Possible sites for procuring Asian slaves in the 17th century?

I'm brainstorming an alternate timeline about Asian slaves in America. As other users pointed out in threads about Asian slaves, there are difficulties obtaining slaves from Asia due to many factors like tech level, cultural reasons and other things.

To make the long backstory short for the discussion: In the 16th century, Spain and Portugal along with Holland unite as the Iberian Union, West Africa is Christianized, enslavement of Africans and Native Americans are banned due to alternate New Laws, colonies go bust from the want of labor, Japan converts to Catholicism, earlier discovery of the Pacific Islands and the subsequent population crash of the Islanders, colonists find an untapped source of laborers in Asia and decide to exploit for slave labor in the Iberian colonies.

There are a few ways where Amarelo slaves are obtained in the ATL:
  • Indentured Servitude
  • Slave-raiding
  • Purchasing Prisoners of War
  • Penal Deportation
What would be possible sites in the Asian continent where Amarelo (Yellow) slaves can be procured?
 
I'm brainstorming an alternate timeline about Asian slaves in America. As other users pointed out in threads about Asian slaves, there are difficulties obtaining slaves from Asia due to many factors like tech level, cultural reasons and other things.

To make the long backstory short for the discussion: In the 16th century, Spain and Portugal along with Holland unite as the Iberian Union, West Africa is Christianized, enslavement of Africans and Native Americans are banned due to alternate New Laws, colonies go bust from the want of labor, Japan converts to Catholicism, earlier discovery of the Pacific Islands and the subsequent population crash of the Islanders, colonists find an untapped source of laborers in Asia and decide to exploit for slave labor in the Iberian colonies.

There are a few ways where Amarelo slaves are obtained in the ATL:
  • Indentured Servitude
  • Slave-raiding
  • Purchasing Prisoners of War
  • Penal Deportation
What would be possible sites in the Asian continent where Amarelo (Yellow) slaves can be procured?

The Portuguese did enslave the Japanese for use I believe in their East India company, but a Catholic Japan is out impossible, the lords that the Portuguese either found sympathy or converts were weak or overthrown, you may be able to get a stronger foothold depending on the POD. If your keeping Holland under Spanish rule how is Felipe II's lack of toleration going to be avoided?

More to the point slaves for use in the America, would require alot of people and conditions to sustain them, with the pacific islanders what is to say they will not go the way of most Native American slaves. Taking slaves in Asia is a much riskier venture, especially if more states to find out about it. Enslaving the Japanese only worked because Japan was divided, in theory you could a China that somehow goes into another 16 Kingdoms-esqe period of division, but the Chinese already enough bad experiences with the Wako pirates.
 
I believe OTL a fair amount of Coolies aka “Indentured Labourers” were pretty near slaves, but I think the issue you are likely to run into is not acquisition but delivery. If you look at the death rates for transportation of slaves in the earlier periods it may be uneconomic to transport people from Asia to the Americas unless they go willingly.
 
As mentioned, the problem of Asian slaves, except locally in the DEI etc, is that Asia is a long way from where slaves are needed. Slaves are wanted for the plantations of North America, the Caribbean Islands, Brazil, the mines of South America, etc. Sure by the 1850s and onwards there would be (potentially) a market for slaves in California but oops that was a free territory. Coolies for labor on a hire/indenture basis were all post ACW in California.

You simply cannot transport Asian slave "product" to the "market" areas with any hope of a reasonable percentage surviving until the steamship era, and by then the market no longer exists.
 
In the ATL, Europeans discover the Pacific Islands. However, further exploration of the Pacific Islands causes a population crash of the Islanders due to introduction of foreign diseases such as chickenpox, measles and influenza. The islands are used as point-to-point transit points during the transportation of the Amarelos from Asia to Benoa Sindalu (Amarelo word for the Americas) throughout the period of the Trans-Pacific Slave Trade (16th-19th centuries).

To return to the original question of the thread, what regions and locations in Asia that could be used as sources of slaves in the 17th century?
 
In the ATL, Europeans discover the Pacific Islands. However, further exploration of the Pacific Islands causes a population crash of the Islanders due to introduction of foreign diseases such as chickenpox, measles and influenza. The islands are used as point-to-point transit points during the transportation of the Amarelos from Asia to Benoa Sindalu (Amarelo word for the Americas) throughout the period of the Trans-Pacific Slave Trade (16th-19th centuries).

To return to the original question of the thread, what regions and locations in Asia that could be used as sources of slaves in the 17th century?

I would think Southeast Asia would be more vulnerable to slavers than the big states of northeast Asia like Japan, Korea and China. Civil wars and invasions in northeast Asia could provide some opportunities on a fleeting basis. IE, Japanese selling Koreans or Ainu, Chinese or Koreans selling Jurchen, Jurchen selling Chinese while conquering them.
 
In the ATL, the main principal regions of Asia used by the Iberians to gather and ship Amarelos to the Americas:
  • Indian Subcontinent
  • Malay Peninsula
  • East Asia
  • Japanese Archipelago
  • The Philippines
  • Borneo
  • Indochina
  • Sunda Islands & the Moluccas
In those affected regions during the heyday of the Trans-Pacific Slave Trade, the slave traders from America who worked on syndicates often exploited local troubles or used already-existing oppression in the regions. In the Indian Subcontinent, traders would purchase prisoners of war from rival Muslim and Hindu princedoms. In Ceylon, Buddhist Sinhalese rulers would sell Hindu Tamils of the lower castes in trading posts along the coast.

In Japan and Korea, the victory of Toyotomi Hideyoshi in invading Korea causes hundreds of Korean prisoners of war to be transported to the mainland. During the period of the slave trade or Dorae - the Catholic Japanese nobility who ruled Japan at the time, sold off thousands of slaves. The slaves were mostly composed of Japanese rebels who rebelled against the Catholic nobility, firebrand Buddhist monks, problematic Shinto priests, dissident Samurai, convicts, Koreans, Ainu from Hokkaido, Manchus and Jurchen people from Manchuria and Wokou captives.

I'll continue the next hour for how did the syndicates get slaves.
 
In Cambodia, the collapse of the Khmer Empire and the subsequent Dark Ages ushers in an era of chaos and fury, a time where Cambodians had no strong king to guide them out of the tumultuous times. Natural disasters, territorial losses by Vietnam and Siam and all sorts of calamities befell on the Cambodians. At the time, slave-trafficking syndicates from Iberian Union and the Americas arrived in the oft-overlooked trading areas of Asia.

The Khmer King at the time made a horrid deal with the slave traders in order to salvage the prestige and glory of the ruined Khmer Empire and regain power over Southeast Asia. As a result, several slave factories popped along the coast of Cambodia and the mouth of the Mekong River. Many slaves from Cambodia were obtained from raiding the interior of Cambodia and Laos.
 

Lusitania

Donor
The thing is there were hundreds of tribes in Africa and if the issue was that Christians could not be kept as salves then the coastal African tribes would of raided inland to tribes that were traditional religion or Islamic to get non Christian slaves.
 

Grey Wolf

Donor
Indo-China would be the most ripe place. The strongest kingdoms were often no match short-term for well-equipped Europeans. There were a multitude of border mini-kingdoms that could be played against each other.

Alternatively have a look at India. Maybe Bengal would come to some arrangement where instead of conquest, a factory at somewhere like Calcutta becomes a trading depot for slaves out of the interior? The challenge of course is to get them to the Americas alive as the journey is going to be longer than crossing the Atlantic

Best Regards
Grey Wolf
 
The thing is there were hundreds of tribes in Africa and if the issue was that Christians could not be kept as salves then the coastal African tribes would of raided inland to tribes that were traditional religion or Islamic to get non Christian slaves.

Due to the alternate New Laws purposed by Bartolome de las Casas during the 15th century that banned enslavement of Africans and Native Americans along with the West Africans who had Catholic ancestors dating back from the missionary conversions in the medieval times, many refused to buy and sell slaves.

Indo-China would be the most ripe place. The strongest kingdoms were often no match short-term for well-equipped Europeans. There were a multitude of border mini-kingdoms that could be played against each other.

That's the thing I'm referring in the previous post. Many Amarelos originating from Indochina region were traded for European rifles and other products. Most of them came from raids or captured as prisoners during skirmishes between the kingdoms and chiefdoms in Indochina.

Alternatively have a look at India. Maybe Bengal would come to some arrangement where instead of conquest, a factory at somewhere like Calcutta becomes a trading depot for slaves out of the interior? The challenge of course is to get them to the Americas alive as the journey is going to be longer than crossing the Atlantic

In the ATL, several factories were established along the coast of the Indian Subcontinent. In the regions on what is now modern-day Bangladesh, this was a place least controlled by the Mughal Empire at the time. It relied on using indentured servants and purchasing prisoners of war from rebellions within the Mughal Empire or conflicts between Hindu and Muslim kingdoms.
The discovery of the Pacific Islands shortened the trip required to cross the Pacific heading towards the Americas.

In the ATL, the Amarelo shipping syndicates used a special type of sailing ship designed to navigate the Pacific, the American coast and the regions of Asia. What type of ship required to transport Amarelos using the specifications?
  1. Large carrying capacity
  2. Fast ship speeds
 
Probably the usual places where 19th century coolies came from;India and China predominately with neighboring countries providing some slaves as well. For instance,in the 17th century,Japan sold a lot of women and girls to the Portuguese who would up as concubines for the slaves. You probably also look at Indonesia,Malaysia and the Philippines,3 very ethnically diverse island countries with a history of conflict and piracy. The local pirates definitely raided for slaves frequently.
 
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