Kingdom of California: A Timeline of British Colonization

In a world where California was not colonized by Spain, instead it was colonized by Britain, as a second crown colony. Post American Revolution, immigration picked up, leading to a large, young population in the colony when we hit our POD.

In 1810, Napoleon was in complete control of Europe. His alliance with Russia was still alive and the British public opinion was strongly anti-war.

With the longtime disloyal colony of California actively supporting pro French parties in London, the British saw this, and attempted an occupation of Saint George (OTL San Diego) in July of 1810. In a very similar chain of events to the American Revolution, riots in the city began, and militia armies organized after British troops fought civilians in the streets. Then on November 26th, the Military Junta of California declared independence. Marshal Alexander Bourne would lead the Californian armies in their quest. Saint Francis was declared the capital, and military mobilization began

Marshal Bourne would be defeated at King City, then Monterrey. Marshal Bourne retreated to Saint John. There was the decisive battle Bourne was looking for. General Campbell of the British army of California was underestimating his enemy. Marshal Bourne, taking notes from Emperor Napoleon of France, had adopted the Corps system, and split up his 4 Corps. His command of Generals Francis, John and McKinley and himself. He sent John to probe the British army, and eventually entrench at New Almaden. McKinley would fight alongside Bourne between Campbell and Saratoga. Bourne had his Corps in the middle of Saint John. Francis was the most important. He snuck behind the British army, captured 3,000 men and then entrenched behind General Campbell at Coyote. Then Francis and John were to approach the British army from the south.

After a hard day of fighting, and a failed attack into the city of Saint John, Bourne, McKinley advanced south, and John, Francis north. The 35,000 strong British army lost 10,000 men, compared to just 4000 of the 20,000 Californians. General Campbell surrendered at Robertsville. This was a massive defeat, and stopped a planned coup in Saint Francis. Around the same time, General Tacoma defeated the British Army at Vancouver, and sent them scrambling back.
Another Army led by General Dieg liberated Saint George. The next year, the British recognized independence, and gave up the Regions of British Columbia and Vancouver Island. On the three year anniversary of independence, Marshal Bourne was crowned King California as King Alexander of a new House of California.

- The reason this is ASB is because of the unlikeliness of a British colonization of California.
 
Kingdom of California: A Timeline of British Colonization Part II
In 1811, the Kingdom of California gained independence from the British Empire after the Battle of Saint John. King Alexander I was crowned King after the war, and the British had the second big independence war against their colonies. Now Canada could be threatened from both east and west in the case of an Amero-Californian alliance. Seeing this, the UK began talks with Mexico to form an alliance, to prevent the fall of Canada to the US and California.

In response, California strengthened diplomatic and dynastic ties with France, bethrothing Princess Samantha of California to Napoleon II, heir to the French throne, the French Empire managing to stay alive by cracking down on Spanish guerillas, and making the Pope declare Joseph Bonaparte as the rightful King of Spain, as well as keeping their alliance with Russia alive. The Californians also allowed Napoleon to beat Britain, as the British were distracted in California.

California, rich with the trade flowing into its ports from the Pacific becoming a second route to Asia from Europe, as well as agricultural products from the Californian valley, and the minerals of the Californian Rockies, began to invest more money in its military, establishing a large fleet and a very improved army.

In late 1820, the Californians sent settler expeditions, funded by the government to settle in Arizona. The region was technically unsettled by Europeans, though there was a plurality of native american tribes in the area. Both Mexico and California had claims to the region, much like the British and French in the Ohio river valley 70 years previous.

Coincidentally, the Mexicans had already founded their own settlement, and when the Californians and Mexicans found each other, the colonists began fighting, and were being supplied and supported by the governments. After a diplomatic solution was not found, Mexico, thinking that they were superior economically and militarily, declared war on California on November 19th, 1821. The Californian regulars, who numbered 35,000 began a march from San Diego on February 7th, 1822. The speedy Californian army overran the Mexican settlements using Napoleonic tactics, to which Mexico had yet to adapt. With help from militias and the Mexican colonists were expelled back into Mexico, leaving their settlements in Californian hands.

The eyes of the world watched, as the pro-british Mexico, seen by many as the dominant power of the americas, fought California, a french ally, and seen as the new kid on the block, eager to prove themselves a great power.

The Californian army was around 35,000 strong, and the Mexicans around 45,000. The edge that California had was their superior general staff. The Californian general staff, headed by King Alexander I, as well as some of the other leading figures in the independence war, were all experienced. This, as well as the speed of the Californian army, allowed them to out manoeuvre the Mexicans.

In April of 1822, with an established supply hub in Gila, the Californian army approached the Mexicans, based in Tucson from the north. The Mexicans dug in at Sierra Vista, waiting for an attack from the north, head on. The King, Alexander I, decided to surprise the Mexicans. Alexander split his army in half, sending 20,000 to bait the Mexicans at Tucson, while the other 15,000 manoeuvred around the Mexican army, smashing them from behind. On April 15th, the I and II Corps baited the Mexican army, more than twice the size of the two corps, into a battle just outside Tucson. The Calfornians held the line for 4 hours, repelling cavalry assaults with old fashioned infantry squares and artillery. As the 5th hour rolled around, the 20,000 men of the III and IV Corps attacked, breaking the back of the Mexican army, resulting in an encirclement. The whole Mexican army would be cut down, allowing the Californians to advance into Sonora.

Almost immediately, a reserve Mexican army was sent in, this one nearly double the size of King Alexander I’s army, at about 55,000. The Californians regrouped at Tucson, and began preparing defensive positions to be ready for the inevitable Mexican counter-attack. It came in late September, as the summer heat subsided, allowing the Mexicans to drill their troops and prepare the offensive, but it was a double edged sword, Californian cavalry had consistently been harrassing the Mexicans. The lull also allowed the Californians to reinforce, growing to a solid 45,000 men. The Californians improved their defensive positions, digging ditches, moving in more artillery, digging trenches and improving roads, allowing for better communication between the divisions.

On September 22nd, The Mexican army began their attack with a massive artillery barrage; that was able to destroy many Californian guns before they could prepare a counter-barrage. The rest of the army came in after, pushing back the Californian right flank out of their first two trench lines. The Mexican centre then broke the Californian one, mostly with sheer numbers, and forced the entire Californian army to retreat into Tucson itself. On day 2 of the battle, the Californians were again forced to cede Drexel-Alverton back to the Mexicans after it had been retaken during the night. At midday, the battle became a close range slog-fest of bayonets, sabres and fists. The Mexican numerical advantage allowed them to finally win the battle, forcing the Californians all the way back to San Diego. It was a very orderly retreat, and there were a number of rearguard battles fought by the II and III Corps throughout the Colorado River valley. The Mexican army of 55,000 had been reduced to only 39,000 ready soldiers, as 6000 had died in the battle, mostly in the hand-to-hand combat on Day 2, 10,000 Mexicans were injured, and 3000 of those were badly wounded. The Californians had taken lighter losses, 3000 dead and 5500 wounded. The Army had a V Corps en route from Saint Francis that rendezvoused with the Army on October 29th. The Californians then began scheming a counter-offensive, mainly to liberate the Californian settlers that lived in the River Valley. By November 1st, the recuperated Californian army of nearly 50,000 began a new offensive towards the Mexican camp at Gila. (OTL Phoenix)

The five Corps split up, and all crossed the Colorado River at different times and places, then meeting up at a Californian settlement on the Gila River where the battle would take place. They then moved to mirror their first offensive in April 1821, and encircle the Mexican army. King Alexander I sent the IV and V Corps to bait the Mexicans in, expecting them to pounce on the outnumbered troops. Then the II and III Corps would join the fight at the Mexican right flank, pushing the Mexicans back towards the Gila River, where the Royal Guard and the I Corps would attack from the North, cutting off escape and forcing the Mexican army to cross the Gila River under duress.

The V and IV Corps engaged the Mexicans at 8 am on November 5th, and held their thin line, after a cavalry assault by the elite 2nd San Diego Hussars saved the line from annihilation. At 12:00 the II and III Corps began their attack, and the Mexicans pulled back slightly, to cover their flank from being shattered. This caused their line to thin out, though they still outnumbered the Californians by around 19,000 men. Three hours later, at 3:00, the Royal Guard, spearheaded by a native contingent, led the charge alongside the I Corps, and they smashed into the Mexican rear, and the Mexicans then fell back onto a thin line along the Gila River, until the Royal Guard smashed through the Mexican centre, and cut off communication lines between the two halves of the army. The northern half then attempted to cross the river, some swimming, some attempting to cross over a pair of bridges that became choke points, and targets for continued musket and artillery volleys. Only 7000 of the 21,000 men crossing in the north crossed successfully, leaving 10,000 dead, and 11,000 captured. The remaining 34,000 men were pushed back to one of the largest sections of the river, leaving 11,000 dead, 16,000 captured and the remaining 7000 to survive. The Battle of Gila was a decisive Californian victory, with 19,000 dead Mexicans, 22,000 captured and only 14,000 escapees. The Californians lost 9000 dead, most of them during the opening skirmishes between the Mexican Army and the V and IV Corps.

By November 7th, the Californians had regrouped, and prepared to march on Tucson, where they would prepare for another Mexican counter-attack.

The Mexicans became desperate, as they had lost over 65,000 troops in two battles, while California had only lost roughly 25,000 troops. They would send in the last of their reserves, an army of 40,000 barely trained Mexican soldiers, who would be routed at the 2nd Battle of Tucson, in February 1823.

A peace would be decided in May of 1823 as the Treaty of Tucson. All of Greater Arizona (OTL Arizona and New Mexico) would be ceded to California, as well as the Mexican Rockies (OTL Utah and western Colorado). The Mexican settlers would also be expelled from these areas, and Californians would move in. This caused a refugee crisis in Mexico in the coming years, leading to more political instability.

The Arizona War between Mexico and California resulted in a decisive Californian victory, showing off the military genius of King Alexander I. Mexico, seen by most as the dominant North American non colonial power, had now been dethroned by California, who would continue their upturn throughout the 19th century.

- (The Napoleon Part is a little crazy, but I think it is a little fun).
 
This is begging for consideration of how the United States would evaluate this. Especially in light of OTL Anglo settlements along the Brazos River in Texas. At some point, settling parties from the US and California would encounter each other. How amicable would those encounters be?
 
This is begging for consideration of how the United States would evaluate this. Especially in light of OTL Anglo settlements along the Brazos River in Texas. At some point, settling parties from the US and California would encounter each other. How amicable would those encounters be?
probably antagonistic, as California just wrecked the balance of power in the region. I didn't know that there were american settlements in the area. I'll take that in for the next update.
 
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Kingdom of California: A Timeline of British Colonization Part III- The American Reaction
After the Californian revolution of 1810, the US saw California as a potential ally, but that all deteriorated after the crowning of Alexander I of the House of California. The rise of a Monarchy in the west antagonized the American government, as they had hoped for a second major english-speaking democracy in the New World as a bulwark against colonialism. Because the Californian revolution was led by more power hungry generals, like Alexander Bourne, as well as the wish of the population for a more strong-willed government, as a show of force against British reconquest, the Californians crowned their leader as a King. This paves a road for an antagonistic relationship between Washington and Saint Francis.

The US and California then began racing to take control of the Rocky Mountains in the centre of the continent. This led to a brief set of skirmishes across the late 1820s and 1830's. Even with Californian military experience, the skirmishes mostly end in a draw, and the US continues to encourage settlement of Americans in the west, even settling in Californian lands. This almost leads to war several times, with the Californian military having to step in and attempt to limit settlements to small reservations.

In 1836, American supported Texas gained independence after defeating Mexico. Then Texas joined the US as a new state a decade later. Border disagreements with Mexico led to the Mexican-American War, where the US invaded Mexico. A revitalized Mexican army beat the Americans back across the Rio Grande, then the Brazos. The Battle of Dallas was a Mexican victory, after a risky cavalry charge broke through the American right flank. This happened because of the sheer amount of money Mexico poured into their military in the 1820's and 1830's. Texas gained independence off of Mexico because they were still modernizing, as well guerrilla warfare which the Mexican army was ill-equipped to combat. Texas was the reconquered from the US after Mexican military modernization.

A peace treaty was signed in 1847, where Texas was ceded back to Mexico. The US had been humiliated, and had lost a sizable amount of American citizens that had settled in Texas.

Throughout the 1850's, the US began to expand its military in the hope of a second war with Mexico. This continues alongside the growing tension between the north and south, which climaxes in the Civil War. The revitalized American Army crushes the revolt in 1862 after a crushing victory at Antietam, and began their occupation of the south the same year.

The pair of decades that the US went through in the mid 19th century was a major turning point in the geopolitical situation of North America. The US was firmly put in third place, behind the skyrocketing population and economic growth of California as they industrialized to make products for Asian and European markets. Mexico also would industrialize, but slower and not to the same degree as California as their smaller population couldn’t migrate to the cities and factories without abandoning their agricultural economic base. The US’s industrial revolution of the 1850's was part of the revanchism from the Mexican-American war. Mexico only won the war in 1846 because of the sheer volume of money shoved into their military armament programs, not because of superior soldiers. The US still had better training and namely, superior officers, and officer training, West Point was to become a renowned military school in the 1850's onward. On the other side, the Mexican army would soak up so much of the Mexican economy that it would actively begin to ruin the Mexican economy, and let the US outpace them by the 1860's and 1870's, with the US population and economy catching up to California.
 
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- The reason this is ASB is because of the unlikeliness of a British colonization of California.
Unlikely Events are not ASB. Thats why shit like the Anglo American Nazi war is in post 1900 and not SB. ASB is more reserved for shit that would take actual divine intervention to do
 
Unlikely Events are not ASB. Thats why shit like the Anglo American Nazi war is in post 1900 and not SB. ASB is more reserved for shit that would take actual divine intervention to do
should i post this in the pre 1900 then? or finished timelines?
 
I think California and the United States are more likely to dislike each other over the "you're a monarchy" and "you control the land that's my divine right" theme than over some arcane concept that no one cared about like the regional balance of power. .

Likewise, in the 1840s nationalism was alive and well and was seen as a force for good and justice.

It is extremely doubtful that anyone would talk about nationalism in bad terms or as if it were a bad thing (except if you are Austria or Russia).

Likewise, there is no causal relationship between "organizing a nationalist revolution" and "wanting a monarchy." The Italians and Turks are living proof of this. Advocating otherwise is wrong.
 
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