Chapter 1


Chapter 1: A miraculous escape.

The dangerous presence of more than 65,000 french troops in the Spanish mainland and their control over the comunication with Portugal, the French border and even Madrid, with the adition of the Napoleon's exigences over the realms of Carlos IV ended up alarming the Spanish Prime Minister Manuel Godoy (the most powerful person in Spain) who decided to move the Royal Family to the Royal Palace of Aranjuez in the case of had to move quickly to Sevilla and embark to America as already had do John VI of Portugal.


Goya's Portraif of Manuel Godoy in the aftermath of the succesful "War of the oranges"(1801).
After the spread of the rumour about the travel of the Kings, the crowd leaded by nobles supporters of Fernando storms the Royal Palace of Aranjuez, ITTL during the midnight of 18 March, Godoy managed to make the Royal Family and himself escape to Cadíz dressed as merchants, where they board a merchant ship bound for La Habana.
In OTL the Royal Family and Godoy was captured in 19 March and meanwhile Carlos IV was sended to Bayona to meet Napoleon and Ferdinand, Godoy was exiled along the rest of the Royal Family first to France and later to Italy.

Without the presence of his father or his abdication, Prince Fernando takes the power as Regent in the part of the Spanish mainland that is not occupied by French soldiers, waiting for Napoleon to summon him to meet in Bayona to recognize him as King of Spain.
The "Dos de Mayo uprising" occurs and with this, the "Peninsular War" or "Guerra de Independencia Española" start, most of the spaniards rise on against the french invaders, on 7 May Napoleon meet Prince Fernando in Bayona and force him to abdicate the Spanish Crown in the brother of the Emperor, Joseph Bonaparte.


Joseph I of Spain, also known as "Pepe Botella"
Finally in 20 May the Royal Family and Godoy reach La Habana, where they are received with popular cheering from the people and they are drived to the residence of the Governor of Cuba, Salvador de Muro y Salazar, after the meet with him, Godoy suggest to Carlos IV to take a trip through his domains: from México to Buenos Aires.
On 19 Juny the french troops under the command of the general Murat are crushed in Bailén, the news is very well received in Veracruz, where the King and the Prime Minister are landing, this is the first time that a Spanish King has set foot the America mainland. Godoy calls José de Iturrigaray Aróstegui the Viceroy of New Spain to meet in México City.
The Viceroy meet both Godoy and Carlos IV in México City, the Viceroy declares that the criollos are upset because they are considered second class citizen in comparison with the peninsulares, Carlos IV announce to him that the criollos will be equals from now on.
At the arrival of the Royal Family and Godoy to México, the latter decides to move the capital of the empire to México City temporarily, from where the law that guarantees equality to creoles with respect to peninsular is decreed (Real Decreto 22-X-1808).

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The Viceregal Palace in the early 19th century, Ciudad de México.

Meanwhile in Europe, the news of the retreat of most of the french troops in Spain, moves Napoleon to take command directly in the conquest of Spain.
Godoy receives the news and decides to prepare an army in America.
After the Royal visit of the King and the Prime Minister to Lima and Buenos Aires, Godoy calls officers like the Viceroys of Peru and Rio de La Plata, José Fernando de Abascal and Santiago de Liniers to prepare the expedition in their respective Viceroyalties, meanwhile entrust the same task to the Viceroy of New Spain.

1819 is going to be a long year of work in the Spanish America.

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Alright! A Spain timeline during the Napoleonic Era is very interesting. And from the premise it looks quite promising. I’m definitely watching this timeline.

So is the center of the Spanish government in Exile, New Spain? With Ferdinand trapped in Spain, would Don Carlos be the leading prince now?
 
Interesting
But why would the King take residence in Lima and not in Mexico City, or any city closer to the coast ?
 
Alright! A Spain timeline during the Napoleonic Era is very interesting. And from the premise it looks quite promising. I’m definitely watching this timeline.

So is the center of the Spanish government in Exile, New Spain? With Ferdinand trapped in Spain, would Don Carlos be the leading prince now?

Prince Carlos, as OTL is imprisoned together with Ferdinand in Valençay, Godoy as from long time, is still in charge of the whole empire (Charles IV was OTL a puppet of him).

Interesting
But why would the King take residence in Lima and not in Mexico City, or any city closer to the coast ?

I decided to put the provisional capital in Lima because, if i recall correctly, the regions of Lower and Upper Peru was the most profitable and important of the Spanish America, also they are a midpoint between Mexico and Buenos Aires and, the plus in OTL the Viceroyalty of Peru was the only one who didn't collapsed during the revolutionary waves of the 1810s, being the center of the Realists during the Spanish America War of Independence.

I'm sorry if my english is lazy.
 
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Chapter 2
Chapter 2: Si vis pacem, para bellum.
Manuel Godoy summons the three Viceroys to meet in Guayaquil in 11 February. 1809 to discuss the way to prepare an american army to reconquer the mainland, Iturrigaray informs that the commissioning of the royal shipyard in La Habana would take approximately six months, and two years to complete the construction of the ships of transports for the expected 125,000 soldiers of all Spanish America, the Viceroy of Peru, José Fernando de Abascal informs that the creollos of Peru have received with excitement the equality decree, this, mixed with the decree of opening of the ports of the viceroyalties to british goods (in exchange of the help of Great Britain to escort the american army to Europe) and the presence of the King in America guarantees that a generalized revolt in the Spanish America is avoided. At the end of the Meeting of Guayaquil, is calculated that the American Army and the transport ships are estimated to be ready by mid-1812.


The elder Viceroy of New Spain, José de Iturrigaray.

As early as 1810, Godoy and Carlos IV visit Buenos Aires again and have a long meeting with locals creolles and military, and they convice the Prime Minister with the example of the British Invasions of the River Plate in 1806 and 1807 that the viceroyalties are able to defend theirselves. Godoy promises them that once the mainland is recovered the Viceroyalties will be autonomous of Madrid.

Unexpected, on 4 May. 1812 a man appeared before Godoy in México, this is the American Secretary of State James Monroe, which was on a secret mission, he tolds Godoy about the American preparations to go to war against the British Canada, and asking for a treaty between Spain and USA because the former is a british allied and America has not planned to go to war against New Spain, and even offers him to buy Florida. Godoy, after reflecting for a while, offers Jackson, besides selling Florida, secret arms support to America, Godoy explains that USA had to "invade" the secretly sold Florida for the purpose of make the british believe that Spain is they allies, the cherry of the cake is the sign of a border treaty that was beneficial to both nations that is going to be presented as the peace treaty between them (OTL Adams-Onís Treaty). Monroe is very satisfied with the negotiations with godoy and leaves Lima the next day after signing the secret Monroe-Godoy Treaty.


The Secretary of State James Monroe

After almost 3 years of preparations, the Spanish American Army of most 130,000 soldiers leaves Veracruz on 7 August 1812 with bound for Lisbon, is expected that the landing in Lisbon occur the 12 October, the day of the 320th anniversary of the "Descubrimiento de América", the date was choosed to simbolize the union of both continents in one nation.
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Europe at 12 October 1812.
At expected, the Spanish American Army lands in Lisbons and begins his march to liberate Madrid and expell the frenchs of Spain, taking advantage of the fact that Napoleon is in Russia. At the same time, a splintered part of this army led by the new-spanish Agustín de Iturbide attacks French troops of Joseph Souham in Tordesillas by surprise, also the Battle of Madrid is a decisive spanish victory and the frenchs are forced to withdrawl from the south of the Ebro.

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Emblem of the Spanish America Army
On 16 January. 1813 the spanish troops strikes the french troops at the north of the Ebro and force a french evacuation into France himself.
Godoy meets with representatives of Cádiz and declares that the King will only accept a Constitution that provides for independence of the American territories in the form of independent kingdoms and the formation of a Commonwealth among all this new countries and Spain, these accept the new conditions, the part where the old Constitution clarified that Spaniards are citizens from both continents will be used for the Constitution of the Hispanic Commonwealth, later, Godoy pressures Carlos IV to accept the Constitution of Cadíz.
On 13 Juny the spanish wins the Battle of Toulouse and starts they march to Paris, Godoy autorizes the looting and burning of cities.
In August the spanish troops takes Valencay and send the prisoner Prince Ferdinand to meet his father in Madrid, for these dates, the Royal Family (with the notable exception of the Infant Francisco de Paula who decided to remain in Peru) is already reestablished in Madrid. Due to his attemped coup, Carlos IV denies Fernando the succession to the throne, leaving the succession to his younger brother Carlos.
In October the spanish arrive in Paris after the rest of the coalition and begins to loot and burn the houses of the city, the Coalition troops are surprised by this but commanders like Blucher allow it, knowing what it happened in Spain.

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Paris burned for a week.
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How did spain build such a large army and navy since from what I understand the American colonies did not have the facilities or money to build and supply such a large force
 
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How dis spain build such a large army and navy since from what I understand the American colonies did not have the facilities or money to build and supply such a large force

Well, keep it in mind that ITTL there are not Spanish American Wars of Independence, so no loss of resources and manpower to the "Patriots", with the commissioning of the Royal Port of Havana and the help of the british engineers they are able to do it. Dont forget that in OTL the destroyed Spanish mainland by 1816 had already reconquered almost all the colonies with the exception of the United Provinces of Rio de La Plata.
 
Well, keep it in mind that ITTL there are not Spanish American Wars of Independence, so no loss of resources and manpower to the "Patriots", with the commissioning of the Royal Port of Havana and the help of the british engineers they are able to do it. Dont forget that in OTL the destroyed Spanish mainland by 1816 had already reconquered almost all the colonies with the exception of the United Provinces of Rio de La Plata.
How large is the new Spanish navy and where did they get the supplies to build the ships as well as train crew and officers
 
Dont forget that in OTL the destroyed Spanish mainland by 1816 had already reconquered almost all the colonies with the exception of the United Provinces of Rio de La Plata
But there was still unrest and these regions needed regular patrols and garrisons for order to be maintained.


How did spain build such a large army and navy since from what I understand the American colonies did not have the facilities or money to build and supply such a large force
Spain’s navy took a huge hit at Trafalgar. And Napoleon ravaged Spain’s mainland.


16 January. 1813 the spanish troops strikes the french troops at the north of the Ebro and force a french evacuation into France himself.
Godoy meets with representatives of Cádiz and declares that the King will only accept a Constitution that provides for independence of the American territories in the form of independent kingdoms and the formation of a Commonwealth among all this new countries and Spain, these accept the new conditions, the part where the old Constitution clarified that Spaniards are citizens from both continents will be used for the Constitution of the Hispanic Commonwealth, later, Godoy pressures Charles IV to accept the Constitution of Cadíz.
On 13 Juny the spanish wins the Battle of Toulouse and starts they march to Paris, Godoy autorizes the looting and burning of cities.
In August the spanish troops takes Valencay and send the prisoner Prince Ferdinand to meet his father in Madrid, for these dates, the Royal Family (with the notable exception of the Infant Francisco de Paula who decided to remain in Peru) is already reestablished in Madrid. Due to his attemped coup, Charles IV denies Fernando the succession to the throne, leaving the succession to his younger brother Carlos.
In October the spanish arrive in Paris after the rest of the coalition and begins to loot and burn the houses of the city, the Coalition troops are surprised by this but commanders like Blucher allow it, knowing what it happened in Spain.
Woah I’m noticing some issues with the timeline here. How does Spain magically defeat France and force them all the way back into France? Spain’s best troops were taken out by Napoleon and the Grand Armee was the finest army in Europe with many of its officers being the cream of the crop of its era. Its an inverse with Britain with many of Britain's naval officer corps being among the best and brightest during this era. The Grand Armee was also battle-hardened with many veteran officers. Even after the disastrous invasion in Russia, Napoleon came within a hair's breadth of seizing ultimate victory at Leipzig. Spain's army wouldn't be as well equipped or as well trained as the French army.

Why would Carlos IV accept this Constitution? He's a reactionary King, and passing this French inspired Constitution would be an anathema to everything he stood for. The King's sons Don Carlos and Ferdinand would both oppose this. Heck the Carlists would be more mainstream and stronger here with the traditionalists rising against this liberalism. Don Carlos was a legitmist and would likely rise up in support of his brother and traditionalism. Metternich would talk him out of this. The only reason France had a Constitution was because it was the center of the Revolution, and liberalism and Napoleon's legacy was so strong.

Carlos' Bourbon cousin Louis XVI was executed after the Constitution was passed by the National Assembly who asserted itself above the King. He and the other Royalists would never accept this. The Liberal "Francophiles" were widely seen as traitors to Spain for supporting Joseph Bonaparte, and them putting forth this Constitution upon the King would be a challenge to his authority. A more realistic pod is if this Constitutional movement a couple of decades later as liberal ideas rise up again in reaction to the new conservative counterrevolutionary order.

Godoy autorizes the looting and burning of cities.
Why would the Spanish Bourbons do this though? This is contrary to the Coalitions whole reason for fighting in the first place. Carlos was fighting to restore the French Bourbons to regain their throne. They also wanted to restore the balance of power and restore the traditional pre-Revolutionary monarchical order in Europe. This was why France was left intact after the Napoleonic Wars. This allowed for the Bourbons to be restored without much issue. The Bourbons were already unpopular in otl. Now with the Spanish burning their cities and their capital and then re-imposing the King, the French Bourbons will be more widely hated. The French public will likely be more emboldened to turn to Revolutionary ideas, and would likely rally around Napoleon who France would likely look to save them and drive out the foreign invaders.

Godoy meets with representatives of Cádiz and declares that the King will only accept a Constitution that provides for independence of the American territories in the form of independent kingdoms and the formation of a Commonwealth among all this new countries and Spain, these accept the new conditions, the part where the old Constitution clarified that Spaniards are citizens from both continents will be used for the Constitution of the Hispanic Commonwealth, later, Godoy pressures Charles IV to accept the Constitution of Cadíz.
So this is the Arranda Plan? Splitting the Empire into various independent Kingdoms wouldn't really solve very much. A lot of the issues in the Americas had to do with the racial caste system and the desire for social reform. Such radical liberal reform would likely see a revolt by the Absolutists/Conservatives in Spain and the colonies. Augustin d'Iturbide for example declared the First Mexican Empire in otl with the support of Mexican elites and Conservatives after the Liberal Trienium. None of them wanted to be ruled by a liberal system.
 
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Woah I’m noticing some issues with the timeline here. How does Spain magically defeat France and force them all the way back into France? Spain’s best troops were taken out by Napoleon and the Grand Armee was the finest army in Europe with many of its officers being the cream of the crop of its era. Its an inverse with Britain with many of Britain's naval officer corps being among the best and brightest during this era. The Grand Armee was also battle-hardened with many veteran officers. Even after the disastrous invasion in Russia, Napoleon came within a hair's breadth of seizing ultimate victory at Leipzig. Spain's army wouldn't be as well equipped or as well trained as the French army.
Because at the time of the landing in Lisbon the frenchs are already in disarray, even in OTL for 1813 Napoleon already already wanted to make peace with the Spaniards because the french already can't hold their positions in Spain. The way to the proper France is accompanied by the Wellington forces and the french desesperation of have to win in Leipzig or stop the coalition at the left of the Rhine.

Why would Carlos IV accept this Constitution? He's a reactionary King, and passing this French inspired Constitution would be an anathema to everything he stood for. The King's sons Don Carlos and Ferdinand would both oppose this. Heck the Carlists would be more mainstream and stronger here with the traditionalists rising against this liberalism. Don Carlos was a legitmist and would likely rise up in support of his brother and traditionalism. Metternich would talk him out of this. The only reason France had a Constitution was because it was the center of the Revolution, and liberalism and Napoleon's legacy was so strong.

Because he is a Godoy puppet, the reason for his acceptation is the change of mind that Godoy has had in their stay in America, but honestly, Godoy will still ruling at the same way he has doing until 1808, until the death of Charles IV and the ascend to the throne of Charles V (who is going to back down with liberalism).

Why would the Spanish Bourbons do this though? This is contrary to the Coalitions whole reason for fighting in the first place. Carlos was fighting to restore the French Bourbons to regain their throne. They also wanted to restore the balance of power and restore the traditional pre-Revolutionary monarchical order in Europe. This was why France was left intact after the Napoleonic Wars. This allowed for the Bourbons to be restored without much issue. The Bourbons were already unpopular in otl. Now with the Spanish burning their cities and their capital and then re-imposing the King, the French Bourbons will be more widely hated. The French public will likely be more emboldened to turn to Revolutionary ideas, and would likely rally around Napoleon who France would likely look to save them and drive out the foreign invaders.

Because Godoy and the spaniards don't care about the French Bourbons, they don't forget that the frenchs was the ones who bringed destruction and bloodbath to their homeland, even if the French want to go back to Napoleonic times they will be defeated as many times as necessary (Waterloo).

So this is the Arranda Plan? Splitting the Empire into various independent Kingdoms wouldn't really solve very much. A lot of the issues in the Americas had to do with the racial caste system and the desire for social reform. Such radical liberal reform would likely see a revolt by the Absolutists/Conservatives in Spain and the colonies. Augustin d'Iturbide for example declared the First Mexican Empire in otl with the support of Mexican elites and Conservatives after the Liberal Trienium. None of them wanted to be ruled by a liberal system.

Is a modified version of the Aranda Plan, and it is a gradual process that is estimated to end in the 1830s.
 
How large is the new Spanish navy and where did they get the supplies to build the ships as well as train crew and officers

Honestly i don't know how much ships in the early 1800s was needed to transport 130,000 soldiers, about from where they get the supplies, i guess they have them in the american colonies (after all, the Royal Astillery of Havana was one of the 3 most importants of the Spanish Empire during the 18 century), the crew and the officers are a set of british and creolles instructors.
 
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Chapter 3
Chapter 3: An uneasy peace.

During the First North American War (OTL War of 1812) a strange situation occured, the Spanish-American border in Florida was the theater of a war between Americans and Seminole Indians following the withdrawal of the Spanish garrison of Florida after the beginning of hostilities between America and Great Britain (part of the Monroe-Godoy Treaty), and since the longest border between the New Spain and America was sparsely populated, there was no battle in that front (except for a little skirmish in New Orleans which served as proof of the loyalty of Spain to her British ally). With the exception of the fight in Florida, the war was very similar to OTL War of 1812 (even the Peace Treaty, with the addition of the previously signed secret Monroe-Godoy treaty.

Despite the earlier defeat of Napoleon, in 1814 he regained power in France. He was able to overrun the Coalition in Waterloo but later was finally defeated in the Battle of Cologne, when he was trying to reconquer Germany and was therefore exiled to Saint Helena.


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The signataries in the Congress of Viena, Godoy appears below the number 15.

Godoy himself goes to the Congress in Vienna, leading the Spanish delegation. Pragmatic as always, he accepts the life-long cession to Maria Luisa of Austria, Duchy of Parma, and then returns to the grandson of Carlos IV, Charles Louis of Parma. In addition to pressuring France to pay, for 10 years from now, 80 million francs of the sale of Louisiana, and devolution of all documents, paintings, pieces of fine art, and books that had been looted from the archives, palaces, churches and cathedrals of Spain, in the face of Talleyrand's resignation that he has not been able to maneuver Godoy. Looking to rebuild a friendly relationship with Portugal, he agrees to return Olivenza to them.
Spain has changed a lot in the last years, the French occupation has been a brutal war who saw the entire country arise against the invader. The French plundered the country, stealing pieces of art and burning buildings in the process.

Meanwhile, the different divisions of the Spanish America Army have returned to their respective regions and they became the army of their respective viceroyalties. Nevertheless, the Rio de La Plata Army has had to crush a criollo rebellion in the Parana river, where it has been proclaimed the República del Paraguay. The rebellion was led by monopolists who did not want to lose their privileges in the face of the rivers opening up to foreign trade. The Platense Army led by the returnee General José de San Martín crushed the rebels in the Battle of Asunción, the criollos leaders are prosecuted and executed at the end of 1815.

However, in 1817 another monopolist rebellion took place when, in the Provincia de Nueva Andalucía, a group of Criollos guided by venezuelan military Simon Bolívar, quickly took over the province and marched to Bogotá, the capital of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, where in the outside of the city the New Granadian Army defeated the rebel army, Bolívar had to flee with his tail between his legs to the exile in Haití.

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Painted watercolor of the Battle of Asunción by Guillermo da Re, 1890.

At the death of Carlos IV on 19 January 1819, his son Carlos succeeded him as Carlos V, but he turnes out to be an absolutist and, with support of the clergy and others die-hard reactionaries, he abolished the Constitution and imprisoned Godoy, who will die four months later of malaria. Many military uprisings took place across the Empire hoping to restore La Pepa. Finally a liberal rebellion led by General De Riego took the Royal Palace and forced Carlos V to accept the Constitution. Similar coups succeded in America to remove the absolutist viceroys. Riego is appointed by the Courts as extraordinary Prime Minister for for an indefinite period until Spain is ready to hold elections.
During his government, Riego makes a lot of reforms, the most important are the abolition of slavery in the Spanish Empire and the expropriation of Church property. Carlos V constantly tries to boycott the government but fails. Meanwhile in America, the Portuguese Empire in America collapsed when Prince Pedro declared Brazil independent with him as Emperor (Spain tacitly recognized the Brazilian independence and formally later in 1825).

Surprisingly in 1823, just ten years after Napoleon's expulsion from the Peninsula, a French army of 95,000 soldiers (The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis) invaded Spain again, this time after Carlos V's request to his French counterpart Louis XVIII to restablish Absolutism. However, Espoz y Mina defeats the Duke of Angouleme's armies in Girona. Later the French are defeated in Navarra, from where they withdraw using scorched earth tactics, this inclines the local population to side with the liberals. Carlos V escapes and deserts to France, leaving the liberals without a king. In America, the Spanish without complications take the French Antilles. The French are pushed to their side of the Pyrenees and the Spanish occupy the Roussillon, this forces Louis XVIII to sign peace and accepting the loses of the Antilles, the Roussillon, and the Spanish anexion of Andorra.
The liberals have won, but now they has no king to reign, the closest to Carlos V, his brother Ferdinand had to renounce to their claims in favour of Carlos, this causes the crown to fall on his younger brother, the infant Francisco de Paula, who has been living in Lima since 1808 and has been away of politics, and after one year of preparations, he is crowned as Francisco I of the Spains.

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Francisco I de las Españas.

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The world when Francisco I ascends to the throne (1824).
 
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Chapter 4
Chapter 4: An Empire Reimagined.
At 1826, Riego and the Cortes begin to set the borders of the Spanish viceroyalties (under a modified plan of the Count of Aranda) which they consider to be almost ready for independence. However, the problem arises with the question of the viceroyalty of the Rio de La Plata, which has Upper Peru under its jurisdiction, but it is much more similar to the rest of Peru than to the Rio de La Plata, but Spain knows that removing this would leave a weakened Kingdom of Rio de la Plata against the Brazilian Empire.
To solve this, it is proposed that both Peru and the Rio de La Plata become independent as a United Kingdom with two different parliaments and rotation of Prime Minister, and to compensate the Rio de La Plata for the loss of Upper Peru, it will be given the Captaincy General of Chile, offer that leaves both Peruvians and rioplatenses satisfied, with that settled in the form of the Potosí Pact, it was stipulated that within two years the viceroys will be independent, later on 1832 the Primer Minister of Perú-Rio de La Plata Juan Manuel de Rosas annexed and integrated the rest of the Patagonia into the Rio de La Plata, including the indigenous Araucanians who inhabited.

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The before and after of the Potosi Pact.

Next to his coronation as king, Francis I began to take an interest in Spanish geopolitics, and began to believe that his coronation had been a sign of destiny that required him to reestablish Spanish hegemony in Europe. For this he sets his eyes on Greece; Since 1821, the Greeks have been waging a war of independence against the eternal Turkish enemy, however, due to internal conflicts in recent years, the Greeks only suffered defeats in the last year, Francis I obtained the approval of the Cortes to send weapons and volunteers to the rebels, despite British and Russian complaints that this will ruin the balance of powers in Europe.

A surprise was the arrival of a Haitian commission in Madrid on February 1826, who wanted to request the annexation of Haiti by Spain, to prevent France from recolonizing them or making them pay sums of money that would leave them in ruins, Riego is willing to accept but under conditions to "civilize" Haitians: the imposition of a colonial regime with Spanish as the official language that Haitians should learn, and the imposition of an Inquisition to persecute and exterminate the island's Voodoo religion, a process that Spaniards calculate that it would take between ten and twenty years, but it guarantees that there would be no retaliation or discrimination against former slaves (basically the entire Haitian population). After a month of discussion, the Haitian authorities and the president of Haiti Jean-Pierre Boyer sign the annexation to Spain in the Treaty of Santo Domingo and Spanish troops cross the border with Haiti, managing to unify the entire island of Hispaniola, restoring its meaning to the name, to the anger of the French.

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Christopher Columbus setting foot in America for the first time on the island that would later be called Hispaniola

On June 5, the first Spanish democratic elections take place, in America the elections were to elect the Prime Minister of each respective viceroyalty and future kingdom, although Peru and the Rio de La Plata shared the same candidates. In Spain victory is for Francisco Cea Bermúdez , in México for Agustín de Iturbide, Jose de Ignacio de Marquez in New Granada, and Juan Manuel de Rosas in Peru-Rio de La Plata, the unexpected was that in all the elections the respective Conservative Party won.
All of them as Prime Ministers for a period of six years with option of reelection for one more time.
Despistes the apparent attraction to absolutism of Cea Bermudez, when the outbreak of the Liberal Wars between Pedro IV and Miguel I took place in 1828, his government supported the Pedristas who managed to win the war in 1832 and impose the Constitutional Monarchy.

Finally, after two years of preparations, on 12 June 1828 the four viceroyalties become independent:
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The Kingdom of México, the Kingdom of Nueva Granada and the United Kingdom of Perú and Rio de La Plata.

With this, is formed the Hispanic Commonwealth, and Francisco I is named Emperor of the Hispanic Commonwealth and King of the Spains.

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Flag of the Hispanic Commonwealth, the Flag of this is the Cross of Burgundy used by the Habsburgs in Spain, the three crosses pattée symbolize Christopher Columbus's three ships, the Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa María..

With this, the Spanish simply maintain in America as stopovers and deposits, direct control over the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, the Galapagos, San Juan, the Spanish Antilles (formerly French Antilles) and the Malvinas.

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The world in 1832.
 
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Whats going in Texas and California?
In all the northern territory of México, the Mexican government will support a campaign for the settlement of Mexicans in these territories, in addition to offering Mexican citizenship to all Catholic immigrants who are willing to settle in these lands (mostly Irish), Texas is not and will not be colonized by Americans. When the Gold Rush breaks out in California, the only thing that will be substantially different is that the largest groups that settle in California will be mostly from countries of the Hispanic Commonwealth (even from Spanish Philippines), the Americans of our OTL will not settle but are guaranteed to be able to take it to the United States with acceptable taxes.
 
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