Map Thread XX

What I hope to convey: Either the predominant skin colour per subdivision OR an average-ified skin colour of the most populous ethnicity (or ethnicities, in the case of plurality).
I'm not sure how relevant it is, but I want to create the map,, as an excuse for me to calculate this. Demographics and statistics are interesting.
(Sorry if this is worded badly).
Hmmm, very well, carry on and good luck.
 
Bro, I can't even sleep at all.
wait...its not cheese rivers? Damn I was so psyched.

A one-off map I made imagining a scenario where Juan José Latorre, a Chilean naval commander, makes a fateful split-second decision during an alternate Battle of Punta Gruesa that ends up costing Chile the War of the Pacific.

On the 14th of February 1879, 200 Chilean soldiers landed in and occupied the coastal town of Antofagasta in the Bolivian Litoral department, much of which was claimed by Chile. This military action followed a decades-long border dispute between the two nations, and was the direct result of the Bolivian violation of the 1874 Boundary Treaty a year earlier. Within a month, with the official Bolivian declaration of war, the War of the Pacific had begun.

To many foreign observers, the direction which the conflict could take seemed unclear in its opening stages. Peru and Bolivia, military allies since an 1873 treaty between the two nations, both had struggling economies and little in the way of fighting capability on land or sea. Similarly, Chile, a relatively more prosperous nation to the south, had its military contingent reduced in preceding years from 3,776 in 1867 to just 2,400 by the outbreak of war. No whole Chilean unit was deployed north of Valparaíso, some 1050 kilometres from the border with Bolivia.

With the harsh and entirely arid climate of the Litoral department, the main land theatre for the war, it was clear that moving troops and supplies around here would prove to be incredibly challenging. As such, the need for domination of the war's naval theatre quickly became apparent to either side. It was in this theatre that Bolivia's ally Peru successfully swung the war effort in their favour.

After the crushing defeat of Chilean naval commander Arturo Prat at the Battle of Iquique in May 1879, Peru was granted a boost in naval morale that would persist in the coming months. Disaster struck once again for the Chilean navy when the Peruvian ironclads Huáscar and Independencia engaged the Chilean ironclads Almirante Cochrane and Blanco Encalada in June 1879 off Punta Gruesa. The battle lasted for hours, and the stalemate was broken when a botched ramming attempt by the Almirante Cochrane, commanded by Juan José Latorre, left the vessel with severe damage, succumbing to persistent fire from the two Peruvian vessels and sinking just thirty minutes later. Sustaining heavy damage itself, the Blanco Encalada attempted to flee south, only to be caught up with and boarded by the crew of the Independencia, forcing the ship's surrender.

With the two flagships of the Chilean navy either sunk or captured, Peru quickly appeared to have asserted its dominance over the naval theatre of the conflict. Chile's defeat at Punta Gruesa greatly hampered the military's ability to reinforce and resupply its occupied positions in the Litoral at Antofagasta and Calama, making their defensive lines vulnerable. October 1879 was to prove to be another turning point, when a combined Bolivian-Peruvian offensive won a close victory in the Battle of Antofagasta, driving out the undersupplied Chilean forces.

After an intelligence leak from the Argentine senate in October suggested that Argentina was preparing to intervene on the side of Bolivia and Peru so as to forcefully take its claimed territories in Patagonia (Argentina itself had been offered a position in the alliance in 1873), serious fears arose in Chile regarding the prospect of fighting a two-front war. With little hope of reclaiming either Antofagasta or naval dominance in the conflict, Chilean diplomats met with officials from Peru and Bolivia to discuss peace terms by the end of 1879, eager to ratify a treaty before an Argentine declaration of war.

The Boundary Treaty of 1879, signed in Lima in December, nullified the previous treaties of 1866 and 1874, and firmly defined the Chilean-Bolivian border at the 24th parallel. Though this did not account for Bolivian claims as far south as the 25th parallel, it served as a victory for Bolivia to have its coastal territory finally secured.

In the years following Bolivia's victory, Chilean companies, and many Chilean citizens, were expelled from the Litoral department, with many of the mining operations being inherited by Peruvian corporations. Antofagasta went from being an overwhelmingly Chilean town to having just 36% of its population made up of Chilean-born inhabitants. These actions of expulsion were to become a major source for diplomatic tension between Chile and Bolivia in coming decades, with Chile still labelling these efforts as 'criminal' to this day.
This, this is a good map. This is a great map. The fonts, the textures, the styling. Its all spot on. I just wish there was a shaded relief in it too. It would just add that extra 1 to make it go to 11. BTW for anyone wanting to add old-timey shaded reliefs from vintage maps (sans racism), you can download georeferenced tiff files here:
 
wait...its not cheese rivers? Damn I was so psyched.


This, this is a good map. This is a great map. The fonts, the textures, the styling. Its all spot on. I just wish there was a shaded relief in it too. It would just add that extra 1 to make it go to 11. BTW for anyone wanting to add old-timey shaded reliefs from vintage maps (sans racism), you can download georeferenced tiff files here:
Hmm disagree on the shaded relier, while it often looks good on modern maps it often doesn’t on 19th century ones, I think it’s better to put these old representations of mountains range like in this video
 
Hmm disagree on the shaded relier, while it often looks good on modern maps it often doesn’t on 19th century ones, I think it’s better to put these old representations of mountains range like in this video
This video is fantastic, I've never seen this. Thank you for sharing that!

Yeah, this is all personal preference at the end of the day, when I think of great 19th century maps I personally gravitate towards maps like this:

00574087.jpg

Where the shading is a lot finer and more realistic to later shaded reliefs like you'd get in the later Swiss style, but many other maps of the same period show what you linked here, called colloquially 'caterpillar' mountains (cause they all fuzzy wuzzy n'shit). And in many cases, the lines were so thin that on a larger scale they blend together to look like actual shading. There isnt a exact line between hachure and shading.

I think the map looks great as is. If shaded relief was added, I think you could do it like the map I linked above, or go for a more abstract caterpillar style, like below:
2866061.jpg


Either would work great, as is the map just standing alone without them. Having a great map is like being trying on clothing when you have six-pack abs. Its a lot harder to go wrong.
 
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This video is fantastic, I've never seen this. Thank you for sharing that!

Yeah, this is all personal preference at the end of the day, when I think of great 19th century maps I personally gravitate towards maps like this:


Where the shading is a lot finer and more realistic to later shaded reliefs like you'd get in the later Swiss style, but many other maps of the same period show what you linked here, called colloquially 'caterpillar' mountains (cause they all fuzzy wuzzy n'shit). And in many cases, the lines were so thin that on a larger scale they blend together to look like actual shading. There isnt a exact line between hachure and shading.

I think the map looks great as is. If shaded relief was added, I think you could do it like the map I linked above, or go for a more abstract caterpillar style, like below:


Either would work great, as is the map just standing alone without them. Having a great map is like being trying on clothing when you have six-pack abs. Its a lot harder to go wrong.

Yeah you're right it's up to personal preference.
Tho I have no idea how to do relief like on the first map (well without doing it "by hand"), maybe by a mixture of smoothing, applying painting filters and a "randomising" (idk if this is a thing in raster, but there are similar options on ArcGis to makes lines fuzzy and look handdrawn) a shaded relief map, and maybe superimposing two of such maps.
 
Yeah you're right it's up to personal preference.
Tho I have no idea how to do relief like on the first map (well without doing it "by hand"), maybe by a mixture of smoothing, applying painting filters and a "randomising" (idk if this is a thing in raster, but there are similar options on ArcGis to makes lines fuzzy and look handdrawn) a shaded relief map, and maybe superimposing two of such maps.
So theres no way to really copy the look of this sort of terrain without drawing it by hand. Especially because the shaded reliefs I linked to are mostly from the early 20th century, not the 19th. Theres a slight difference in style.

If you wanted that 'stippled' look, I'd actually drop it into Photoshop and use it as a mask for a noise filter. If you wanted to try it in Pro, you'd probably want to create contours, explode them so they were tens of thousands of little segments, spatial join those to your raster HS which you vectorized, and then do a marker layer where you link dot size and placement to HS angle and elevation respectively - that might work. Heres a test I did last year that used that:


As you can tell from that big block of text...its kinda a pain to pull off :coldsweat:

< -- I originally used the word "bitch" in this comment. It was rightly pointed out that this word has negative, and sexist connotations. I edited it out, but I am leaving this up, and my other comment, just as a reminder.
 
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Here's still an alternate map of WWII, where France fights on, here we are circa '44. The Franco-Americans landed in Provence in September '43, the Soviets begin the Battle of the Vistula, the British are just landing in Normandy, and Greece and Serbia were liberated by the Wallies.

View attachment 573794
C'est canon! Keep up with the good work.
 
So theres no way to really copy the look of this sort of terrain without drawing it by hand. Especially because the shaded reliefs I linked to are mostly from the early 20th century, not the 19th. Theres a slight difference in style.
(snip)
As you can tell from that big block of text...its kinda a bitch to pull off :coldsweat:
Thanks for the photoshop advice. It's really not a good idea to use the word "bitch" like that, because of the sexist connotations. Please keep that in mind.
 
Thanks for the photoshop advice. It's really not a good idea to use the word "bitch" like that, because of the sexist connotations. Please keep that in mind.
I apologize. I will edit my comment and not use that word moving forward.

On the topic of good free GIS resources, heres some other ones to keep saved:
https://www.naturalearthdata.com/


Theres also some interesting work by John Nelson at ESRI on replicating hachure in Pro, though I am not totally sold on the style:
 
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1597131045670.png

I'll write the lore later, but basically France looses their wars against the toucouleurs in the 1850s preventing french expansion in West Africa, hilarity ensues, britian has a coup, germany dies, blah blah blah
 
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