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List of monarchs III

POD: Queen Christina of Sweden is born a boy

Monarchs of Sweden
1611-1632: Gustavus II Adolphus (House of Vasa)
1632-1689: Christian III (House of Vasa) [1]

[1]


King Christian III of Sweden took the throne at the age of five after his father's death during the Thirty Years War and would reign for the next fifty-seven years until his death in 1689. As King of Sweden, he would be a ruler who would prove to be intelligent and well-read, seen by many as a second Marcus Aurelius owing to his love of philosophy and learning, especially with his philosophical writings and other such matters. As a ruler, Christian III would be a ruler who would work hard and be remembered as an effective and talented ruler, especially with how he would use the Deluge to expand Sweden at the expense of Poland-Lithuania.

In his personal life, he would marry Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier in 1650 with the couple having five children. King Christian would die at the age of 63 in Stockholm surrounded by his wife and family and would be succeeded by _____________. While many historians have castigated him for overextending the realm during the Deluge and his Catholic sympathies was something of an open secret even when he was alive with historians divided on whether he was a crypto-Catholic or not, he is still considered one of Sweden's greatest rulers.
 
POD: Basil II marries and has a son and heir instead of refusing to marry



Monarchs of the Roman Empire

976-1025: Basil II (Macedonian Dynasty)

1025-1055: Alexios I (Macedonian Dynasty) [1]

1055-1079: Romanos III (Macedonian Dynasty) [2]

1079-1082: Alexander II (Macedonian Dynasty) [3]

1082-1150: Constantine IX (Macedonian Dynasty) [4]

1150-1162: Nikephoros III (Macedonian Dynasty) [5]

1162-1189: Constantine X (Macedonian Dynasty) [6]

1189-1195: Alexios II (Macedonian Dynasty) [7]

1195-1217: Basil III (Macedonian Dynasty) [8]

1217-1242: Alexander III (Macedonian Dynasty) [9]

1242-1245: Constantine XI (Macedonian Dynasty) [10]

1245-1262: Alexios III (Petraliphas Dynasty) [11]

1262-1301: Sophia I and Romanos IV (Petraliphas Dynasty) [12]

1301-1319: Nicola I (Aurellanius Dynasty) [13]

1319-1344: John II (Petraliphas Dynasty) [14]

1337-1341: Alexios IV, Co-Emperor (Petraliphas Dynasty)

1344-1371: Vladimir I Porphyrogenitus (Petraliphas Dynasty) [15]

1371-1417: Andronicus I (Petraliphas Dynasty) [16]

1417-1421: Athalrichos I (Athalrichids/Non-Dynastic) [17]

1421-1429: Leopold I and Sophia II (House of Habsburg/Petraliphas Dynasty) [18]

1429-1446: Frederick I (House of Habsburg) [19]

1446-1470: Irene II (House of Habsburg) [20]

1470-1492: Gregory I (House of Tusculum) [21]

1492-1518: Theodore I (House of Tusculum) [22]

1518-1546: Constantine XII (House of Tusculum) [23]

1546-1560: Romanos V (House of Tusculum) [24]

1560-1569: Gregory II (House of Tusculum) [25]

1569-1604: Romanos VI (House of Tusculum) [26]

1604-1650: Anastasia I (House of Tusculum) [27]

1650-1678: Nikephoros IV (House of Tusculum) [28]

1678-1680: Theodore II (House of Tusculum) [29]

1680-1715 Andronicus II (House of Tusculum) [30]

1715-1753: Nikephoros V (House of Tusculum) [31]

1753-1758: Thomas I and Maria I (House of Dexapatras/House of Tusculum) [32]

1758-1760: Thomas I (House of Dexapatras)

1760-1801: Anastasia II (House of Dexapatras) [33]

1801-1834: Zoe I (House of Doukas) [34]

1834-1870:Maria ii Ana (House of Palaiologos) [35]



[35]
1A215884-2E8C-40AD-9DB8-C1C6D301F26B.jpeg



Maria Ana was born in 1818 as the granddaughter of Empress Zoe through eldest son. As granddaughter of the Empress it was assumed that she would be heir to the throne which was correct even when her father died in 1825. Maria Ana became Empress after the death of her grandmother in 1834 at the age of 16, her uncle Feodore would serve as her regent for the next two years. Maria Ana’s reign was not as eventful as her grandmothers but that doesn’t mean it was boring, in the year after officially taking the throne she was nearly assinated by a French nationalist twice. In 1840 a war sparked between between the Roman Empire and France once again which Rome won. Over the years Egypt had been growing stronger and started braking away from Rome this would eventually lead to a war between the two countries which surprisingly ended with Rome losing even with the help of the Ottomans. This military loss would leave sour ties between the two countries for years to come. Maria Ana had a love for music and gardening she would create a large garden at her main residence(name of palace here) that is still there today and admired by many who come to visit it. One of the interesting things about Maria Ana’s reign was that she was the first Roman monarch to have a photo taken of her.
8647D2FF-1037-4B57-8BDD-857A69ADEF5C.jpeg



In 1838 Maria Ana married Prince Alexander of Greece and the two had six children. Maria Ana died in 1870 from an allergic reaction to something in her food , she was succeeded by_____.
 
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POD: Queen Christina of Sweden is born a boy

Monarchs of Sweden
1611-1632: Gustavus II Adolphus (House of Vasa)
1632-1689: Christian III (House of Vasa) [1]
1689-1702: Charles X (House of Vasa) [2]


Monarchs of Sweden and Great Britain

1701-1704: Charles III and X (House of Vasa) [2]

[1]


King Christian III of Sweden took the throne at the age of five after his father's death during the Thirty Years War and would reign for the next fifty-seven years until his death in 1689. As King of Sweden, he would be a ruler who would prove to be intelligent and well-read, seen by many as a second Marcus Aurelius owing to his love of philosophy and learning, especially with his philosophical writings and other such matters. As a ruler, Christian III would be a ruler who would work hard and be remembered as an effective and talented ruler, especially with how he would use the Deluge to expand Sweden at the expense of Poland-Lithuania.

In his personal life, he would marry Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier in 1650 with the couple having five children. King Christian would die at the age of 63 in Stockholm surrounded by his wife and family and would be succeeded by _____________. While many historians have castigated him for overextending the realm during the Deluge and his Catholic sympathies was something of an open secret even when he was alive with historians divided on whether he was a crypto-Catholic or not, he is still considered one of Sweden's greatest rulers.

(2)

lossy-page1-800px-Kristian_Albrekt%2C_1641-1694_%28David_Kl%C3%B6cker_Ehrenstrahl%29_-_Nationalmuseum_-_39974.tif.jpg


Charles X was the second son of Christian III, his elder brother Christian died in 1686 after Charles had married Lady Anne Stuart. This made Charles the heir - but events conspired to place Anne the heir to the English and Scottish thrones after the abdication of her father and the subsequent death of her sister, Mary II, and her brother-in-law, William III. Charles and Anne would have three children - one male and two female - and when Anne was made Queen of Britain in 1702, she negotiated with Parliament so that her husband was recognised as her co-monarch.

This meant that their children stood as heirs to two nations. In 1700, Sweden found itself drawn into conflict when an alliance that included Denmark-Norway and Russia invaded the Swedish protectorate of Holstein-Gottorp, the Duke of which was Charles' brother-in-law, Christian Albert. This was the Great Northern War that lasted until after both Charles and Anne had died and Christian Albert had been succeeded by his son Christian Augustus.

Charles died from pneumonia following an accident whilst riding that causes a chest infection. He was succeeded in Sweden by ________ but Anne would continue to rule, however heartbroken, in Britain, for another ten years.


Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden, b. 1594, r. 1611 to 1632, m. Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg
1) Christian III of Sweden, b. 1627, r. 1632 to 1689, m. Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans, Duchess of Montpensier​
a) Christian, Crown Prince of Sweden, b. 1653, d. 1686, never married​
b) Charles X of Sweden, b. 1655, r. 1689 to 1704, m. Anne, Queen of Great Britain
x) three children from 1685, (2F, 1M)
c) Marie Rosalie of Sweden, b. 1656, m. Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
1) Christian Augustus, b. 1680​
x) two others - one son and one daughter
 
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POD: Queen Christina of Sweden is born a boy

Monarchs of Sweden
1611-1632: Gustavus II Adolphus (House of Vasa)
1632-1689: Christian III (House of Vasa) [1]
1689-1702: Charles X (House of Vasa) [2]


Monarchs of Sweden, England and Scotland
1702-1704: Charles X & III (House of Vasa) [2]
Queen of England and Scotland
1702-1707: Anne I (House of Stuart)
Queen of Great Britain
1702-1707: Anne I (House of Stuart)
Monarchs of Sweden
1704-1714: William I (House of Vasa) [3]

Monarchs of Sweden and Great Britain
1714-1717: William I & IV (House of Vasa)

[1]
King Christian III of Sweden took the throne at the age of five after his father's death during the Thirty Years War and would reign for the next fifty-seven years until his death in 1689. As King of Sweden, he would be a ruler who would prove to be intelligent and well-read, seen by many as a second Marcus Aurelius owing to his love of philosophy and learning, especially with his philosophical writings and other such matters. As a ruler, Christian III would be a ruler who would work hard and be remembered as an effective and talented ruler, especially with how he would use the Deluge to expand Sweden at the expense of Poland-Lithuania.

In his personal life, he would marry Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier in 1650 with the couple having five children. King Christian would die at the age of 63 in Stockholm surrounded by his wife and family and would be succeeded by his second son, Prince Charles. While many historians have castigated him for overextending the realm during the Deluge and his Catholic sympathies was something of an open secret even when he was alive with historians divided on whether he was a crypto-Catholic or not, he is still considered one of Sweden's greatest rulers.

(2)
lossy-page1-800px-Kristian_Albrekt%2C_1641-1694_%28David_Kl%C3%B6cker_Ehrenstrahl%29_-_Nationalmuseum_-_39974.tif.jpg


Charles X was the second son of Christian III, his elder brother Christian died in 1686 after Charles had married Lady Anne Stuart. This made Charles the heir - but events conspired to place Anne the heir to the English and Scottish thrones after the abdication of her father and the subsequent death of her sister, Mary II, and her brother-in-law, William III. Charles and Anne would have three children - one male and two female - and when Anne was made Queen of England and Scotland in 1702, she negotiated with Parliament so that her husband was recognised as her co-monarch.

This meant that their children stood as heirs to two nations. In 1700, Sweden found itself drawn into conflict when an alliance that included Denmark-Norway and Russia invaded the Swedish protectorate of Holstein-Gottorp, the Duke of which was Charles' brother-in-law, Christian Albert. This was the Great Northern War that lasted until after both Charles and Anne had died and Christian Albert had been succeeded by his son Christian Augustus.

Charles died from pneumonia following an accident whilst riding that causes a chest infection. He was succeeded in Sweden by William, Prince of Wales and Crown Prince of Sweden, but Anne would continue to rule, however heartbroken, in Britain, for another ten years.

[3] William Christian Charles was the only son of King Charles X and Princess Anne of England and Scotland. William was the younger of the three children and born nearly a year into his father’s reign and named Crown Prince.

Anne was estranged from her brother-in-law and cousin, William III, and her sister, Mary II, but supported links between them and her son. He would frequently visit England and became close to his uncle and namesake, William, who created him a Knight of the Garter during a visit in 1701, and his queenly aunt Mary, who regularly sent him presents and he was saddened when aged 4, he would hear news of his aunt dying.
In 1702, upon the death of his uncle, the new Queen Anne, took her family to England to carry on education as well as experience English culture. Following her coronation, Anne also created William as Prince of Wales.

When his father died, 14 year old William, travelled to Sweden, to take the thrown, regency would be run by his uncle, Prince Adolphus, whom had been serving as a regency under King Charles X, during his trips to England.
The first act he would do as king was to arrange peace with Russia, knowing even with the naval support of his mother’s homeland, William would not be able to win a two fronted war, having held off three major Russian attack, in November 1704, William arranged the marriage of his eldest sister, Princess Mary Eleanor, to Peter “the Great” I of Russia, along with offering financial support against Russia’s true enemy, the Ottoman Empire.

In 1705, following a year of looking for a foreign royal bride, came to nothing, Queen Anne, arranged for her son, William to be married to Lady Mary Churchill, daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, of whom was a life long friend and favourite of Queen Anne.
For his other sister, Princess Anne Louise, William arranged for her to be married to Frederick William I of Prussia.

The war with Denmark-Norway would continue until 1716, the middle years turned to minor trade skirmishes, while the final two years saw many Swedish, Great Britain and Holstein-Gottorp victories, which brought Denmark-Norway to the negotiating table.
Sadly during the peace talks, William was killed in an explosion caused by a Norwegian nationalist.

Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden, b. 1594, r. 1611 to 1632, m. Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg
1) Christian III of Sweden, b. 1627, r. 1632 to 1689, m. Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans of Montpensier​
a) Christian, Crown Prince of Sweden, b. 1653, d. 1686, never married​
b) Charles X & III of Sweden, England & Scotland, b. 1655, r. 1689 to 1704, m. Anne, Queen of Great Britain
a) Princess Mary Eleanor, b. 1685 m. Peter “the Great” I of Russia b. 1672, r. 16821725)​
b) Princess Anne Louise, b. 1688 m. Frederick William I of Prussia, b. 1688, r. 1713 to 1740)​
c) William I & IV of Sweden and Great Britain, b. 1690, r. 1704~1714 to 1717, m. Mary Churchill, b. 1689​
c) Marie Rosalie of Sweden, b. 1656, m. Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp​
1) Christian Augustus, b. 1680​
d) Prince Gustavu, b. 1658 d. 1669​
e) Eleanor Marie of Sweden, b. 1661 d. 1675​
f) Prince Adolphus b. 1664​
 
POD: Queen Christina of Sweden is born a boy

Monarchs of Sweden
1611-1632: Gustavus II Adolphus (House of Vasa)
1632-1689: Christian III (House of Vasa) [1]
1689-1702: Charles X (House of Vasa) [2]


Monarchs of Sweden and Great Britain
1702-1704: Charles X & III (House of Vasa) [2]
Monarchs of Sweden
1704-1714: William I (House of Vasa) [3]

Monarchs of Sweden and Great Britain
1714-1717: William I & IV (House of Vasa) [3]
1717-1734: The Great Adolphite Regency (Sweden) and The Marlborough
Regency (Britain)
1717-1751: Peter I (House of Vasa) [4]



(1) King Christian III of Sweden took the throne at the age of five after his father's death during the Thirty Years War and would reign for the next fifty-seven years until his death in 1689. As King of Sweden, he would be a ruler who would prove to be intelligent and well-read, seen by many as a second Marcus Aurelius owing to his love of philosophy and learning, especially with his philosophical writings and other such matters. As a ruler, Christian III would be a ruler who would work hard and be remembered as an effective and talented ruler, especially with how he would use the Deluge to expand Sweden at the expense of Poland-Lithuania.

In his personal life, he would marry Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier in 1650 with the couple having five children. King Christian would die at the age of 63 in Stockholm surrounded by his wife and family and would be succeeded by his second son, Prince Charles. While many historians have castigated him for overextending the realm during the Deluge and his Catholic sympathies was something of an open secret even when he was alive with historians divided on whether he was a crypto-Catholic or not, he is still considered one of Sweden's greatest rulers.

(2)
lossy-page1-800px-Kristian_Albrekt%2C_1641-1694_%28David_Kl%C3%B6cker_Ehrenstrahl%29_-_Nationalmuseum_-_39974.tif.jpg


Charles X was the second son of Christian III, his elder brother Christian died in 1686 after Charles had married Lady Anne Stuart. This made Charles the heir - but events conspired to place Anne the heir to the English and Scottish thrones after the abdication of her father and the subsequent death of her sister, Mary II, and her brother-in-law, William III. Charles and Anne would have three children - one male and two female - and when Anne was made Queen of Great Britain in 1702, she negotiated with Parliament so that her husband was recognised as her co-monarch.

This meant that their children stood as heirs to two nations. In 1700, Sweden found itself drawn into conflict when an alliance that included Denmark-Norway and Russia invaded the Swedish protectorate of Holstein-Gottorp, the Duke of which was Charles' brother-in-law, Christian Albert. This was the Great Northern War that lasted until after both Charles and Anne had died and Christian Albert had been succeeded by his son Christian Augustus.

Charles died from pneumonia following an accident whilst riding that causes a chest infection. He was succeeded in Sweden by William, Prince of Wales and Crown Prince of Sweden, but Anne would continue to rule, however heartbroken, in Britain, for another ten years.

[3] William Christian Charles was the only son of King Charles X and Princess Anne of England and Scotland. William was the younger of the three children and born nearly a year into his father’s reign and named Crown Prince.

Anne was estranged from her brother-in-law and cousin, William III, and her sister, Mary II, but supported links between them and her son. He would frequently visit England and became close to his uncle and namesake, William, who created him a Knight of the Garter during a visit in 1701, and his queenly aunt Mary, who regularly sent him presents and he was saddened when aged 4, he would hear news of his aunt dying.
In 1702, upon the death of his uncle, the new Queen Anne, took her family to England to carry on education as well as experience English culture. Following her coronation, Anne also created William as Prince of Wales.

When his father died, 14 year old William, travelled to Sweden, to take the thrown, regency would be run by his uncle, Prince Adolphus, whom had been serving as a regency under King Charles X, during his trips to England.
The first act he would do as king was to arrange peace with Russia, knowing even with the naval support of his mother’s homeland, William would not be able to win a two fronted war, having held off three major Russian attack, in November 1704, William arranged the marriage of his eldest sister, Princess Mary Eleanor, to Peter “the Great” I of Russia, along with offering financial support against Russia’s true enemy, the Ottoman Empire.

In 1705, following a year of looking for a foreign royal bride, came to nothing, Queen Anne, arranged for her son, William to be married to Lady Mary Churchill, daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, of whom was a life long friend and favourite of Queen Anne.
For his other sister, Princess Anne Louise, William arranged for her to be married to Frederick William I of Prussia.

The war with Denmark-Norway would continue until 1716, the middle years turned to minor trade skirmishes, while the final two years saw many Swedish, Great Britain and Holstein-Gottorp victories, which brought Denmark-Norway to the negotiating table.
Sadly during the peace talks, William was killed in an explosion caused by a Norwegian nationalist.

Carl_Frederick_of_Sweden_c_1722_by_David_von_Krafft.jpg


(4) Peter was only a year old when he became King of Great Britain and of Sweden, in Britain, his Recency was overseen by his paternal grandfather, the Duke of Marlborough, and in Sweden, by his great uncle, Prince Adolphus - this led to a period of instability as both Russia and Prussia pressed their claim to the Recency of Sweden, but the Swedish nobility dismissed these claims to avoid a foreign influence. Adolphus was only in his thirties when the Recency commenced and nearing sixty when it finished. In some circles he was referred to as Good King Adolphus for his defacto rule, for steering the nation tgrough the aftermath of the Great Northern War and settling the matter of the disputed regency.

Peter married his second cousin once removed, Rosalind of Holstein-Gottorp, and they would have five children from 1738 to 1748, before Peters death in 1751 wherein he was succeeded by ________.

A major movement to simplify the government of the two nations began during Peters rule. England and Scotland had been unified in the 1701 Act of Union and Settlement, but this had been a difficult process, fraught with conflict and argument. And it was less than fifty years old when proposed to Parliament in Britain and their equivalents in Sweden - whilst the proposal was considered, it as discarded on at least five occasions. Peter was keen on a proposal that raised him to Emperor of the Brittanic-Swedish Empire, to put him on par with his uncle and namesake, the Emperor of Russia, but this was also dismissed to be revisited in the future.

A similar agreement in Sweden and Britain was that whilst the thrones were held in union, they could not be then held in union with Russia, though the crown could be inherited by a Romanov claimant. It was a complicated state of affairs all things considered, but based on religious requirements at the British and Russian courts.


Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden, b. 1594, r. 1611 to 1632, m. Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg
1) Christian III of Sweden, b. 1627, r. 1632 to 1689, m. Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans, Duchess of Montpensier​
a) Christian, Crown Prince of Sweden, b. 1653, d. 1686, never married​
b) Charles X & III of Sweden, England & Scotland, b. 1655, r. 1689 to 1704, m. Anne, Queen of Great Britain
a) Princess Mary Eleanor, b. 1685 m. Peter “the Great” I of Russia b. 1672, r. 1681 to (Present)​
b) Princess Anne Louise, b. 1688 m. Frederick William I of Prussia, b. 1688, r. 1713 to (Present)​
c) William I & IV of Sweden and Great Britain, b. 1690, r. 1704~1714 to 1717, m. Mary Churchill, b. 1689​
1) Peter I of Sweden and Great Britain, b. 1716, r. 1717 to 1751, m. Rosalind of Holstein-Gottorp​
x) five children, all survive infancy
c) Marie Rosalie of Sweden, b. 1656, m. Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp​
1) Christian Augustus, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1680, d. 1716​
a) Christian Augustus II, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1700​
1) Rosalind of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1720, m. Peter I of Sweden and Great Britain
-- x) for issue, see line of Peter I
2) Albert Augustus of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1722​
d) Prince Gustavu, b. 1658 d. 1669​
e) Eleanor Marie of Sweden, b. 1661 d. 1675​
f) Prince Adolphus b. 1664​
 
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POD: Basil II marries and has a son and heir instead of refusing to marry

Monarchs of the Roman Empire
976-1025: Basil II (Macedonian Dynasty)
1025-1055: Alexios I (Macedonian Dynasty) [1]
1055-1079: Romanos III (Macedonian Dynasty) [2]
1079-1082: Alexander II (Macedonian Dynasty) [3]
1082-1150: Constantine IX (Macedonian Dynasty) [4]
1150-1162: Nikephoros III (Macedonian Dynasty) [5]
1162-1189: Constantine X (Macedonian Dynasty) [6]
1189-1195: Alexios II (Macedonian Dynasty) [7]
1195-1217: Basil III (Macedonian Dynasty) [8]
1217-1242: Alexander III (Macedonian Dynasty) [9]
1242-1245: Constantine XI (Macedonian Dynasty) [10]
1245-1262: Alexios III (Petraliphas Dynasty) [11]
1262-1301: Sophia I and Romanos IV (Petraliphas Dynasty) [12]
1301-1319: Nicola I (Aurellanius Dynasty) [13]
1319-1344: John II (Petraliphas Dynasty) [14]
1337-1341: Alexios IV, Co-Emperor (Petraliphas Dynasty)
1344-1371: Vladimir I Porphyrogenitus (Petraliphas Dynasty) [15]
1371-1417: Andronicus I (Petraliphas Dynasty) [16]
1417-1421: Athalrichos I (Athalrichids/Non-Dynastic) [17]
1421-1429: Leopold I and Sophia II (House of Habsburg/Petraliphas Dynasty) [18]
1429-1446: Frederick I (House of Habsburg) [19]
1446-1470: Irene II (House of Habsburg) [20]
1470-1492: Gregory I (House of Tusculum) [21]
1492-1518: Theodore I (House of Tusculum) [22]
1518-1546: Constantine XII (House of Tusculum) [23]
1546-1560: Romanos V (House of Tusculum) [24]
1560-1569: Gregory II (House of Tusculum) [25]
1569-1604: Romanos VI (House of Tusculum) [26]
1604-1650: Anastasia I (House of Tusculum) [27]
1650-1678: Nikephoros IV (House of Tusculum) [28]
1678-1680: Theodore II (House of Tusculum) [29]
1680-1715 Andronicus II (House of Tusculum) [30]
1715-1753: Nikephoros V (House of Tusculum) [31]
1753-1758: Thomas I and Maria I (House of Dexapatras/House of Tusculum) [32]
1758-1760: Thomas I (House of Dexapatras)
1760-1801: Anastasia II (
House of Dexapatras) [33]
1801-1834: Zoe I (House of Doukas) [34]

1834-1870: Maria II Ana (House of Palaiologos) [35]
1870-1874: Theodore III (House of Palaiologos) [36]


[1] Alexios Macedon, born on March 6, 990 to Basil II and Eudoxia Komnena, would grow up to be a talented and competent man, a worthy heir to his father when he died in 1025 and became the new Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans in the aftermath of his father's death. Alexios I's reign would be marked by a consolidation of his father's conquests during his reign with Alexios, as Emperor, dealing with the rise of the Seljuks and the Normans beginning to arrive in Sicily. While his reign would be considered to be a largely "boring" reign, it was one which provided the Empire with 30 years of stability with his heir, Romanos, having a succession largely uncontested when Alexios I died in 1055 at the age of 65.

[2] Born in 1021, during the reign of his grandfather Emperor Basil II, he was named after his great grandfather, Romanos II, Byzantine Emperor, 959 to 963.
During his education, Romanos attended the University of Constantinople, becoming a student under professor Michael Psellos, who bore the honorary title of "Chief of the Philosophers"

In 1048, Romanos married Anna Bryennios, only daughter of Nikephoros Bryennios, an important Byzantine general and his wife, Anna, who had the rank of kouropalatissa.

Thanks to military support, when Alexios I died in 1055, Romanos was able to succeed the throne with only a distant relative, staging a failed two day rebellion, in Kalavrye, Thrace.

Following the death of Michael I Cerularius in 1059, Romanos elevated his former tutor to the position of Patriarch of Constantinople.

With his father-in-law as commander of the Byzantine army and navy, Romanos was able to concentrate on the finances, keeping taxes as profitable to keep the treasury full but not high enough to cause any revolts.

The efficient navy was able to push the Normans out of Italy while in the Balkans, the army was able to defeat Hungarians who tried invading Belgrade as well as holding back the Seljuk sultan, Alp Arslan from sending skirmishes from Anatolia.

His death in 1079, came following a year of illness. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander.

[3] Alexander, born 1055, was the only surviving son of Emperor Romanos III. Only a few days before he died, his father chose him as his successor. The new emperor was young, handsome, and energetic. However, he suffered from poor health for most of his life, and entrusted the business of governing to his advisors.

In early 1082, he died shortly after putting down a revolt in Greece. He was succeeded by his son, Constantine.

[4] Constantine IX was the older son of Alexander II, being born in 1074 and becoming Emperor at the age of eight. As a result of being a mere child, he would spend the first years of reign under the regency of his mother until 1092, when the Emperor turned 18 and his rule as Emperor actually begun as opposed to being a mere figurehead for his mother. It would turn out his reign as Emperor would be the longest any Roman Emperor to date would have, reigning for 68 years as Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans.

His 68-year reign as Emperor would be marked by a general period of peace and prosperity during his reign as while Constantine would lead the Empire into new heights, his reign would be marked by how he, outside of a few defensive wars, would not wage war during his reign. Instead of military adventures and imperial adventures, Constantine IX would spend his reign patronizing culture, enacting laws, and reforming the Empire's administration with his reign marked by peace and prosperity.

However, all good things must come to an end with Constantine dying at the age of 76, being succeeded by his son, Nikephoros.

[5] Nikephoros (named after his great grandfather, Nikephoros Bryennios) was born in 1098 as the oldest son of Constantine IX. He was taught everything on the military and would marry the daughter of an general. Upon his ascension as Roman Emperor, Nikephoros would join a Crusade which saw the taking of Egypt from the Muslims.

Nikephoros had several children with his wife, and married some of his daughters to the Kings of the Crusader states. He died in 1163, at the age of 64, and was succeeded by his oldest son, Constantine.

[6] Constantine was born in 1125, and was trained to be a military leader like his father and maternal grandfather.
Growing up in his grandfather’s peaceful reign meant that his real military training came only during the few defensive wars on their borders.

It wouldn’t be until turning 25, when his father succeeded his grandfather, that he would get a taste of a proper war, joint the Crusade and enjoyed commanding armies, laying sieges and experiencing victories, securing Crusader states for his future brother-in-laws.

It was during the crusade that Constantine fell in love with Bertrade of Jerusalem, only daughter of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem.

At the age of 38, Constantine, would succeed his father, becoming the tenth emperor of his name.
From the marriages of his siblings to seats across the crusader states that bordered the Levantine Sea, Constantine was able to pursue an ambitious economic and foreign policy, using his military support and being the main trade route, he was able to push the minor states to become his vassals, as well as persuading the states to install a Greek Orthodox Patriarch alongside the Roman Catholic Church.

In 1189, at age 65, Constantine X, died from a heart attack. He was succeeded by his son, Alexios.

[7] Emperor Alexios II was a man who was never really suited to be Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans and was the first really bad Emperor the Roman Empire had in a few centuries.

Born in 1151, Alexios II was a man who was spoiled from a young age by his father Constantine, growing up to be a hedonistic prince who was a womanizer. As such, he would prove to be an incompetent and ineffective Emperor who weakened the Empire during his six-year reign, especially as he would prove to be an autocratic tyrant who engaged in many purges during his short but bloody reign of many competent officials.

A conspiracy led by Basil, who was related to Alexios II through being his younger brother, would overthrow Alexios and name the leader of the conspiracy the new Emperor, but the damage had already been done.

[8] Basil was born in 1153 as the younger brother of Alexios II, and was very different from him with his extravagant ways. Basil was popular with the people and was quite intelligent, being a professor at the University of Constantinople before his reign. He began planning a conspiracy against his brother following his killing of one of his friends, which ended with Alexios being overthroned and Basil becoming the new Roman Emperor.

Basil spent his reign reparing relations with neighboring countries and improving education for the populace. When he died in 1217, the Roman Empire had mostly recovered from the tyrannical rule of Alexios II, but still had to deal with the uprisings by Alexios' son, Justin. Basil was succeeded by his grandson, Alexander.

[9] Prince Alexander was born in 1199 as the grandson of Basil III and would become Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans in 1217 after his father Nicephorus died in 1215 due to the revolt by the so-called Emperor Justin III which Alexander would crush during the early part of his reign.

Alexander III's reign as Emperor would largely be a continuation of his father's reign in how he stabilized the Roman Empire during his reign, even if he focused more on the economy that his father did. He would also try his best to eliminate corruption and bureaucratic inefficiencies that had sprung up during this period, trying to weaken the dynatoi with the Emperor becoming more powerful. However, despite his effective administration of the Empire, Alexander's reign would be overshadowed by how it ended.

Alexander III would die in 1242 in the Second Battle of Manzikert, one of the greatest defeats the Roman Empire had, being killed in the catastrophic defeat the Naiman Khaganate, one of the largest Empires of all time, would unleash on the Empire. The next Emperor, Constantine, would have to deal with the Naimans invading the Empire with the army destroyed and the dynatoi seeking to regain their old privileges.

[10] Constantine was born in 1222 as the heir to Alexander III. He didn't have much knowledge when it came to ruling and military strategy, so when he came Emperor at the age of 20, Constantine was an incapable ruler. He would lead his troops at the Battle of Kayseri against the Naiman Khaganate, only to be killed moments into battle. As Constantine XI had no children or siblings, the dynatoi took this as an opportunity to have a new Emperor who would give back their privileges. Thus they picked Alexios Raoul Petraliphas, as the new Roman Emperor.

[11] Alexios Raoul Petraliphas was Despot of the Morea prior to his coronation as Emperor, and it was certainly not skill for why he was elected. Alexios Petraliphas was the Grandson of Alexios II, via his sole daughter Eudoxia, who married the Morean-born officer; Constantine Petraliphas. Crowned amidst the Naiman Invasion, Alexios turned the rides of the war by emptying his coffers and employing dozens of thousands of mercenaries from the west, such as Spaniards, Franks, and Germans. At the Battle of Datvan, the combined armies of Alexios III defeated the Khaganate.

For much of the remainder of his reign, Alexios steadily tried to remake the exuberant funds lost, but sadly would never succeed. He would however constantly attempt to have his reign seen as a continuation of the Macedonian Dynasty, but alas his paternity was all too well known, and so a new dynasty was born. During his reign, three children were born to him and his Greek-born wife, and he was succeeded by his daughter and son-in-law.

[12] Alexios III's older daughter, Sophia, would become the first Empress of Rhomania since Irene of Athens as her brother Constantine would die in 1261. As a result of this, the 30-year old Sophia would be acclaimed as co-ruler with her husband, the powerful general Romanos Doukas, as the co-Emperor of the Roman Empire after he died in 1262. The two had a hard situation with the dynatoi increasingly powerful, Anatolia still reeling from the Naiman invasion in the 1240s, and the treasury still mostly empty. The couple who would be Rhomania's new rulers would have their work cut out for them during their reign.

Over the 39 years that Empress Sophia would be Empress with her husband by her side, Sophia and Romanos would do their best to stabilize the situation that the Empire had and while the dynatoi were now more powerful than they had been for a long while, their joint rule was marked by a return to relative stability for the Empire. While the Empire was still relatively weak compared to what it was at the height of the Macedonian Dynasty, the Empire was still in stable hands by the time the 39 years ended with Romanos and Sophia dying a few months after each other in 1301. They would be succeeded by their daughter-in-law, following a minor successional war.

[13] Nichola was the daughter and the only surviving child of the successful and influential general Theodore Aurellanius.

In 1274, once she was married to John, who was the second son of Empress Sophia and Emperor Romanos IV, her father gained more influence at the imperial court. In 1276, those who were wary of Theodore’s growing power orchestrated a plot to kill the general, which succeeded. However, those who were responsible were punished by the Empress and Emperor.

When the Empress and Emperor both died, John waged a campaign to ascend to the purple, before his older brother, Manuel, who was purported to be insane, would. But, a few miles from Constantinople, John died from an unknown illness, however, others think that he was poisoned. Nichola continued the march to the imperial capital, reaching the city, crowned Empress, in the name of the deceased John, and prepared the city for a siege from Manuel’s forces.

After more than four months of sieging, Manuel’s army was weak and severely hampered by the spread of disease, Manuel refusing to surrender, ordered a head-on charge, but his soldiers refused to commit such an action. Manuel was killed by contingent of soldiers after threatening to put to death all those who did not carry out his orders.

With the rest of the Empress’ reign relatively peaceful, with the exception of a brief revolt in the Cretan islands, she utilized her time on the throne to promote many cultural developments across the Empire.

In 1319, the Empress died and was succeeded by her only surviving son, John.

[14] John was the son of Empress Nichola Aurellanius and John, making him grandson of Empress Sophia and Emperor Romanos IV.

He was born posthumously in 1301, the year his grandparents and father’s death. His older brothers Romanos and Theodosius would die a few years into their mothers reign.

Growing up as heir, he was taught about his uncle’s militant tyrannical ideology and how good Byzantine’s died because of Manuel’s cruelty.

John would come to resent military and favour men of culture, church and science to be his close advisors, carrying on his mother’s cultural developments.

In 1321, John took as his wife and queen, Eleanor Ivanovna of Moscow, in hopes of uniting the two Orthodox Churches. The pair lived a happily pious life until his death in 1344, when he succumbed to a long illness, that thinned him out and aged him quickly. He was succeeded by his second son; Vladimar Porphyrogenitus.

[15] Born in 1324, shortly after the birth of his elder brother; Alexios (b.1322), and named for his maternal grandfather; Vladimir II of Moscow. Young Vladimir was often thought to be destined for a military career, being placed into the Roman Military at a young age, and becoming a skilled leader of men in battle, while his elder brother; Alexios was crowned as Co-Emperor in 1337, and became a man of politics, and words. Tragedy would strike in 1341, as Alexios IV died, after taking part in one of his brother's military exercises and, being an unskilled rider, fell from his mount and struck the ground and so, the young Vladimir was thrust into the limelight, as the heir of his ailing father, who crowned Vladimir as co-Emperor in 1342.

When John died in 1344, Vladimir would assume the full reigns of government, and almost immediately sought a military victory to cement his rule, and led a full campaign to the north East Balkans, and led stunning victory after victory. In 1352, the Campaign was declared complete with Roman Rule being pushed through Dacia and to the western banks of the Dnieper, and Crimea was fully annexed. The second half of his reign capitalised on his father's cultural pursuits, by building great Port-Cities along the coast.of the Black Sea, as well as encouraging Science, philosophy, and the arts. In 1353, he took a wife; Isabel of France, a Capetian princess, and had many children with her before his death in 1371. He was succeeded by Andronicus I

[16] Prince Andronicus was born in 1355 as the oldest son of Emperor Vladimir I and his wife Isabel and would grow up to become an intelligent and capable young man, a worthy successor to his father as Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans when his father died in 1371. The reign of Andronicus could be summed up as a quiet consolidation of his father's claims.

While Andronicus I would, much like his father, become an effective and capable ruler, he would be a ruler who would be more like his grandfather than his father in how he sought to rule as an Emperor of a peaceful and prosperous Empire and promoted a golden age of culture within Rhomania during his reign, with the promotion of the Orthodox Church seeing Lithuania convert to Orthodoxy in his reign. In addition, he would also carry out a reform of the administration of Rhomania during his reign as well. While he would be a ruler who would largely rule in peace, his last years would see trouble brewing with Persia resurgent and the Haemus (OTL Balkans) increasingly unstable due to the rise of Hungary.

In his personal life, he would marry a daughter of the King of Bohemia in 1372 and died in 1417 from a stroke, being succeeded by Athalrichos, a peasent-born member of the Guard.

[17] Athalrichos' origins are largely unknown, aside from the fact of his birth on Crete and his father herded goats, details largely scraped from his own memoirs and notes. With the childless death of Andronicus, the Palatial Guard maintained the veil of information, while refusing access or leave to any entering or leaving the Palace, while the corrupt officers and captains effectively drew lots. Athalrichos, a lowly captain, won, and so was crowned Emperor. While he was the man upon the throne, the superior ranking officers were very much the power behind the throne. The unstable condition in the Balkans slowly simmered, with Hungary rising and even pushing further along the Danube, to which Athalrichos was unsure and unready to react. It was this slowness that caused his downfall as the cabal of generals and officers removed Athalrichos and had him beaten and drowned. He was succeeded by Prince Leopold of Hungary.

[18] Leopold was born in 1370, a member of the Hungarian branch of the powerful and rich Habsburg family.
Leopold was able to make a name for himself, by becoming a renowned military general in Hungary and named Duke of Lower Hungary.

In 1385, Leopold married Sophia, the youngest child and daughter of Emperor Vladimir I of Byzantine and Isabel of France, being blessed with a child in their first year, followed by more.

In 1417, when Sophia’s brother, Andronicus died, Leopold was shocked to find that rather than using one of the siblings, the Palatial Guard, corruptly crowned a peasant.

Angered by this, Leopold raised an army and began pushing further along the Danube, when news of the generals and officers removing Athalrichos and having him beaten and drowned, Leopold moved his army, which had now recruited more soldiers from disgruntled Byzantine men, down towards Constantinople.
Outnumbered and unprepared, the city fell quickly, with Leopold named the new Emperor, along with his wife, Sophia.
Leopold put all the disgraced generals to death for their crimes against the country and bring into the palace Sophia’s family members to live in harmony.
The pair would rule happily together, having additional children and presided over a time of peace. Following his victory in Constantinople, Leopold’s health began to decline following years of hardship, he would die in 1429, a few months before the eight-year anniversary.
Sophia would step down, in support of their successor Frederick.

[19] Frederick, born the first son of Emperor Leopold I and Sophia II, in 1385. Instead of being a military man, Frederick was a capable administrator. In 1421, his father tasked him with administrating the Duchy of Lower Hungary for him, which he did until the Emperor’s death in 1429. And, with the abdication of his mother, Frederick became the Roman Emperor.

During his time as Emperor, Frederick spent his time improving the administration of Roman provinces, especially the system of taxation. He also attempted to crackdown on corruption, however, his efforts largely failed and were the cause of many assassination attempts.

Frederick died peacfully in his sleep in 1446. As the Emperor did not have children from his marriage, he was succeeded by his niece, Irene.

[20] Princess Irene was the niece of Emperor Frederick and was born in 1422 to his younger brother Ludwig, being his only child to survive childhood and thus being groomed by Frederick to become the heir to the Roman Empire as Frederick's wife didn't have any children with his wife's pregnancies ending in miscarriages or children who died in infancy. After Frederick died in 1446, Princess Irene was acclaimed as the Empress of the Romans in Constantinople, even if a coup by powerful dynatoi who opposed her uncle's anti-corruption attempts would mark her early reign.

Empress Irene's reign as Empress would be marked by Rhomania reaching a new golden age of prosperity with the Silk Road becoming something that the Empire of Rhomania grew wealthy from. However, this new-found wealth would result in the Age of Exploration with how Al-Andalusi merchants who didn't like Rhomanian trade practices would lead to a desire to seek new routes, even if Qurtubah's attention was as much fixed on the Christian kingdoms of the North. Irene's reign would also see a start of the Empire becoming one of the big "gunpowder empires" of the early modern era as the reformed tagmata, for its time, was a force with many gunpowder weapons with a tenth of all troops having gunpowder weapons.

Empress Irene in her personal life would also be a woman known for her patronage of the arts and scholarship, promoting the University of Constantinople and patronizing artists in the Empire. She would also marry the son of a powerful nobleman in an olive branch to the nobility with the two having a happy and productive marriage. In 1470, she would die after falling off her horse in a hunting accident with her successor being a distant cousin.

[21] Despite a productive marriage, none of Irene's children would survive her and so, the Throne of the Empire came to another descendent of Leopold; Gregory of Tusculum. The oldest daughter of Leopold and Sophia; Maria Felicitas had been married to Emmanuel II, the Duke of Savoy and had managed to give her husband a son and a daughter before her early death in 1409, and her son was Duke of Savoy as Emmanuel III between 1420 and his childless death in 1442. The daughter; Theophania, was also married to a strong Italian family; the Counts of Tusculum, where she gave birth to many children, most notably; count Tolomeo VI, count Albaric IV, Pope Felix VIII, Pope Adrian VI, and her youngest son; Gregory.

By 1465, the Family Compact between the three surviving sons, Albaric, Felix, and Gregory, determined that Gregory would inherit whatever claims and inheritance his mother brought into the dynasty, while Albaric would inherit the Family lands and Felix would bring whatever wealth he could to the Comital line of the family. Nobody expected Gregory to inherit much, as the Byzantine Hapsburg appeared strong and stable, but in 1468; the last child of Irene and her husband had died, thrusting Gregory into the position of heir.

With the death of Irene two years later, Gregory was crowned in Constantinople the following month, before bringing his wife and Children to his empire. Gregory 's main goals during his reign were to combat the corruption and nepotism of the Dynatoi; Irony at it's finest, as the Tusculum were a family forged through both acts. He led a largely peaceful reign, and in 1492, passed the throne to his son, Theodore.

[22] Theodore was born in 1458 before his father Gregory became Roman Emperor and was just an member of the Tusculms. He had an education fit more for an Italian noble then an future emperor. That all changed when his father became Emperor of Rhomania in 1470, and so Theodore became heir to the Roman Empire at the age of 12. Over the next 22 years, Theodore would learn anything he can on the politics and cultures of the Romans, even marring an Roman woman, who would give him six children.

In 1492, Theodore's father Gregory died at the age of 52, making him the new Emperor. A few years into his reign, Theodore heard news about a new landmass being discovered by Al-Andalusi explorers, which they called Ealam Jadid (meaning "new world" in Arabic). He then sent ships across the ocean to set up colonies in Ealam Jadid, with the first being founded in 1498 with the name of New Rhomania.

Besides the creation of Colonies in the New World, Theodore focused on patronage of the arts and education, and continuing to combat the corruption of the Dynatoi. He would die in 1518 at the age of 60, being succeeded by his son, Constantine.

[23] Born in 1485, the new Prince born to Crown Prince Theodore, was named after Constantine the Great, the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity and moved the seat of the empire to Byzantium, renamed Constantinople in his honour; the name was chosen by Theodore’s wife to make the new family feel connected to the heritage of the Byzantine empire.
In 1506, Constantine married Augusta Notaras, daughter of General Augustus Notaras, descended from a Greek family originally from Monemvasia.

Constantine would succeed his father at the age of 33. During his reign, he would see the rise of Protestantism sweep across Europe, while Islam was spreading across the ocean to Ealam Jadid.
Carrying on his father’s colonisation of the New World, Constantine would encourage more Roman Orthodox Christians to travel and settle to Nova Rhomania.
Constantine would also setting up the “Knights of Constantine” a religious order that brought noble sons to become soldiers of Christ, given the responsibility of prosecuting individuals and groups of individuals accused of a wide array of crimes relating to religious doctrine, alternative religious doctrine and beliefs.
He died in his sleep, aged 61 years old and was succeeded by his son, Romanos.

[24] Prince Romanos was born on May 5, 1511, and would acceed to the throne at the age of 37 after the death of his father. As heir to the throne, Prince Romanos would prove to be a competent and capable Prince who would be a fitting heir to the throne after his father's death in 1548.

As Emperor, Romanos would be an effective and stable ruler, even if his reign was not one marked by any great achievements or disasters that would mar his reign with his reign being viewed by many historians as a continuation of his father's policies, even if he was less religiously devoted than his father with his reign being seen as an era of stability.

In his personal life, Prince Romanos would marry Eudoxia Komnenos in 1535 and would die at the age of 49 from syphilis, succeeded by his eldest son; Gregory.

[25] Gregory was the eldest son of Romanos V, but was of a simpler disposition. Gregory was more interested in tending to his small garden he cultivated in the Palatial Grounds, and on occasions when Diplomats and dignitaries would visit, he's happily spend hours showing off his price and joy to the visitors. Beloved by many, and largely left the reins of the Empire to his regent Romanos, who organised a system of bureaucrats to cope with the myriad provinces, offices, and more. At the age of thirty, Gregory was found dead one morning after having passed in his sleep.

[26] Romanos was born in 1538, the second son of Romanos V and Eudoxia Komnenos. Although only the second son, because of Gregory’s simpler disposition, Romanos had earned distinction as an excellent swordsman and his strong traits of chivalry and charisma, made him a great diplomat.
Upon the death of his father, his brother took the throne, but preferred to give the hard work to 22-year-old Romanos, although would never give him the dignified title of co-emperor, simply calling him regent.
Romanos would be the one dealing out punishment and making the difficult decisions, while Gregory gardened.
During these diplomatic meetings, Romanos arranged himself to be married to Princess Lucrezia of Poland in 1564.
The days following the announcement of Gregory’s death, rumours began to circle that there was foul play, which Romanos quickly squashed and crowned himself Emperor on his 31st birthday.
For the next 45 years, Romanos was able to strengthen the interior running of the empire, with years of organising a system of bureaucrats, with strict scrutiny, checks and balances, which made the treasury and justice system work efficiently.
The colony of Nova Rhomania was becoming the largest land owner in the southern region of Ealam Jadid, and another settlement, Nova Constantinople was flourishing in the northern region.
Romanos was also able to gain land in Northern Africa between Milan’s Tripolitania and Ottoman’s Egypt, naming this colony egotistical, Romanos Libiya.
His death in 1604, followed a stroke, which left him unable to move. He was surround by his wife, children and grandchildren. He was succeeded by his granddaughter, Anastasia.

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[27] Princess Anastasia was born on May 5, 1585 as the first of the two daughters of Crown Prince Nicephorus and his wife and would grow up to be an intelligent and forceful woman, a worthy successor to Emperor Romanos upon his death in 1604 after a stroke brought upon by news Prince Nicephorus had fallen off his horse and broke his neck a few months earlier had paralyzed him.

At the age of 19, Anastasia would be acclaimed as the Empress and Autocrat of the Romans and would reign for the next 46 years. As Empress, her reign would be marked by large-scale wars against the Persia-centered Ottoman Empire with the Empress waging several wars against the Ottomans which saw Syria be taken by the Empire and Rhomania reach its early modern height stretching from Bosnia to Syria and with expanding colonies in Atlantis (as the New World would be known in much of Christendom).

In times of peace, she would be a ruler known for her patronage of the arts and scholars and her support for the development of the economy and state, along with her relative toleration of non-Orthodox religious groups within the Empire. However, she would also be known for her autocratic leadership style and large-scale reorganization of the government to centralize authority in the monarch.

In her personal life, she would be known for her reported bisexuality but would have a happy marriage with her husband, a distant Tusculum cousin. She would die on November 1, 1650, at the age of 65 after being found in her bed by a guard with sources indicating she died in an aneurysm in her sleep. She would be succeeded by Nikephoros, her son.

[28] Nikephoros was born in 1608 as the first child of Empress Anatasia, and grew up to be an intelligent and forceful man like his mother. He married a Russian princess named Elena and five children with her. He was acclaimed as the Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans in 1650 at the age of 42, following the death of his mother.

His reign would see several wars against the Muslim powers including the Atlantian War, where the Christian powers took a couple of colonies from countries like the Ottoman Empire. Rhomania's gains would be the Al-Andalusi colonies of Gharnatat Aliadida and 'Ard Muhamad, which they rename to Nova Athens and Anatasiapoli. While during times of peace, Nikephoros promoted the development of education and the economy, and was tolerent of non-Orthodox religious groups like his mother.

An important event during Nikephoros IV's reign was the first constituent Kingdom being established with his brother Constantine becoming the first King of Greece.

Nikephoros died in 1678 at the age of 70, surrounded by his family, with his last words being "May the Empire live on forever". His successor was his eldest son, Theodore.

[29] Emperor Theodore was born in 1638, the eldest of Nikephoros and Elena’s five children, a promising youth, taking on many of his father’s traits.

At the age of 25, he married a distant Hungarian cousin, Anna Habsburg, who many historians agree that like her sisters, she was unable to conceive a child.

Theodore became a renowned womaniser, and would acknowledged at least 36 illegitimate children by various mistresses, with many more rumoured to be his, including a few wives of military and aristocratic figures.

He succeeded his father, just after his 40th birthday, enjoying an elaborate military themed coronation and would spend most of his reign concentrating on increasing the military and naval size and quality.

It was following a fifth day of military drill which he rode in the rain, Theodore became severely ill and died without legitimate issue, two days later, of pneumonia in 1680, aged 41, three months before his 2nd year on the throne and before his 42nd birthday. He was succeeded by his nephew, Andronicus.

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[30] Prince Andronicus was the nephew of Emperor Theodore, being born on May 6, 1667 as the oldest son of Prince Alexios and would become heir to the throne after Prince Alexios died in 1679 from an accident involving the firing of a new cannon which exploded, killing Prince Alexios. This, with his uncle childless, would make Andronicus the new Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans.

While a conspiracy by elements of the dynatoi trying to name one of Theodore's bastards as the new Roman Emperor would occur, it would be quashed by the Megas Domestikos, Nicephorus Ypsilantis, who, along with his mother Theodora, would be the power behind the young Emperor with the Emperor marrying Nicephorus' daughter Sophia in 1688 with the two falling in love.

As an Emperor, Andronicus II would be a competent and effective Emperor, albeit one who focused mostly on domestic matters during his reign with his reign being seen as many as a golden age for the Empire, even if he had a reputation as a brutal tyrant who was always paranoid about the dynatoi's supposed plots to overthrow him.

Andronicus would die in 1715 from what some historians would argue was a sudden illness and what others would argue was the result of someone fearing he would be purged soon poisoning him. He would be succeeded by his son Nikephoros.

[31] Nikephoros was born as the second child of Andronicus II and Sophia Ypsilantis in 1691. While his older brother Alexios was spoiled all his life, Nikephoros was more down to Earth, and became an professor at the University of Constantinople. It was thought that Alexios would become Emperor, but in 1712 at the age of 23, he died while hunting, which meant Nikephoros was now the heir to the Roman Empire, which he became Emperor of in 1715.

One of the first things the new Emperor had to deal with was the Egyptian invasion, commanded by Leopold I, whose father was a bastard of Theodore II. The Romans would stop the invasion and made Egypt a vassal state of the Roman Empire. Following this, Nikephoros' reign was very peaceful, as he didn't join any wars that were happening around the Empire, and he saw the continuation of the golden age that Rhomania was currently in.

In his personal life, Nikephoros V married a noblewoman named Zoe Papotis, and they went on to have six children together. Nikephoros died in 1753 at the age of 62. He was succeeded by Maria and Thomas Dexapatras, his daughter and her husband.

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Emperor Thomas I and Empress Maria I
[32] Thomas Dexapatras, born in 1720, was the first son of the famous Roman general Alexios Dexapatras, who aided in impeding the 1716 Egyptian Invasion of the Roman Empire. It was expected that Thomas would follow in his father’s footsteps and eventually become a general like him. However, despite his efforts, Thomas only became an efficient swordsman, as he struggled to perform other military drills and tasks.

In 1742, after travelling to Constantinople, Thomas was rejected when he applied to join the elite Royal Guard of the Empire. At this time, he and Princess Maria, the eldest daughter and child of Emperor Nikephoros V, fell in love. The two soon married in late 1744. The marriage was a happy one, and produced several children, though both Thomas and Maria would regularly take other partners of both genders.

When the Emperor died in 1753, his will was revealed and stated that Maria would be Empress of Rome, along with her husband as Emperor. Though, Maria’s younger sibling, Frederick disputed this, proclaiming that the will was forged. After a series of successive military victories in southern Italy, Maria acquiesced to Frederick becoming King of the Lombardians.

During their joint reign, Thomas and Maria sponsored many artistic developments across the Roman Empire. Thomas worked on reforming the Roman military, by modernizing its bureaucracy and civil service. Another curious change that occurred was that the monarch(s) would be allowed to select their successor(s). In 1758, Maria died of complications of childbirth, which heartbroke the Emperor. Two years later, Emperor Thomas I abdicated the throne to his daughter Anastasia, and rested in the Morean countryside with his children.


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[33]

Princess Anastasia was born on July 6, 1745, as the oldest (and favorite) child of Thomas and Maria Dexapatras and would become the heir to the throne in 1759 after her brother Romanos died at the age of 12 from smallpox. This would make Anastasia the next ruler of the Roman Empire after Thomas' abdication with Thomas, despite his abdication, remaining important as an informal advisor until his death in 1771 in the monastery he had retired to.

As Empress, Anastasia would prove to be a competent and practical-minded Empress who would be an effective ruler for the Roman Empire during her 41-year long reign. During her reign, she would grant the creation of a constitution which provided for a Senate elected by property-owning men and with largely advisory powers, spearhead the first parts of an industrial revolution in Rhomania, become known as a patron of the arts and sciences during her reign, and continued her father's administrative reforms, moving towards reforming the laws of the Empire as well.

In her personal life, she would marry a distant cousin of hers and die on September 1, 1801, from a stroke two days earlier, naming Zoe Doukas as her heir.

Mar%C3%ADa_Cristina_de_Borb%C3%B3n-Dos_Sicilias%2C_reina_de_Espa%C3%B1a.jpg

Empress Zoe I​
[34] Zoe was born in 1772 as the eldest daughter of Zoe and Constanine Doukas, and was a neice of Empress Anastasia II on her mother's side. She showed great intelligence as a young girl, which impressed the Empress so that when Zoe was in her 30's, Anatasia picked her as her successor. Thus in 1801 at the age of 39, Zoe became Emperess and Autocrat of the Romans.

Zoe's reign saw tremendous changes in not only Rhomania, but also the world. These events included the independence of the constituent Kingdom of Greece in 1803, the Robespierre Wars against Emperor Maximilien of France, the industrial revolution happening in full force, the fall of the Holy Roman Empire after the death of the last Babenburg in 1819, and many more. Zoe would continue the transforming of the Roman Empire into a democracy and was an patron of the arts and sciences like her aunt.

An interesting event during this time was the warming of relations between the Romans and Ottomans, as the two rivals worked together to stop Maximmilen when he tried to invade the Balkans (which had became a popular alternate name for the Haemus) in 1806.

Zoe married John Palaiologos, who came from the famous Palaiologos family, and they had seven children together. Zoe died in 1834 at the age of 62 of a heart attack and was succeeded by her heir, ________.

[35]
1A215884-2E8C-40AD-9DB8-C1C6D301F26B.jpeg



Maria Ana was born in 1818 as the granddaughter of Empress Zoe through eldest son. As granddaughter of the Empress, it was assumed that she would be heir to the throne which was correct even when her father died in 1825. Maria Ana became Empress after the death of her grandmother in 1834 at the age of 16, her uncle Feodore would serve as her regent for the next two years. Maria Ana’s reign was not as eventful as her grandmothers but that doesn’t mean it was boring, in the year after officially taking the throne she was nearly assassinated by a French nationalist twice. In 1840 a war sparked between the Roman Empire and France once again which Rome won. Over the years Egypt had been growing stronger and started breaking away from Rome this would eventually lead to a war between the two countries which surprisingly ended with Rome losing even with the help of the Ottomans. This military loss would leave sour ties between the two countries for years to come. Maria Ana had a love for music and gardening she would create a large garden at her main residence(name of palace here) that is still there today and admired by many who come to visit it. One of the interesting things about Maria Ana’s reign was that she was the first Roman monarch to have a photo taken of her.
8647D2FF-1037-4B57-8BDD-857A69ADEF5C.jpeg



In 1838, Maria Ana married Prince Alexander of Greece and the two had six children. Maria Ana died in 1870 from an allergic reaction to something in her food, she was succeeded by_____.

Alexander of Battenberg, Marquess of Carisbrooke.jpg

Emperor Theodore III
[36] Prince Theodore was born in 1840, to Empress Maria II Ana and Prince Alexander of Greece. Theodore was the first child of the Imperial couple and was educated in many military subjects. Like his father, Theodore became a general, serving for the Roman Empire and helping to put down other rebellions across the country. Though, those who knew him feared his quick temper and ambition, even his own family.

When his mother died, Theodore seized the throne from his younger brother, Vladimir, who went into exile into the Kingdom of Sicily. After being crowned Emperor, Theodore III led a campaign of war and brutality in order to pacify rebelling armies in the Balkans.

Emperor Theodore III’s reign was short as he died in 1874 from a brain tumour. He was succeeded by ______________________.
 
POD: Queen Christina of Sweden is born a boy

Monarchs of Sweden
1611-1632: Gustavus II Adolphus (House of Vasa)
1632-1689: Christian III (House of Vasa) [1]
1689-1702: Charles X (House of Vasa) [2]


Monarchs of Sweden and Great Britain
1702-1704: Charles X & III (House of Vasa) [2]
Monarchs of Sweden
1704-1714: William I (House of Vasa) [3]

Monarchs of Sweden and Great Britain
1714-1717: William I & IV (House of Vasa) [3]
1717-1734: The Great Adolphite Regency (Sweden) and The Marlborough
Regency (Britain)
1717-1751: Peter I (House of Vasa) [4]
1751-1752: Peter II (House of Vasa) [5]



[1] King Christian III of Sweden took the throne at the age of five after his father's death during the Thirty Years War and would reign for the next fifty-seven years until his death in 1689. As King of Sweden, he would be a ruler who would prove to be intelligent and well-read, seen by many as a second Marcus Aurelius owing to his love of philosophy and learning, especially with his philosophical writings and other such matters. As a ruler, Christian III would be a ruler who would work hard and be remembered as an effective and talented ruler, especially with how he would use the Deluge to expand Sweden at the expense of Poland-Lithuania.

In his personal life, he would marry Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier in 1650 with the couple having five children. King Christian would die at the age of 63 in Stockholm surrounded by his wife and family and would be succeeded by his second son, Prince Charles. While many historians have castigated him for overextending the realm during the Deluge and his Catholic sympathies was something of an open secret even when he was alive with historians divided on whether he was a crypto-Catholic or not, he is still considered one of Sweden's greatest rulers.

lossy-page1-800px-Kristian_Albrekt%2C_1641-1694_%28David_Kl%C3%B6cker_Ehrenstrahl%29_-_Nationalmuseum_-_39974.tif.jpg
[2] Charles X was the second son of Christian III, his elder brother Christian died in 1686 after Charles had married Lady Anne Stuart. This made Charles the heir - but events conspired to place Anne the heir to the English and Scottish thrones after the abdication of her father and the subsequent death of her sister, Mary II, and her brother-in-law, William III. Charles and Anne would have three children - one male and two female - and when Anne was made Queen of Great Britain in 1702, she negotiated with Parliament so that her husband was recognised as her co-monarch.

This meant that their children stood as heirs to two nations. In 1700, Sweden found itself drawn into conflict when an alliance that included Denmark-Norway and Russia invaded the Swedish protectorate of Holstein-Gottorp, the Duke of which was Charles' brother-in-law, Christian Albert. This was the Great Northern War that lasted until after both Charles and Anne had died and Christian Albert had been succeeded by his son Christian Augustus.

Charles died from pneumonia following an accident whilst riding that causes a chest infection. He was succeeded in Sweden by William, Prince of Wales and Crown Prince of Sweden, but Anne would continue to rule, however heartbroken, in Britain, for another ten years.

[3] William Christian Charles was the only son of King Charles X and Princess Anne of England and Scotland. William was the younger of the three children and born nearly a year into his father’s reign and named Crown Prince.

Anne was estranged from her brother-in-law and cousin, William III, and her sister, Mary II, but supported links between them and her son. He would frequently visit England and became close to his uncle and namesake, William, who created him a Knight of the Garter during a visit in 1701, and his queenly aunt Mary, who regularly sent him presents and he was saddened when aged 4, he would hear news of his aunt dying.
In 1702, upon the death of his uncle, the new Queen Anne, took her family to England to carry on education as well as experience English culture. Following her coronation, Anne also created William as Prince of Wales.

When his father died, 14 year old William, travelled to Sweden, to take the thrown, regency would be run by his uncle, Prince Adolphus, whom had been serving as a regency under King Charles X, during his trips to England.
The first act he would do as king was to arrange peace with Russia, knowing even with the naval support of his mother’s homeland, William would not be able to win a two fronted war, having held off three major Russian attack, in November 1704, William arranged the marriage of his eldest sister, Princess Mary Eleanor, to Peter “the Great” I of Russia, along with offering financial support against Russia’s true enemy, the Ottoman Empire.

In 1705, following a year of looking for a foreign royal bride, came to nothing, Queen Anne, arranged for her son, William to be married to Lady Mary Churchill, daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, of whom was a life long friend and favourite of Queen Anne.
For his other sister, Princess Anne Louise, William arranged for her to be married to Frederick William I of Prussia.

The war with Denmark-Norway would continue until 1716, the middle years turned to minor trade skirmishes, while the final two years saw many Swedish, Great Britain and Holstein-Gottorp victories, which brought Denmark-Norway to the negotiating table.
Sadly during the peace talks, William was killed in an explosion caused by a Norwegian nationalist.

Carl_Frederick_of_Sweden_c_1722_by_David_von_Krafft.jpg
[4] Peter was only a year old when he became King of Great Britain and of Sweden, in Britain, his Recency was overseen by his paternal grandfather, the Duke of Marlborough, and in Sweden, by his great uncle, Prince Adolphus - this led to a period of instability as both Russia and Prussia pressed their claim to the Recency of Sweden, but the Swedish nobility dismissed these claims to avoid a foreign influence. Adolphus was only in his thirties when the Recency commenced and nearing sixty when it finished. In some circles he was referred to as Good King Adolphus for his defacto rule, for steering the nation through the aftermath of the Great Northern War and settling the matter of the disputed regency.

Peter married his second cousin once removed, Rosalind of Holstein-Gottorp, and they would have five children from 1738 to 1748, before Peters death in 1751 wherein he was succeeded by his oldest son, also named Peter.

A major movement to simplify the government of the two nations began during Peters rule. England and Scotland had been unified in the 1701 Act of Union and Settlement, but this had been a difficult process, fraught with conflict and argument. And it was less than fifty years old when proposed to Parliament in Britain and their equivalents in Sweden - whilst the proposal was considered, it as discarded on at least five occasions. Peter was keen on a proposal that raised him to Emperor of the Brittanic-Swedish Empire, to put him on par with his uncle and namesake, the Emperor of Russia, but this was also dismissed to be revisited in the future.

A similar agreement in Sweden and Britain was that whilst the thrones were held in union, they could not be then held in union with Russia, though the crown could be inherited by a Romanov claimant. It was a complicated state of affairs all things considered, but based on religious requirements at the British and Russian courts.

the-red-prince-later-king-william-i-i-of-the-netherlands-after-sir-anthony-van-dyck-l-b-gert-j-rheeders.jpg

The only portrait of Peter II, done when he was the Prince
[5] Peter was the oldest son of King Peter I and Queen Rosalind, and was only 13 years old when he became king in late November of 1751, only days after his birthday. His mother was made regent, but the reality was that Prime Ministers in the various kingdoms governed. Peter was not a well child and he died only weeks into his reign on January 3, from a pneumonia he caught while sledding on Christmas Day.


Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden, b. 1594, r. 1611 to 1632, m. Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg
1) Christian III of Sweden, b. 1627, r. 1632 to 1689, m. Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans, Duchess of Montpensier​
a) Christian, Crown Prince of Sweden, b. 1653, d. 1686, never married​
b) Charles X & III of Sweden, England & Scotland, b. 1655, r. 1689 to 1704, m. Anne, Queen of Great Britain
a) Princess Mary Eleanor, b. 1685 m. Peter “the Great” I of Russia b. 1672, r. 1681 to (Present)​
b) Princess Anne Louise, b. 1688 m. Frederick William I of Prussia, b. 1688, r. 1713 to (Present)​
c) William I & IV of Sweden and Great Britain, b. 1690, r. 1704~1714 to 1717, m. Mary Churchill, b. 1689​
1) Peter I of Sweden and Great Britain, b. 1716, r. 1717 to 1751, m. Rosalind of Holstein-Gottorp​
i) Peter II of Sweden and Great Britain, b. 1738, r. 1751 to 1752​
x) four other children​
c) Marie Rosalie of Sweden, b. 1656, m. Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp​
1) Christian Augustus, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1680, d. 1716​
a) Christian Augustus II, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1700​
1) Rosalind of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1720, m. Peter I of Sweden and Great Britain
-- x) for issue, see line of Peter I
2) Albert Augustus of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1722​
d) Prince Gustavu, b. 1658 d. 1669​
e) Eleanor Marie of Sweden, b. 1661 d. 1675​
f) Prince Adolphus b. 1664​
 
POD: Queen Christina of Sweden is born a boy

Monarchs of Sweden
1611-1632: Gustavus II Adolphus (House of Vasa)
1632-1689: Christian III (House of Vasa) [1]
1689-1702: Charles X (House of Vasa) [2]


Monarchs of Sweden and Great Britain
1702-1704: Charles X & III (House of Vasa) [2]
Monarchs of Sweden
1704-1714: William I (House of Vasa) [3]

Monarchs of Sweden and Great Britain
1714-1717: William I & IV (House of Vasa) [3]
1717-1734: The Great Adolphite Regency (Sweden) and The Marlborough
Regency (Britain)
1717-1751: Peter I (House of Vasa) [4]
1751-1752: Peter II (House of Vasa) [5]
1752-1829: Adolphus I (House of Vasa) [6]



[1] King Christian III of Sweden took the throne at the age of five after his father's death during the Thirty Years War and would reign for the next fifty-seven years until his death in 1689. As King of Sweden, he would be a ruler who would prove to be intelligent and well-read, seen by many as a second Marcus Aurelius owing to his love of philosophy and learning, especially with his philosophical writings and other such matters. As a ruler, Christian III would be a ruler who would work hard and be remembered as an effective and talented ruler, especially with how he would use the Deluge to expand Sweden at the expense of Poland-Lithuania.

In his personal life, he would marry Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier in 1650 with the couple having five children. King Christian would die at the age of 63 in Stockholm surrounded by his wife and family and would be succeeded by his second son, Prince Charles. While many historians have castigated him for overextending the realm during the Deluge and his Catholic sympathies was something of an open secret even when he was alive with historians divided on whether he was a crypto-Catholic or not, he is still considered one of Sweden's greatest rulers.

lossy-page1-800px-Kristian_Albrekt%2C_1641-1694_%28David_Kl%C3%B6cker_Ehrenstrahl%29_-_Nationalmuseum_-_39974.tif.jpg
[2] Charles X was the second son of Christian III, his elder brother Christian died in 1686 after Charles had married Lady Anne Stuart. This made Charles the heir - but events conspired to place Anne the heir to the English and Scottish thrones after the abdication of her father and the subsequent death of her sister, Mary II, and her brother-in-law, William III. Charles and Anne would have three children - one male and two female - and when Anne was made Queen of Great Britain in 1702, she negotiated with Parliament so that her husband was recognised as her co-monarch.

This meant that their children stood as heirs to two nations. In 1700, Sweden found itself drawn into conflict when an alliance that included Denmark-Norway and Russia invaded the Swedish protectorate of Holstein-Gottorp, the Duke of which was Charles' brother-in-law, Christian Albert. This was the Great Northern War that lasted until after both Charles and Anne had died and Christian Albert had been succeeded by his son Christian Augustus.

Charles died from pneumonia following an accident whilst riding that causes a chest infection. He was succeeded in Sweden by William, Prince of Wales and Crown Prince of Sweden, but Anne would continue to rule, however heartbroken, in Britain, for another ten years.

[3] William Christian Charles was the only son of King Charles X and Princess Anne of England and Scotland. William was the younger of the three children and born nearly a year into his father’s reign and named Crown Prince.

Anne was estranged from her brother-in-law and cousin, William III, and her sister, Mary II, but supported links between them and her son. He would frequently visit England and became close to his uncle and namesake, William, who created him a Knight of the Garter during a visit in 1701, and his queenly aunt Mary, who regularly sent him presents and he was saddened when aged 4, he would hear news of his aunt dying.
In 1702, upon the death of his uncle, the new Queen Anne, took her family to England to carry on education as well as experience English culture. Following her coronation, Anne also created William as Prince of Wales.

When his father died, 14 year old William, travelled to Sweden, to take the thrown, regency would be run by his uncle, Prince Adolphus, whom had been serving as a regency under King Charles X, during his trips to England.
The first act he would do as king was to arrange peace with Russia, knowing even with the naval support of his mother’s homeland, William would not be able to win a two fronted war, having held off three major Russian attack, in November 1704, William arranged the marriage of his eldest sister, Princess Mary Eleanor, to Peter “the Great” I of Russia, along with offering financial support against Russia’s true enemy, the Ottoman Empire.

In 1705, following a year of looking for a foreign royal bride, came to nothing, Queen Anne, arranged for her son, William to be married to Lady Mary Churchill, daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, of whom was a life long friend and favourite of Queen Anne.
For his other sister, Princess Anne Louise, William arranged for her to be married to Frederick William I of Prussia.

The war with Denmark-Norway would continue until 1716, the middle years turned to minor trade skirmishes, while the final two years saw many Swedish, Great Britain and Holstein-Gottorp victories, which brought Denmark-Norway to the negotiating table.
Sadly during the peace talks, William was killed in an explosion caused by a Norwegian nationalist.

Carl_Frederick_of_Sweden_c_1722_by_David_von_Krafft.jpg
[4] Peter was only a year old when he became King of Great Britain and of Sweden, in Britain, his Recency was overseen by his paternal grandfather, the Duke of Marlborough, and in Sweden, by his great uncle, Prince Adolphus - this led to a period of instability as both Russia and Prussia pressed their claim to the Recency of Sweden, but the Swedish nobility dismissed these claims to avoid a foreign influence. Adolphus was only in his thirties when the Recency commenced and nearing sixty when it finished. In some circles he was referred to as Good King Adolphus for his defacto rule, for steering the nation through the aftermath of the Great Northern War and settling the matter of the disputed regency.

Peter married his second cousin once removed, Rosalind of Holstein-Gottorp, and they would have five children from 1738 to 1748, before Peters death in 1751 wherein he was succeeded by his oldest son, also named Peter.

A major movement to simplify the government of the two nations began during Peters rule. England and Scotland had been unified in the 1701 Act of Union and Settlement, but this had been a difficult process, fraught with conflict and argument. And it was less than fifty years old when proposed to Parliament in Britain and their equivalents in Sweden - whilst the proposal was considered, it as discarded on at least five occasions. Peter was keen on a proposal that raised him to Emperor of the Brittanic-Swedish Empire, to put him on par with his uncle and namesake, the Emperor of Russia, but this was also dismissed to be revisited in the future.

A similar agreement in Sweden and Britain was that whilst the thrones were held in union, they could not be then held in union with Russia, though the crown could be inherited by a Romanov claimant. It was a complicated state of affairs all things considered, but based on religious requirements at the British and Russian courts.

the-red-prince-later-king-william-i-i-of-the-netherlands-after-sir-anthony-van-dyck-l-b-gert-j-rheeders.jpg

The only portrait of Peter II, done when he was the Prince
[5] Peter was the oldest son of King Peter I and Queen Rosalind, and was only 13 years old when he became king in late November of 1751, only days after his birthday. His mother was made regent, but the reality was that Prime Ministers in the various kingdoms governed. Peter was not a well child and he died only weeks into his reign on January 3, from a pneumonia he caught while sledding on Christmas Day.

[6] Adolphus (or Dolly as he was called, first by his sisters and then by his close friends and family throughout his life) was the youngest of Peter I and Rosalind’s five children. He was only four years old when he came to the throne after his brother’s death. While the respective Prime Ministers governed Sweden and Great Britain during his childhood, Dolly was raised by his mother Rosalind with his three sisters.

He would have a fairly idyllic childhood. His sisters would spoil him and his mother would take the roles of teacher and taskmaster ensuring he received the finest education is philosophy, politics, economics, and sundry other subjects. She would also push for Dolly to attend varies public functions so that he might stay at the forefront of the minds of the people of Great Britain and Sweden.

As a young adolescent, the Royal Household would visit the Ostergotland-Vasas (descended from Prince Adolphus, brother of Charles X & III). It was so that Princess Eleanor might court Christian, Duke of Ostergotland. While that match was not meant to be, Dolly would meet Petrine Maria Christian’s younger sister. Dolly and Petrine would have a sweet summer romance before Dolly and his sister were recalled home.

Upon reaching the age of majority, there was a small struggle when various political figures tried to retain power, but Queen Mother Rosalind’s efforts to endear her son to the public saw fruition. Adolphus was beloved by the people and so he was able to regain all powers associated with the throne.

His first act was to request the hand of Petrine of Ostergotland, his distance cousin and childhood sweetheart. The two were wed and would have a happy thirty years of marriage (Dolly was fond of referring to Petrine as his rock) that ended with Petrine’s death from cancer. They would have five children.

In regard to rule, Dolly was very involved in the ruling of both Great Britain and Sweden. His education had left him with definitive ideas about the role of monarchs and just what their duties were. So, many a politician, general, or other political servant would get to experience Adolphus I knocking on their door and requesting a detailed explanation of this, that, or the other. While Sweden was charmed by their hovering King, Great Britain was less so.

In an effort to woo Great Britain, and to give his children a less shelter upbringing than he received, Dolly would send his sons to collage in England, where they did do much to improve the reputation of the Royal Family.

While visiting his sons at collage in England, the widowed Dolly would meet the widowed Doctor Thomas MacAlaistar-Smythe, a professor at his sons’ collage. Doctor MacAlaistar-Smythe would become the personal physician of Adolphus I for the rest of Dolly’s life, and while it’s unconfirmed it is believed that the two were romantically involved.

Starting in the 1810s, Dolly would begin handing over more and more of the ruling to his heir, ________, and spending more and more time with his grandchildren. One day after going riding with several of his grandsons, Dolly would retire for his afternoon nap and die during his sleep from a brain aneurysm. He was 81.


Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden, b. 1594, r. 1611 to 1632, m. Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg
1) Christian III of Sweden, b. 1627, r. 1632 to 1689, m. Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans, Duchess of Montpensier​
a) Christian, Crown Prince of Sweden, b. 1653, d. 1686, never married​
b) Charles X & III of Sweden, England & Scotland, b. 1655, r. 1689 to 1704, m. Anne, Queen of Great Britain
a) Princess Mary Eleanor, b. 1685 m. Peter “the Great” I of Russia b. 1672, r. 1681 to (Present)​
b) Princess Anne Louise, b. 1688 m. Frederick William I of Prussia, b. 1688, r. 1713 to (Present)​
c) William I & IV of Sweden and Great Britain, b. 1690, r. 1704~1714 to 1717, m. Mary Churchill, b. 1689​
1) Peter I of Sweden and Great Britain, b. 1716, r. 1717 to 1751, m. Rosalind of Holstein-Gottorp​
i) Peter II of Sweden and Great Britain, b. 1738, r. 1751 to 1752​
ii) Eleanor​
iii) Girl​
iv) Girl​
v) Adolphus I of Sweden and Great Britain, b. 1448, r. 1752 to 1829 m. Petrine of Ostergotland-Vasa​
Five Children, at least 2 boys, at least one of the children survive to have grandchildren​
c) Marie Rosalie of Sweden, b. 1656, m. Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp​
1) Christian Augustus, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1680, d. 1716​
a) Christian Augustus II, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1700​
1) Rosalind of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1720, m. Peter I of Sweden and Great Britain
-- x) for issue, see line of Peter I
2) Albert Augustus of Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1722​
d) Prince Gustavu, b. 1658 d. 1669​
e) Eleanor Marie of Sweden, b. 1661 d. 1675​
f) Prince Adolphus b. 1664​
Some unknown number of generations:​
Christian of Ostergotland-Vasa​
Petrine of Ostergotland-Vasa m. Adolphus I of Sweden and Great Britain
-- x) see Adolphus I
 
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