Moonlight in a Jar: An Al-Andalus Timeline

ACT VIII Part XXV: The Cantabrian Wars, Continued
With a booming of hooves, the knights of the Santiagonian army lowered their lances and charged.

They charged straight into their doom. The fire and blare of the jazails had its say long before the once-vaunted heavy cavalry of the Cantabrian lords could even make it into spitting distance. Well-armoured men and powerful warhorses alike crumpled and fell to the muck of the battlefield, mowed down beneath a storm of iron shot.

Beneath the tidal wave of jazail fire, crossbow bolts and javelins thrown from the flanks, the Santiagonians had little chance against the Moorish host - but then, the numbers would have made their case a desperate one anyway. The armies of the Kingdom were truly not the armies of the Kingdom anymore, merely the disorganized hosts of Dukes and Counts who owed obeisance to the throne in name but who ruled effectively on their own. Here at the field of Macedo de Vale Prados,[1] the Count of Braganza had mustered just 1,500 levies and 100 of the King's knights to face nearly twice as many Moors.

The knights could, at least, do some damage if they got close. But the common men of Santiago - armed with weapons a generation out of date - could do little against the Black Guard and their jazails, or the crack Andalusi crossbowmen, or the agile Berber cavalry, now throwing fireballs alongside javelins (or even affixed to them). And they could do even less against the punching power of the tanins that rolled into play.

Dragons of their own could help level the playing field. But they were a rarity, and even more so in Braganza.

It made the battle in the orchards something of a foregone conclusion. By the time it was over, hundreds of Christian men lay fallen on the field, with few Moors among them. Still more found themselves taken from the field as prisoners.

They would return soon enough. The saving grace for the Christians was always that the Moors were kind to those who fell captive during battle. Tales spread soon enough of the willingness of the Muslims to feed and clothe their prisoners, and to send them home upon receiving ransom or submission from their lords.

The prisoners of Macedo de Vale Prados would find themselves homeward bound within weeks. Seeing little aid from the King coming, and with a Moorish army at the gates of his city, the Count of Braganza pulled down the banner of Santiago from his ramparts, and in its place raised the white flag of the Caliph. The gates were opened, a tribute was paid out, and a Moorish overlord was placed over the city - and while those who resisted violently were met with fierce reprisals, most were allowed to go about their daily lives.

There would be grumbling. There always was. But there was ultimately no choice but to bend the knee to the Moors.


~


We, the followers of the teachings of Anicetus dwelling here in the realm of the Lord of Viana, appeal to you, the representative of the Lord of the Moors. It is said that those Christians who dwell within your lands are permitted the right to worship as they see fit, and that they are not put to the death or the persecution. We wish only to worship God in peace. The goodmen and women of our community raise no hand of malice against you. We too have known the harshness of the followers of the Old Church, whose lords have persecuted as well the Mohammeddans. We would welcome you with open arms should you see fit to enter Viana, and we would submit to your administration with gladness.

We await your reply.



~


"The gardens here are shockingly disappointing," murmured Al-Nasr as he stepped through onto the grounds of the so-called Castle of Viguera.

The battle for the city had been anticlimactic. In the years since Viguera had fallen into Christian hands, it had lapsed in importance to a mere middling city, a simple fief of some obscure Basque noble family who had built a castle that was really more a mansion. The colonnaded domicile had survived the fighting intact but with most of its treasures absent, absconded with in the nobles' flight from their demesne.

At least the central courtyard was pleasant enough for a hajib, with its large reflecting pool and shady green trees. The hajib pushed back his silvering hair and settled to one of the benches by the water with a puff of breath. As much as he'd remained spry well into his sixties, Al-Nasr wasn't young anymore, his mind still sharp but his body more prone to wearying.

With a soft mewl, a pale shape slunk up to his right side. He smiled and moved the creamy cat to his lap, stroking her back gently. A moment later, a serving-girl glided up to his other side with a steaming cup, which he took in hand and bowed his head over.

A cup of yasemin tea[2] always helped to settle him - and to keep him young. It had been introduced to Al-Nasr by a merchant coming back with gifts from the land of Sin, and he'd taken a liking to it.

Sipping and savouring the subtle taste of the tea, Al-Nasr gave himself a moment of quiet before taking another slow look around the courtyard. There was something too blunt and cold about the architecture for his taste. Christian buildings always seemed to be like this up here - heavier, with thicker columns and fewer arches. The style made him, briefly, pine for Isbili - or even his home in Sale, where he spent part of the year when not tending to affairs here in the north.

Or affairs over the ocean, for that matter, he reflected with a wry smile. I feel like that consumes everything these days.

Even the wars that had brought him from Isbili to Viguera went, in the end, back to Al-Nasr's concern in the new world. Certainly, the Rum here were a perennial nuisance, unable to control brigands and providing harbour to the accursed Anglish pirates. But chastising them was only part of the calculus for him. His people were multiplying, and they needed more land - and the forests of Santiago were the perfect place to get the wood to build the ships to get the people to that land, without paying extortionate prices to the fools on Liwaril.

Getting Navarre out of his hair was a bonus. He hadn't expected them to abrogate the Treaty of Xavier so quickly.

The cat in Al-Nasr's lap meowed lazily and looked up at him. Smiling behind his dark beard, he scratched behind the little pet's ears, evoking a purr, before letting his eyes travel towards the statues at the far end of the courtyard. A pair of large griffons, heads raised with pride.

He gestured to a servant with a wave.

"See to it that those things' throats are cut," he said. "This is a godly house now."


~


"They've come too far as it is," muttered Bermudo V as he hunched deep into his suit of plate armour. It fit him uncomfortably - but not as uncomfortably as the realization that his kingdom was falling apart around him. "We can't let them come any farther. Not anymore."

It wasn't often that the King of Santiago marched at the head of the army, but with the Moors encircling Leon and unleashing their bombards, all he could do was muster every man who could stand up, see daylight, and hear thunder in the hopes of rushing to the city's relief. The numbers weren't great - a few thousand, now - but at least many of them were knights and rich men from Santiago and the other handful of cities where he could still count on people to answer his call.

That number was never large. It had diminished over the past five years. Zamora, Braganza, Viana, more - taken. The entire Duchy of Sanabria, simply abandoning him to cut a deal with the accursed Moors. The damned followers of Anicet turning tail across the realm to hunker under the Moorish banner. Heretics throwing in with infidels.

It had to end. It would have to end, if not at Leon, then on the road there.

The word had come down from the scouts: A large force of Moors had been seen moving up through the Sanabrian mountains, no doubt intent to intercept them. Their numbers were comparable to Bermudo's own force. They'd likely meet on the road to Leon, at the village of Destriana. If he could break this army, Bermudo could lead his men on to relieve Leon - the force of Moors besieging the city was smaller, and he could beat them with numbers.

It would come down to Destriana. Bermudo could turn this conflict around there.

So why are my hands trembling? The King looked down at his gauntlets - stared through them.

Even in the face of the heresies of the Anicetians, Bermudo V had believed steadfastly in the grace and mercy of God. Here, with battle mere hours away, that faith seemed far away - yet he could merely grasp for it, as if to cling in his heart to the source of his greatest hope.


[1] In the vicinity of OTL Macedo de Cavaleiros, Portugal.
[2] Jasmine tea. Andalusian yasemin tea uses jasminium grandiflorum from Catalonia with a green tea base, but it is, of course, a fundamentally Chinese drink - an artifact of Sinophilia. Older rich people like it because it's believed to promote youth and healing.


SUMMARY:
1475: Braganza surrenders to the Asmarids following the lopsided Battle of Macedo de Vale Prados.
1476: The Anicetians of Viana revolt against their mainline Catholic lord and welcome the Asmarids into the city, breaking an Asmarid siege.
1477: Asmarid forces retake Viguera, in the Ebro Valley, dealing a blow to Navarre.
1479: The Battle of Destriana. A decisive battle begins between Santiagonian forces led by King Bermudo V and an Asmarid force coming up from Sanabria.
 
So Al-Nasr is a bit more religiously-minded than the regular Andalusi? That might stem from his upbringing in *Morocco.
Either that or less competition for true god that has arrived with him, all the kitties shall return to Viguera like a crazy cat person convention.
 
got a question what happened to that dynasty that claims descended from the child king del torro usurpesd. He and his mother fled to andalusia where you mentioned some dynasty claim descent from him yet they haven't appeared.
 
So Al-Nasr is a bit more religiously-minded than the regular Andalusi? That might stem from his upbringing in *Morocco.
Possible and is not on Andalusi style of bowed animal, maybe a remodel could have worked but he wanted a quick fix
got a question what happened to that dynasty that claims descended from the child king del torro usurpesd. He and his mother fled to andalusia where you mentioned some dynasty claim descent from him yet they haven't appeared.
That is on the future...they emigrated early but means nothing for the TL, just a future trivia bit
 
So Al-Nasr is a bit more religiously-minded than the regular Andalusi? That might stem from his upbringing in *Morocco.
He is, to an extent - the Asmarids are somewhat more personally conservative than the most liberal of Andalusis. That said, cutting the throats of animal sculptures is pretty accepted practice. There is a regional taboo against depicting living creatures in sculpture, and symbolically carving a crescent feature across the neck makes clear that the creature is dead.
 
He is, to an extent - the Asmarids are somewhat more personally conservative than the most liberal of Andalusis. That said, cutting the throats of animal sculptures is pretty accepted practice. There is a regional taboo against depicting living creatures in sculpture, and symbolically carving a crescent feature across the neck makes clear that the creature is dead.
Very interesting.

Andalusis apparently had little issue with sculptures like the 11th century Pisa Griffin, often as aquamaniles, incense-burners, and fountainheads (the lions at the Alhambra come to mind). As have been pointed out ad nauseam, Al-Andalus was much more liberal than the mainstream part of the Islamic world. Does this mean Al-Andalus' culture has changed over time away from this attitude? Or is carving a crescent on the neck their way of getting around that taboo?
 
Very interesting.

Andalusis apparently had little issue with sculptures like the 11th century Pisa Griffin, often as aquamaniles, incense-burners, and fountainheads (the lions at the Alhambra come to mind). As have been pointed out ad nauseam, Al-Andalus was much more liberal than the mainstream part of the Islamic world. Does this mean Al-Andalus' culture has changed over time away from this attitude? Or is carving a crescent on the neck their way of getting around that taboo?
It's a way of dodging the taboo and avoiding glances from more conservative imams in their midst, really. Al-Nasr is more personally conservative than a lot of the Andalusi nobility, who generally are fine with griffons and other fantastic beasts. He's not a book-burner by any means, and he's far from radical in his beliefs, but he does have some differences. These divergences are gradually blurring as Al-Andalus and the Maghreb become intertwined, but the two haven't been joined at the hip or run as joint operations for long enough for all the differences to vanish.
 
It seems that the political and religious divisions of Christian Iberia are bearing fruit in this part. Much of the Anicetians are more willing to live under the Muslims than the Catholic authorities living here, which makes sense, being a heretical sect that is more in line with Islam than Catholicism at this point, and much of its adherents chafed under the consistent persecutions of their supposed Christian brothers. Muslims are literally killing Christian Iberia through kindness it seems, which is a bit funny.

However, this treacherous act is going to make huge waves outside of Iberia throughout Christendom, and it's waves of blood. If the Anicetians and the Tellians were barely tolerated back then, they're reviled now, given how they opened the gates to the Muslim heathens so easily and so openly. People like the Provencal might think that if they gave any sort of toleration to the Anicetians or other Christian heretics now, they might just simply surrender themselves to the Andalusi host out of contempt for the Catholic authorities. This same view could be applied to Ashkenazi Jews living in the HRE and other regions in Christian Europe. Any future persecutions, whether towards Christian heretics orJews, could be extremely widespread and incredibly bloody.

At the same time, the Anicetian message is incredibly hopeful for people that are oppressed by the corrupt church councils and the Pope with its ideals of chastity, modesty, and local worship, which can only lead to widespread adoption once followers leave the Way of Saint James. On top of a potential MiaJ Martin Luther counterpart, this Protestant Reformation or even just the spread of the Anicetian movement could lead to far more chaos and conflict in Europe sooner than the OTL Protestant Reformation (i.e. the Hussite Wars, the French Wars of Religion, or the Thirty Years War, but earlier, longer, and bloodier....)

I'm still interested as to how the Bishop of Salamanca is going to react to this whole debacle after the Reverse Reconquista, given he is Roman Catholic. Will there be a Catholic-Anicetian coexistence in Al-Andalus or will there be an inevitable clash between these two sects?

EDIT: Also shoutouts for Al-Nasr for drinking jasmine tea! Maybe we'll get more out of future parts for the burgeoning Andalusi-Maghrebi tea culture :D
 
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I'm still interested as to how the Bishop of Salamanca is going to react to this whole debacle after the Reverse Reconquista, given he is Roman Catholic. Will there be a Catholic-Anicetian coexistence in Al-Andalus or will there be an inevitable clash between these two sects?
He's is but name the pope in andalusia he has the same powers effectively as the pope due to backing of the muslim overlords. He can decide how Christianity is run whats the pope going to do oust him, ironically he is the most safe christian head except maybe the bishop of york.
 
He's is but name the pope in andalusia he has the same powers effectively as the pope due to backing of the muslim overlords. He can decide how Christianity is run whats the pope going to do oust him, ironically he is the most safe christian head except maybe the bishop of york.
At this point, the Bishop of Salamanca is independent of the Pope all but in name, no one is disputing that, but that's what makes his personal decisions all the more interesting when it comes to the Anicetians. They submitted to Al-Andalus to live in peace and tolerance, but that doesn't mean that the Bishop of Salamanca and the Mozarabic Catholic community is going to accept them outright.
 
ACT VIII Part XXVI: The Battle of Destriana
Excerpt: Christianity in the Crossing Age - Mark Magnuson, Epic Libropress, AD 1999


The Battle of Destriana marks the decisive moment in the Cantabrian Wars. While not the largest battle in the conflict in terms of numbers, it has been lionized by both Christians and Muslims through the years, and references to it continue to recur in popular histories, many of them romanticized almost beyond recognition.

The stage was set for the encounter at Destriana when a force of about 6,000 men under Bermudo V, King of Santiago - bound to relieve Leon from an Asmarid siege - was intercepted by a column of about 6,000 to 7,000 Asmarid troops coming up from annexed lands around Lake Sanabria. At the head of the Asmarid force was an Andalusi general, Gharsiya ibn Abd al-Qadir al-Qurtubi, a younger commander with a modest track record.

Al-Qurtubi's force had been bound for Astorga, but upon scouting reports that a Christian host was in the area, they diverted to try and intercept them. Bermudo, alerted to the danger, force-marched his army to Destriana and reached it ahead of al-Qurtubi. The Santiagonians had little time to establish a fortified position, but Bermudo nevertheless organized his troops into defensive ranks.

Santiagonian armies of the period were typically not large, but Bermudo's was one of the largest of the period, and well-equipped considering the circumstances. His force consisted of roughly 1,000 mounted knights, 3,500 infantry - mostly peasant levies - and an additional 1,500 Italian and Provencal mercenaries. The core of his force consisted of a dozen field dragons,[1] which he set up on high ground just south of the village of Destriana, overlooking the River Duerna. He organized his troops in flanking positions to defend the artillery and placed his archers close to the core. Bermudo's arrangement presented the Andalusians with a quandry: While the Duerna was a relatively shallow stream and easy to cross, doing so would slow them down enough for archers and dragoons to wreak heavy casualties.

Al-Qurtubi quickly received word from Berber scouts of the Santiagonian troop movements, and he reasoned that a frontal assault on Bermudo's position would be suicidal. The Asmarid force held due south of the Christian army before Al-Qurtubi divided his troops, consisting of a mixture of Andalusian junds, mounted Berbers and a core of 500 members of the Black Guard.

Al-Qurtubi sent his troops at Destriana in two blocks. The first group consisted mainly of infantry, heavy on crossbowmen and backed up by field tanins and jazails. This larger unit proceeded westward to cross the Duerna southwest of Bermudo's position, taking advantage of tree cover along the river. The infantry managed to cross the river and begin a slow approach, drawing the attention of Bermudo's field dragons.

This move allowed Al-Qurtubi's smaller second force to cross the river to the east. This more mobile force consisted of the Berber cavalry and mounted Black Guard. The force crossed the river while Bermudo trained his field dragons on the western army, largely making it over without incident and circling to begin harassing the infantry on Bermudo's flank. The Santiagonian force split its fire, buying the western army time to dig in and set up their own bombards, but casualties in the early phases favoured the Santiagonians as the Asmarid army fought to set up their artillery under even divided cannon fire.

Seeking to disrupt the Asmarid preparations, Bermudo ordered his heavy cavalry to charge the Asmarid infantry. The charge inflicted significant casualties on the Andalusians before being blunted by jazail fire, forcing the Santiagonians back to their defensive positions. Al-Qurtubi then sent in his own, lighter cavalry, peeling off additional ranks of the Santiagonian levies.

The speed of the Berber cavalry enabled them to quickly swoop around and encircle the Santiagonians, managing to outflank the infantry and engage the withdrawing knights while negating the ability of the field dragons to fire. The Andalusian infantry regrouped and closed the circle, opening fire with crossbows and bombards as the front ranks advanced into the fight. The battle quickly devolved into a bloody close-quarters battle.

It is this melee that provides the basis for countless romanticizations of Destriana. With the poorly-trained levies suffering brutal losses at the hands of the Asmarid cavalry, Bermudo - known to history otherwise as a relatively powerless king - managed to rally the remaining knights and regroup onto a site known as Balduino's Farm, for the peasant who owned the patch of land. Re-energized, the Santiagonian core fought back ferociously against the better-equipped Asmarids, managing to successfully surprise the Black Guard with a successful charge and inflict heavy losses on the most elite Asmarid unit. The surprising resistance forced Al-Qurtubi to regroup and launch another attempt to dislodge the knights.

Al-Qurtubi refrained from immediately rushing into battle, instead bombarding Bermudo's position with his field tanins, crossbows and jazails. The blackpowder fire inflicted several losses, compounded by subsequent hit-and-run attacks by the Berbers, breaking up the knights' defensive formation with fireballs and thrown javelins. The rapid attacks forced Bermudo's core into a defensive circle, giving Al-Qurtubi an opportunity to send in his infantry.

The final engagement at Balduino's Farm, while a foregone conclusion in some ways, saw Bermudo and his knights go down fighting vigorously. The so-called Lament of Destriana, written by the Catholic monk Arduino de Sahagun in 1489, records the following:

As the infidels surrounded them, King Bermudo raised his eyes to the heavens, and there did he behold a dove alighting across the face of the sun, and he knew that the power of God was with him. And he took his sword in hand and he laid about him, and the knights of the land smote the Moorish host with righteous fury, for their faith would gird them even before the most desperate of circumstances. And the Moors were sore afraid, for none among them had seen the fury of God in the faces of men. There on the Field of Balduino's Farm, the adventurers struck down foeman by the score, until Bermudo's arm grew weary from swinging his blade. And yet he continued to swing until the last.

Reports on the final fate of Bermudo are vague. Arduino de Sahagun reports that Bermudo was struck in the chest by several jazail balls fired from a distance, but a letter from Bernardo de Coruna, one of the common soldiers at the battle and an aspiring poet, describes the King being unhorsed after being struck in the shoulder by a crossbow bolt, then run through by a javelin when he tried to regain his footing. Muslim accounts of the battle credit a Berber named Tumart ibn Tashfin al-Zanati with slaying Bermudo, but give few details.

Most of Bermudo's remaining army was killed during their final stand and withdrawal. The knights were largely decimated, with most survivors of the battle being peasant conscripts or Italian mercenaries. The Asmarid force also suffered significant casualties, but managed to rout the Santiagonians and obliterate the threat to their siege of Leon.

*​

The Battle of Destriana was the decisive moment in the Cantabrian Wars. Bermudo's death threw an already divided Santiago into confusion as a kingdom under siege suddenly found itself kingless and faced with a contested succession: Bermudo left behind two sons, but both were underage.

Court intrigues eventually saw Bermudo's eldest son Rodrigo elevated to the throne, but he was a boy of just 12 at the time, and within a month there were several moves afoot to depose him in favour of more capable candidates. The divisions would contribute to the rapid breakdown of unity on the Santiagonian side of the Cantabrian Wars, leaving dukes and counts to effectively fend for themselves as political divisions broke the realm down into warlordism - disparate fiefdoms recognizing various pretenders or Rodrigo, largely left to their own devices and forced to face the Asmarid advance singularly while fighting amonst themselves.

Bermudo's body, meanwhile, was recovered from the battlefield three days later by a group of monks. Fearing that his remains would be desecrated by the Asmarids, the monks buried the fallen king in haste at the site now called Mojon del Rey, northwest of Astorga, in a wooded area somewhat back from the main pilgrimage route of the Way of Saint James. The site was obscure for many years before being located again in the 1700s, overlooking an arroyo a distance outside the city. Later archaeological surveys found the remains of a man killed in the late 1400s, bearing wounds to his head, shoulder and sternum. Genetic testing has since positively identified these remains as those of Bermudo, and Mojon del Rey has become a notable historic site - and something of a place of pilgrimage for Christian extremists.

With Bermudo out of the way, meanwhile, the Asmarids were able to consolidate their control over much of Santiago. Leon fell by the end of August, along with several other cities, including Vigo, Lugo and Astorga. This limited Santiago to its north coast and redoubts in the Cantabrian Mountains, and it left the city demoralized when the summer campaign of 1480 saw Asmarid trools roll directly up to the gates of Santiago de Compostela. The city surrendered with little fighting.

The fall of Santiago left little more than mop-up work in the northwest, allowing hajib Al-Nasr to redirect his forces to the subjugation of Navarre in the northeast. The Basque kingdom, left standing alone, would ultimately capitulate in 1481.

While Santiago was outright annexed, the much-weakened Navarre instead chose to surrender in exchange for certain guarantees. The last Basque king was forced into retirement, sent into house arrest on a luxurious estate in southern Andalusia. The remaining Navarrese territory would be reorganized into a wilayah, ruled by an Asmarid military governor. However, Christian landholders and ecclesiasts were permitted to retain their lands and titles, and the area was generally treated as a Christian enclave.

The collapse of two Christian kingdoms - even weak, divided ones considered on the fringes of Europe to begin with - sent waves of consternation through the more cosmopolitan classes in Europe. Fears abounded of disruption to the Way of Saint James. These were mitigated somewhat by the Council of Toledo, called in 1482 by the Mozarabic Bishop of Toledo and attended by Mozarabic, Catholic and Anicetian theologians under the watchful eye of Al-Nasr himself. The council was really a sham event orchestrated to demonstrate Al-Nasr's magnanimity to the Catholic Church: The leaders of the three Christian communities produced a call for pilgrims to remain unmolested en route to Santiago, and Al-Nasr made a show of accepting their recommendation.

Localized rebellions and resistance from local landholders would continue in the north for decades - indeed, terror groups like the Bullfighters continue to draw their inspiration from a sense of resistance against the outcomes of the Cantabrian Wars. The northern kingdoms would never truly be Islamized to the extent that southern and central Andalusia were, ensuring a large Christian minority would continue to dwell in Iberia. But the fall of Santiago and Navarre would effectively consolidate the Iberian Peninsula under a single entity for the first time since the height of the Visigothic Kingdom, and it would serve to further undermine confidence in the Catholic Church at a time when the Church could ill afford it.

*​

The end of the Cantabrian Wars is often treated by historians of western Eurasia as the end of the Middle Period. It marks the rise of the Asmarid Empire as a world power, coinciding with their overseas expansion. Together with the Fourth Romanian War and the end of the Tripartite Schism, the event marks a rapid transition to modernity: The Blossoming, the settlement of the New World, and the globalization of politics, technology, peoples and cultures.

The world following 1481 would be transformed dramatically, and the Cantabrian Wars left the Asmarids well-positioned to steer much of that transformation.


~


END OF ACT VIII "DAYS OF SAIL AND STEAM"

THE END OF THE MIDDLE PERIOD
AND THE BEGINNING OF ACT IX
THE RECORD OF AN AGE OF CHANGE AND WONDER


"A STORY WRITTEN IN BLACKPOWDER"
THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD OF MOONLIGHT IN A JAR



[1] Field artillery.

SUMMARY:
June 19, 1479: The Battle of Destriana. Santiagonian King Bermudo V is killed after a heroic last stand outside the village of Destriana. The battle triggers a leadership crisis in Santiago and breaks the kingdom down into independent feudalities, many of which begin to settle with or surrender to the Asmarids independently.
1480: The Asmarids largely complete the subjugation of Santiago.
1481: Navarre capitulates to the Asmarids in exchange for a degree of autonomy. The Cantabrian Wars end. The Early Modern Period begins.
1482: The Council of Toledo. The Asmarids provide assurances that the Way of Saint James will remain open.
 
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Like I expected, the battle was epic. However, from a certain point of view it has kind of a bittersweet taste. Bermudo died fighting, so his memory will live on; however, now Iberia is completely in Andalusian hands. I can't imagine Christian Europe being too happy about it.
 
And thus passes the end of an age.

More bittersweet than I thought it would be. For some reason, I expected a grand narrative on the end, possibly at Santiago de Compostela. But this is fitting too. I expect there will be a lot of paintings on the surrender of the city?
 
damn i was going to write a post saying the king is the most important person as long as he lives the northern kingdoms live.

Also from r europe telling me Navarre was not a Basque kingdom they spoke something different. So in this tl are they Basque?
 
And thus passes the end of an age.

More bittersweet than I thought it would be. For some reason, I expected a grand narrative on the end, possibly at Santiago de Compostela. But this is fitting too. I expect there will be a lot of paintings on the surrender of the city?
I'm sure there will be. There are a lot of paintings depicting the fall of Granada, along with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel. In OTL, many Granadans fled to Morocco and put their hopes on Morocco and then the Ottoman Empire for protection and revenge against Spain. There was even a serious Muslim rebellion in Andalusia (The Rebellion of the Alpujarras), but Spain was there to stay. It's likely some Christians here have emigrated to Aquitaine/Romania and France, and pinned their hopes on the French, Romanians and Germans.
 
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