No GNW (or “Peter goes South”)

That'll be up to Mother Nature. A box will be floated down the Guairá Falls. If it's on the top, yes. If it's on the bottom, no.
I’d rather prefer this issue to be made a plebiscite item to decide if natives of the applicant republic are truly sharing the most important core values (as per @Aluma) of the future mother-/father-/<whatever else> country: it simply does not make sense to add people who do not share these values and then spending time, money and effort on their enforcement. To be fair, the Google search provided convincing evidence that this may not be an unresolvable problem. 😂
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I’d rather prefer this issue to be made a plebiscite item to decide if natives of the applicant republic are truly sharing the most important core values of the future mother-/father-/<whatever else> country: it simply does not make sense to add people who do not share the national core (as per @Aluma) values. To be fair, the Google search provided convincing evidence that this may not be an unresolvable problem. 😂
Whatever helps bring about the Telugu Republic coming to Brazil!
Whatever helps bring about the Telugu Republic coming to Brazil!
Well, with this fundamental issue proven not to be a major problem then, personally, I don’t see any serious obstacles. Surely, the Teluguans also have their own monkeys (which will be an important cultural unifier) and Pepsi, which leaves only a chocolate milk and this item, while important, is not critical. And, surely, the Teluguans will learn Brazilian in no time. 😂😂
The independent Telugu Republic was soon after independence annexed by the Republic of Brazil, after the Brazilian government announced plans to formally annex it. They decided to voluntarily go to Brazil. They became a real Brazilian state, but not a real Brazilian currency unlike Acre.
Republic! This household only accepts monarchy and as representative of the Telugu and by proxy the Gondi peoples, I would like to make an alliance with Brazil

Well, they already stumbled on the abstinence and at least some readers had been visibly upset about Kokovtsev’s removal. I’ll try to figure out something equally nasty in a future but there is problem: for the next 7 years (until 1927) there is a regency of Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich and I’m rather fond of this personage and don’t want him to turn as bad as brother-in-law, Nicky.
that's fair

Wouldn’t this require an earlier demise of the British colonial empire? What it would most definitely require is my getting at least a rudimentary (meaning ‘beyond wiki’) information on the subject of which I have a zero knowledge.
it´s only perfidious Albia, as long as the ¨great¨ Ghandi doesn't have his way I´m happy, heck the empire of Indian Raj is cool to
God, after reading this, I ask what have I brought upon my people, Dieu sauve mon peuple
Also @Aluma I reject annexation and I will lead the glorious war myself to save my homelands.
Little question, I have been planning to write an alternate history of Danmark where they keep Scania and Norway, and some of the baltics, but I don´t know where the POD should be
In a kingdom where everything is quiet… - yeah, sure
417. In a kingdom where everything is quiet… - yeah, sure

When the conquered countries were governed by their own laws before their conquest, used free institutions, the conqueror can keep them in three ways. The first way is to ruin and weaken them, the second is to settle in them personally and the third is to leave the existing institutions in them inviolable, subjecting only to residents with tribute and establishing a management with limited personnel to keep residents in loyalty and obedience

“…there is no enterprise more difficult to perform, more unreliable about success and requiring more precautions in its management - than the introduction of new institutions.”
Considering the different types of states, I must note that it is always extremely important for the ruler to know whether his state can, if necessary, defend itself by its own means or should be forced to resort to someone else's help for its protection.
“John Smith, who jumped out of the 75th floor window on Wall Street, bumped up 10 meters after hitting the ground, thus partially compensating his morning fall.”
“Trader: "It's worse than a divorce, damn it! I've already lost half of my fortune, and my wife is still there."”
“The market reached the bottom and started digging.”
“- You know, I would like to put money in your bank, who should I contact? - The psychiatrist!”
“One of the ways to get rich in times of crisis is to write a book "How to get rich in times of crisis."”

Unknown authors about economic crisis.
“A dog also has a midlife crisis - when it begins to understand what an idiot its owner is...”
unrelated general observation​

[Thanks to @von Adler for the valuable information and ideas]

Foreword of a sorts…
An ambitious intention is to provide a general picture of what ITTL Kingdom of Sweden looked like from inside. Without it things may look even more bizarre than intended.
As far as the Swedish Baltic territories were involved, the Kingdom of Sweden was fully integrated administratively. All provinces had been represented in Riksdag and, on both sides of the Baltic Sea, they, and their subordinate municipalities, had the elective bodies handling strictly local affairs. However, economically, they differed noticeably even if structure of their agriculture was rather similar.

Agriculture. Starting from the XVII in all parts of the Kingdom share of the big estates was steadily shrinking, especially in Livonia and Estland where by 1700 up to 80% of the arable land belonged to the crown with the peasants working on that land as the tenants. Curland and Lithuanian territories were “lagging behind” in that area. In the early 1900s the state run a program of distributing that land among the tenants creating a brand new class of the farmers owning small pieces of agricultural land. Obviously, these farms were not good for the grain production and Kingdom’s agriculture was specializing on a meat, dairy products and vegetables with a considerable export. During the war this system led to the bread shortages but before and after it was doing just fine. By the obvious geographic reasons, most of the agricultural exports from the Baltic Provinces and Finland was going to St.Petersburg region while Swedish products (Sweden exported 16,000-20,000 tons of butter per year) were heading mostly to Germany and Britain. However, most of the Latvian flax exports were going to Britain. Other important export goods to the UK included plywood, flax and butter.

Nobility. Now, what about the (mostly former) class of the landowners? With the process lasting for couple of the centuries there were various ways to adjust:
  • Military and civic service within the Kingdom.
  • Going into a business. The area was wider than it seems to be because “arable” does not include forest and other non-agricultural pieces of land. For example, territory of Jurmala belonged to the Courlandian family of the barons von Fircks. In the early XIX Konstantin Alexander Karl Wilhelm Christoph Graf von Benckendorff established numerous sawmills (forests were still his) on his lands selling their production to the local peasants and to the urban areas, etc.
  • Being employed in a private business.
  • Going to serve abroad and staying there. This trend started in the early 1700s and never ended with the members of von Wrangel family being present in Sweden, Germany and Russia, von Rosens in Sweden and Russia and one of the best known “additions”, von Frederix making into the Minister of the Imperial Court creating certain addressing confusion: in his native Finland he was a baron while Nicholas II made him a count, which title was not recognized in Finland.

Manufacturing. Situation was quite similar to the agriculture: the Swedish industrial exports (iron, steel, products of the timber industry including the pulp) were coming mostly to Germany, Britain and the US while those of the Baltic provinces to Russia and Germany. In Latvia up to 80% of its “technological” exports were going to Russia while the products of its timber industry (about 6–7 million m3 of timber were cut annually, which allowed to make a lot of a plywood, cardboard and other things ) mostly to Germany with Britain being remote second. In Estonia situation was similar to Latvia with a much lesser volume of everything and a greater orientation toward the Russian market.
As a sum total, with a shortage or a complete absence of many needed items, in the pre-War Kingdom the trade balance tended to be negative with a steadily growing foreign debt.

After the war. But not, yet, in trouble.

The war shifted the balance of Swedish trade, turning an import surplus into the largest export surplus the country had seen for decades. During the war profits in industry overall skyrocketed and led to increasing investments in electricity, power plants, and motors and machinery for industrial production. However, on the last stages of war combination of the British and German naval policies led to a sharp decline of the Swedish trade levels both of the imports and exports. The government tried to spur continued access to foreign goods by eliminating tariffs on agricultural imports, especially grains, toward the end of the war. Tariffs were also lowered on long-distance imports such as sugar, tobacco, coffee, and tea. The share of trade from Germany increased, the American imports doubled but trade with Britain decreased almost by a third. The bilateral trade towards the end of the war was also increasingly (by up to 30%) oriented towards the other neutral countries, and more than anything became more intra-regional.

During the war the workers’ incomes increased sharply and so were the prices. Inflation was high but, for a while, happily ignored.


State revenue structure also had to change: customs revenue (from taxes on imports) made up close to 30 percent of total government revenue, which created a challenge during the last years of war when the trade sharply declined down to 7%. Increasing military expenditure put the government under pressure to find alternative sources of revenue. Because of shortages of alcohol and sugar, specific consumption taxes on these goods, which had been a large source of revenue before the war, also plummeted. This loss was partly offset by a new excise on tobacco, which was introduced. What increased most sharply were taxes on income at the state and local level. Some of these increases were supposed to be temporary, but some remained even when peace was restored. The war effectively eliminated Sweden’s foreign debt, which was over 80% of GDP in 1912, but dropped to just around 20% in 1920. Instead, the government was forced to borrow domestically, pushing public debt from below 3% of GDP in 1916 to over 30% in 1919.

Post-war boom was very pronounced, especially in the pulp and paper industries due to the increasing consumption of newsprint. In fact, matters went so far that in Sweden as in many other countries the government had to intervene in order to try and ensure that the leading newspapers were allocated newsprint at fixed maximum prices. In 1920 the British companies had been placing orders year in advance.

OTOH, the iron and steel industry was in fact already beginning to sense the oncoming difficulties resulting from technical changes abroad introduced during the war, which meant that foreign markets were now less dependent upon Swedish high quality iron and steel than they had been in the past and, in general, consumption went down with the decreased war needs and (temporary) cessation of the naval race. The main hope was expectation of a growing domestic consumption, especially renovation of the railroads.

The very transition to a peace-time economy was bound to impose a heavy burden on the iron industry which had supplied considerable quantities of material for the production of armaments. In the market surveys the year 1920 was rightly characterized as a difficult year for the Swedish iron and steel industry. Output was adversely affected by unrest on the labour market and by the introduction of the eight-hour day. The latter proved particularly burdensome for the ironworks in view of the special system of shifts which was customary in that industry. Iron-ore exports naturally suffered severely from the conditions on the European Continent, the export figure in 1920 being only about 60 % of the 1913 figure. Further, iron and steel exports were far below the pre-war level. On the other hand, exports of machinery seem to have approximated to the 1913 figure, without however reaching the record level of 1916.


1920. The trouble.
It all started on the other side of the Atlantics. Adjusting from war time to peacetime was an enormous shock for the U.S. economy. Factories focused on wartime production had to shut down or retool their production. In response to post–World War I inflation the Federal Reserve Bank of New York began raising interest rates sharply. In December 1919 the rate was raised from 4.75% to 5%. A month later it was raised to 6%, and in June 1920 it was raised to 7% and the countries heavily depending upon the US trade and credit started feeling the pinch.

At that point situation in Sweden and the Baltic provinces started to differ noticeably. Crisis of 1920-21 hit Sweden proper quite hard because of its heavy dependency upon the exports and foreign (mostly American) credits. By the late 1920 the depression in various branches of industry, including the motor-car industry, began to have an important effect on steel production, and towards the end of the year the decline was very evident. The depression rapidly extended to agriculture as well. The fall in prices in the U.S. began to have its effect on various Swedish imports, e.g. certain textile goods, non-ferrous metals, hides etc. Stock exchange prices were again falling (after a brief recovery at the beginning of the year) and in August the quotations were on the whole lower than in the 'black' month of November 1919. Moreover, the export situation was no longer so favourable as it had been. With regard to timber, according to the market reports appearing in “Kommersiella meddelaruienf" the first signs of a falling-off in the export demand appeared at an early stage, in fact in March and April. The deciding factor was that the generally expected international building boom did not materialize. Throughout the latter half of the year there were practically no sales in the continental markets. The difficulties were aggravated by the exchange conditions.

The setback spread to the pulp trade mainly during the late summer and the autumn. With regard to mechanical pulp, it was reported that, so far as the European markets were concerned, the turn in business conditions was as rapid and violent as it was unexpected; European demand ceased altogether and one paper-mill after another restricted its production. For the time being the situation was saved to some extent by purchases from the U.S.A., which despite the depression still represented a market with a rela- tively high purchasing power.
The paper industry had already begun to feel the effects of the world depression some time before. Here also American demand kept up for some time, but elsewhere the lack of purchasing power and the increased difficulty of obtaining credit caused stagnation.
At the beginning of November even the sales to the U.S.A. ceased. The market for sulphate pulp showed a more or less similar trend.
The Bank's of Sweden position continued to be strained. By the tum of the quarter, on 31 March, 1920, the reserve amounted to 31 million kronor, at the end of June it was 36 millions, by the end of August 31 millions again and 4 September as low as 14 million kronor.

The mining and the metal industries showed, on the whole, a marked deterioration compared with the immediately preceding quarter. At the mines the availability of work for more than half the number of workers included in the survey was described as being below "normal". A number of blast furnaces had to be closed down. The output of iron and steel remained, however, relatively high even in September. It was not until the last quarter, however, that the decline in the production figures really set in.

Towards the end of the third quarter the engineering industry gave evidence of some tendency to stagnate. The position deteriorated also in some of the shipyards which reported cancelled orders. In general September seems to have been the month during which the cyclical curve in the heavy industries reached its turning-point. Production apparently attained its peak about that date and then began to decline.
During the last quarter the industrial decline became more and more unmistakable. Over large areas workers were stood off or dismissed and working hours were reduced.

In comparison, the Baltic Provinces, with their orientation toward the East in the terms of import, export and credit, had been impacted to a much lesser degree. The Russian trade with the US, and resulting dependency upon the credit and dollar’s course, was limited almost to unimportance, trade with Britain shrunk during the war and most of the manufactured exports were going to the Eastern Europe (Poland, Hungary, Ottoman Empire and its vassals) or Asia (Persia and China), none of which was seriously impacted by the ongoing crisis outside (in Europe) purely financial sector. As a result, Russia’s huge domestic market and its purchasing power was only slightly impacted by the crisis and demand for the traditional imports from the Baltic Provinces remained the same.

The problem for Sweden proper was that the Russian demand for its traditional exports (steel and timber products) was quite limited because it was mostly fulfilled by a domestic production. The main “niches” were electrical devices and industrial machinery but Swedish industry was only starting to switch to these areas. The Baltic Provinces were helpful in not making situation worse but most of the problem would have to be solved domestically and the government choose the deflatory approach, just as Britain did, but it was carried through more ruthlessly, and came to an end more rapidly than in Britain so that Swedish economic life obtained a firm basis for its cal- culations at an earlier stage, an important factor in laying the foundations for a recovery. The hourly money earnings of industrial workers and of some allied occupations were reduced by about 30 % during the period 1920-1923. For male workers in manufacturing industries the decline was about 35 %.
The recovery of 1922 had been attributable primarily to increased activity in the export trade, the expansion being particularly noticeable in the export of paper pulp, which beat all previous records. But the improvement was also quite appreciable in certain other export branches. Thus exports of sawn timber fully equalled the 1920 figure and were even slightly above it. Cardboard and paper exports were likewise quite satisfactory, quantitatively speaking, and reached the 1920 level. But in export branches other than the forest industries the position was less favourable. It is true that the engineering industry seems to have experienced some improvement compared with the immediately preceding year of depression, but the export figures were much below those of 1920. The recovery in iron and steel exports was also very slight, the quantity remaining considerably below the 1920 level and the ironworks were generally running at only half capacity.
Iron-ore exports, on the other hand, showed a substantial increase compared with 1920, though they did not reach the level of 1913.

On the whole, however, the improvement in 1922 over 1921 was undeniable, although there is reason to believe that the total export of industrial products just failed to reach the 1920 level. Moreover, the increase in production was quite pronounced in some of the home-market industries, notably the textile industry. The Ekonomisk Ouersik: for November 1922 states: 'Employment in the textile industry has been rising steadily since the summer of 1921. A substantial decline in the volume of unemployment had already been recorded at the beginning of the current year', and on I September 1922, 'the number of workers in employment corresponded to about 97 % of the figure for 1 June 1920', Altogether, the situation on the labour market showed signs of becoming easier. From May onwards the trades unions' monthly unemployment figures were lower than in the corresponding months of 1921.

House-building recovered rapidly and in 1923 -the year in which rent control was finally abolished-the output exceeded the pre-war level. On the other hand, it was not until 1924 that industrial production reached a figure exceeding that for 1913 and approximately corresponding to the level of 1916.

The open question was up to which degree the lesson had been learned.
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Little question, I have been planning to write an alternate history of Danmark where they keep Scania and Norway, and some of the baltics, but I don´t know where the POD should be
1700 - make them exterminate Charles and his army during the landing and sunk the British ships as well thus killing two <whatever> with a single stone. 😉
Du gamla, Du fria, Du fjällhöga nord
Du war ending was bad for us, economically
Jag markets dry up and we're now dislocated
I want to live and get richer in the North!
I want to live and get richer in the North!
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