impressive pedigree during the war, remained a wreck, with many buildings still ruined two years after its liberation from the Ottomans. It was also too far too the west, placing it far away from the core of the state, this reasoning was also used to discredit Patras’ bid for the capital despite its wealth and relatively intact infrastructure. Tripolitsa, was an impressive choice as it was among the largest cities in Greece and its walls and positioning made it strong defensibly, however, it was an unacceptable option for the Islanders being too far inland and away from their influence. Tripolitsa was also in the midst of a terrible pandemic making it undesirable to many in attendance. With these options removed from consideration, the choice fell to the last candidates remaining, Athens and Argos.

Both cities were centrally located in the country, both were relatively close to the sea, both had illustrious and ancient pasts dating to the classical age of Greek heroes and thinkers, and both had been the scene of great battles during the war for independence. The similarities ended there however. Of the two, Athens was unequivocally more famous for its ancient history, it was the birthplace of democracy, the sciences, philosophy. It was a center of learning and innovation in the past and the home to many famous leaders, thinkers, heroes and dignitaries. It was also far larger in terms of population, size, and scale at over 5,000 to less than 3,000 for Argos. Ultimately, the decision came down to politics as the Islanders, Roumeliotes, and Cretans all united behind Athens in a bid to oppose the Moreots. After some debate, Athens was declared the winner by a margin of nine votes.

LEO05.jpg

Athens, Capital of the Kingdom of Greece
Next Time: The King of Steam and the Count of Coal

[1] I’ll probably refer to the Nomos as counties or prefectures on occasion as they are generally interchangeable.

[2] I had meant to include Sir Richard Church earlier in the narrative, but his role was going to be relatively minor I left it out to keep each part concise. He was a Philhellene from Ireland who was actually Theodoros Kolokotronis’ friend during the Napoleonic War as the Commander of the Greek Light Infantry Regiment. After the Napoleonic Wars, he took a commission with the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and remained there for several years before traveling to Greece in 1827 where he was immediately put in command of the Greek Army during the failed liberation of Athens. After the war, he had a falling out with Kapodistrias and resigned from the Greek Army, but after Kapodistrias’ death he rejoined the military to restore order to the country. He later became the Minister of the Army under King Otto in 1835 and then a Senator in 1844. ITTL, he makes his way to Greece around the same time in 1827, but because of Kapodistrias he never gains command of the Greek military like in OTL and instead serves primarily in the administration of the Greek military.
 
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Good update.

The choice of Argos is interesting; Athens will still become Greece's largest city, IMO...

BTW, this is a good Greek TL and with a PoD I haven't seen before; this should be nominated for a Turtledove when the time comes...

Waiting for more, of course...
 
Maybe if they ever have the time, they could fix up Olympia and do some athletic competitions there?

Great update, btw.
 
Good update.

The choice of Argos is interesting; Athens will still become Greece's largest city, IMO...

BTW, this is a good Greek TL and with a PoD I haven't seen before; this should be nominated for a Turtledove when the time comes...

Waiting for more, of course...
Maybe if they ever have the time, they could fix up Olympia and do some athletic competitions there?

Great update, btw.
Thank you both very much!

Argos was actually considered for the capital of Greece after the war in OTL as well, but King Ludwig of Bavaria and his son Otto forced the move to Athens. While Leopold certainly has his romantic leanings, he is almost definitely a pragmatist and the undertaking needed to move the government to Athens would be very expensive, especially when that money can go towards other things like recovering from the war so I would expect him to stay out of the debate for the most part.

I certainly don't disagree that Athens will become one of the biggest cities in Greece ITTL and I certainly don't intend for it to become some obscure town by any measure. If anything, it will likely be the cultural and learning hub of Greece filled with art, theater, history, the sciences, etc. I believe in OTL, there was an attempt to host the Olympics in Athens in perpetuity, the Zappas Olympics so Athens could certainly be the sporting hub of Greece as well.

I was actually planning to post this section on the Political reforms along with the Economic and Military reforms as well, but those sections ended up expanding well beyond my original draft so I split them into three parts, so the part on Economic reforms will be later tonight or tomorrow, and the part on military reforms will be tomorrow or Wednesday.
 
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