Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

Index 5 – U.S. Fast-Food Leaders and U.S. Mayors
Index 5 – U.S. Fast-Food Leaders and U.S. Mayors

Leaders of prominent US-based fast-food chains ITTL (c. 1960-present (2021))

The most prominent fast-food franchises in North America in this TL, by category, in order of popularity (and are considered (by some people, at the very least) to be national chains, not regional chains):

1: Dickey’s
2: Smokey Mountain BBQ Steakhouse
3: Ponderosa Steakhouse
4: Sonny's BBQ
5: 4 Rivers Smokehouse
6: Chili's
7: Bill Miller BBQ
8: Good Company
9: Dinosaur BBQ
10: Cooper's Old Time BBQ Pit
11: Famous Dave's
12: Rudy's Ribs
13: Bodacious Bar-B-Q
14: Soulman's Bar-B-Que
15: Mission BBQ
16: Woody's
17: Corky's
18: Pete's BBQ Pit
19: Smokey Bones
20: Steak-&-Ale (also known as The Jolly Ox in some areas) - considered a "barbeque" chain on a technicality, as it is best known for being a steakhouse, but could also qualify as a "sandwich" chain as well

1: McDonald’s
2: Wendy’s/Wendyburger
3: White Castle
4: Whataburger
5: Culver’s
6: Burger Chef
7: Burger King
8: Burger Czar
9: Red Barn - it has recently experienced a resurgance in popularity among urban and suburban customers who find the rural theme a delightful contrast to where they live and work
10: Smashburgers - has a large and loud number of young fans ontech
11: Jack-in-the-box (often considered and labeled as a sandwich chain due to the diversity of their menu options)
12: Ollie’s Trollies
13: Freddy's Steakburgers and Frozen Custard
14: Fuddruckers
15: Farmer Boy Burgers
16: Burger's Fries and Burgers
17: Riverside Burgers and Fries
18: Albany Hams
19: Burger Hut Thursday's - a shadow of its former self, as it used to hover around #10 less than 10 years ago

1: Kentucky Fried Chicken
2: Popeyes
3: Chick-fil-A
4: Kenny Rogers Roasters
5: Boston Chicken
6: Cluckers
7: Zaxby's
8: Raising Cane's Chicken Fingers
9: Wingstop
10: El Pollo Loco
11: Bojangles'
12: Boston Market
13: Golden Chicken
14: The Chicken Salad Shack
15: Jollibee

1: Lum’s
2: The Bear’s Hotdogs
3: Sonic Drive-In
4: Nathan's Famous
5: Wienerschnitzel
6: Dog Haus
7: Coney I-Lander (technically a region chain centered in Oklahoma and most of its neighboring states, but counts as national chain and international chain due to two outlets in Maine and three in Nova Scotia, plus current plans to greatly expand in the 2020s)
8: Mel's
9: Tomorrowdogs
10: Yocco's Hotdogs
11: Ted's Top Dogs

1: Zantigo
2: Chi-Chi’s
3: Salsa’s Fresh Mex Bar & Grill
4: TacoTime
5: Del Taco
6: Moe's Southwest Grill
7: Taco John's
8: Chuy's
9: Taco Olé
10: Tortilla Time (previously known as Tortilla Tuesdays, though some outlets still use that name)

1: Pizza Hut
2: Little Caesar’s
3: Boston’s
4: Domino’s
5: Figaro’s
6: Pizza Corner
7: Eatza Pizza
8: Sbarro
9: Marco's Pizza
10: Toppings Galore
11: Italian Classic
12: Gerlanda's
13: Amore Pizza Pies
14: Pizza Haven
15: Pizza Shack
16: Papa Murphy's
17: Topper's Pizza

1: Arby’s
2: Dr. Sub’s
3: Homer's Heroes
4: Panera Bread
5: Jimmy John's
6: Jersey Mike's
7: Firehouse Subs
8: Deli Casey's Delicassies
9: Jason's
10: McAlister's Deli
11: Crazy Camilla's Classic Calzones
12: Dusty's
13: Supersubs
14: World's Best Sandwiches
15: American Classics
16: Izzy's (borders on being considered a "regional" chain)

1: SpongeBob’s Undersea Cuisine
2: Red Lobster
3: Boston Sea Party
4: Captain D’s
5: Wong’s Water Grill
6: Bonefish Grill
7: Pappadeux
8: Joe's Crab Shack
9: Papadopolous
10: H. Salt, Esq. Authentic English Fish and Chips
11: Ocean's Best
12: Eddie V's Prime Seafood

A breakdown of the leaders of the Core Members of the “KFC Corporate Family”:

(parent company) FINGER-LICKIN’ GOOD, INC. CEOs (founded in 1965):

1964-1981: 1) Mildred “Millie” Sanders-Ruggles – the youngest daughter of Colonel Sanders; oversaw company's national and then global expansion efforts; upheld sanitation standards by visiting outlets randomly for surprise inspections like her father did; retired to reportedly keep company leadership "fresh," but stayed on the Board of Directors as "Chair Emeritus" until her death
1981-1990: 2) Lee Cummings – a nephew of Colonel Sanders; developed menu specials during his time as manager of several outlets; continued predecessor's policies to maintain investor/stockholder confidence; expanded parent company ownership of several small, regional chains of various types, ranging from sports bars to candy stores; retired to reportedly hand the company over to the "next generation of KFC leaders" in an internal shakeup that saw "young blood" be brought in to reportedly "modernize" the company's marketing and networking aspects
1990-2001: 3) James A. Collins – after some initial missteps, successfully lead the company through the tumultuous "post-Colonel" years and greenlit further expansion into Asia; oversaw company efforts to harness the potential of the technet, with an official website being launched in late 1995; retired due to exhaustion
2001-2003: 4) Herman Cain – former CEO of Burger Chef, former CEO of the Nation Restaurant Association, and former Chair of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City; the Board of Directors brought him in from outside the company in the hope of him utilizing his success at other business ventures to turn around the company's North American sales results, after years of declining profits; left the company (after failing to improve profit margins with cutbacks and furloughs) in order to successfully run for an open US Senate seat
2003-2012: 5) Mary Lolita Starnes Hannon – improved domestic sales with multiple investments into numerous aspects of the company, including customer service, improving sanitation, and advertising with technet-based "fervid" marketing and networking campaigns (opening up a seasonally-functioning KFC outlet in Antarctica in 2007 was a part of these campaigns); in a somewhat controversial move, improved company transparency with media outlets, but did so to garner positive press coverage; retired due to her advanced age
2012-2017: 6) Adrien McNaughton – was the head of KFC R&D; continued most of the policies of his predecessor; stepped down over growing intra-department management difficulties, deciding he was more useful back at R&D
2017-2018: 7) William Kirk Hannon – the son of Mary Hannon; selection was allegedly the result of nepotism despite his years managing KFC's Southern US divisions; retired due to sudden health issues from which he is still recovering
2018-present: 8) David C. Novak – selected after spending several years improving KFC's ontech outlet ratings; is promoting an "Americanized version" of Japan's "lean production" method by improving communication channels between workers and management; currently overseeing expansion of menu options for nearly all franchises and enhancing customer interactions ontech

(chicken) KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN Head Executives (founded in 1950):

1950-1955: Col. Harland D. Sanders, Sr. – company founder; massively expanded the company at the state level, with Pete Harman as Head Assistant COO from 1951 until Harman’s retirement in 1995, established strict regulations for sanitation and food preparation for optimal results; did not allow tips due to him paying workers "a living wage" and enforced policy franchising chain to racially integrated locations; took a leave of absence after being drafted into running for Governor of Kentucky, and stepped down after he won
1955-1959: Harland D. “Harley” Sanders, Jr. – continued predecessor's business policies; decreased job activities after taking government job in 1958, relegating some responsibilities to Second Assistant COO Mildred Sanders, the alleged power behind “the sibling throne”; retired in order to let company founder resume leadership duties
1959-1964: Harland D. Sanders, Sr. – greatly expanded company at the national (and then international) level, making both KFC and himself household names; opposed rival fast-food chain McDonald’s over personal dislike of its CEO and due to some of the company's policies; took a leave of absence after being drafted into running for President of the United States, and stepped down after he won
1964-1994: Mildred “Millie” Sanders-Ruggles – took over due to her success at handling franchise intra-communication, addressing sexism in the workplace, overseeing collective bargaining agreements, and managing other company responsibilities during her tenure as chief vice-CEO from 1955 to 1964; expanded menu items in later half of 1960s, and again in the 1980s and early 1990s; also oversaw the formation of a “truce” between KFC and McDonald’s that lasted from 1967 to 1973; approved of the creation of a "Cartoon Colonel" (voiced by Randy Quaid) for the company's commercials and advertising in the early 1990s; stepped down after 30 years to enjoy retirement
1994-1999: Harold Omer – previously oversaw the successful launching of “Lee’s Famous Recipe” menu offering in select outlets (with the help of Lee Cummings, who was a regional manager at that time); was an in-law of Colonel Sanders; oversaw efforts to improve stockholder confidence amid stagnant sales for much of the decade; died in office unexpectedly
1999-2000: Charles Yohe – was a close ally of Harold Omer; continued predecessor's efforts to reverse decreases in domestic sales; died in office unexpectedly
2000-2018: David C. Novak – considered to be “young blood” for the position, beginning his tenure at the age of 48; praised for his quick response to implementing safezoning measures at the start of the 2002 Global Pandemic; aided company in recovering from previous losses in the late 2000s by working with parent company leadership to increase advertising expanses, allowing him to continue to uphold the company founder's strict sanitation standards and food preparation procedures despite pushback from company's financial experts who promoted changing recipes to cut down on costs and save time; phased out the "Cartoon Colonel" ads by the end of the 2000s decade as marketing shifted to more ontech-based ideas; co-led efforts to expand KFC into several African countries; stepped down after being selected to head KFC's parent company
2018-present: Roger Eaton – previously worked under Novak; currently continuing predecessor's policies, but is also overseeing efforts to appeal to young consumers, such as by promoting the menu's healthiest items in ads

(barbeque) SMOKEY MOUNTAIN BBQ STEAKHOUSE Head Executives (founded in 1964):

1964-1967: John Y. Brown Jr. – increased number of outlets 200% in 1964, but only 75% and 70% in 1965 and 1966, which were reportedly slower than had been expected for those two fiscal years; fired for underhanded tactics
1967-1990: Floyd “Sonny” Tillman – actively worked to promote business transparency, as symbolized by his all-glass office; personally created the chain’s “Sonny’s Special” menu item; stepped down after 23 years in order to enjoy his retirement years
1990-2005: Bob Yarmuth – company loyalist; privately considered the controversial "Cartoon Colonel" ads to be "a disgraceful insult" to the memory of the recently-departed Colonel Sanders; retired after failing to improve sales in the post-SARS economy
2005-2015: David Yohe – son of former KFC CEO Charles Yohe; had been working in numerous positions in the chain since its inception in the 1960s; launched a massive marketing campaign that allowed company to rebuild prominence by the early 2010s; retired due to exhaustion, then pursued other business ventures
2015-present: Jan Fields – former McDonald’s executive; as an outsider, had to earn FLG leadership's trust by improving sales for FY2016 by 200% without firing or furloughing a single employee or cutting any salaries (she managed to improve sales by 210% by giving herself a pay cut and shifting advertising expenses to producing cheaper, more direct ads for technet devices; currently working with the parent company to coordinate marketing strategies against their main competitors

(burgers) WENDY’S Head Executives (founded in 1968):

1968-2002: Dave Thomas – founded the chain and named it after his daughter; changed the original name of "Wendyburger" to "Wendy's" during the 1980s, but the original name continued to be used by some outlets as late as 2010 and continues to be used by many customers old enough to remember its original title; best known for appearing in commercials in a humble manner in sharp contrast to the boisterous Colonel Sanders that he once worked under; died in office at the age of 69, after being afflicted with a carcinoid neuroendocrine tumor for roughly ten years but that then suddenly metastasized to his liver
2002-2019: Joe Ledington – a nephew of Colonel Sanders; former regional manager for KFC-Appalachia; got into trouble with the parent company for divulging private company information during interviews in the early-to-mid 2010s; retired after 17 years of maintaining post-SARS growth in order to enjoy his retirement years
2019-present: Vipul Chawla – former head of the company's R&D department; currently overseeing technet advertising expansion efforts

(seafood) HADDON SALT, ESQ.’S AUTHENTIC FISH & CHIPS Head Executives (founded in 1965 and purchased by FLG Inc. in 1969):

1965-present: Haddon Salt – chain founder; still going strong after being in charge of the company for over 55 years by adapting to changing market trends without resorting to mimicking rising rivals (for instance, rejecting a proposal to make aminated-live action hybrid commercials to compete against those of SpongeBob's Undersea Cuisine); currently roughly 80 years old, he recently commented that he plans to stay on as the head of the chain for as long as possible

And, finally, a breakdown of some other prominent fast-food chains that have made appearances in this TL:

(hotdogs) THE BEAR’S HOTDOGS Head Executives (founded in 1971):

1971-present: Bear McSavory – founded in New Jersey as a single roadside stand by a proud but camera-shy man who publicly goes by a pseudonym to protect his privacy

(burgers) BURGER CHEF Head Executives (founded in 1957):

1957-1971: Frank and Donald Thomas – co-founders; not related to Wendyburger (later renamed Wendy’s) founder Dave Thomas
1971-1986: Jack Laughery – accepted the position over becoming CEO of Hardee’s, a small and struggling state-wide burger chain in North Carolina that folded in 1987; merged Burger Chef company with the smaller burger chain Sandy’s in 1972 but retained the name Burger Chef; decided to simplify the menu offerings in order to increase the prificiency and speed of the kitchen staff; led redesigning of outlets' interior space to create a more welcoming feel and better utilize the color red; stepped down after 15 years of growth to pursue other projects and interests
1986-1994: John L. N. Bitove – former CEO of the Canadian Big Boy and Roy Rogers chains; ran the company alongside his many Canadian businesses, focusing on workplace efficiency; in 1991, directed more funds into ingredients than into advertising in an effort to promote the chain by word of mouth - an effort that yielded only lukewarm results, but was later praised for being forward-thinking and ahead of its time; stepped down to better focus on the Yellow Knight Diner chain in Canada, which was making more money at the time of his departure
1994-2005: Michael Scott “Mike” Rawlings – lead the company through dire economic straits during the SARS pandemic; later served as the Mayor of Austin, Texas (2009-2014) and unsuccessfully ran for the Democratic nomination for Governor of Texas in 2018; he recently announced that he is running for a US House seat in 2022
2005-2011: John I. Bitove – Canadian businessman involved in a plethora of other businesses and industries, and the son of a previous CEO; he shifted the company’s focus to selling primarily burgers to simplify marketing strategies and cut down on the diversity of ingredients being purchased and stored; he stepped down to better focus on the companies he founded in Canada in a repeat of his father's departure from the company, leading to rumor claiming that in response to "insulting" departures of both Canadian CEOs, Burger King's Board of Directors signed a document in which they agreed to never hire a CEO from Canada ever again
2011-2015: Cara Carlton Sneed – the daughter of a US Supreme Court Justice; COO of AT&T from 1991 to 1997, the US Administrator of the Small Business Administration (SBA) under US President Larry Miles Dinger from 1997 to 2001, and CEO of PepsiCo from 2003 to 2007; unsuccessfully ran for the Republican nomination for a US Senate seat from Texas in 2008; became cancer survivor in 2010 and a nearly-two-years-long battle; orchestrated mass layoffs in response to the 2013 recession; greenlit research into automating as much as 40% of the company's job positions in 2014; dismissed by the BoD amid an overall poor handling of the company and lukewarm improvement of profit margins; later joined a group of political think tanks in Potomac
2015-2019: Steve Easterbrook – began his career as a British accountant and worked his way up through the company from there starting in 2007; oversaw the improvement of the company's rocky financial situation; dismissed by the Board of Director over an “inappropriate incident” with a company employee; currently runs his own accounting firm
2019-present: Chris Kempczinski – previously worked for Procter & Gamble; participates in marathons to promote the company and healthy eating

(artisanal burgers) BURGER CZAR Head Executives (founded in 1997):

1997-present: Marc Benioff – founded the company, but “borrowed” its name, and its tagline (“Burger Czar, Where The Burgers Are”) from a 1970s episode of “Welcome Back, Kotter”

(burgers) BURGER KING head executives (founded in 1953):

1953-1959: Keith J. Kramer and Matthew Burns – co-founders of Insta-Burger King in Florida
1959-1976: James McLamore and David R. Edgerton – co-purchased Insta-Burger King when it faltered and renamed it
1976-1978: Donald N. Smith and David R. Edgerton – standardized outlet designs and menu offerings before Edgerton retired to pursue other projects
1978-1979: Donald N. Smith – restructured corporate practices amid economic recession; left the company in the midst of plummeting sales
1979-1991: Norman E. Brinker – improved cash flow by launching attack ads on rivals to gain attention in a successful "Hail Mary pass" and stepped down after 12 years of steady financial improvement and gradual growth
1991-2003: Jerry W. Levin – oversaw fluctuating strength in the company’s brand as a string of new menu offerings yielded mixed results; stepped down after 12 years due to exhaustion and amid internal criticism of his response to the SARS pandemic
2003-2006: Robert F. Kennedy Jr. – ousted by the board of directors over his expensive overhauling of the company’s sanitation procedures and cooking techniques over concerns of Toxic Metal Accumulation (TMA)
2006-2009: John Walker Chidsey – stepped down after the company was hit by a class-action lawsuit concerning customers alleging they developed TMA due to the company's negligence (a lawsuit later settled out of court)
2009-2021: Donald “Don” Thompson – first African-American CEO; redirected brand, and demand generation efforts, toward lower-income customers; stepped down after nearly 12 years due to exhaustion
2021-present: Enrique "Harlando" Hernández – former McDonald’s executive; has expressed interest in "greatly" expanding the company's number of outlets

(chicken) CHICK-FIL-A Head Executives (founded in 1946):

1946-2014: S. Truett Cathy – company founder; known for opposing BLUTAG marriage, opposing keeping outlets open on Sundays, and being actively socially conservative; company reached its "peak" in the 1990s, followed by him receiving criticism and ontech boycotts for endorsing controversial politicians in the 2000s decade (such as Bernie Goetz in 2004 and 2012, and Bo Gritz in 2008); died from diabetic complications at the age of 93; succeeded by his son
2014-present: Daniel Truett Cathy – currently working to appeal to suburban and rural communities with "folksy" advertisements; his second-in-command is his brother, Donald M. “Bubba” Cathy

(burgers) MCDONALD’S Head Executives (founded in 1940):

1940-1961: Richard J. McDonald and Maurice J. McDonald – brothers, co-founders and co-owner’s during the enterprise’s early days; developed the restaurant's quick order delivery system
1961-1969: Ray Kroc – took over company by purchasing the land on which the outlets were located, technically making McDonald's a real estate venture; nationalized and globally expanded the company; took a temporary leave of absence to unsuccessfully run for Governor of California in 1966; agreed to a temporary truce with rival company KFC during the late 1960s; stepped down to run the San Diego Padres from 1969 to 1975; unsuccessfully ran for President of the United States in 1976
1969-1991: June Martino – was a close and longtime ally of Kroc; led company through the 1970s lawsuit and court case that ruled that the company had plagiarized the TV series H. R. Pufnstuf when creating the McDonaldland TV commercials; universally liked by the end of her tenure due to overseeing the company’s period of steady, continuous growth; retired in January at the age of 73
1991-2003: Frederick Leo “Fred” Turner – continued expansion into other countries; was criticized for the company's slow response to SARS concerns in 2002; retired amid continued criticisms causing stockholders to lose faith in his leadership abilities
2003-2018: Ballard F. Smith – Ray Kroc’s son-in-law and former PA-based D.A.; oversaw the introduction of healthier menu options; criticized for defending McDonald's employees receiving minimum wage and few benefits; stepped down after 15 years in order to enjoy retirement
2018-present: Kevin Hochman – was previously in charge of advertising, first for KFC and then (after leaving the company in protest of CEO Herman Cain's furloughs) for McDonald’s; currently facing criticism for the quality of working conditions for McDonald's employees nationwide

(niche burgers) OLLIE’S TROLLEYS Head Executives (founded in 1935):

1935-2002: Oliver “Ollie” Gleichenhaus – founded the original restaurant and created the original menu offerings in what began as a one-man operation; partnered with former KFC employee John Y. Brown Jr. to franchise the restaurant into a national chain; Brown left the company after failing to expand it beyond its "niche" market; oversaw day-to-day operations (even amid health issues in the 1990s) until his death
2002-present: Muktesh “Micky” Pant – has expanded menu options in order to try and keep the company afloat; chain now offers a simpler, cheaper, and easier-to-make alternative to the Ollieburger (informally dubbed the “Newlyburger”) as well as the now-slightly-pricier classic original (informally dubbed the “Oldyburger”)

(pizza) PIZZA HUT Head Executives (founded in 1958):

1958-1981: Dan Carney and Frank Carney – brothers and co-founders; Frank retired early
1981-1999: Dan Carney – expanded company during the "Golden Age of Pizza" that was the 1980s; retired after training successor
1999-2007: Greg Creed – entered office at the age of 41; modernized outlets and was quick to convert them to “drive-thru only” during the 2002 SARS pandemic; stepped down due to exhaustion
2007-2017: Barry Gordon – former S.A.G. President, former talk show host, and former two-term US Congressman (D-CA); also does voice acting work intermittently; stepped down amid declining sales
2017-present: Peter Rokkos – Greek-American businessman (founded Beach Rat Lemonade in 2005) and former prosecuting attorney; currently revamping the company's image to promote a balance between modern healthy eating habits and 1980s nostalgia

(pizza) PIZZA SHACK Head Executives (founded in 2012):

2012-present: James Stephen “Steve” Peace – founder; former actor best known for starring in the “Attack of the Killer Tomatoes” film franchise; former state senator (D-CA, 1993-2003), US Congressman (D-CA, 2005-2011), and former gubernatorial nominee (D-CA, 2010); is often confused for Barry Gordon

(chicken) POPEYES Head Executives (founded in 1972):

1972-1995: Alvin Charles "Al" Copeland – chain founder, stepped down to handle the legal fallout of a physical altercation with a rival local businessman
1995-2005: John Walker Chidsey – greatly expanded the company’s presence on the national stage (especially during the late 1990s) and oversaw the company “modernize,” but stepped down due to exhaustion
2005-2008: Alvin Charles "Al" Copeland – returned to running the company to improve shareholder confidence, but died just under three years after entering office (after suffering from a sudden development of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare form of cancer, first detected in his salivary glands via a tumor that was discovered there in 2007) at the age of 64
2008-2010: Trevor Haynes – Australian businessman; in office during a continued period of declining sales; essentially served as a compromise interim leader until the Board of Director could finally agree on a more permanent officeholder
2010-present: Allen Adamson – former managing director of the brand consultancy Landor; has expanded the company’s number of outlets and has greatly improved the company’s brand recognition and reputation since entering office

(sandwiches) DR. SUB’S Head Executives (founded in 1946):

1965-2011: Dr. Peter Buck and Frederick Adrian “Fred” De Luca – company co-founders and served as co-CEOs; greatly expanded the company nationally in the 1980s and 1990s; Buck retired in 2011 at the age of 81 and is currently (July 4, 2021) still alive at the age of 90
2011-2015: Frederick Adrian “Fred” De Luca – died in office from leukemia at the age of 67
2015-2018: Suzanne De Luca Greco – sister of Fred De Luca; stepped down after failing to increase sales amid criticisms of the company's declining food quality and sanitation standards
2018-present: Robert D. Walter – was the company’s longtime Chairman of the Board; is currently attempting to "revitalize" the company and improve its reputation

(seafood) SPONGEBOB’S UNDERSEA CUISINE Head Executives (founded in 1991 and expanded in 1993):

1991-2016: Stephen Hillenburg – chain founder; greenlit the development of the TV series (which aired in the later half of the 1990s) that was based on the chain's highly popular TV commercials from the mid-'90s; known for refusing to divulge information about the company's trade secrets; has been praised for paying company employees living wages and allowing them to form a union, and for working quickly to apply safezoning measures during the SARS Global Pandemic; stepped down amid health crisis that ended three years later with him beating/surviving brain cancer; has served as a creative consultant for the company since early 2021
2016-present: Bryan Hillenburg – brother of chain founder; has been involved in the company since its founding; is reforming the company model to base it off KFC’s “early” years of growth and success


Presidents of The Walt Disney Company

1923-1945: 1) Walter Elias “Walt” Disney (1901-1966, aged 65) – company founder; introduced several developments and camera techniques in cartoon production; introduced synchronized sound/full-color/three-strip Technicolor/feature-length cartoons in the 1930s; current record-holder for the most Academy Awards won by a single individual, with 22 Oscars and 59 nominations, plus 2 Golden Globes and 1 Emmy; promoted war bonds and produced several “propaganda productions” and instruction films for the US military during WWII; stepped down to focus more on the creative side of the company’s multiple projects; peak net worth: US$1 billion
1945-1968: 2) Roy Oliver Disney (1893-1971, aged 78) – older brother of Walt Disney; worked on both the financial and creative aspects of the company, but primarily managed the finances and production issues to maximize profits; postponed retirement after Walt’s death to oversee the construction of Disney World, and stepped down a short time later; peak net worth: US$1.2 billion
1968-1971: 3) Donn B. Tatum (1913-1993, aged 80) – started working for The Disney as a production business manager in 1956 and worked his way up to Board Chairman; first non-Disney family member to head the company; played a major role in the creation of Walt Disney World Resort, EPCOT Center, Disneyland Tokyo, and Disneyland Barcelona; also contributed to the development of Space Mountain; stepped down after shareholders expressed distrust in his leadership skills amid poor box office performances; peak net worth: US$200 million
1971-1980: 4) Esmond Cardon “Card” Walker (1916-2005, aged 89) – decorated WWII veteran; previously served on the Board; followed Tatum’s interest in foreign markets and expanded the company’s presence abroad by applying the basis of KFC’s model for global expansion (understanding local tastes and tweaking menu ahead of laying down roots) to Disney theme parks abroad; greenlit several “experimental” animation efforts (such as developing painted backgrounds to create the feel of a living, moving portrait) and the developing of state-of-the-art special effects for both animated films and live-action films; stepped down amid animated feature films continuing to underperform at the box office; peak net worth: US$400 million
1980-1984: 5) Ronald William “Ron” Miller (1933-2019, aged 85) – former professional football player and the son-in-law of Walt Disney; had worked for the company since the 1950s, with his father-in-law grooming him to become a film producer; moved into directing in the 1970s before ending up on the Board of Directors; as President, expanded the company by creating Touchstone and The Disney Channel; promoted early CRI efforts and stop-motion projects; was ousted by the Board for failing to develop financial profits for the company’s shareholders; peak net worth: US$500 million
1984-1999: 6) Franklin G. “Frank” Wells (1932-2020, aged 88) – could trace his ancestry back to the Mayflower; was a company outsider, having originally worked his up to Vice Chairman at Warner Bros. before leaving that company in 1982; achieved his goal of climbing the Seven Summits in 1983, by climbing all seven mountains in one year, which was a world record for 12 years; took a hands-off approach to the company’s minutiae; greenlit investments into CRI technology, pairing up with Pixar in the 1990s to co-produce Pixar’s CRI feature films; also greenlit the development of several live-action remakes (such as 101 Dalmatians, Sleeping Beauty, and others) in the late 1990s, none of which were as profitable as the company had expected them to be; retired due to declining health from which he later recovered; peak net worth: US$6.1billion
1999-2007: 7) Jeffrey Katzenberg (b. 1950, age 70) – credited with contributing to reviving the company during the late 1980s as head of the company’s motion picture division; defeated longtime CEO Michael Eisner for the position after Wells privately told the Board that he preferred that Katzenberg be his successor despite Roy E. Disney (a powerful member of the Board) disliking Katzenberg’s “showboating [and] attention-seeking” ways; presided over an externally prosperous but internally tumultuous tenure, as he argued with others in the company hierarchy over CRI technology use, marketing and merchandising techniques, global expansion (most notably, the CRI TV series Kung Fu Panda), and pay equity reform for workers; greenlit several sequels and spinoffs amid calls by some within the company to produce more live-action remakes and by others to adapt original material for new films and TV shows; stepped down as continued internal conflicts were leaked to the press, resulting in stockholders losing faith in the company; peak net worth: US$2.9 billion
2007-2020: 8) Sid Richardson Bass (b. 1942, age 79) – involved in the company since the 1980s; selected over Stanley P. Gold and others; appealed to both stockholders and Disney Animation Artists by greenlighting projects based on folk stories that were lesser-known in the US but could yield profits in foreign markets as well as domestically; responded to the 2013 recession by furloughing over 100,000 low-pay workers; sought to improve theme park conditions and cruise line quality, especially after the Pinnacle-Sirena Collision of 2017 worsened the reputation of cruise lines; quality retired due to health issues; peak net worth: US$6.5 billion
2020-present: 9) Abigail Edna Disney (b. 1960, age 61) – is the granddaughter of Roy O. Disney; previously worked since the 1990s as an Emmy Award-winning documentary film producer, peace activist, and social organizer; was highly critical of her predecessor for earning hundreds of millions of dollars as CEO (including a $75million “farewell” package in 2020); has not denied claims that the Board of Directors only hired her after she publicly pledged to serve for five years, and with a salary that is roughly one-sixth of Bass’s; has expressed interest in addressing issues such as poverty and Global Climate Disruption more directly in future animated feature films; net worth: US$120 million

Also: Some American Mayors in this TL:


1/1/1966-12/31/1981: 103) Joseph F. "Joey" Periconi (1910-1914; R, R/Liberal until 1977) – former Bronx Borough President from 1962 to 1965; dealt with rising crime rates; retired amid abysmal approval ratings
1965: Paul O’Dwyer (D/Civil Service) and Charles Edison (Conservative)
1969: Mario Angelo Procaccino (D/Conservative)
1973: Harrison Jay Goldin (D) and Barry Farber (Conservative)
1977: Harrison Jay Goldin (D), Barry Farber (Conservative), Edward N. Costikyan (Liberal) and Vito P. Battista (United Taxpayers)

1/1/1982-12/23/1988: 104) Carol Bellamy (b. 1942; D/Liberal, D/Liberal/Progressive/Natural Mind after 1985) – first female Mayor of New York; previously served as President of the New York City Council; served during a slow decline in crime rates and a steady rise in employment; implemented progressive policies and defended BLUTAGO rights; was a prominent voice during the Second Ark Wave (1986); resigned to become President of the United States
1981: Roy M. Goodman (R) and Barry Farber (Conservative)
1985: Guy Molinari (R/Conservative)

12/23/1988-12/31/1989: Acting) Andrew Stein (b. Andrew J. Finkelstein in 1945; D/Liberal) – previously served as New York City Council President; lost nomination for a full term after failing to stand out in a crowded field

1/1/1990-12/31/2001: 105) Edward Irving "Ed" Koch (1924-2013; D) – previously served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1969 to 1989; implemented housing renewal programs; dealt with rises in hate crimes toward Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans during the Second Korean War and the War on Recreadrugs; supported the death penalty and added 4,000 officers to the NYPD payroll during his second term; retired amid low approval ratings, leaving office at the age of 77
1989: Allard K. Lowenstein (Liberal/Progressive), Ronald S. Lauder (R) and Henry F. Hewes (Conservative)
1993: Guy Molinari (R/Conservative)
1997: Herman Badillo (R/Conservative)

1/1/2002-12/31/2005: 106) John A. Catsimatidis (b. 1948; R/Conservative) – born in Greece but came with his parents to the US when he was six months old; became a billionaire businessman by owning a real estate and aviation company, a local newspaper, and a chain of grocery stores; chastised for refusing to enforce safezoning measures during the SARS Global Pandemic; lost re-election; currently owns several businesses and serves as the host of a radio talk show host
2001: Al Sharpton (D/Liberal)

1/1/2006-12/31/2013: 107) Dr. Margaret Ann “Peggy” Hamburg (b. 1955; D/Liberal/Working Families) – previously served as a public health administrator (Assistant Secretary of Health and Humane Services from 2001 to 2005, and Health Commissioner of New York City from 1994 to 2001) who clashed with Catsimatidis during the SARS Global Pandemic; drafted into running; supported successful plan to get New York City to host the 2016 Summer Olympics; struggled to respond effectively to the 2013 recession; term-limited after 2006 rule change
2005: John Catsimatidis (R/Conservative)
2009: Richard Parsons (R/Conservative) and Robert “Naked Cowboy” Burck (Independence)

1/1/2014-present: 108) James "Jimmy" McMillan III (b. 1946; Independent/Liberal/Working Families) – first African-American Mayor; former city councilman; best known for running for public offices on a platform calling for the implementing of a rent cap for New York City residents; successfully addressed housing issues with penalties for vacant units, changing zoning laws to allow for more housing areas to be built, and converting former venues for the Summer Olympics into public housing and multi-purpose areas; ran for President in 2016 and 2020; incumbent
2013: Anthony “Tony” Avella Jr. (D/Conservative), Anthony Weiner (Progressive), and Malcolm Smith (R)
2017: Trisha Ellen Meili (D) and Richard A. “Bo” Dietl (R/Conservative)


1961-1969: 37) Samuel William "Sam" Yorty (1909-1998; D until 1973, then R) – previously served in the US House of Representatives from 1951 to 1955; populist conservative; improved city's waste management and highway conditions, cut taxes, "streamlined" city government, and presided over the city emerging as a major city; was criticized for his "zero-tolerance" approach to shoutniks and civil rights activists peacefully protesting in the early-to-mid 1960s; admonished for endorsing Republican candidates in 1964, 1966, and 1968; narrowly lost re-election in a bitter race that saw Yorty try to paint a former police officer as a dangerous radical; later ran unsuccessfully for this and other offices
1961: Norris Poulson (R)
1965: James Roosevelt (D)

1969-1997: 38) Thomas Jefferson "Tom" Bradley (1917-1998; D) – previously served in the LAPD from 1940 to 1963, then served on the city council for the city's 10th district from 1963 to 1969; ran in 1969 on his police record and city council record; city's first African-American Mayor and longest-serving Mayor; promoted business growth as a means of creating city jobs; reformed the city's housing and zoning laws; lost bids for higher office in the 1980s; in his final term was criticized for rises in traffic congestion and air pollution, and for shying away from social movements in the early 1970s and late 1980s; retired amid declining popularity and poor health, but is currently looked back on positively
1969: Samuel W. Yorty (D)
1973: Samuel W. Yorty (R)
1977: Alan Robbins (D) and Howard Jarvis (R)
1981: Samuel W. Yorty (R)
1985: John Ferraro (D)
1989: Nathaniel N. "Nate" Holden (D) and Baxter Ward (D)
1993: Richard Riordan (R)

1997-2005: 39) Nicolas "Nick" Patsaouras (b. 1943; D) – Greek-American engineer, urban planner, and public official; previously served on the board of the L.A. County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and worked for the L.A. Department of Water and Power; became nationally known when President Lee Iacocca was assassinated while standing next to him, and Patsaouras briefed the press on the tragedy later that day, still wearing his blood-splattered suit in an iconic moment; improved city's infrastructure issues; term-limited, left office with high approval ratings, and later successfully ran for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives
1997: Steve Soboroff (R)
2001: Tom Hayden (D)

2005-2009: 40) Xavier Becerra (b. 1958; D) – Hispanic-American; previously served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1993 to 2005; served at a time of rising crime rates, hurting his efforts to implement President Jackson's police precinct reform proposals; lost re-election amid accusations of having connections to several scandals concerning city councilmen who were allies of him accepting bribes, even though Becerra himself was never directly linked to the scandals
2005: Joel Wachs (D)

2009-2017: 41) James Kenneth Hahn (b. 1950; D) – former lawyer and business investor; previously served as deputy city attorney (1975-1979), city controller (1981-1985), and city attorney (1985-2005); won election on the phrase "Vote For Hahn, Not The Con," which some accused as being a form of race-baiting; oversaw a drop in crime rates by utilizing the technet to open up channels of communication between the city's residents and law enforcement; switched the city’s voting process to instant-runoff/ranked choice voting in 2015; term-limited, and later successfully ran for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives
2009: Xavier Becerra (D)
2013: David Hernandez (D) and Xavier Becerra (D)

2017-present: 42) Herman J. "Herb" Wesson Jr. (b. 1951; D) – city's second African-American mayor; previously served as a member of the Los Angeles City Council from the 10th district (the same seat once held by Mayor Tom Bradley) from 2005 to 2017; won an 18-month term after city elections were “adjusted” in 2017; won a full term in 2018; incumbent; currently attempting to improve the city's parks and recreational options to promote families moving in to L.A. instead of moving out to neighboring suburban areas
2017: Mitchell Schwartz (D)
2018: Rick Caruso (D)

1955-1976: 39) Richard J. Daley (1902-1976; D)
– previously served as Cook County Clerk from 1950 to 1955; played a prominent role in the Democratic Party at the national level, being an influential figure during the 1960, 1964, 1968, and 1972 Presidential Elections; many members of his administration were charged of and convicted for corruption; died in office from a massive heart attack at the age of 74
1976-1977: 40) Wilson Lee Frost (1925-2018; D) – city's first African-American Mayor; appointed to be Daley’s successor by city council; previously served as a city alderman from 1967 to 1976; lost bid to complete Daley’s term
1977-1987: 41) Harold Lee Washington (1922-1987; D) – first African-American to be elected Mayor of Chicago; previously served in the state House from 1965 to 1977; often feuded with members of the city council, dubbed the "Council Wars," over transit issues, housing issues, and how to best address rising crime rates; died in office from a sudden heart attack at the age of 55
1987-1995: 42) Timothy C. Evans (b. 1943; D) – appointed to be Washington’s successor by city council; previously served as a member of the Chicago City Council from the 4th ward from 1973 to 1987; declined running for re-election to attempt to "pull a Bellamy" and run for President, but bowed out of the race before the primaries began due to poor polling and fundraising results; his policies were blamed for the high fatality rate of the Chicago Heat Wave of July 1995, though Evans himself accuses his successor of not doing enough during the crisis and attempting a cover-up of the true number of deaths
1995-2009: 43) Richard Michael Daley (b. 1942; D) – son of Richard J. Daley; developed the city's tourism areas and business districts, but was criticized both for presiding over rising police brutality incidents (even during President Jackson's attempts at police precinct reform) and for political allies, family members, and personal friends disproportionally benefiting from city contracting; resigned for a position in the Wellstone administration that he served in for roughly 14 months before Wellstone fired him for nepotistic hiring practices
2009-present: 44) Al Wintersmith (b. 1956; D) – African-American; incumbent; appointed Daley’s successor by city council; previously served as a city alderman from 1997 to 2009; born Deval Laurdine Patrick in Chicago to single mother Emily Wintersmith; has presided over efforts to curb police brutality incidents but has been criticized for ineffective moderate stances and milquetoast policies; failed to run for President in 2016 and 2020 but has recently expressed interest in running for Governor in 2022


1982-1990: 57) Kathryn Jean Niederhofer "Kathy" Whitmire (b. 1946; D) – city's first female Mayor; previously served as city controller from 1977 to 1981; implemented city finances reform to create new social programs without raising taxes; gained national attention for giving a stirring speech endorsing Carol Bellamy at the 1988 Democratic National Convention; retired to unsuccessfully run for a US Senate seat
1981: Jack Heard (D)
1983: Bill Wright (I)
1985: Louis Welch (R)
1987: Bill Anderson (I)

1990-1994: 58) J. Fred Hofheinz (b. 1938; D) – former lawyer and the son of former Houston Mayor Roy Hofheinz (1953-1955); previously served as Mayor from 1974 to 1978; was considered a rising star in 1992 but fell into political obscurity after retiring from office and politics altogether
1989: Shelby Oringderff (I)
1991: Bob Lanier (R)

1994-2004: 59) Sylvester Turner (b. 1954; D) – city's first African-American Mayor; previously served as a member of the state House of Representatives from the 139th district from 1989 to 1994; retired to successfully run for a US Congressional seat
1993: Luis Ralph Ullrich Jr. (D)
1995: Dave Wilson (D)
1997: Robert A. Mosbacher Jr. (R)
1999: Jack “Jailbird” Terence (D)
2001: Chris Bell (D) and Luis Ralph Ullrich Jr. (D)

2004-2006: 60) Lee Patrick Brown (b. 1937; D) – African-American; former criminologist, police chief, police commissioner and businessman; lost re-election over his handling of Hurricane Rita
2003: Peter Brown (D)

2006-2012: 61) William Howard "Bill" White (D) – former attorney; previously served as the US Deputy Secretary of Energy from 2001 to 2005; retired to unsuccessfully run for a US Senate seat
2005: Lee Brown (D)
2007: Amanda Ulman (Socialist Workers)
2009: Jack O’Connor (R)

2012-2018: 62) Gene L. Locke (D) – African-American; former lawyer; previously served as a county commissioner from 2008 to 2012; lost re-election over his handling of Hurricane Harvey
2011: Roy Morales (R)
2013: Benjamin Hall III (D)
2015: Bill King (R) and Tony Buzbee (R)

2018-present: 63) Dwight Anthony Boykins (b. 1963; D) – African-American; previously served as a member of the Houston City Council for District D from 2014 to 2018; incumbent
2017: Adrian Garcia (D) and Gene L. Locke (D)
2019: Clarence Bradford (D)

1976-1984: 52) Margaret Taylor Hance (1923-1990; R) – city's first female Mayor; term-limited
1984-1988: 53) Pete Dunn (R) – conservative elected in a good year for Republican; lost re-election in a good year for Democrats
1988-1996: 54) Terry Goddard (b. 1947; D) – previously served as a private attorney who prosecuted white collar crime; amended city rules so members of the city council were elected from districts instead of by a majority of all voters citywide, allowing minorities from certain parts of the city to be elected to represent their home areas and give those areas a more representative voice on the council; term-limited; later ran for higher office
1996-2004: 55) Randy Pullen (R) – addressed 1999 economic crisis by temporarily slashing social programs; barely won re-election; term-limited
2004-2012: 56) Linda Sue Nadolski (D) – supported President Jackson's police precinct reform proposals; term-limited
2012-2020: 57) Margaret D. Stock (b. 1961 in Boston, MA; R) – former member of the Military Police Corps and immigration attorney; term-limited
2020-present: 58) Rodney Glassman (D) – US Air Force veteran and former city councilman; incumbent


1956-1962: 91) Richardson K. Dilworth (1898-1974, aged 75; D) – previously served as the city's 16th District Attorney from 1952 to 1956; resigned to unsuccessfully run for Governor
1955: W. Thacher Longstreth (R)
1959: Harold Stassen (R)

1962-1972: 92) James Hugh Joseph Tate (1910-1983, aged 73; D) – city's first Roman Catholic mayor; previously served as City Council President from 1955 to 1962; retired
1963: James T. McDermott (R)
1967: Ethel D. Allen (R)

1972-1980: 93) Frank Lazarro Rizzo (1920-1991, aged 70; D until 1979, then R) – previously served as the Commissioner of the Philadelphia Police Department; conservative; Italian-American; admonished for opposing construction of public housing in majority-white neighborhoods and promoting the city police department engaging in patterns of police brutality, coercion, and intimidation toward African-Americans; almost removed from office twice in narrow recall elections held in late 1975 and early 1978; changed party affiliation after the state Democratic Party Chair and several other prominent state Democrats refused to support him during the second recall attempt; retired amid low approval ratings
1971: W. Thacher Longstreth (R)
1975: Charles W. Bowser (I) and Thomas M. Foglietta (R)

1980-1988: 94) Lucien Edward Blackwell (1931-2003; D) – city's first African-American Mayor; previously served as a member of the Philadelphia City Council from the 3rd district from 1974 to 1980; reversed nearly all of his predecessor's policies; retired
1979: David W. Marston (R)
1983: Tom Gola (R) and Muhammad Kenyatta (I)

1988-1992: 95) George R. Burrell Jr. (D) – former city council; lost re-election
1987: Joan Specter (R)

1992-1993: 96) Frank Lazarro Rizzo (1920-1993, aged 72; D until 1979, then R) – elected with only 39% of the vote due to divided opposition; died in office from a massive heart attack amid another recall attempt
1991: George R. Burrell Jr. (D), Bernard Salera (Progressive) and Joe Rocks (Conservative)

1993-2004: 96) John Franklin Street (b. 1943; D) – previously served as a member of the Philadelphia City Council from the 5th district from 1980 to 1992, and as President of the Philadelphia City Council from 1992 to 1993; reformed the city election system to allow for mayoral runoff elections; retired
1995: W. Thacher Longstreth (R)
1999: Charles F. Dougherty (R)

2004-2008: 97) Chaka Fattah (b. Arthur Davenport in 1956; D) – previously served in the state Senate from 1989 to 1997 and again from 1999 to 2004; lost a bid for a US House seat in 1996; lost re-nomination amid rising corruption allegations
2003: Al Taubenberger (R)

2008-2016: 98) T. Milton Street Sr. (b. 1941; D) – former hot dog vendor and activist against Mayor Rizzo's housing and vending ordinances; brother of John F. Street; previously served in the state Senate from 1981 to 1989 and in the US House of Representatives from 1989 to 2007; retired
2007: Karen Brown (R)
2011: Ronald D. Castille (R)

2016-present: 99) Darrell L. Clarke (b. 1952; D) – previously served as the President of the Philadelphia City Council from 2012 to 2016; incumbent
2015: Rhashea Harmon (R)
2019: Billy Ciancaglini (R)

1975-1981: 173) Lila Cockrell (D) – city's first female Mayor; retired
1981-1989: 174) Henry G. Cisneros (D) – retired; later elected Lt. Gov., then Governor, of Texas
1989-1993: 175) Lila Cockrell (D) – female; extended term lengths from 2 years to 4 years; retired to successfully run for Congress
1993-2001: 176) Howard W. Peak (R) – term-limited
2001-2009: 177) Edward D. Garza (D) – city's first Hispanic-American Mayor; term-limited; later elected to Congress
2009-2014: 178) Mike Rawlings (D) – businessman; resigned to manage the Houston Astros
2014-2017: 179) Ivy Ruth Taylor (D) – city's first African-American Mayor; retired to successfully run for Congress
2017-2021: 180) Michael U. “Mike” Villarreal (D) – lost re-nomination
2021-present: 181) Diego Bernal (D) – incumbent


1/8/1968-1/8/1976: 36) Joseph L. Alioto (D) – Italian-American; term-limited
1967: Harold Dobbs (R) and Jack Morrison (D)
1971: Harold Dobbs (R), Dianne Feinstein (D) and Fred Selinger (I)

1/8/1976-1/7/1984: 37) George Moscone (D) – term-limited
1975: John J. Barbagelata (R)
1979: Eric “Jello Biafra” Boucher (Natural Mind)

1/8/1984-1/7/1992: 38) Carol Ruth Silver (D) – term-limited
1983: Gloria La Riva (Natural Mind)
1987: Dianne Feinstein (D)

1/8/1992-1/7/2000: 39) Art Agnos (D) – Greek-American; term-limited
1991: Frank Jordan (D)
1995: Willie Brown (D)

1/8/2000-1/7/2008: 40) Roberta Achtenberg (D) – openly BLUTAGO; term-limited
1999: Tom Ammiano (D)
2003: Matt Gonzalez (Green)

1/8/2008-1/7/2016: 41) Tom Ammiano (D) – openly BLUTAGO; term-limited
2007: Josh Wolf (Green)
2011: John Avalos (D) – first election to use Ranked-Choice Voting after city approved its use in 2008

1/7/2016-present: 42) Angela Alioto (D) – daughter of Joseph Alioto; incumbent
2015: Stuart Schuffman (Green)
2019: Mark Leno (D)


1968-1976: 44) Richard Lugar (R) – retired to successfully run for a US House seat
1967: John J. Barton (D)
1971: John Neff (D)

1976-1990: 45) William H. Hudnut III (R) – resigned to become state Secretary of State
1975: Robert V. Welch (D)
1979: Paul Cantwell (D)
1983: John J. Sullivan (D)
1987: J. Bardford Senden (D)

1990-1996: 46) Stephen Goldsmith (R) – ascended to office as Head of the Indianapolis City-County Council; retired to successfully run for Governor
1991: Louis Mahern (D)

1996-2004: 47) Virginia Blankenbaker (R) – retired
1995: Z. Mae Jimison (D) and Steve Dillon (Liberty)
1999: Jocelyn Tandy-Adande (D)

2004-2012: 48) André Carson (D) – retired to unsuccessfully run for Governor
2003: Robert L. “Bob” Parker (R)
2007: Erick Lynn Gordon (R) and Fred Peterson (Liberty)

2012-2020: 49) Sue Anne Gilroy (R) – retired
2011: Melina Kennedy (D)
2015: Ed DeLaney (D) and Jocelyn Tandy-Adande (Independent Republican)

2020-present: 50) Samuel Ifeanyi “Vop” Osili Jr. (D) – retired
2019: Jeff Cardwell (R)


1990-1998: 49) Norm Rice (D) – term-limited
1989: Douglas Jewett (R) and Dolores Sibonga (I)
1993: William Cassisus Goodloe III (Taxpayers), Jane Noland (D) and Cheryl Chow (D)

1998-2006: 50) Charlie Chong (D) – term-limited
1997: Gregory J. Nickels (D) and Scott Breen (D)
2001: Bob Hegamin (D)

2006-2009: 51) Al Runte (D) – resigned over scandal
2005: Christal Olivia Wood (D)

2009-2010: 52) Joe Mallahan (D) – interim Mayor

2010-2017: 53) Scott Lindsay (R) – resigned to become a US Representative
2009: Jessyn Farrell (D)
2013: Lorena Gonzalez (D) and Bruce Harrell (D)

2017-2018: 54) Joe Mallahan (D) – interim Mayor

2018-present: 55) Cary Moon (D) – incumbent
2017: Clinton Bliss (D) and Colleen Echohawk (D)


1968-1983: 40) William H. McNichols, Jr. (D)
– ascended to office after incumbent resigned; lost re-election
1971: Dale Tooley (D)
1975: Dale Tooley (D)
1979: Felicia Muftic (D)

1983-1987: 41) Federico Pena (D) – lost re-election
1983: William H. McNichols Jr. (D) and Wellington Webb (D)

1987-1994: 42) Wellington Webb (D) – resigned to become Governor
1987: Federico Pena (D) and Don Bain (R)
1991: Norman S. "Norm" Early Jr. (D)

1994-2003: 43) Mary A. DeGroot (D) – ascended to office as she was City Council President at the time
1995: Richard O. Grimes (R)
1999: Stephannie S. Huey (I)

2003-2015: 44) Penfield Tate III (D) – retired to successfully run for a US Senate seat
2003: Aristedes "Ari" Zavaras (D)
2007: Danny F. Lopez (R)
2011: Carol Boigon (D)

2015-present: 45) James Mejia (D) – incumbent
2015: Jamie Giellis (D)
2019: Marcus Giavanni (D)


1960-1968: 50) John F. Collins (D) – retired
1959: John E. Powers (D)
1963: Gabriel F. Piemonte (D)

1968-1972: 51) Kevin H. White (D) – lost re-election
1967: John Winthrop Sears (R)

1972-1976: 52) Leverett Saltonstall Jr. (R) – lost re-election
1971: Kevin H. White (D)

1976-1980: 53) Kevin H. White (D) – lost re-election
1975: Louis Day Hicks (R)

1980-1988: 54) William Lawrence Saltonstall (R) – retired
1979: Kevin H. White (D)
1983: Joseph F. Timilty (D)

1988-2004: 55) Melvin H. “Mel” King (D) – city's first African-American Mayor; retired
1987: Joseph M. Tierney (D)
1991: Raymond Flynn (D)
1995: Thomas Menino (D)
1999: James T. Brett (D)

2004-2011: 56) Kelly Ann Timilty (D) – first female Mayor of Boston; resigned due to declining health
2003: Peggy Davis-Mullen (D)
2007: Althea Garrison (D)

2011-2012: 57) Stephen J. Murphy (D) – ascended to office as City Council President; retired

2012-2016: 58) Sam Yoon (D) – lost re-election
2011: Michael F. Flaherty (D)

2016-present: 59) Ayanna Pressley (D) – incumbent
2015 (blanket primary): Felix G. Arroyo (D) and Sam Yoon (D)
2015 (runoff): Felix G. Arroyo (D)
2019: Tito Jackson (D)

1962-1973: 68) Jerome Patrick Cavanaugh (D)
– resigned for a position in the Mondale administration,
1973-1974: 69) William G. “Billy” Rogell (D) – ascended to office as City Council President
1974-1994: 70) Coleman Alexander Young I (D) – first African-American mayor; retired,
1994-2006: 71) George Cushingberry Jr. (D) – retired
2006-2007: 72) Kwame Kilpatrick (D) – was a potential governor candidate; fatally struck by a stray bullet fired by either police or perps during a bank heist,
2007-2008: 73) Kenneth Cockrel Jr. (D) – ascended to office as City Council President; lost bid to complete predecessor’s term
2008-2010: 74) Ella M. Bully-Cummings (D) – first female Mayor; was the city’s Chief of Police (2003-2008); lost re-election
2010-2018: 75) George Cushingberry Jr. (D) – lost re-election
2018-present: 76) Coleman Alexander Young II (D) – is the son of a former Mayor; incumbent

1961-1965: 49) William O. Cowger (R) – term-limited
1965-1969: 50) Kenneth A. Schmied (R) – term-limited
1969-1973: 51) Frank Burke (D) – term-limited
1973-1979: 52) Harvey I. Sloane (D) – worked with city council to amend term limits in 1974 in exchange for retiring in 1979 if he won another term in 1975
1979-1987: 53) Tommy Klein (R) – term-limited
1987-1991: 54) Bob Heleringer (R) – lost re-election
1991-1997: 55) William B. Stansbury (D) – died in office from cancer
1997-2007: 56) Jerry Abramson (D) – term-limited
2007-2015: 57) Hal Heiner (R) – retired to successfully run for Governor of Kentucky
2015-present: 58) David Tandy (D) – incumbent

1960-1964: 47) Ralston Westlake (R) – lost re-election
1964-1972: 48) Jack Sensenbrenner (D) – retired to successfully run for Congress
1972-1976: 49) Jerry Spears Jr. (R) – lost re-election
1976-1984: 50) John Rosemond (D) – retired
1984-1992: 51) Buck Rinehart (R) – retired
1992-2000: 52) Ben Espy (D) – first African-American Mayor
2000-2004: 53) Dorothy Teater (R) – first female Mayor
2008-2015: 54) Buck Rinehart (R) – died in office from pancreatic cancer
2015-2015: 55) Michael C. Mentel (R) – ascended to the office as City Council President
2015-2020: 56) Bill Todd (R) – won special election; lost re-election
2020-present: 57) Andrew Yang (D) – first Asian-American Mayor

1971-1987: 31) Patience Latting (D)
– retired
1987-1999: 32) Opio Toure (D) – lost re-election
1999-2013: 33) Guy Liebmann (R) – resigned for congressional seat
2013-2013: 34) Frosty Peak (officially nonpartisan) – interim
2013-2019: 35) David Holt (R) – won special election, then regular election, then lost re-election
2019-present: 36) Edward A. Shadid (D) – incumbent

1963-1967: 42) Theodore McKeldin (R) – lost re-election
1967-1971: 43) Thomas D’Alesandro III (D) – lost re-nomination
1971-1991: 44) William D. Schaefer (D) – retired
1991-1999: 45) Nancy Pelosi (D) – lost re-election
1999-2008: 46) Kurt Schmoke (D) – resigned after successfully running for a US House seat in 2008
2008-2015: 47) Martin O’Malley (D) – lost a bid for the Democratic nomination for Governor in 2014; lost re-nomination
2015-present: 48) Patricia Coats Jessamy (D) – incumbent

1948-1960: 35) Frank Zeidler (Socialist)
– retired
1960-1999: 36) Henry Maier (D) – died in office from natural causes, age 81
1999-2004: 37) James E. Kreuser (D) – ascended to office as City Council President; lost re-election
2004-2012: 38) Wendell J. Harris (Socialist) – first Black Mayor; term-limited
2012-2020: 39) Joe Davis Sr. (D) – second Black Mayor; term-limited
2020-present: 40) Lena C. Taylor (D) – third Black Mayor and first female Mayor; term-limited

1985-1989: 24) Ken Schultz (D) – retired
1989-1993: 25) Louis E. Saavedra (D) – retired
1993-2001: 26) Gary Johnson (R) – term-limited
2001-2005: 27) Martin Chavez (D) – retired to run for higher office
2005-2013: 28) Eric Griego (D) – term-limited
2013-present: 29) Richard Romero (D) – incumbent

1974-1982: 54) Maynard Jackson (D)
– term-limited
1982-1983: 55) Sidney Marcus (D) – died (cancer)
1983-1986: 56) Leroy Johnson (D) – ascended to office as City Council President; lost re-election
1986-1990: 57) Charles L. Weltner (D) – lost re-election
1990-1998: 58) Leroy Johnson (D) – term-limited
1998-2006: 59) Shirley Franklin (D) – term-limited
2006-2014: 60) Marvin S. Arrington (D) – term-limited
2014-present: 61) Lisa Borders (D) – former WNBA President; incumbent

1949-1967: 35) W. Haydon Burns (D) – retired to successfully run for Congress in 1968
1967-1979: 36) Hans Gearhart Tanzler Jr. (D) – retired to unsuccessfully run for the US Senate in 1980
1979-1987: 37) Jake Maurice Godbold (D) – retired
1987-1991: 38) Tommy Hazouri (D) – first Mayor of Lebanese descent; lost re-election
1991-1995: 39) T. Edward “Ed” Austin Jr. (R) – first Republican Mayor since 1888; lost re-election
1995-1999: 40) Betty S. Nolzendorf (D) – first female and first African-American Mayor; lost re-election amid low approval ratings
1999-2007: 41) Nathaniel “Nat” Glover Jr. (R) – retired to successfully run for Congress in 2008
2007-2011: 42) Mike Hogan (R) – lost re-election
2011-2019: 43) Alvin Brown (D) – retired to unsuccessfully run for Congress in 2020
2019-present: 44) Anna Brosche (R) – incumbent


1955-1963: 27) Charles Dail (D) – retired due to waning health
April 1955: Harry L. Foster (I)
March 1959: James W. Morgan (I)

1963-1971: 28) Allen Hitch (R) – previously served on the city council; amended city’s election processes/system; lost re-election due to waning popularity over his response to the “Arkwave” of 1970
Nov 1963: Murray D. Goodrich (D)
Nov 1967: Frank Curran (D)

1971-1975: 29) Helen R. Cobb (I) – previously served on the city council; city’s first female Mayor; reformed city’s election processes/system; retired to uphold to her single-term pledge
Nov 1971: Allen Hitch (R), Ed Butler (D) and several others

1975-1987: 30) John Michael Schaefer (D) – previously served on the city council; retired to successfully run for a US House seat in 1988
Nov 1975: Pete Wilson (R)
Nov 1979: Lee Hubbard (R)
Nov 1983: Rich Riel (I)

1987-1991: 31) Charles Ulmschneider (D) – previously served in the state assembly; lost re-election amid criticisms over his handling of taxes and the city budget
Nov 1987: Dick Carlson (R)

1991-1995: 31) Tom Hom (R) – previously served on the city council, in the state senate, and in the U.S. House; city’s first Asian-America Mayor; lost re-election (finished in third place, missing the runoff) in a race that prominently featured anti-Asian dog-whistling from the race’s most conservative candidate
Nov 1991: Charles Ulmschneider (D)

1995-2001: 32) Richard Silberman (R) – moderate businessman; Jewish; husband of city councilwoman Susan Golding; won in 1995 in a race that saw Democratic support implode because of sympathy over the May 1995 assassination of Lee Iacocca and multiple Democrats splitting the liberal vote in the summer 1995 blanket primary; resigned after being indicted for misuse of funds
Nov 1995: Peter Navarro (I)
Nov 1999: Peter Q. Davis (R)

2001-2001: Acting) Juan Carlos Vargas (D) – previously served on the city council from 1993 to 2001 and served as City Council President from 1999 to 2001; Hispanic-American; retired to successfully run for a U.S. House seat in 2002 as he had initially planned

2001-2015: 33) Donna Frye (D) – inspired by Bob Ross and her surfer husband to become an environmental and community leader in the early 1990s; previously served on the city council from 1997 to 2001; promoted government transparency and numerous social programs; retired amid waning popularity
Aug 2001 (special): Jim Bell (D), Pat Shea (R), Mike Shelby (R), Richard Rider (Liberty) and several others
Nov 2003: Steve Francis (R)
Nov 2007: Floyd L. Morrow (D)
Nov 2011: Tobian Pettus (R)

2015-present: 34) David Alvarez (D) – previously served on the city council from 2010 to 2015; Hispanic; strengthened city’s relations with Mexico and supported the ultimately-unsuccessful effort to have San Diego and Tijuana jointly host the 2028 Summer Olympics (but hadn’t made it a campaign promise); incumbent; may run for Mike Gravel’s U.S. Senate seat in 2022
2015: Tony Young (D)
2019: Christine T. Kehoe (D)

1946-1961: 54) deLesseps S. “Chep” Morrison Sr. (D)
– resigned for a position in the Johnson administration
1961-1962: 55) James E. “Jimmy” Fitzmorris Jr. (D) – as City Council President, ascended and completed predecessor’s term; retired
1962-1966: 56) Victor Hugo “Vic” Schiro (D) – lost re-election due to the candidacy of Addison Roswell “Rozzy” Thompson (H.I.P.) working as a spoiler
1966-1974: 57) Gerald J. Gallinghouse, Sr. (D) – term-limited
1974-1982: 58) Maurice E. “Moon” Landrieu (D) – term-limited
1982-1989: 59) Ernest Nathan “Dutch” Morial (D) – 1st African-American mayor; died suddenly from a respiratory issue
1989-1990: 60) Lambert C. Boissiere Jr. (D) – 2nd African-American mayor; as City Council President, ascended and completed predecessor’s term; retired
1990-1994: 61) James M. Singleton (D) – 3rd African-American mayor; won over longtime rival Bill Jefferson (D); lost re-election over ties to a scandal
1994-1996: 62) deLesseps S. “Toni” Morrison Jr. (D) – the child of a former Mayor; died suddenly from an undisclosed form of cancer
1996-1998: 63) Troy Anthony Carter (D) – 4th Black mayor; as City Council President, ascended and completed predecessor’s term; lost re-nomination
1998-2006: 64) Mary Landrieu (D) – the child of a former Mayor; term-limited
2006-2014: 65) Marc Haydel Morial (D) – 5th African-American mayor; is the child of a former Mayor; term-limited
2014-present: 66) Mitchell J. “Mitch” Landrieu (D) – the child of a former Mayor and the younger sibling of another former Mayor; incumbent

KANSAS CITY (Missouri)

1963-1971: 48) Ilus Winfield Davis (1917-1996, D) – oversaw the building of the Kansas City International Airport; pushed for the construction of the Truman Sports Complex; retired to successfully run for a state Senate seat
1963: Dutton Brookfield (I)
1967: Rex Bone (R)

1971-1979: 49) Charles Bertan Wheeler, Jr. (b. 1926, D) – former county court judge; known for sporting a bowtie; lost re-election; later served in the state senate from 2003 to 2007, and in the US House from 2013 to 2017, stepping down to run for governor in 2016 at the age of 89 (finished in second place in the Democratic Primary); currently (as of July 4, 2021) still alive at the age of 94
1971: Leon Mercer Jordan (1905-2001, D)
1975: Leon Mercer Jordan (1905-2001, D)

1979-1980: 50) Bruce Riley Watkins, Sr. (1924-1980, D) – previously served on the city council from 1963 to 1979; city’s first African-American Mayor; died suddenly from cancer
1979: Charles B. Wheeler (b. 1926, D)

1980-1991: 51) Phil B. Curls, Sr. (1942-2007, D) – previously served on the city council since 1968; ascended via city council selection vote; retired to successfully run for Congress in 1992 (and served from 1993 until his death from a sudden heart attack)
1983: Richard L. Berkley (b. 1931, R)
1987: Richard A. King (1944-2006, D)

1991-1999: 52) Katheryn Shields (b. 1946, D) – previously served on the city council from 1987 to 1991; city’s first female Mayor; oversaw the renovation of county buildings and the Truman Sports Complex, instituted “green” policies, and defended BLUTAGO rights and women’s rights; retired to successfully run for state senate; later ran for the Democratic nomination for Governor but lost amid allegations of wire fraud of which she was later acquitted
1991: Bob Lewellen (D)
1995: Alvin Brooks (b. 1932, D)

1999-2003: 53) George D. Blackwood, Jr. (b. 1939, D) – lawyer and former city councilman; lost re-election amid riots breaking out during safezoning efforts
1999: Kay Barnes (b. 1938, D)

2003-2011: 54) Clay Chastain (R) – former engineer and businessman; focused on job creation via tax cuts to small local businesses; received criticism for opposing President Jackson’s police precinct reform efforts; term-limited
2003: George D. Blackwood, Jr. (b. 1939, D)
2007: Stanford P. Glazer (I)

2011-2019: 55) Deb Hermann (b. 1954, D) – city’s second female Mayor; expanded city’s “green” infrastructure policies; term-limited
2011: Charles B. Wheeler (b. 1926, D)
2015: Janice S. Ellis (D)

2019-present: 56) Jolie L. Justus (b. 1971, D) – city’s third female Mayor and first openly BLUTAGO Mayor; enthusiastic supporter of President Pritt; incumbent
2019: Henry Klein (b. 1962, D)

1/1/1972-12/31/1975: 40) Richard F. Walsh (I) – won election over two-term incumbent; lost re-election
1/1/1976-11/25/1988: 41) John “Jack” Reardon (D) – lured multiple businesses to the region to improve the local economy and lower unemployment rates; died in office from a sudden heart attack at the age of 45
11/25/1988-12/31/1991: 42) M. James Madin (I) – previously served as City Administrator; retired
1/1/1992-12/31/1995: 42) Joe Steineger Jr. (D) – lost re-election
1/1/1996-12/31/2003: 43) Carol Marinovich (D) – previously served on the city council from 1989 to 1996; city’s first female Mayor; focused on improving the city’s tourism industry; retired
1/1/2004-12/31/2015: 44) Joseph “Joe” Reardon (D) – son of Mayor John “Jack” Reardon; previously served as Wyandotte County Commissioner from 2002 to 2004; entered office at the age of 35; revitalized downtown region and worked to develop the Kansas Speedway to produce local jobs; retired
1/1/2016-12/31/2019: 45) Ann Murguia (D) – city’s second female Mayor; entered office at the age of 47; lost re-election over a rise in taxes
1/1/2020-present: 46) Mark R. Holland (D) – entered office at the age of 51; incumbent

SAN JOSE (California)
1967-1971: 58) Ronald Raymond “Ron” James (D, b. 1928) – city’s first popularly elected Mayor; retired
1971-1975: 59) Norman Yoshio Mineta (D, b. 1931) – city’s first Japanese-American Mayor; previously served as Vice Mayor; adjusted election dates and created development-free areas in East and South San Jose; retired to successfully run for a U.S. House seat in 1974 (as served as both the Mayor and a U.S. Congressman from January 3 to January 9 of 1975 due to overlapping terms, a situation which was allowed by the city charter until 1981)
1975-1983: 60) Janet Gray Hayes (D, 1926-2014) – former Vice Mayor and former city councilperson; defended women’s rights and supported social programs; city’s first female Mayor
1983-1991: 61) Barton L. Collins (D) – former chief of detectives of the San Jose Police Department; almost lost re-election over his initial responses to the Second Arkwave; was increasingly unpopular by the end of his time in office; term-limited
1991-1999: 62) Susan Walker Hammer (D, 1938-2020) – rebuilt downtown to foster economic development; created youth programs; oversaw population growth and construction projects across the city; term-limited; later served in the U.S. House of Representatives
1999-2007: 63) Ron Gonzales (D, b. 1951) – previously served as County Supervisor from 1989 to 1999; city’s first Hispanic Mayor since 1845; designed programs to attract young teachers to the city's schools, including home purchase assistance programs; suffered a minor stroke in 2004 amid dog whistle attacks over raising tax to cover a raise for sanitation workers and other city workers; term-limited and retired from election politics
2007-2015: 64) Cindy Chavez (D, b. 1964) – previously served on the city council; focused on public health, human services, and transportation; defended rights for BLUTAGO and immigrants; led efforts to create jail diversion programs for mentally ill offenders and homeless citizens, including sobering stations, crisis stabilization centers, and mobile crisis teams; term-limited; later served in the U.S. House of Representatives
2015-incumbent: 65) Madison Nguyen (D) – born in Vietnam but moved to the US with her family when she was a child; former City Councilor from District 7; working on building new college campuses and in San Jose; incumbent

1982-1991: 40) Robert Eugene “Bob” Bolen (1926-2014, R) – former businessman; retired
1991-1995: 41) Kay Granger (b. 1943, R) – city’s first female Mayor; retired to successfully run for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives; later elected to the US Senate and was a potential candidate for Vice President of the United States in 2012
1995-2003: 42) Kenneth Barr (D) – former city councilman; retired
2003-2011: 43) Jim Lane (D) – worked with the Jesse Jackson administration to implement police precinct reform despite heavy pushback from several groups; retired
2011-2021: 44) Betsy Price (b. 1949, R) – former business owner and former Tarrant County tax assessor; reversed many of her predecessor’s policies; resigned to become a US Representative
2021-2021: 45) Brian Byrd (D) – head of the city council; lost election to a full term
2021-present: 46) Deborah Peoples (D) – progressive; city’s third female Mayor and first African-American Mayor; incumbent

CHARLOTTE (North Carolina)
1983-1988: 50) Harvey Gantt (D, b. 1943) – city’s first African-American Mayor; previously served on the city council from 1974 to 1983; supported infrastructure improvement efforts; resigned after being elected Governor in 1988; later unsuccessfully ran for the US Senate, then served as the US Ambassador to the UK from 2001 to 2005, as the US Ambassador to the UN from 2005 to 2009, and as the US Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013
1988-1989: 51) Al Rousso (D) – former city councilman; selected by city council to succeed Gantt as Mayor; lost election to a full term
1989-1991: 52) Sue Wilkins Myrick (R, b. 1941) – city’s first female Mayor; previously served on the city council from 1981 to 1989; lost re-election
1991-1995: 53) Craig Madans (D) – former city councilman; retired amid waning popularity and his increasing personal dislike of the occupation’s “limits”
1995-1999: 54) Patrick Lloyd McCrory (R, b. 1956) – previously served on the city council from 1989 to 1995; city’s youngest elected Mayor, entering office at the age of 39; strongly supported President Larry Dinger and the War on Recreadrugs; lost re-election and failed to challenge the election results despite the narrow margin of Scarborough’s victory; later opened his own law firm and chaired the North Carolina chapter of the Goetz’04 and Goetz’08 campaigns; lost bids for a U.S. House seat in 2010, 2012 and 2014; still claims he won the 1999 election
1999-2005: 55) Ella Butler Scarborough (D) – former city councilperson; city’s first female African-American Mayor; brought a maglev train system to the city; implemented civil rights and police precinct reform; retired to unsuccessfully run for a U.S. House seat in 2006, a bad year for Democrats
2005-2009: 56) Malcolm Graham (D) – former city councilperson; retired amid low popularity
2009-2017: Anthony Foxx (D, b. 1971) – previously served on the city council from 2005 to 2009; changed the city’s small business loan program during the 2013 recession to trump job losses; retired to unsuccessfully run for Congress in 2018
2017-present: Joel D. M. Ford (D) – overseeing the process of bringing electric car companies to the city; incumbent

1977-1985: 40) Reynaldo “Ray” Salazar (D, 1931-2016) – former accountant; city’s second Hispanic Mayor; opposed the Denton administration’s short-lived border fence proposal; later served in Bellamy administration’s Treasury Department
1985-1989: 41) Thomas D. Westfall (D, 1927-2005) – former FBI agent and criminal investigator; bombastic and aggressive approach to city government led to him making more enemies than friends in city government, who helped his political opponents in his failed bid for a second term
1989-1997: 42) Suzanne S. “Suzie” Azar (D, b. 1946) – city’s first female Mayor; former flight instructor; almost lost re-election in 1991 due to “overconfidence”; dealt with the War on Recreadrugs, including a minor 1996 hostage crisis on the US-Mexican border; retired to successfully run for a U.S. House seat in 1998 and served until 2007; lost bids for the Democratic nomination for a US Senate seat in 2006 and again in 2012
1997-2001: 43) William Stephen “Bill” Tilney (D, b. 1939) – previously served as the U.S. Consul General in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico; oversaw efforts to minimize the effects of the 1999 recession; retired as part of a 1997 campaign pledge to only serve two terms; later taught US history at Jackie Robinson Academy in Long Beach, California
2001-2005: 44) Carlos Ramirez (D) – Hispanic; supported the Jesse Jackson administration; lost re-election; challenged 2005 election results on the claim that the similarity of the names of the candidates on the ballot confused people
2005-2013: 45) Carmen Rodriguez (D) – Hispanic; supported the Jesse Jackson administration; re-elected in 2011 over Jaime O. Perez (Liberty) after support for the local Republican party dropped so low the party did not even bother to field a candidate and instead endorsed Perez; term-limited
2013-2021: 46) Robert Francis “Bobby” O’Rourke (D, b. 1972) – former indie rock guitarist in the band Foss (1993-2005), former professional skateboarder (2002-2008), and former city councilman (2009-2013); known for feuding with Harley Brown supporters ontech; term-limited; has expressed interest in running for higher office in 2022
2021-present: 47) Estela Casas (D, b. 1961) – Hispanic; city’s second female Mayor; former news anchor for KVIA-TV; currently working to open a new medical school and cancer research center; incumbent

Metropolitan NASHVILLE
1963-1971: 1) Clifford Robertson Allen (D, 1912-1978) – former state senator; populist; worked to make a certain amount of property held by elderly homeowners with low incomes exempt from property tax; term-limited; later served in the U.S. House from 1973 until his death from complications of a heart attack
1971-1979: 2) Richard Harmon Fulton (D, 1927-2018) – previously served in the U.S. House from 1963 to 1971; supported teachers and public schools, but was criticized for his handling of several local issues; term-limited; later lost several bids for public office
1979-1987: 3) Jessie D. McDonald (R until 1986, then I) – young; city’s first African-American Mayor; former city councilman; often feuded with the city police and national Republicans, including President Denton; term-limited and retired from election politics
1987-1995: 4) Robert Nelson “Bob” Clement (D, b. 1943) – son of Governor Frank G. Clement; previously served on the Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a Mondale appointee; promoted “clean” energy projects; term-limited; later elected Governor
1995-2003: 5) Thelma Marie Claybrooks Harper (D, 1940-2021) – city’s first female Mayor and second African-American Mayor; longtime political activist; previously served in the state senate from 1989 to 1995; known for wearing flamboyant hats; established programs to provide students from low-income homes with school supplies and lunches, increased legal protections to stop financial exploitation of the elderly by their caretakers, and passed a safe haven law for abandoned babies to promote adoption over abortion; championed women’s rights and children’s rights; term-limited; served in the U.S. House from 2005 until her retirement in 2019
2003-2011: 6) Brenda Gilmore (D, b. 1952) – former city councilperson from 1993 to 2003; city’s second female Mayor and third African-American Mayor; supported teachers union during local CBA dispute; term-limited; later elected to the state house and then the state senate
2011-2019: 7) Megan Barry (D, b. 1963) – former city councilperson; focused on infrastructure improvement; term-limited; currently serving in the state Senate
2019-present: 8) Harold Moses Love Jr. (D, b. 1972) – pastor; previous served in the state House from 2013 to 2019; city’s fourth African-American Mayor; supports civil justice reforms; incumbent

1/1/1957-4/4/1979: 44) Terrence Doyle “Terry” Schrunk (D, 1913-1979) – previously served as Multnomah County Sheriff from 1949 to 1957; advocated for urban renewal; city’s longest-serving Mayor; died in office at the age of 66 from a heart attack
4/4/1979-12/31/1980: 45) Constance "Connie" Averill McCready (R, 1921-2000) – previously served as City Council Commissioner from 1970 to 1979; supported the ERA and BLUTAGO rights; lost election bid for a full term; later elected to the U.S. House
1/1/1981-12/31/1984: 46) William L. Patrick (D) – former city councilperson; lost re-election over his tax reforms and over his support for a controversial freeway proposal
1/1/1985-12/31/1992: 47) John Elwood “Bud” Clark, Jr. (I, b. 1931) – former businessman; left-leaning populist; supported mass transit improvements, downtown development, and addressing the causes of homelessness; retired after establishing term limits; later elected Governor
1/1/1993-12/31/2000: 48) Vera Pistrak Katz (D, 1933-2017) – born in Germany to a Jewish family that fled to the US after Hitler rose to power; previously served as Speaker of the state House; city’s second female Mayor but first female elected Mayor; supported the arts and public transportation, including maglev trains and bike paths; re-elected an upset over Grattan Kerans (D); term-limited; later elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1/1/2001-12/31/2008: 49) Michael D. “Mike” Schrunk (D, b. 1942) – previously served as the Multnomah County District Attorney from 1981 to 2000; son of Terry Schrunk; worked with the US Justice Department to implement civil justice reform and police precinct reform; re-elected over Jim Posey (Green); term-limited
1/1/2009-12/31/2016: 50) Sho Dozono (I, b. 1944) – former businessman; city’s first Japanese-American Mayor; left-leaning centrist; focused on environmental protection, fiscal responsibility, and education reform; term-limited
1/1/2017-12/31/2020: 51) Peter Edward Zuckerman (D, b. 1979) – former investigative journalist and progressive political activist; city’s first openly BLUTAGO Mayor (his husband is former City Commissioner Samuel Francis Adams); focused on recreadrug-related issues and on civil justice measures; lost re-election (failed to advance to the runoff due to coming in third place in the blanket primary)
1/1/2021-present: 52) Carmen Rubio (I, b. 1973) – city’s third female Mayor; former non-profit executive; Mexican-American; incumbent

1970-1971: 90) Dr. William L. MacVane (D) – open-heart surgeon; retired after one term
1971-1972: 91) Edward I. Bernstein (R) – focused on local issues and ignored national and even some statewide issues; retired after one term
1972-1973: 92) William B. Troubh (D) – in office when Portland voters approved a citywide referendum in November 1972 changing the city charter to recreate an elected mayor position that had previously been removed in 1923
1973-1974: 93) Edward I. Bernstein (R) – supported expanding the office’s powers, abilities, and responsibilities; lost “re-election” bid; city’s last “ceremonial” Mayor
1974-1982: 94) Gerard P. Conley Sr. (D, 1930-2018) – first citizen-elected Mayor in roughly 50 years; previously served on the city council from 1968 to 1977; term-limited
1982-1990: 95) Esther B. Clenott (D, 1924-2015) – city’s first female Mayor; former schoolteacher; previously served on the city council from 1978 to 1982; term-limited
1990-1998: 96) Anne M. Rand (D, b. 1946) – city’s second female Mayor; previously served in the state House from 1986 to 1990; term-limited
1998-2006: 97) Thomas Hiram Andrews (D, b. 1953) – previously served in the state House, state Senate, and U.S. House; term-limited
2006-2014: 98) J. Elizabeth Mitchell (D, b. 1969) – city’s third female Mayor; previously served in the state House and in the state Senate; term-limited
2014-present: 99) Ethan Strimling (D, b. 1967) – former non-profit executive; currently focused on education and city planning reform; incumbent

1955-1961: 33) Don Humnmel (D, 1907-1988) – aggressively encouraged the city’s growth; retired
1961-1963: 34) Frank T. Gibbings (D) – former city councilperson; won in a good year for Democrats due to the initial popularity of the Cuba War
1963-1975: 35) Keith Spalding Brown (R, 1913-1991) – former state GOP chair and former professional athlete; allied with Barry Goldwater in 1971; adjusted term lengths; lost re-election
1975-1979: 36) Lorenzo P. Torrez (D, 1927-2012) – city’s first Hispanic mayor since 1876; former coal miner and union organizer; lost re-election
1979-1987: 37) William Gilkinson (R) – former city councilperson; strongly supported Denton until 1986; lost re-election
1987-1991: 38) Thomas John “Tom” Volgy (D, b. 1946) – born to Hungarian immigrants; former city councilperson; lost re-election over tax agenda
1991-1999: 39) George Borozan (R) – former city councilperson; clashed with city’s Hispanic population over multiple incidents and controversies; won re-election in a landslide over controversial former campaign strategist and political prankster Richard "Dick" Tuck; lost re-election
1999-2007: 40) Emily M. Machala (D) – city’s first female mayor; attempt to reform city’s city department; retired
2007-2011: 41) Thomas John “Tom” Volgy (D, b. 1946) – former mayor; lost re-nomination over his handling of several minor local incidents and controversies
2011-2019: 42) Ramon Valadez (D, b. 1967) – Hispanic; former state senator and former County Supervisor; champion civil justice reform; retired; unsuccessfully ran for a U.S. House seat in 2020
2019-present: 43) Steve Farley (D, b. 1962) – former state representative and former state senator; not related to the Farley comedian brothers; incumbent

RALEIGH (North Carolina)
1971-1973: 52) Thomas Wood “Tom” Bradshaw, Jr. (D) – former businessman; retired
1973-1975: 53) Clarence Everett Lightner (D) – city’s first African-American Mayor; elected in the city’s first contest in which the mayor was to be directly elected instead of being selected by the city council; retired to successfully run for a U.S. House seat in 1976
1975-1977: 54) Jyles Jackson Coggins (D) – former real estate developer and former state senator; lost re-election
1977-1979: 55) Isabella McLean Bett Walton Cannon (D) – city’s first female Mayor; former schoolteacher; retired
1979-1983: 56) G. Smedes York (D) – former businessman; retired
1983-1994: 57) Avery C. Upchurch (D) – former city councilperson; died in officer suddenly from cancer
1994-1997: 58) Mary Watson Nooe (D) – city’s second female Mayor; former city councilperson; selected by city council to succeed Upchurch; retired
1997-1999: 59) Venita Peyton (D until 1998, then R) – city’s third female Mayor; former political activist and community organizer; lost re-election
1999-2009: 60) Stephanie Fanjul (D) – city’s fourth female Mayor; former city councilperson; retired
2009-2013: 61) Gregg S. Kuntz (I) – former business executive and entrepreneur; retired
2013-2015: 62) Venita Peyton (R) – former Mayor; lost re-election
2015-present: 63) Charles Francis (D) – former city councilperson; city’s second African-American Mayor; incumbent


1955-1969: 11) Neal Shaw Blaisdell (R, 1902-1975) – worked with the Johnson and Sanders administrations on military operations and veterans issues during the Cuba War and Indochina Wars; retired
1954: Frank Fasi (D)
1956: unopposed
1960: Frank Fasi (D)

1969-1981: 12) Frank Francis Fasi (D, 1920-2010) – former businessman and entrepreneur; previously served in the territorial senate; built up the city’s public transportation system; popularized the “shaka” hand gesture; was the Democratic nominee for Governor in 1978; lost re-nomination over his flamboyancy and his fiscal policies
1968: Dominis Garrida “D. G.” Anderson (R)
1972: Richard “Ike” Sutton (R)
1976: Kekoa David Kaapu (R)

1981-1985: 13) Marilyn Bornhorst (D, 1927-2020) – city’s first female Mayor; former city councilperson; laid out “forward-thinking” agenda that included new taxes to pay for new services; lost re-election
1980: Theodore W. Gibson (R) and William Leialoha (I)

1985-1993: 14) Frank Francis Fasi (R, 1920-2010) – considered a political “maverick”; oversaw construction of new parks and energy plants; created recreation programs for children and founded city’s annual Winter Lights festival; lost re-election in an upset described as a “generational shift”
1984: Marilyn Bornhorst (D) and Blase Harris (Liberty)
1988: Kekoa David Kaapu (D)

1993-1997: 15) Arnold Morgado Jr. (D, b. 1952) – previously served on the city council from 1985 to 1992; lost re-election in the city’s first blanket primary
1992: Frank Fasi (R), Jack Schweigert (Liberty) and Jim Brewer (Green)

1997-2001: 16) Frank Francis Fasi (I, 1920-2010) – was an Independent candidate for Governor in 1994; oversaw the renovating of the city’s Civic Center and the construction of new office buildings for the city’s departments and growing business sector; lost re-election won conservatives voted for the Democratic nominee in the runoff, as Fasi took a libertarian stand on certain social issues while Hannemman took a more right-leaning stand on them
1996: Arnold Morgado Jr. (D)

2001-2006: 17) Muliufi Francis “Frank” Hannemann (D, b. 1954) – former teacher and businessman; previously served as a state congressperson (1987-1991) and as a city councilperson (1993-2001); 6-foot-7 Mormon of Samoan descent; fiscally and socially moderate; resigned after being elected Governor
2000: Frank Fasi (I)
2004: Marcus Oshiro (D)

2006-2007: Acting) Carol Fukunaga (D, b. 1947) – former lawyer; state Congressperson from 1979 to 1991, candidate for state senate in 1990 and 1992, city councilperson from 1995 to 2006, and city council President from 2003 to 2006; lost election to a full term in an upset

2007-2017: 18) Mark Edmund “Duke” Bainum (D, 1952-2019) – former physician; previously served on the city council from 1995 to 2003; survived a heart attack in 2009; experienced high approval ratings for his handling of the 2013 recession; retired due to declining health
2007 (special): Carol Fukunaga (D), Frank Fasi (I) Lillian Hong (I), Philmund “Phil” Lee (D), Khristina “Kris” De Jean (I), John Carroll (R) and others
2008: Paul F. Fasi (R)
2012: Rod Tam (R)

2017-2021: 19) Keith Amemiya (D, b. 1965) – former business executive; Japanese-American; criticized for his handling of social programs and for fighting with city council over tax reform efforts; lost re-election (finished in third place in the blanket primary)
2016: Kymberly Pine (R) and William “Bud” Stonebraker (R)

2021-present: 20) Donovan M. Dela Cruz (D, b. 1973) – incumbent
2020: Donna Mercado Kim (D)

1988-2001: 23) Meyera E. Oberndorf (D) – city’s first female Mayor; previously served in the city council from 1976 to 1988; resigned to become Governor after being elected to that office in November 2001 and entered the governorship in January 2002, and later drafted into the November 2002 US Senate election after the Democratic nominee withdrew amid a scandal in September 2002
2001-2002: 24) Jody M. Wagner (D) – previously served in the city council from 1995 to 2001; selected by the city council to succeed Oberndorf until a special election was held to select someone to serve the remainder of her term; lost election
2002-2012: 25) John D. “Jack” Moss (R) – previously served in the city council from 1986 to 1995 and in the state senate from 1995 to 2004; resigned to unsuccessfully run for the GOP nomination for a US House seat, after polling suggested he would lose a bid for a third term
2012-2016: 26) John O. Parmele Jr. (I) – lived from 1942 to 2016; previously served on the city council from 1992 to 2000 and again from 2010 to 2012; retired due to declining health and passed away less than a year after leaving office
2016-present: 27) John E. Uhrin (R) – previously served on the city council from 2011 to 2016; re-elected in a surprisingly close race; incumbent

1960-1964: 25) Frank J. Bruggner (D) – lived from 1891 to 1972; succeeded Mayor Edward F. Voorde (1910-1960), who died in office in a car accident; retired
1964-1968: 26) Eugene Pajakowki (D) – Polish-American; significantly restructured South Bend’s city government; lost re-nomination in a bitterly divisive Democratic primary
1968-1976: 27) Janet Allen (R) – conservative; supported businesses and cut taxes; former Common Council member from 1964 to 1968; not related to Lloyd M. Allen; the city’s first female mayor; retired to successfully run for a US House seat in 1976
1976-1980: 28) George E. Herendeen (D) – former city council member; supported local businesses and trade schools; almost lost re-nomination and lost re-election in a landslide due the effects the 1978 Economic “Crash” had on the city; retired
1980-1988: 29) George Williams Jr. (R) – the city’s first African-American mayor; oversaw bond issues and sought to improve the living conditions of the city’s minorities, especially those of predominantly African-American neighborhoods; briefly entered the national spotlight when he severely criticized President Denton in early 1986; retired due to exhaustion and, after losing bids for the U.S. in 1992 and 1994, retired from election politics
1988-1996: 30) Richard D. Jasinki (D) – former city council member; oversaw period of economic development but was criticized for his handling of local recreadrug use rates; retired due to exhaustion
1996-2000: 31) Sylvia Shelton (R) – the city’s second female Mayor; “law and order” centrist; lost re-election amid a rise in incidents between police and Hispanic-American locals
2000-2012: 32) John Voorde (D) – the son of Mayor Edward F. Voorde and the city’s longest-serving Mayor; longest-serving Mayor; retired to unsuccessfully run for a U.S. House seat, losing the Democratic primary in an upset
2012-present: 33) Ryan Michael Dvorak (D) – previously served in the state senate from 2002 to 2012; incumbent; has expressed interest in running for a fourth term


1962-1967: 1) Edward Bennett Williams (1920-1988, D) – previously was a high-profile defense lawyer; appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson; retired; later served as Treasurer of the Democratic National Committee

1967-1983: 2) Clifford Leopold Alexander, Jr. (b. 1933, D) – city’s first popularly-elected Mayor, first African-American Mayor, and longest-serving Mayor; retired; later moved to New York and briefly ran for President in 1988
1966: Sam Harris (I), Raymond Ellis (I), and Jackson Champion (R)
1970: Nan Bailey (Natural Mind)
1974: Tommy Lynn Grant (I)
1978: Marion Barry (Independent Democratic)

1983-1995: 3) Sterling Tucker (1923-2019, D) – former Chair of the Council of the District of Columbia; lost re-nomination amid waning popularity
1982: Jesse Jackson (Democratic (write-in)), Patricia Roberts Harris (I), and Charlene Drew Jarvis (I)
1986: E. Brooke Lee Jr. (R), Dennis S. Sobin (D.C. Statehood) and Brian P. Moore (I)
1990: Arthur Fletcher (R), Josephine D. Butler (D.C. Statehood) and Brian P. Moore (I)

1995-1999: 4) Walter Edward Fauntroy (b. 1933, D) – former pastor; former delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives from 1971 to 1991 and a candidate for Mayor in 1990; criticized for opposing BLUTAGO marriage; lost re-nomination amid claims that his policies were too moderate, unambitious, and inefficient)
1994: Jodean M. Marks (D.C. Statehood) and Faith Dane (I)

1999-2006: 5) Charlene Rosella Drew Jarvis (b. 1941, D) – city’s first female Mayor; became the Governor of Potomac once the Federal District became a state
1998: John L. Ray (D.C. Statehood), Brian P. Moore (I) and Faith Dane (I)
2002: Steve Donkin (D.C. Statehood)
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Index 6 – Alternate White Houses
Index 6: Alternate White Houses

(Additional White House Information and Statistics)​

Found Here, in the following order:

1. US Presidents by Age
2. US First Spouses
3. The Children of the US Presidents
4. Secret Service Codenamed
5. Holders of the Top Ten US Cabinet Positions
6. Supreme Court Composition Over Time
7. US Second Spouses

1. US PRESIDENTS BY AGE (At The Start Of Their Terms)

1) #26 Theodore Roosevelt – 42 years, 322 days (September 14, 1901)

2) #37 Walter Mondale – 45 years, 15 days (January 20, 1973) – longest post-presidency timespan at 40 years, 160+ days

3) #18 Ulysses S. Grant – 46 years, 311 days (March 4, 1869)

4) #40 Carol Bellamy – 47 years, 6 days (January 20, 1989)

5) #22 Grover Cleveland (first term) – 47 years, 351 days (March 4, 1885)

6) #14 Franklin Pierce – 48 years, 101 days (March 4, 1853)

7) #42 Larry Dinger – 48 years, 274 days (May 9, 1995)

8) #20 James A. Garfield – 49 years, 105 days (March 4, 1881) – third-shortest tenure

9) #11 James K. Polk – 49 years, 122 days (March 4, 1845)

10) #13 Millard Fillmore – 50 years, 183 days (July 9, 1850) – seventh-shortest tenure

11) #10 John Tyler – 51 years, 6 days (April 4, 1841) – tenth-shortest tenure

12) #30 Calvin Coolidge – 51 years, 29 days (August 2, 1923)

13) #32 Franklin D. Roosevelt – 51 years, 33 days (March 4, 1933) – longest tenure

14) #39 Jack French Kemp – 51 years, 168 days (December 28, 1986) – fifth-shortest tenure

15) #27 William Howard Taft – 51 years, 170 days (March 4, 1909)

16) #21 Chester A. Arthur – 51 years, 349 days (September 19, 1881) – eighth-shortest tenure

17) #16 Abraham Lincoln – 52 years, 20 days (March 4, 1861)

18) #35 Lyndon B. Johnson – 52 years, 146 days (January 20, 1961)

19) #25 William McKinley – 54 years, 34 days (March 4, 1897)

20) #8 Martin Van Buren – 54 years, 89 days (March 4, 1837)

21) #19 Rutherford B. Hayes – 54 years, 151 days (March 4, 1877)

22) #31 Herbert Hoover – 54 years, 206 days (March 4, 1929)

23) #29 Warren G. Harding – 55 years, 122 days (March 4, 1921)

24) #23 Benjamin Harrison – 55 years, 196 days (March 4, 1889)

25) #24 Grover Cleveland (second term) – 55 years, 351 days (March 4, 1893)

26) #28 Woodrow Wilson – 56 years, 66 days (March 4, 1913)

27) #17 Andrew Johnson – 56 years, 107 days (April 15, 1865) – ninth-shortest tenure

28) #38 Jeremiah Denton – 56 years, 189 days (January 20, 1981)

29) #1 George Washington – 57 years, 67 days (April 30, 1789)

30) #6 John Quincy Adams – 57 years, 236 days (March 4, 1825)

31) #3 Thomas Jefferson – 57 years, 325 days (March 4, 1801)

32) #45 Kelsey Grammer – 57 years, 334 days (January 20, 2013)

33) #4 James Madison – 57 years, 353 days (March 4, 1809)

34) #5 James Monroe – 58 years, 310 days (March 4, 1817)

35) #43 Jesse Jackson – 59 years, 104 days (January 20, 2001)

36) #33 Harry S. Truman – 60 years, 339 days (April 12, 1945)

37) #2 John Adams – 61 years, 125 days (March 4, 1797)

38) #7 Andrew Jackson – 61 years, 354 days (March 4, 1829)

39) #34 Dwight D. Eisenhower – 62 years, 98 days (January 20, 1953)

40) #12 Zachary Taylor – 64 years, 100 days (March 4, 1849) – fourth-shortest tenure

41) #44 Paul Wellstone – 64 years, 183 days (January 20, 2009)

42) #15 James Buchanan – 65 years, 315 days (March 4, 1857)

43) #46 Harley D. Brown – 66 years, 146 days (November 10, 2020) – second-shortest tenure

44) #9 William Henry Harrison – 68 years, 23 days (March 4, 1841) – shortest tenure

45) #41 Lee Iacocca – 68 years, 97 days (January 20, 1993) – sixth-shortest tenure

46) #47 Charlotte Pritt – 72 years, 18 days (January 20, 2021)

47) #36 Harland D. Sanders – 74 years, 133 days (January 20, 1965) – longest-lived President at 100 years, 97 days

2. US FIRST SPOUSES (First Ladies, First Gentlemen, and other White House Hosts and Hostesses since 1961) [F1]

1961-1965: Claudia Alta “Lady Bird” Taylor

The groundbreaking Lady Bird was the first White House hostess to hold the Bible during her husband’s inauguration (starting a tradition), the first to have her own Press Secretary, the first to interact directly with Congress (contributing to the passing of the 1962 Civil Rights Act by meeting with lawmakers who refused to meet with her husband), and the first to serve as a US Ambassador (to the UK, under President Mondale, from 1973 to 1975). Being a staunch advocate for “beautifying” America’s cities and highways led to the passage of the Highway Beautification Act, and being a mediating force between her husband and many of his political opponents allowed cooler heads to prevail more often than not. Furthermore, her positive demeanor and hopeful disposition was a pleasant distraction from her husband’s grim bungling of warfare in Cuba. After leaving the White House, Lady Bird was hesitant to support her husband's proposed attempt to run for a second non-consecutive term, as she grew concerned over his health. In regards to the First Ladies that followed her, Lady Bird expressed sympathy and support for all of them, including those that she personally did not get along with too well, because she understood the pressures of the office, and possibly felt a bit guilty for expanding the role so greatly, subsequently contributing to said pressure. After her overall health began to decline in the late 1980s, Lady Bird passed away in 2008 at the age of 95, having outlived Lyndon by 33 years.

1965-1973: Claudia Ellen Ledington Price
As First Lady of the United States, the former First Lady of Kentucky was noticeably less active than her White House predecessor, but nevertheless promoted music, art preservation, food programs, and young children’s education programs. She supported renovating parts of the White House and preserving Washington, D.C.'s many historical landmarks. Claudia also utilized her experience working with Harland to expand his business enterprise in Kentucky to work with many members of Congress to promote her husband's political agenda, especially, the proposed Federal Aid Dividend, but was still noticeably less active and public about such activities than her predecessor had been. Nevertheless, Claudia was a gracious White House host; during hosting duties, Claudia would usually play the piano, and often worked with the President and the White House kitchen staff to prepare meals for the guests. Claudia’s biggest impact, though, would have to be her redecoration of the White House interior, blending traditional styles found across the country to make an interesting visual representation of the U.S.'s "melting pot" metaphor.

1973-1981: Joan Adams
Entering office at the age of 42, and being over 28 years younger than her predecessor, Joan was an energetic and enthusiastic First Lady. “Joan of Art” got her nickname from her promotion of artworks ranging from modern American to traditional Asian. With this in mind, Joan added numerous artworks in the White House, enriching its atmosphere with the inclusion of the latest art styles, albeit causing minor controversy along the way. Artists showcased included Robert Rauschenberg, Louise Nevelson, Ansel Adams, Edward Hopper, and Norman Rockwell, the last of whom reportedly got along well with both Claudia and Joan. As the former chairperson of the Federal Council on the Arts and Humanities, Joan was able to successfully champion “inter-cultural understanding through art,” and helped to make for closer relations with American allies. As an accomplished pottery-maker in her own right, she also often gifted works of pottery she made herself to heads of state during trips abroad with her husband. Joan proved to be much more actively supportive of international cultural causes than had been Claudia, communicating with prominent artists around the world, and even maintaining a friendly correspondence with Dorothy Foot, the wife of the UK's PM. Privately, Joan was to the left of her husband, and often served as an advisor on decisions regarding women’s issues; as a result, Joan often (at least tried to) serve as a mediator between him and his more openly progressive Vice President, albeit with mixed results. After leaving the White House, Joan continued to try to help the two men bury the hatchet, even telling Gravel of her alleged dislike of his wife at the time (after Joan passed away in 2014, Gravel claimed Joan though his first wife was a "sourpuss," which may explain why the two woman rarely worked on or even attended functions together).

1981-1986: Kathryn Jane Maury
Kathryn’s handling of her position was closer in nature to Claudia than it was to Joan or Lady Bird, gladly letting her husband soak up the spotlight while she supported the causes close to her heart more privately. Still, as a social conservative and a religious Catholic like her husband, she joined her spouse in being a “soldier” in the war on recreadrugs and juvenile delinquency, believing that after-school vocational programs and part-time jobs and internships would keep “young teen punk hoodlums off the streets.” Naturally, she was not all that popular among many young Americans, or among feminist activists who believed her loyalty to her husband came off as a "step backward" as the activist Gloria Steinem once put it. However, during her last two years as First Lady, Kathryn decreased the frequency of White House parties to try and reassure supporters and the American public that her husband was taking the increasing number of scandals and accusations very seriously. She continued to promote family values long after leaving the White House, and often attempted to privately work with future First Ladies to ensure that the "prestige" of the office remained intact.

1986-1989: Joanne Main
Joanne was similar to Kathryn in regards to the issues and causes that they championed, except that Joanne was far more timid of than her predecessor. While the two had become friends during the mid-1980s, this relationship was strained by Joanne’s husband granting his predecessor a pardon for specific crimes, unofficially “branding [Kathryn’s] husband guilty without a trial,” as Kathryn later put it. However, the two eventually made amends as they appeared alongside one another in 1989 at a social function supporting the Protection of Marriage Act of 1986. As someone who had gone through the horrors of having a miscarriage, Joanne was low-key more anti-abortion than Kathryn, and considered the landmark Supreme Court decision that made it legal nationwide to be a "travesty." She continued to promote conservative issues in the background of political circles after leaving the White House, quietly supporting various anti-abortion candidates but otherwise keeping herself while her husband continued to receive more attention. Interestingly, according to a 2017 report, during the 1992 Republican primaries, Joanne donated to the Estus Pirkle campaign while Jack donated to the Lee Iacocca campaign. As of July 4, 2021, she is the earliest-serving First Lady to still be alive; she is reportedly on good terms with all of her successors, including the incumbent one.

1989-1993: none/various
With Carol being unmarried and “too busy [working] to go on a date,” as she once put it, various friends, relatives [C1], and even political surrogates – most notably former First Lady Joan Mondale and the incumbent Second Lady – took turns serving as Acting White House Hostess when needed. This situation of “rotating” hostesses was highly criticized by many Republicans and social conservatives for being too "non-traditional" or even (somehow) "insulting." White House staff have described the upstairs residence during this time as being full of books and charts, and more akin to “a lived-in library” than the “almost-regal home” it was described as being like under First Ladies Kathryn and Joanne. These partisan criticisms were dismissed by Bellamy, who told her aides that she had "bigger problems" to deal with. The hostess situation subsequently led to the “mood/tone” of White House functions depend on the host/hostess, which inevitably caught the attention of TV producers. At least two Hollywood production studios sought to make a reality TV series (which, incidentally, were growing in popularity at the time) on the concept of each show contestant, upon being cleared by Secret Service and other White House figures, serving as the White House host/hostess for one week each in order to see "who does the best job at it," as Tumbleweed reported in 1990. However, the White House always shot down these proposals.

1993-1995: Lia Iacocca Nagy and Kathryn “Kathy” Iacocca Hentz (as Acting Co-Hostesses)
With future President Lee Iacocca’s beloved wife Mary McCleary passing away in 1983 at age 57 from diabetes, fueling her husband's commitment to funding diabetes research passed away, White House hosting duties were almost always jointly carried out by their two daughters. The President’s sister, Delma Marie Iacocca Kelechava (1922-2017), occasionally served as hostess when neither of them could. All three women advocated medical research and threw their support behind multiple health-related organizations, hospitals, and charity drives. Lia Iacocca (b. 1964) who married in 1987 to James F. Nagy Jr., a landscaping supervisor, served slightly more often than her older sister Kathy (b. circa 1959), who married businessman Ned Carlton Hentz in 1986. Kathy was a polyglot who used her fluency in Italian, Spanish, and French to help strengthen relations with several nations, while Lia utilized her degree in communications to network with Republican donors during the 1992 campaign; Lia was meeting with such donors in D.C., in anticipation of a 1996 re-election campaign, when she learned her father had been shot.

1995-2001: Paula Gaffey
Continuing the hands-off “back seat” approach to White House hosting duties followed by Claudia, Kathryn, and Joanne, Paula maintained a low profile during the 1990s, avoiding the limelight to better help her husband with decision-making and optics issues from behind the scenes. However, the two were not considered a "Power Couple" at the time due to her modesty, with her contributions to the administration only being noted by researchers in more recent years. Nevertheless, she was a strong supporter of causes that supported the families of military officers and veterans, of Gold Star families, and of Veterans’ affairs, along other relevant issues such as education for adults (night school classes) and scholarships for veterans. Paula noticeably partnered with Second Lady Meredith to oppose Recreadrug legalization on the grounds of protecting families and children from addiction and gang violence. After leaving the White House, Paula continued to be on good terms with all the former First Ladies, including Joan, and did her best to be on friendly terms with those that held the position after her.

2001-2009: Jacqueline Lavinia Brown
As the matriarch of the first Black First Family, “Jackie” was greatly worried about her husband’s safety, and oversaw the modernization of the White House’s security measures. Jacqueline was more politically active than many of her predecessor, as she sought to be persuasive when lobbying for legislation, initially for feminist causes but later advocating for other issues, primarily child-raising. Her religious dedication and adherence to safezoning was a source of hopefulness and uplifting inspiration for many during the SARS pandemic. Jackie also supported penal code reform – even before her one son’s arrest in 2006 – in order to “nip [problems] in the bud;” she backed legislation promoting after-school programs and improving worker pay to get parents more involved in their children’s lives to minimize first-time and repeat offender incidents, telling reporters in 2004 “the answer doesn’t start just in D.C., it starts at home, too. It starts with D.C. helping parents find and hold jobs that give them the time to sit down with their children and teach right from wrong.” She got along well with daughter-in-law Michelle Robinson, and helped to promote many of Michelle’s own passion projects concerning child nutrition.

2009-2013: Sheila Ison
Even more politically active than Jacqueline, Sheila was a strong advocate for human rights, the environment, and peace. Pointing out that women also suffer from police brutality as well as from human trafficking and illicit narcotic peddling, Sheila utilized her work on domestic violence prevention and assistance for survivors of such events while First Lady of Minnesota to support efforts to improve worker conditions and support the Women And Children’s Protection Act. As America’s first Jewish First lady, Sheila also worked with numerous organizations to confront anti-Semitism, racism, and hate groups.

2013-2020: Marissa Joan Hart
Like her husband, Marissa was a “screen thespian” who had had roles in several movies and TV shows; she most notably starred in Clarissa Explains It All (TV series, 1991-1994), Sabrina the Teenage Witch (TV series, 1996-2001), Drive Me Crazy (1999 film), Rent (2002 film), Holiday in Handcuffs (2007 TV film) and My Fake Fiance (2009 TV film), the last role being filmed when she was First Lady of California. Marissa also cameoed in the 2019 Sabrina reboot film, which underperformed at the box office despite her appearance receiving praise. Marissa was known for having a very energetic personality as First Lady, redecorating the Executive Residence to give it a “more modern and lived-in feel,” in contrast to First Lady Sheila Wellstone’s retention of its more traditional aesthetics. A gracious host like the First Ladies before her, Marissa was a passionate supporter of a number of causes, including several conservation societies, medical research, anti-bullying measures, The Art of Elysium, and IFS Virus research organizations. She also cared greatly about “child protection” causes such as eliminating child hunger, child homeless, child abuse, child neglect and child poverty, and worked well alongside her sister-in-law Karen Grammer to address these concerns. However, after over 15 years in the political spotlight (starting with her husband’s run for governor beginning in 2005), Marissa supported her husband’s decision to retire prematurely and resign 71 days before the end of his second Presidential term.

2020-2021: Joni Brown
Having little time to do much, Joni hosted a handful of small social events and organized festivities for the Winter Holidays. Similar to Claudia Sanders, she was comfortable away from the limelight and letting her husband have more attention, allowing her to have more privacy. However, she still gave her support to many charities that she had endorsed during her time as Second Lady, including March of Dimes, The Art of Elysium, and several groups focused on animal habitat conservation and early education programs to promote child literacy and vocational training.

2021-present: James Midkiff
With the President combating economic concerns like worker displacement, the first-ever First Gentleman of the US is highlighting social issues related to said concerns. Midkiff is focusing primarily on the importance of parenthood and “being there for your children,” supporting paternity leave and organizations aimed to help people, especially white-collar fathers, suffering from addiction to gambling, recreadrugs and/or alcohol. The “First Guy” is also continuing the passion projects that he had championed while First Gentleman of West Virginia, such as land conservation and teaching financial literacy in grade schools.



With Lyndon, Lady Bird had two daughters. Lynda Bird Johnson (b. 1944) Chaired the board of Reading is Fundamental (1996–2001), the nation's largest children's literacy organization, and was a contributing editor to Ladies Home Journal magazine (1969–81); she currently serves on the Board of Directors of the Lyndon Baines Johnson Foundation and the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Luci Baines Johnson (b. 1947) has been the Chair of the Board of the LBJ Asset Management Partners, a family office, since 1993; she also currently serves on the Board of Directors of the LBJ Foundation, the advisory board of the Center for Battered Women, and multiple civic boards, and has raised funds for the American Heart Association as well.

The first divorcé to serve as First Lady since Florence Harding, Claudia was the mother of Elvis Ray Price (1926-2009) and stepmother of the Colonel’s children from his marriage to Josephine King (1888-1975): Margaret (1910-2001), an entrepreneur and businesswoman known for being outgoing, flamboyant and adventurous like her father; Harley (1912-2007), a WWII veteran, businessman, and politician (advisor to his father during his governorship and presidency, and a US Senator, 1984-1993); and Mildred (1919-2010), a philanthropist and businesswoman who headed numerous operations at KFC for decades.

Joan and Mondale also were affectionate parents their three children. Theodore Adams “Ted” Mondale (b. 1957), who was 15 when his father became President, went on to serve as a state senator (D-MN) but failed to win the 2002 Democratic nomination for a US Senate seat. Eleanor Mondale (1960-2011), who infamously threw a raucous sorority party at the White House in late 1979 when she was 19, became a radio personality, TV host, and actress (mainly small or supporting roles in several mostly-independent films) before succumbing to cancer. William Hall Mondale (b. 1962) became a prominent lawyer and currently manages his father’s Presidential lawyer.

Having 5 sons and 2 daughters made the 1980s a busy time for the White House staff. The couple’s most famous child, James S. Denton (1951-2018), worked in publishing and repeatedly defended his father and his Presidency whenever interviewed. The First Couple’s daughter two daughters, Mary and Madeline, each became attorneys but pretty much stayed out of the national spotlight after the 1980s. Similarly, middle child Michael C. Denton became the president of an investment firm, while William C. Denton manages the Denton Presidential library. Jeremiah A. Denton III, or “Jerry Jr.,” followed his father into politics by becoming a state senator (R-AL) but lost a bid for the GOP nomination for Governor in 1998, and a bid for that party’s nomination for an open House seat in 2000. The most camera-shy Denton children was Dr. Donald M. “Don” Denton who became a dentist in Daytona Beach, Florida.

The Kemps had four children (two sons and two daughters). Jeffrey Allen “Jeff” Kemp (b. 1959) was an NFL quarterback, first for the Los Angeles Rams (1981–1985 (playing in Superbowl XVI, which that team won, though it was not Kemp who received the MVP trophy)), and then for the San Francisco 49ers (1986), the Seattle Seahawks (1987–1991), and the Philadelphia Eagles (1991) before retiring. Jennifer Kemp Andrews (b. 1961) currently serves as the head of the Kemp Presidential Library. Judith Kemp (b. 1963) is an author. James Paul “Jimmy” Kemp (b. 1971), who was a teenager during his father’s Presidency, also became a quarterback, but for the CFL, leading to some joking that he fled the country.

Iacocca’s two daughters took on more responsibilities than other modern First Daughters, as they were the first ones to serve as the White House hostesses since since Margaret Wilson served as White House hostess from 1914 to 1915. Before their father’s Presidency, Lia (who was 28 in 1992) and Kathy (who was roughly 35 in 1992) were working on starting their respective careers and families; after their father’s assassination, both shied away from political functions altogether. Lia went on to be a founding member of Kacoon Development Inc., a residential development company in California, while Kathy is currently the chair of the Iacocca Family Foundation.

All 5 of the Dinger children kept a low profile during their family’s time in the White House. All born between 1980 and 1990, children Christina, James, William, Noah, and Lauraine gave a “hectic” and “lively” nature to the Upstairs Residence in a refreshing break from the “cold [and] empty…feeling” the Presidential quarters had gone through under Presidents Bellamy and Iacocca. Due to his years as a US Ambassador for several Latin American countries, Dinger was the first US President ever to speak Spanish fluently (and the first President since FDR to be multilingual); he helped teach the language to his daughter Christina, who in turn appeared with him on some campaign stops where Spanish-speaking voters approved of the “little darling,” possibly helping to bring in much of the Hispanic vote in the elections of 1996 and (to a lesser extent) 2000. Currently, Christina is a languages professor, James runs the family’s “homestead” in Iowa, and William manages the Dinger Presidential Library. Noah is currently working in Namibia for the Peace Corp, and Lauraine is presently interning at the US State Department, and is reportedly “still trying to find [her]self.”

The Jacksons have five children (3 sons, 2 daughters). Santita Jackson (b. 1963) is a professional singer and the host of an eponymous talk show on the Word Network, the largest African-American religious network in the world; she went to high school with future sister-in-law Michelle Robinson (Jesse Jr.’s wife). Jesse Louis Jackson Jr. (b. 1965) made headlines in early 2006 for being arrested for physically assaulting a reporter who had invaded his personal space while he was suffering a nervous breakdown; still practicing law, Junior has gone through years of therapy to “get [him]self back together” and is now a passionate mental health advocate; he also currently works for “Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington” (CREW), a nonprofit organization and nonpartisan (but noticeably left-leaning) US government ethics and accountability watchdog organization. Jonathan Luther Jackson (b. 1966), an academic and longtime political, civil rights, and human rights activist who still appears on TV on occasion to defend his father’s administration and legacy, was elected to the state senate (D-SC) in 2018; he is currently running for South Carolina’s Class 3 US Senate seat in 2022; media outlets speculate that he win run for President someday, likely in 2028 or 2032 at the earliest. Yusef DuBois Jackson (b. 1970), a former linebacker for the Virginia Cavaliers and for the Carolina Panthers, currently works for ESPN and several civil justice organizations. Jacqueline Lavinia Jackson (b. 1975) presently co-manages the Jesse Jackson Presidential Library, doing so alongside Jesse Junior and Michelle.

The Wellstones had three young adult children by the time Paul became Vice President in 2000. Their only daughter, Marcia Allison Wellstone Markuson (b. 1969) was inspired by Bellamy to enter political activism, working on her campaigns in 1988 and 1992; after meeting former astronaut Jerrie Cobb at a D.C. function in 1993, she went to flight school and became a pilot, and has been flying small aircraft professionally since 2002; she is currently a feminist activist who with her husband and children often stayed over at the White House during the Jackson and Wellstone administrations due to her activism work being headquartered in Potomac and northern Virginia. The First Couple’s son Mark picked up the mantle of his father’s legacy by running for public office, and has been serving as Minnesota’s state attorney general since 2019. The Frist Couple’s son David is also involved in progressive activism and academic, and currently manages the Wellstone Presidential Library.

With his first wife, dance instructor Doreen Alderman, Grammer fathered two children – actress Spencer Karen Grammer (b. 1983) and child psychiatrist Judy Isabella Grammer (b. 1985). His second marriage, to makeup stylist Barrie Buckner, produced a third daughter – actress Kandace Greer Grammer (b. 1992). A third marriage, to Tammi Baliszewski, produced a fourth daughter – model and prominent conservative technetter Mason Olivia Grammer (b. 2001). Mason lived with her mother until she was 18, but strongly supported her father ontech and often attended family functions at the White House; similarly, Spencer, Judy and Kandace lived with their respective mothers but were nevertheless close to their father and supported his political campaigns. Grammer’s marriage to Hart, however, produced five children – in 2005 (his first son, Gordon Harland Grammer, currently a high school student), 2007 (Evangeline Elisa “Eve” Grammer, a middle school student), 2010 (Comfort Faith “Comfy” Grammer, a daughter named after one of Grammer’s ancestors due to Kelsey liking the name), 2014 (his second son, William Franklin Grammer), and 2017 (Alicia Charlotte Grammer). With the birth of Alicia, Grammer joked that he had “finally caught up to” Harley’s number of children (nine). Former White House personnel say the Upstairs Residence felt “alive” with five young children living in it; when they moved out, Grammer and Hart’s oldest was 15 and their youngest was three.

Despite his boisterous personality, there is little publicly disclosed information about Harley Brown’s children, especially his adult children. Brown has been married three times and has fathered nine children during his lifetime. He fathered the last three (two sons and a daughter, best known for playfully running around the grounds of VP residence with their “fun” dad) with his third/current wife. His oldest was born in 1982 and the youngest was born in 2009; his third oldest daughter had a child out of wedlock, and the child was raised alongside his younger siblings. This circumstance led to Brown occasionally misstating that he had ten children, leading to some of his critics claiming that Harley “can’t even keep track of how many kids he has.” One son owns his own auto repair shop in Nampa, while 2 other sons and one of his daughters are either serving in the military or are veterans, according to a 2020 interview.

Madam President is the stepmother to the three children from her husband’s first marriage, but she helped raised them and played a huge role in their lives.


Ever since the 1950s, Secret Service Codenames used for Presidents, VPs, and their family members, plus other VIPs, are selected by the White House Communications Agency, an agency of the White House Military Office. Their key tactic in selecting the codenames is avoiding common words.

Truman – General (also, Supervise)
Eisenhower – Scorecard (also, Providence)
Johnson – Valiant
Sanders – Rawhide
Mondale – Snowbank
Denton – Searchlight
Kemp – Scoreboard
Bellamy – Schoolhouse
Iacocca – Fastlane
Dinger – Empire
Jackson – Trailblazer
Wellstone – Testament
Grammer – Sojourn
Brown – Fireball
Pritt – Mountain

Vice Presidents
Humphrey – Pharmacy
Scranton – Metropolis
Gravel – Glacier
Alexander – Hillside
Kemp – Goalpost
Polonko – Liberty
Litton – Rockfield
Dinger – Eagle
Meredith – Beacon
Wellstone – Witness
Ross – Acrylic
Brown – Dragon
Dumanis – Gavel
Kwame – Maglev

First Families
Truman – Sunnyside (First Lady Bess)
Eisenhower – Springtime (First Lady Mamie), Sahara (First Son David)
Johnson – Valor (First Lady Ladybird), Velvet (First Daughter Lynda), Volunteer (First Daughter Luci)
Sanders – Regal (First Lady Claudia), Rotunda (First Son Harley), Roadhouse (First Daughter Margaret), Regent (First Daughter Mildred)
Mondale – Skyward (First Lady Joan), Seminole (First Son Ted), Sunbrella (Frist Daughter Eleanor)
Denton – Seagull (First Lady Kathryn), Sunline (First Son Jer Jr.)
Kemp – Scorecard (First Lady Joannie), Skylight (First Son Jeff), Scanner (First Son Jimmy)
Bellamy – Starline (First Nephew)
Iacocca – Everest (First Daughter Lia), Evergreen (First Daughter Kathryn), Energy (First Sister Delma)
Dinger – Trident, later Rainville (First Lady Paula)
Jackson – Photograph (First Lady Jacqueline), Traveler (First Son Jesse Jr.)
Wellstone – Witness (First Lady Sheila), Wanderer (First Son David)
Grammer – Sapphire (First Lady Marissa)
Brown – Firefly, later Discus (First Lady Joni)
Pritt – Groundbreaker (First Gentleman James Midkiff)

Prominent Presidential Candidates
Secret Service Protection was expanded to Presidential candidates after an attempt on the life of then-candidate Colonel Sanders in 1964

1968 – Lance (Kennedy)
1972 – Hammer (Biaggi), Intrepid (Goldwater)
1976 – Thunder (Reagan)
1980 – Prospector (Paul), Swordfish (Brooke), Orville (Eagles), Boeing (Jackson)
1984 – Sunburn (Glenn), Parchment (Carter), Cocoa (Knutson)
1988 – Legacy (Kennedy-Shriver), Redwood (Reagan), Scarlet (Thomson), Crossfire (McCormack)
1992 – Pulpit (Pirkle), Pathfinder (Engeleiter)
1996 – Screenplay (Laughlin), Champion (Clemente), Pontiac (Jackson), Market (Leland)
2000 – Pioneer (Richards), Asteroid (Blanchard)
2004 – Patriot (Goetz), Cornerstone (Meredith), Pantheon (Huntsman), Minuteman (Weld)
2008 – Winter (Snowe), Mahogany (Rodham-Clinton), Speedway (Johnson), Bunker (Gritz)
2012 – Driller (Graham)
2016 – Laser (Locke), Watchman (Moore), Parasol (Simpson), 2016 – Stardust (McAfee)
2020 – Phoenix (Paul), Woodlark (Lugaro), Willow (Lewinsky)

5. The Ten Most Senior Members of Each Presidential Cabinet

(People who served in an Acting capacity for less than two months excluded from lists)


1961-1965: 37) Hubert Horatio Humphrey (D-MN) – selected to regionally balance the 1960 ticket; supported Johnson’s work on Civil Rights but controversially kept his true thoughts on Cuba to himself

1965-1973: 38) Bill Scranton (R-PA) – selected to appeal to moderate Republicans wary of The Colonel's conservatism; led several projects, including the Scranton Commission, and maintained a strong working relationship with Sanders

1973-1981: 39) Maurice Robert “Mike” Gravel (D-AS) – selected to unite the party's factions after a bitter, intense, and divisive primary season; often feuded publicly with Mondale due to being more progressive than the President

1981-1985: 40) Lamar Alexander (R-TN) – Gravel’s public feud with Mondale led to Denton choosing a running mate he could work well with; Lamar expanded the range and scope of the office more so than did Nixon by meeting often with foreign dignitaries and members of congress, and maintained a close rapport with Denton; resigned over scandal overshadowed by Denton’s own controversies

1985-1987: 41) Jack French Kemp (R-NY) – selected for the purpose of helping Denton work with the House to pass legislation; kept a low profile during the Lukens Hush Money Scandal

1987-1989: 42) J. J. Polonko Jr. (R-NJ) – had been a friend and ally of Kemp for years; used his army experience to aid Kemp with several foreign policy issues; reportedly supported a more militaristic approach to the Chinese persecution of the Uyghur population in western China in early 1988; strongly backed the Veterans’ Affairs department

1989-1993: 43) Jerry Litton (D-MO) – selected to appeal to rural and populist voters; worked with Bellamy to pass UHC and with Senators to pass farmer relief legislation; also promoted youth involvement, vocational school programs, and at-risk youth projects

1993-1995: 44) Larry Miles Dinger (R-IA) – selected to add legislative experience and rural appeal to the ticket; used foreign policy experience to advice Iacocca on multiple issues; worked with congress to pass bills to help rural businesses

1995-2001: 45) James H. Meredith (R-MS) – nation's first African-American VP; supported Dinger’s actions in Korea and Latin America, and backed efforts and proposals from the left and the right to combat racism and prejudice

2001-2009: 46) Paul David Wellstone (D-MN) – nation's first Jewish VP; advised the President on foreign policy issues in Africa, playing a role in several foreign policy decisions during the Administration's second term, and helped strengthen Black-Jewish relations

2009-2013: 47) Bob Ross (D-AS) – selected as a "wild card" candidate in the hope of appealing to a wider array of voters; strongly supported preserving natural resources, recycling efforts, renewable energy legislation, anti-hunger measures, and the arts; also supported the Chicken Dinner Summits in Jerusalem and other efforts to resolve foreign conflicts peacefully

2013-2020: 48) Harley Brown (R-ID) – selected to unite the party; promoted religious freedom, road infrastructure projects, and the 10th Amendment; originally critical of the President but developed a friendship with him by the end of his time in office; advised Grammer in cabinet meetings, often pushing for belligerent responses to foreign policy issues; served as Acting President in 2013 while Grammer recovered from a heart attack

2020-2021: 49) Bonnie Dumanis (R-PO) – nation's first female VP; during her brief tenure, she certified the 2020 election and promoted Brown’s executive orders to combat crime; reportedly only met with some members of congress a handful of times

2021-present: 50) Kwame Raoul (D-IL) – nation's first Haitian-American VP; selected to enhance ticket's appeal to minority voters and urban voters; currently utilizing US Senate experience to work with congress to implement and uphold federal civil justice measures


1961-1965: 54) Jack Kennedy (D-MA) – former US Senator; allegedly selected as part of a deal for Kennedy to support Johnson during the 1960 Presidential election in exchange for this cabinet position; received controversy for getting his younger brother to serve as Assistant Secretary of State; disagreed with Johnson on the latter's handling of Cuba and on the situation unfolding in Indochina, but continued to serve under him to maintain diplomatic ties with vital allies overseas; later accused of undermining the administration

1965-1973: 55) Carl Curtis (R-NE) – as a former US Senator, he brought much experience to the office; maintained friendly relationship with Sanders even when disagreeing with him on occasion; strengthened ties with NATO; oversaw the establishing of détente with the USSR's premiers and the somewhat-reluctant opening of relations with China in 1967-1968

1973-1977: 56) Philleo Nash (D-WI) – former anthropologist and supporter of human rights, civil rights, and the rights of Native Americans and other minorities; strengthened ties with China and Western Europe amid US intervention in Cold War proxy confrontations in Africa; retired

1977-1981: 57) Jimmy Carter (D-GA) – former US Senator; won a Nobel Prize for his role in the landmark 1978 Atlanta Peace Treaty that cooled tensions in the Middle East; later ran for President in 1984 and promoted human rights by traveling extensively to conduct peace negotiations, monitor elections, advance disease prevention and eradication, and fund the construction of homes across developing areas

1981-1985: 58) Buz Lukens (R-OH) – former Governor praised for bringing jobs to the buckeye state; retained strong ties with NATO; close ally of the President, but eventually resigned over his use of US State Department funds to cover up a sex scandal

1985-1986: Phyllis E. Oakley (R-OK) (acting) – department's first female Acting Secretary; served until a more permanent replacement could be found; stayed neutral during scandals and eventually returned to being Assistant Secretary

1986-1987: 59) Morton I. Abramowitz (I-NJ) – former Ambassador; promoted department transparency; attempted to shift nation’s focus from scandals and toward developments in post-Soviet Russia and Eastern Europe; promoted addressing global refugee migration trends by coordinating with allies "'so America doesn't have to take in 100% of them"; dismissed by President Kemp due to irreconcilable ideological differences

1987-1989: 60) Lawrence S. Eagleburger (R-WI) – former Ambassador; worked diligently to repair relations with several western countries and establish relations with post-Soviet nations, including the UT and the NDRR; was better-known abroad than at home

1989-1993: 61) Peter Flaherty (D-PA) – “Mayor Pete” served on several relevant House committees during his time in the U.S. Congress (1981-1989); sought to normalize relations with China in the immediate fallout of Chairman Li ending his nation’s “western camps” policy amid international pressure; was one of the most high-profile casualties of the SARS pandemic

1993-1997: 62) Edward J. Perkins (R-LA) – department's first African-American Secretary; former Ambassador; repeatedly served as the “voice of reason” during rising tension between the US and North Korea, but supported KW2 when it broke out by keeping communication channels open between the US, Japan, China, and (South) Korea; retired due to exhaustion

1997-2001: 63) Susan M. Livingstone (R-MO) – department's first female Secretary; previously served at the Veterans Administration; served as Chief National Security Advisor during the Second Korean War; focused on both post-war development in KW2, and on shoring up international support for the War on Recreadrugs

2001-2005: 64) Ann Richards (D-TX) – former US Senator who ran for President in 2000; selected for the position to end the "bad blood" between her and Jackson, and the two got along better with each passing year; maintained lines of communication during the SARS pandemic and assisted in efforts to give aid to India; stepped down in October after cancer diagnosis and passed away in 2011

2005-2009: 65) Kenneth H. Bacon (I-PO) – worked to address persons displaced by conflicts ongoing in Africa; a humanitarian who was very transparent to the press, he passed away soon after leaving office

2009-2013: 66) Harvey Gantt (D-NC) – former Governor and former Ambassador; was less reluctant than the President was to intervene in foreign conflicts; failed to avoid warfare from unfolding in Sudan, resulting in the nation breaking up into three smaller states

2013-2021: 67) Richard L. “Dick” Morningstar (R-NY) – former Ambassador; sought to promote US strength after Europe suffered major recession in 2013 and sought to address cybersecurity/hacking issues with nuance to maintain diplomatic relations with Russia and China; served under both Grammer and Brown, but got along better with the former, later (allegedly) comparing working with the latter to "holding back a wild dog with a very flimsy leash."

2021-present: 68) Lisa Perez Jackson (D-NJ) – department's first female African-American Secretary; previously worked in the US Senate and for the EPA, collaborating with foreign governments and international organizations to address multiple environmental issues; currently promoting the proposal of as many nations as possible creating a more formal “global united front” to combat Global Climate Disruption.


1961-1965: 57) Henry Hammill Fowler (D-VA) – former Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization under President Truman; Democratic Party insider; loyally backed Johnson’s taxation programs; balanced payments deficits, started calls for a 10% tax surcharge proposal, promoted a "go-slow" approach to economic growth but a quick response to efforts to recover from the Salad Oil Recession, and created a modernized international monetary reserve system

1965-1973: 58) Eugene Edward Siler Sr. (R-KY) – a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1955 to 1965 and the GOP nominee for governor of Kentucky in 1951; socially conservative “fiscal watchdog” critical of Sanders’ military interventions; dismantled Fowler's monetary system and reversed Fowler’s decision to end silver coinage and fiercely defended the Gold Standard as being more dependable than paper currency during times of fluctuating inflation rates; unsuccessfully ran for the US Senate after leaving office.

1973-1981: 59) Robert V. Roosa (D-MI) – prominent economist and banker; his support for the US dollar led to him ending the Gold Standard, consequently leading to Dr. Ron Paul entering politics in 1975; responded to the 1973 oil shock and 1978 recession by issuing bonds to boost Fowler’s restored international monetary system

1981-1985: 60) Thelma Loyace Hawkins Stovall (R-KY) – department's first female Secretary; previously served as the State Treasurer of Kentucky; responded to the 1978 recession and minor recessions of the early 1980s with financial loan system to keep the Fed in the black; as a supporter of labor rights and women's rights, resigned due to Denton’s opposition to a minor migrant worker strike and to protest Denton's connections to the Lukens Hush Money Scandal

1985-1987: 61) Preston Martin (R-DC) – former member of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors and former Vice Chair of the Federal Reserve; supported Lockheed and other major corporations; attempted to stabilize the American dollar to enhance its performance in global markets; the failure of a national 5% mortgage loan bill he supported cost him his job once Kemp entered office

1987-1989: 62) Patty Cafferata (R-NV) – former state Treasurer; promoted stronger ties with Russia to keep said country’s economy afloat in the immediate post-Soviet era and strengthened support for the US in Russia as well

1989-1993: 63) E. Gerald Corrigan (D-MN) – philanthropic reformer; combatted financial corruption to minimize counterparty credit risk and market risk management, and challenged unusual hedge fund operations nationally by coordinating with the rest of the US Cabinet in order to keep the administration transparent and uncorrupt

1993-1997: 64) Jean M. Yokum (I-VA) – former accountant, former credit union specialist, former board member of the USO, and former board chair for the Virginia Air and Space Center; utilized background in banking and credit unions to promote consumer spending and investor confidence, especially in the wake of the President's assassination and during the Second Korean War; stepped down due to exhaustion

1997-2001: 65) Lew Rockwell (R-AL) – right-wing libertarian approved by the senate at the height of Dinger’s popularity; former Chair of the Mises Institute; supported the 10th Amendment and supported cutting funds for domestic programs to keep the administration from violating the BBA

2001-2006: 66) Timonthy Peter Johnson (D-SD) – former member of the U.S. House of Representatives; former ranking member of the U.S. House Committee on Banking; managed shifting resources from the military to social programs, making him instrumental in keeping the administration from violating the BBA; died in office in December from a cerebral hemorrhage, possibly aggravated by stress

2006-2007: J. Dorrance Smith (I-PO) (acting) – served on an interim basis, until a more permanent replacement was confirmed

2007-2009: 67) Elouise Pepion “Yellow Bird Woman” Cobell (D-CO) – department's first Native-American Secretary; former Native-American tribal leader, banker, and rancher; former Treasurer of the Blackfeet Tribe and former advisor to the U.S. Treasury Department from 2003 to 2007; opposed trust fund actions and supported efforts to protect natural resources; repeatedly accused by Republicans of showing bias toward Native Americans over the federal government in several cases concerning land use

2009-2013: 68) David Alan Curson (D-MI) – worked with the UAW to combat white-collar crime issues concerning GM and Chrysler; believing the key to economic success is job creation, supported efforts to raise taxes/tax rates on the top 1% to pay for roads, schools, and energy systems; controversially promoted efforts to ease US employers safely hiring foreign workers

2013-2020: 69) William Floyd “Bill” Weld (R-MA) – former U.S. Senator; ran for President in 2008 and again in 2012; backed “moderate” deregulation; played a vital role in the handling of the Unlucky Recession of 2013 and in the overseeing of post-recession economic expansion/prosperity, but resigned soon after Harley Brown became President due to Brown shifting administrative policy away from backing social programs alongside other issues; got along well with Secretary Rodham-Clinton but reportedly disliked Brown

2020-2021: 70) Robert Kyoung Hur (R-MD) – former US Attorney for the District of Maryland; tried to address multiple issues concerning gang violence and recreadrug trafficking during his 62-day tenure

2021-present: 71) Robert Reich (D-MA) – considered progressive; has vowed to oversee vigorous crackdowns on wage theft, unfair labor policies, and immigrant worker exploitation


1961-1963: 8) Homer Laurence Litzenberg (D-PA) – "Blitzen Litzen," a decorated former lieutenant general in the US Marine Corps, oversaw the first half of the Cuba War; he died in office suddenly at the age of 60 from poor health

1963-1965: 9) Clark Clifford (D-KS) – a lawyer, war hawk, and close advisor to Johnson who, despite best efforts, failed to improve the situation unfolding in Cuba, contributing to Johnson losing re-election

1965-1973: 10) Charles Hartwell Bonesteel III (I-VA) – US Army General (ret.); close ally of the Sanders throughout several crises concerning Indochina, Korea, China, and the USSR

1973-1981: 11) Benjamin O. Davis Jr. (I-DC) – department's first African-American Secretary; US Air Force General (ret.) and former WWII Tuskegee Airman; supported US intervention in Ethiopia, Angola and Uganda

1981-1981: 12) John Sidney “Jack” McCain Jr. (I-HI) – US Navy Admiral (ret.); died after only seven weeks in office, during the very start of the 1980s’ War in Libya, from a sudden heart attack at the age of 70, after years of poor health

1981-1987: 13) William Childs Westmoreland (R-SC) – US Army General (ret.); former US Ambassador to Laos under President Sanders; supported escalating operations in Libya, Nicaragua, and Colombia; tried (but failed) to convince Denton and then Kemp to return troops to Angola; stepped down due to disagreeing with the less-hawkish views of Kemp

1987-1988: 14) Donald Roan "Donnie" Dunagan (I-DC) – decorated veteran of the Indochina Wars; former Marine Corps officer who contributed to the founding of the Veterans Administration and successfully administrated multiple leadership roles concerning counterintelligence and training; agreed with Kemp’s “restrained attack dog” approach to foreign policy, especially in regards to continuous operations in Colombia; stepped down over personal embarrassment, believing recent revelations about his past had “tarnish[ed] the [department’s] image”

1988-1989: 15) Larry Miles Dinger (R-IA) – former Ambassador to several countries; oversaw attempts to end hostilities in Colombia; became UN Ambassador upon Bellamy taking office

1989-1993: 16) Robert J. Lagomarsino (R-CA) – maintained a more diplomatic approach to the office; attempted to “slowly and carefully” conclude conflicts in Latin America; liberal “humanitarian hawk” who previously served on multiple foreign and military affairs committees while serving in the U.S. Congress

1993-1997: 17) Humbert Roque “Rocky” Versace (R-VA) – department's first Hispanic Secretary; former Brigadier General and a Cuba War veteran; hailed for overseeing combat operations during KW2, but retired due to exhaustion; later elected Governor of Puerto Rico

1997-2001: 18) John Sidney McCain III (R-VA) – son of Secretary Jack McCain; retired US Navy Admiral and war hero/Cuba War veteran; managed operations in Latin America in support of the War on Recreadrugs and proposed keeping US “security troops” in the former North Korea indefinitely

2001-2005: 19) Larry Rudell Ellis (R-MD) – US Air Force General (ret.); sought to find “balanced compromises” between calls for military intervention and Jackson’s efforts to negotiate peace in Colombia; oversaw efforts to minimize FP incidents spurred by SARS Pandemic-related safezoning measures for military posts at home and abroad; a supporter of "limited intervention"; retired due to being increasingly at odds with the President's foreign policy ideology

2005-2009: 20) Claudia Jean Kennedy (D-VA) – department's first female Secretary; US Army General (ret.) and former Deputy Inspector General; assisted Jackson in shutting down “unnecessary” military posts abroad to free up funds for social programs; supported the rights of women and blutagos in the armed forces; later worked as an advisor to the Wellstone administration from 2009 to 2012 and served as the Democratic Party's national co-chair from 2013 to 2017; was reportedly considered as a potential running mate in 2008 and 2016

2009-2011: 21) James Logan Jones Jr. (D-MO) – US Marine Corps General (ret.); relationship with Jackson was closer to Ellis’ than Kennedy’s; stepped down in June after disagreeing with President’s handling of the unfolding situation in Darfur

2011-2011: Michael X. Garrett (I-OH) (acting)held position on an interim basis, until a more permanent replacement was confirmed

2011-2013: 22) Howard Lawrence Berman (D-CA) – narrowly confirmed; previously served in the US House (from 1983 until losing re-election in 2011), where he Chaired the House Foreign Affairs Committee from 2005 to 2011

2013-2021: 23) Eileen Marie Collins (I-TX) – former astronaut and retired US Air Force colonel and shuttleplane commander; worked well with both Grammer and Brown to try and settle conflicts in Africa; modernized US cyberwarfare defense measures; promoted a “mostly isolationist” foreign policy

2021-present: 24) Curtis Michael “Mike” Scaparrotti (I-PO) – retired US Army General; currently touting plan to strengthen anti-cyberhacking measures


1961-1965: 64) Rosser Lynn Malone Jr. (D-MO) – conservative Johnson ally who cautiously perused the rights of shoutniks to burn the American flag, judging that it depended on the context and the threat that the fire/flames/smoke posed to public health

1965-1969: 65) Lawrence Welsh (D-NY) – defended Sanders’ support for Civil Rights but declined to serve under his second term due to fatigue

1969-1973: 66) Wayne M. Collins (I-CA) – supported censoring comics and supported Sanders’ decision to come clean during the Ms. Arkansas Scandal

1973-1981: 67) Ramsey Clark (D-TX) – strongly backed Civil Rights, the ERA, and even the comics and pornography industries; opposed the death penalty

1981-1985: 68) Buddy Cianci (R-RI) – appointed Special Prosecutor; after the investigation into Denton’s funding misuse led to Denton instructed him to fire said prosecutor, Cianci resigned, citing being unable to defend the President’s actions anymore; successfully ran for Governor of Rhode Island in 1986 as an anti-administration candidate, only to be impeached in 1993/1994 in an unrelated scandal

1985-1986: 69) Delwen L. Jensen (D-CA) – failed to have the Supreme Court reinstate the death penalty; resigned after losing faith in Denton’s ability to lead

1986-1987: Acting) Theodore Bevry Olson (R-IL) – served temporarily, until a more permanent replacement could be found

1987-1989: 70) Leander J. Shaw (I-FL) – first African-American US Attorney General; defended issues concerning tenant ownership and recreadrug abuse

1989-1993: 71) Amalya Kearse (D-NJ) – first female US Attorney General; defended women’s rights issues such as abortion and combating domestic violence

1993-1997: 72) J’Ada Mergeaux Finch-Sheen (I-VI) – continued many of Kearse’s policies, but also defended businesses in several pro-deregulation cases

1997-2001: 73) Linda K. Neuman (I-IA) – worked closely with Dinger to defend administration’s actions during the War on Recreadrugs

2001-2007: 74) Harry Thomas Edwards (D-DC) – oversaw copyright reform in 2002 and police precinct conduct reform throughout tenure; retired due to exhaustion

2007-2013: 75) Ralph Nader (I-CT) – served under both Jackson and Wellstone; focused primarily on consumer protection, but also on labor rights, clean energy proposals, affordable housing, police reform, environmental protection and ending gerrymandering

2013-2021: 76) Susana Martinez (R-NM) – served under and got along well with both Grammer and Brown; first Hispanic US Attorney General; ramped up department’s efforts to go after domestic cyberhacking, reassigning dozens of agents to successfully track down and arrest alleged hackers/leakers

2021-present: 77) Paul Fong (D-CA) – Asian-American; currently overseeing crackdowns on insider trading and other forms of corporate malpractice


1961-1965: 58) J. Edward Day (D-IL) – reduced the postal deficit, introduced ZIP codes, and improved service and employee morale; signed the department’s first labor contract with the National Rural Letter Carriers' Association; left office at age 80 and died soon after

1965-1973: 59) Leif Erickson (D-MN) – continued most of his predecessor’s policies, plus promoted “mail by rail” contracts, and worked to end racial discrimination against postal workers; approved plan to get NASA to photograph the Moon during the Moon Landings for use on postage stamps

1973-1981: 60) Maurine Neuberger (D-OR) – first female Postmaster General; sought to modernize the department by shifting from “mail by rail” to air and road transport; this led to intense backlash from workers of passenger train and rail routes that had carried mail to supplement their workers’ incomes since the 1830s, and was strongly criticized by former President Colonel Sanders, an avid supporter of the US train systems; nevertheless, the shifted continued on

1981-1989: 61) William F. Bolger (D-WI) – slowed his predecessor’s modernization efforts to give workers time to be retrain for other department jobs; criticized for leaving office with a deficit, high rates, and other issues left unresolved

1989-1993: 62) Frederick Wallace Smith (R-TN) – struggled to prep department for possible spikes in mail volume in case the 1991 Hantavirus Outbreak evolved into a pandemic; criticized for laying off hundreds of postal workers in 1991 despite doing so to keep the federal government from violating the BBA; also dealt with contracting issues, leading to Republicans calling for the department to be removed from the Cabinet

1993-2001: 63) Albert Vincent Carey (R-CA) – strengthened department’s powers to participate in communication services amid the rise of e-mail by convincing Iacocca and congress to expand department’s responsibilities to digital mail alongside paper mail and packaging

2001-2005: 64) Raymond Walter Apple Jr. (I-OH) – improved technet services and broadband strength to maintain e-commerce amid the SARS pandemic

2005-2009: 65) James Scheibel (D-MN) – worked with DET (the US Department of Energy and Technology) to clarify jurisdictions of each/both departments

2009-2013: 66) Harry Britt (D-CA) – openly BLUTAG; former US Representative; launched PR campaign to oppose lingering ontech pestering issues

2013-2021: 67) Ralph Nader (I-CT) – defended privacy rights by working with private delivery companies to regulate, schedule and organize multiple initiatives, such as rules and conditions for using drone technology for private delivery systems, most notably the establishing of regulated “sky routes”

2021-present: 68) Kevin Bacon (R-OH) – currently working with businesses to continue the “sky route” regulation practices of his predecessor; he is not related to the Hollywood actor of the same name


1961-1965: 37) Stewart Lee Udall (D-AZ) – aggressively expanded federal public lands and oversaw the creation of several national parks, monuments, recreation areas, historic sites, and wildlife refuges

1965-1973: 38) George Dewey Clyde (R-UT) – worked with congress to implement the Clear Air, Clean Water, and Safe Wilderness Acts of the late 1960s; promoted the controversial Tocks Island Dam project that brought water and energy to NYC but also displaced hundreds from over 70,000 acres

1973-1981: 39) Fred R. Harris (D-OK) – codified policies; worked with congress and environmental groups to establish regulations and parameters to address issues and concerns regarding dam projects; collaborated with the EPA and ODERCA to address the Trojan Tower Disaster and subsequent radioactive fallout

1981-1985: 40) Jay Hammond (R-AS) – advocated for environmentally and fiscally responsible policies, and promoted individual civic responsibility; retired to host the TV series “Jay Hammond’s Alaska” from 1985 to 1992

1985-1987: 41) Charlton Heston (R-CA) – former actor with no governing experience but narrowly confirmed due to his strong support for Denton in 1980; in 1986, supported opening up large swaths of land to hunting and expanding hunting seasons in the wake of rising deer and wolf incidents in rural towns, which were determined in 1987 to have been brought on by Heston opening up large swaths of land to logging and mining in 1985; fired by Kemp for this

1987-1988: Acting) Earl E. Gjedle (I-VA) – served in an interim capacity until a more permanent officeholder could be confirmed

1988-1989: 42) Thelma Stovall (R-KY) – former US Treasury Secretary; reversed her predecessor’s policies and fiscal decisions and worked to leave the department with a budget surplus

1989-1993: 43) Tony Anaya (D-NM) – supported strong legislation to put liabilities on oil companies operating offshore oil rigs and demanded environmental safeguards on oil and coal companies

1993-1997: 44) Jack Brier (R-KS) – criticized for his hands-off approach to policy, though he supported businesses that sought to drill off the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, chairing a task force to study the economic benefits of offshore oil drilling and fracking

1997-2001: 45) Constance Berry Newman (R-IL) – African-American; partnered with state governments to preserve historic landmarks and scenic views

2001-2005: 46) Nora Dauenhauer (G-AK) – Tlingit-American; worked diligently to safeguard environmental restoration efforts, support endangered species and their habitats, support biodiversity, and champion public land conservation measures

2005-2009: 47) Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-CO) – discussed anti-GCD measures and proposals with several heads of state to form “universal” consensus on how to address the global issue; supported US Senator Braun’s championing of hydrogen energy projects

2009-2013: 48) Larry J. Echo-Hawk (D-ID) – Pawnee-American and Mormon; US Senators from western states blocked his efforts to raise fees charged to ranchers whose cattle grazed on public lands; Republicans accused him of bias for approving more Indian casino licenses than his 3 predecessors combined

2013-2017: 49) Alphonso R. Jackson (R-TX) – African-American; defended Grammer’s rollback of some environmental regulations in the name of entrepreneurial innovation; permitted limited drilling and fracking in previously “closed-off” areas; retired

2017-2020: 50) Gary Johnson (R-NM) – maintained a relatively libertarian administration, offering up much of his department’s funds to other departments in order to keep the federal government from violating the BBA several times; agreed to resign to allow Brown to have an Interior Secretary of his own

2020-2021: 51) Bernard Peters (R-VT) – elected Governor for a single two-year term in a fluke; avid huntsman and chainsaw-wielding woodsman from “the Northern Kingdom;” took a hands-off approach for his 56 days in office apart from introducing programs to encourage young people to learn to fish and hunt

2021-present: 52) Faith Spotted Eagle (D-SD) – Pueblo-American; previously elected to the state house of representatives in 2006 and later served in the US House of Representatives; currently overseeing efforts to reverse the policies of Alphonso Jackson and Gary Johnson, especially several oil pipeline deals


1961-1965: 16) Jim Folsom Sr. (D-AL) – approved and established the US Food Stamp program; later unsuccessfully ran for Governor in 1966 and 1970

1965-1971: 17) Bourke Hickenlooper (R-IA) – extended the US Food Stamp program and established both the Food and Nutrition Service (to coordinate food programs for the poor) and the Office of Intergovernmental Affairs (to strategize policy with state and local officials); died in office

1971-1973: 18) Walter Judd (R-MN) – utilized experience in foreign policy affairs to strengthen department’s relations with other countries

1973-1977: 19) Ryan DeGreffenried Sr. (D-AL) – abolished Henry Wallace’s “Ever-Normal Granary” policy and aggressively backed farmers planting all their land to raise produce rates; urging farmers to “get big or get out” led to the US yielding excess commodity crops, which were then sold to other nations, including the USSR in a major controversy; retired due to rising health issues and died soon after leaving office

1977-1981: 20) K. Gunn McKay (D-UT) – expanded predecessor’s policies; artificially increased food demand to make food production more efficient, which subsequently drove down food costs and in turn lowered food insecurity rates in the US

1981-1985: 21) Richard Roudebush (R-IN) – improved farming techniques by working with businesses, and improved food storage and transportation efficiencies by partnering with the US Transportation Department to grant special “toll pass” patches one attaches to the outside of vehicles delivering food

1985-1985: 22) Harold Guy Hunt (R-AL) – struggled to reverse the policies of his predecessors to cut down on federal regulations; resigned amid financial scandal unrelated to the Lukens Hush Money Scandal

1985-1987: 23) Ann Veneman (R-CA) – first female US Secretary of Agriculture; criticized for allegedly not giving farmers enough notice of financial policy changes and of implementing other unpopular policies, resulting in Kemp firing her

1987-1989: 24) John R. Norton III (R-AZ) – During his tenure, a feud between his department and the General Services Administration led to the ironic dedication of the USDA executive cafeteria to Alferd Packer to shame the General Services Administration into terminating a cafeteria services contract [B1]

1989-1993: 25) John Coyle White (D-TX)
– implemented updated pesticide bans and poultry product regulations and worked to combat droughts and GCD’s effects on agriculture

1993-1995: 26) June Martino (R-IL) – former CEO of McDonald’s; oversaw deregulation of previous policies to encourage independent business growth

1995-2001: 27) Standish Fletcher Thompson (R-GA) – focused on farm-sector policy, trade expansion, conservation, rural communities, and shifting nutrition and food assistance responsibilities from the federal level to state governments

2001-2009: 28) Jim McGovern (D-MA) – longtime fighter of food insecurity; improved farm-to-table transportation infrastructure just before the SARS pandemic made feeding families a major challenge; oversaw child malnutrition rates and food insecurity rates among children reach historic lows

2009-2013: 29) Dolores Huerta (D-CA) – Hispanic-American; upheld procedures to control food safety measures at U.S. food-processing facilities to minimize public health risks; also champion farmer worker rights and advocated farmer labor reform to protect immigrant workers

2013-2014: 30) Harold Lee Scott Jr. (R-KS) – former businessman; sought to curb illegal immigrant protections established due to his predecessor’s efforts, and tried to work with congress to repeal food protection regulations as well as trade reform; fired by Grammer amid rising queries into his labor practices while heading several regional department stores chains across the Midwest that came under investigation soon after the 2013 recession hit; later acquitted

2014-2016: 31) Michael L. Young (I-PO) – former USDA Director and the department’s former head of Budget and Policy Analysis; resigned in November after previously disagreeing with Grammer on the department’s budget for the 2017 fiscal year

2017-2020: 32) Martha Bueno (R-FL) – libertarian former cannabis advocate; deregulated several policies and programs to promote small government, but approved of state-level regulations and tried to grow “recreadrug cultivation [into a] legitimate and highly-profitable industry”; was somewhat controversial

2020-2021: 33) Andrea Barthwell (R-KY) – with her background in medicine and international diplomacy, she was easily confirmed after her predecessor stepped down to become the US Ambassador to Cuba; served over an uneventful tenure of just 59 days

2021-present: 34) Ralph Nader (I-CT) – the former holder of four other cabinet positions (Transportation, Labor, AG and Post-G) is currently working on reversing the past eight years of deregulation to bring food security and child nutrition rates back down to the record lows of the 2000s decade


1961-1965: 15) Luther H. Hodges (D-NC) – advised Johnson on how to address the Salad Oil recession to minimize disruption of commercial trade

1965-1973: 16) Milton Friedman (R-IL) – initiated workplace “culture shock” by firing “excessive” personnel, including three of his four secretaries on his first day at work; backed deregulation of trade and commerce policies to promote entrepreneurial innovation and market competition

1973-1981: 17) John Emerson Moss (D-CA) – increased the range of the office by using it to actively oppose censorship and support freedom of information, consumer product safety and trade transparency, both nationally and internationally; also assisted in the US selling grain to the USSR

1981-1985: 18) Alfred Hayes Jr. (I-NY) – worked with the other cabinet members to promote businesses and industries

1985-1986: 19) Malcolm Baldrige Jr. (R-CT) – fostered foreign and domestic buying and selling contracts; resigned in protest of Denton’s recent conduct

1986-1987: 20) Robert Mosbacher (R-TX) – stepped down after disagreeing with Kemp’s views on international trade

1987-1989: 21) Barbara Franklin (R-PA) – first female US Secretary of Commerce; supported trade deals with recently ex-communist nations

1989-1993: 22) Andrew Jackson Young Jr. (D-GA) – utilized experience in campaign finance and tenure on House Commerce Subcomittees to work with businesses to promote commerce transportation infrastucture efforts

1993-1997: 23) Betty Tom Chu (R-CA) – expanded the influence of the office by working closely with Iacocca and later Dinger on numerous economic issues

1997-2001: 24) Henry Merritt Paulson Jr. (R-NY) – supported US-PRC relations and tried to encourage consumer spending during the 1999 “mini-recession”

2001-2009: 25) Robert Reich (D-IL) – worked on multiple economic concerns to combat unfair practices and policies; was instrumental in securing materials for emergency personnel (cotton for masks, medical tools, foofstuffs for safezoning populations) at the start of the SARS pandemic

2009-2011: 26) Gloria Tristani (D-NM) – strengthened communications sector with trade agreements with The Middle Eastern Bloc; continued Reich’s modernization of department’s internal processing methods to increase government transparency; resigned to unsuccessfully run for the US Senate

2011-2013: 27) Theodore William Kassinger (I-GA) – dealt with issues concerning international trade and trade policy

2013-2013: 28) R. Severin Fuld (I-NY) – sought to reform commerce policies with deregulation goals; failed to convince Grammer to bail out major companies during the 2013 recession; fired for repeatedly disagreeing with Grammer’s handling of the economy

2013-2014: 29) Heidi S. Nelson (R-CA) – promoted the federal government handing over some international commerce responsibilities to state governments

2014-2017: 30) Brian Calley (R-MI) – took a moderate approach to addressing financial matters, but otherwise encouraged free trade policies and actions

2017-2021: 31) Hillary Rodham-Clinton (R-TN) – expanded the role of the department even further by working closely with Grammer on several matters

2021-2021: 32) Aswath Damodaran (I-NY) – served for the first five months; after securing trade deals with Australia and New Zealand, he and Pritt agreed he would better serve the administration as OMB Director, so resigned to take that position

2021-present: 33) Sylvia Mathews Burwell (D-WV) – currently working on a “large regional trade agreement” with the EU that is being strongly opposed by French President Bové


1961-1965: 9) Keen Johnson (D-KY) – developed anti-poverty programs and tested pilot programs concerning low-income work

1965-1969: 10) Arthur Larson (R-SD) – dealt effectively with trade union strikes and counseled Sanders on crafting the details of the proposed F.A.D.

1969-1969: 11) Herbert Hoover Jr. (R-CA) – took a hands-off approach to worker strikes by encouraging labor and management to resolve issues on their own; died in July from a sudden and unexpected stroke

1969-1973: 12) Charlotte Reid (R-IL) – first female Labor Secretary since Francis Perkins; served in an acting capacity from mid-1969 to early 1970; combated sexist labor laws and “toxic” workplaces amid the effects of the Ms. Arkansas Scandal, unwittingly making her a feminist icon

1973-1981: 13) Robert F. Kennedy Sr. (D-VA) – cracked down on union corruption to restore their reputations in order to increase union memberships

1981-1985: 14) Whitney Young (R-KY) – worked with congress to enforce anti-discrimination measures, suggest laws involving unions, and promote “modernizing” workplaces to be more transparent and less sexist/racist/prejudice through open dialogue and workplace diversity

1985-1989: 15) William David Ford (D-MI) – capably managed issues involving manufacturing problems and “business-person” controversies

1989-1993: 16) Ralph Nader (I-CT) – advocated consumer protection regulations; developed close friendship with Bellamy, leading to media speculations that their relationship was romantic in nature despite both denying it (though the two have remained in contacts with each other over the decades since)

1993-1995: 17) Eamon Kelly (I-LA) – partnered with businesses and schools to expand vocational education and training programs nationwide

1995-2001: 18) Larkin I. Smith (R-MS) – expanded minimum wage and federal unemployment benefits to cover more workers

2001-2009: 19) Richard A. “Dick” Gephardt (D-MO) – enhanced workplace safety in 2001, then again to protect “vital workers” amid the SARS pandemic

2009-2013: 20) Ronald A. “Ron” Gettelfinger (D-MI) – worked to protect pensions and strengthen workplace safety laws; worked successfully with congress in 2009 and 2010 to increase benefits for workers left jobless by the effects of outsourcing and international trade

2013-2017: 21) Craig Gunderson (R-WI) – fought with unions over paying workers for overtime and sided with firms over calls for paid sick leave, repeatedly insisting the issues be resolved at state levels; stepped down to successfully run for a US Senate seat

2017-2018: Acting) Wan J. Kim (I-PO) – Korean-American; served until a more permanent officeholder was confirmed for the position

2018-2020: 22) Ariana Fajardo Orshan (I-FL) – strongly defended restaurant managers and denied claims that new department rules eased business abilities to shortchange waiters on tips and commit wage theft; stepped down to let President Brown have a Labor Secretary of his own

2020-2021: 23) Judy Burges (R-AZ) – defended businesses, opposed the power of unions, and strongly opposed immigrant workers during her brief tenure

2021-present: 24) Michael Moore (D-MI) – currently working with Pritt and unions to fill new infrastructure jobs by launching re-training pilot programs



Chief Justice: Earl Warren

Associate Justice from Seat 1: Hugo Black

Associate Justices from Seat 2: Stanley Reed (until 1957), then Charles Whittaker (1957-1962), then Abe Fortas (1962-1967), then Edward Levi (after 1967)

Associate Justices from Seat 3: Felix Frankfurter (until 1962), then Sarah T. Hughes (after 1962)

Associate Justice from Seat 4: William O. Douglas

Associate Justices from Seat 5: Robert H. Jackson (until 1954), then John M. Harlan II (after 1954)

Associate Justices from Seat 6: Harold Hitz Brown (until 1958), then Potter Stewart (after 1958)

Associate Justice from Seat 7: Tom C. Clark

Associate Justices from Seat 8: Sherman Minton (until 1956), then William J. Brennan (after 1956)

Notable Cases:

May 1954 – Brown v. Board of Education – ruled unanimously that segregated schools were unconstitutional

August 1962 – Engel v. Vitale – ruled 6-3 against compulsory school prayer, determining that it violated the First Amendment for state officials to compose an official school prayer and/or encourage its recitation in public schools

March 1963 – Gideon v. Wainwright – ruled unanimously to extend the parameters of the right to counsel in criminal cases by determining that states are required under the Sixth Amendment to provide an attorney to defendants who cannot afford their own attorneys

April 1964 – Butts v. Virginia Board of Elections – ruled 7-2 that poll taxes for elections violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment

February 1966 – Rodgers v. Quitman County School Board – ruled 7-2 that Mississippi’s Quitman County’s public schools admissions system was racially-based, thus violating the 1962 Civil Rights Act

April 1967 – Pierson v. Ray – ruled unanimously that police officers were inhibited and prevented from performing the duties of their occupation by fear of legal ramifications for damages made during arrests, thus introducing the concept of “qualified immunity”

June 1967 – Loving v. Virginia – ruled unanimously that laws banning interracial marriage violated the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment, thus striking down the banning of interracial marriage

April 1971 – Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education – ruled 6-3 that busing students to promote integration is constitutional but cannot be enforced onto parents who refuse to partake in it; the practice was busing was essentially abandoned by the end of the decade

June 1971 – Flood v. Kuhn – concerning the legality of antitrust exemptions granted to MLB, ruled 5-4 in favor of Curt Flood, thus granting more power to free agency players


Chief Justice: Frank Minis Johnson

Associate Justices from Seat 1: Hugo Black (until 1971), William H. Hastie Jr. (1971-1979), then A. Leon Higginbotham Jr. (1979-1998), then Larry Dean Thompson (after 1999)

Associate Justices from Seat 2: Edward Levi (until 2000), then Emilio M. Garza (after 2000)

Associate Justices from Seat 3: Sarah T. Hughes (until 1985), then Joseph Tyree Sneed III (after 1985)

Associate Justices from Seat 4: William O. Douglas (until 1974), then William Joseph Nealon Jr. (after 1974)

Associate Justices from Seat 5: John M. Harlan II (until 1971), then Sylvia Bacon (after 1971)

Associate Justices from Seat 6: Potter Stewart (until 1981), then Herbert Allan Fogel (after 1981)

Associate Justices from Seat 7: Tom C. Clark (until 1973), then Miles W. Lord (after 1973)

Associate Justices from Seat 8: William J. Brennan (until 1990), then Mary Murphy Schroeder (after 1990)

Notable Cases:

May 1971 – Griggs v. Duke Power Co. – ruled unanimously that the public utility company Duke Power was discriminating against African-American employees via job application tests that disparately impacted ethnic groups, which violated Title VII of the 1962 Civil Rights Act

January 1972 – Smith v. California – ruled 5-4 on a broader definition of obscenity, determining that adult content “without serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value” viewable by the public must be censored to protect minors in public, established specific parameters on what made up “public” display, and upheld state laws concerning distribution of obscene material to minors but not to non-consenting adults; the ruling was highly controversial

April 1973 – Russell v. United States – ruled 5-4 to overturn the 1932 Sorrells v. United States ruling and to clarify parameters for federal undercover agent conduct regarding entrapment

June 1974 – Foreman v. Florida – ruled 5-4 that the death penalty was a form of “cruel and unusual” punishment, citing the 8th Amendment to invalidate all death penalty schemes and effectively reduced all death sentences to life imprisonment; decision was highly controversial and repeatedly challenged

September 1974 – Kewanee Oil Co. v. Bicron Corp. – ruled 8-1 that states were allowed to freely develop their own trade secret laws

June 1980 – Central Hudson Gas & Electric Co. v. Public Service Commission – ruled 7-2 that there is no authority in the U.S. Constitution that provides “personhood” rights to corporations; only Justices Levi and Stewart made up the ruling’s dissent

September 1982 – Wilson v. NCAA – ruled 5-4 that Colorado legalizing sports betting would violate the 10th Amendment because it could affect citizens outside of Colorado

June 1983 – INS v. Chadha – ruled 8-1 that the one-house “legislative veto” feature violated the constitutional separation of powers

December 1985 – Jensen v. Massachusetts – ruled 5-4 to uphold the 1974 death penalty ruling, despite Denton’s efforts to have the 1974 ruling overturned

April 1986 – Rivera v. Mason County – ruled 5-4 to allow a White House plan to deny green cards to potential immigrants who may need government aid but may have no clear intent to become permanent residents of the US; controversial ruling

June 1987 – Freeman v. Aguillard – ruled 6-3 against a state law requiring the additional teaching of creationism in any public school that taught evolution to its students, determining that it violated the Establishment Clause of the Frist Amendment, as it purposely intended to advance one idea over another instead of giving all ideas equal footing

January 1992 – Moseley v. Van Dam – ruled 7-2 (with Sneed and Fogel dissenting) against a 1981 Utah Supreme Court decision, determining that women in the U.S. have a fundamental right to choose whether or not to have an abortion, that it was illegal for any state government to deny the establishing of abortion centers within said state, and that the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment protects a woman’s right to choose to have an abortion

May 1992 – Kearse v. Hanover Co. & Chemcial Bank – ruled 5-4 in favor of two large banks merging, but established new parameters on how large a national business can become before it creates a monopolistic economic environment at a national level

October 1993 – Karger v. Sonoma County – ruled 6-3 (with Fogel, Bacon, and Sneed dissenting) that it Is unconstitutional to discriminate against sexual preference

March 1994 – Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music Inc. – ruled unanimously in favor of rapper, deciding that profits alone do not make fair use laws inapplicable to commercial parodies and thus determining that fair use laws protect parody works

March 1997 – Mondo Paperworks v. Menendez – ruled 7-2 to uphold state law preventing employers from preventing employees from voting or firing them for taking time off work to exercise said employee’s right to vote, provided that the employee can prove they spent their time off work going to vote; ruling led to a GOP-backed push to expand mail voting availability and accessibility, arguing it would render such laws moot if employees simply vote from home

PAGE SUPREME COURT COMPOSITION (July 2, 2001 – present (2021))

Chief Justice: Alan Cedric Page

Associate Justice from Seat 1: Larry Dean Thompson

Associate Justice from Seat 2: Emilio M. Garza

Associate Justices from Seat 3: Joseph Tyree Sneed III (until 2008), Aida M. Delgado-Colon (after 2008)

Associate Justices from Seat 4: William Joseph Nealon Jr. (until 2018), then Robert Patrick Murphy (after 2018)

Associate Justice from Seat 5: Sylvia Bacon

Associate Justices from Seat 6: Herbert Allan Fogel (until 2002), then Michael J. Sandel (after 2002)

Associate Justices from Seat 7: Miles W. Lord (until 2009), then Check Kong “Denny” Chin (after 2009)

Associate Justices from Seat 8: Mary Murphy Schroeder (until 2021), then George Perry Floyd (after 2021)

Notable Cases:

August 2002 – Stuyvesant v. Edwards – ruled 5-4 to uphold the constitutionality of Congressperson Sonny Bono (R-CA)’s Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998, which applied to “current” copyrights but not “retroactive” copyrights, meaning that copyrights still covered by the previous “70-years” law had their “expiration dates” extended, while copyrights no longer covered by said law (in other words, anything copyrighted before the 1928) could not be extended due to already expiring

September 2003 – Brill v. Cohen – ruled 6-3 (with Sneed, Garza, and Thompson dissenting) that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment

October 2003 – Pepvibes v. California – ruled 6-3 to overturn California’s state Supreme Court’s “draconian” ruling in 2000, which found technet user anonymity to “endanger domestic security” by making tech users vulnerable to fraud, identity theft, hacking, and other “tech dangers,” violated freedom of speech and right to privacy

January 2004 – Arizona v. Yuma Workers Union – ruled 5-4 to reverse the Supreme Court’s 1986 “Green Card restrictions” ruling

September 2007 – Hillenburg v. Maine – ruled unanimously that trade secrets have “special protection,” upholding the 1979 Trade Secrets Act and several state laws, and overturning the 1974 supreme court ruling the kept trade secret protection at the state level

June 2008 – Blake v. Illinois – ruled unanimously that the warrantless search and seizure of digital contents of a lar phone during an arrest is unconstitutional

April 2009 – Gantt Medical Research Center v. North Carolina – ruled 7-2 that statewide ban on stem-cell research is unconstitutional

December 2009 – Betland v. Fields – ruled 6-3 (with Thompson, Bacon and Garza dissenting) to overturn 1982 sports betting decision

February 2010 – Stone v. Rutland – ruled 5-4 to overturn the 1972 Smith v. California “obscenity” ruling; supported by libertarians and libertarian justices

January 2012 – Thompson v. Miller County – ruled 8-1 that, for the purposes of Title VII of the 1962 Civil Rights Act, discrimination on the basis of transgender status is also ‘discrimination because of sex,’ with the US Attorney General also clarifying that the federal government may make its own determination of sex classification for federally issued documentation regardless of legal sex classifications at state/territorial levels, sparking further debate

June 2014 – DGH Companies, Inc. v. Zimmerman – ruled 7-2 (with Thompson and Garza dissenting) that the 1962 Civil Rights Act protected transgender workers as its language prohibits sex discrimination, which applies to discrimination that is based on sexual orientation and/or gender identity

December 2018 – Westley v. Warren – ruled 5-4 to uphold Massachusetts' restrictions on “soft money,” recognizing that not all political speech is protected by the First Amendment and that the government has a responsibility to combat all forms of corruption, including financial and political


1961-1965: Muriel Fay Buck (D-MN) – the somewhat shy Muriel continued the precedencies set by her predecessor, Pat Nixon. Eager to assist her husband's career in any way that she could, she expanded the visibility of the position of Second Lady by traveling extensively around the country, both with and without her husband, to promote various causes; these causes included raising public awareness of (and funding for research into) Down Syndrome (which her granddaughter Victoria Solomon had), mental disabilities, and (after leaving office) abortion rights; Muriel was reportedly on "amicable, but not super-friendly" terms with First Lady Ladybird.

1965-1973: Mary Lowe (R-PA) – a gifted public speaker more energetic on the campaign trail than her husband, Mary focused on numerous issues during her eight eventful years in this position; these issues included improving standards for public housing, encouraging domestic technological innovation, and backing space exploration; she served as a consultant to her husband and members of his staff, and while serving in high-profile positions after leaving 1 Observatory Circle, she failed to translate her rhetoric, superb oratory skills, and many connections into a winning political campaign of her own; the most recent former Second Lady to pass away, she is looked back on fairly favorably by those who followed (with the only real criticism coming from Rita, who reportedly believes she "set the bar too high, so I lowered it."

1973-1981: Rita Jeannette Martin (D-AS) – being less political than her three predecessors, who had truly brought the office to the national spotlight for the first time, Rita shied away from the spotlight and cameras, and focused on more traditional roles while raising her teenage son and daughter; most notably, Rita oversaw renovations and restoration efforts on the VP residence; while she seemed to just be tired of inquisitive cameras, Rita was unhappy behind closed door because of her husband’s infidelity, keeping quiet only for the sake of his career, which seemed to implode in 1980 regardless; after that year’s election, Rita ended the façade and moved out of 1 Observatory Circle, divorcing Mike soon after and returning to private life; still alive (as of July 4, 2021) and still reclusive she has only occasionally agreed to interviews.

1981-1985: Leslie “Honey” Buhler (R-TN) – Children’s literacy was a cornerstone of her time as Second Lady, given her concurrent job as director of a child-care business and a board member of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting; she reportedly could relate to the pressure “Lamar and Jer were under” during the 1980s, given media examinations of her professional life, too – media outlets “questioned my background, financial histories, labor practices and viewpoints, and scrutinized anything they deemed peculiar”; Honey reportedly felt “relieved” when the Alexanders faded into the background of the political landscape of their days, though in recent years, she and Lamar have been more willing to appear in the media, mostly by lending their recollections to discussions on that tumultuous era known as the 1980s.

1987-1989: Jane Thompson (R-NJ) – A supporter of both education reform to improve America’s public education system and medical care for veterans, the rather elusive Jane supported her husband’s ascension, speaking to newspapers and party leaders to support a future Kemp/Polonko ticket that, alas, was not meant to be; nevertheless, she spent her somewhat short time in this position to meet with teachers and leaders of academia across the country, a practices that she still continues. According to some sources, she was not on good terms with Honey and Sharon, either due to them having different opinions on furniture decoration for the VP's residence, or, according to one source, due to both Honey and Sharon having derisive things to say about her husband's speculative 1992 run for the Presidency. However, Jane did get along well with former Second Lady Mary, future Second Lady Judy, and future First Lady Joni. Jane currently resides with her husband at their home in New Jersey.

1989-1993: Sharon Ann Summerville (D-MO) – Jerry’s beloved was drawn to reforestation programs during her husband’s time in the Senate, and she promoted them and the America Red Cross during their time at 1 Observatory Circle in a “return to form” for the office; given the lack of a First Spouse, though, many treated Sharon as if she held that role (indeed, she did host functions at the White House on a few occasions), and the subsequent media focus expanded the abilities of her true office significantly. Second Lady Sharon was reportedly on friendly terms with former Second Ladies Muriel, Mary, Honey, Jane, and even the elusive Rita, and later was on friendly terms with Second Ladies Judy and Lynda. Now widowed, Sharon divides her time between her family home in Missouri and the residences of her children and adult grandchildren.

1995-2001: Dr. Judy Alsobrooks (R-MS) – America’s first-ever African-American Second Lady was a journalism professor and filmmaker, teaching college mass communications classes at the time of her husband’s ascension; previously working as a TV and radio news reporter and anchor in Jackson, Mississippi, Judy was a natural at handling the press; as Second Lady, she traveled extensively, both professionally and as a visitor, to promote cultural, religious and ethnic diversity, and the coexistence of various groups; she also worked with her husband to combat racism and prejudice, and modernized the office of Second Lady by harnessing the power of the technet to promote peace and love ontech; derided by the far-right, she never buckled under any of the attacks made against her before, during, or after her time in office, working on Jim’s 2004 campaign and continuing to promote civil justice to this day.

2009-2013: Lynda Brown (D-AS) – Like a yin to Bob’s yang, Lynda took up another type of art – music – as a cause for her to champion while Second Lady; generally supporting cultural preservation (including maintaining old buildings, albeit to a certain extent), she soon became highly popular among performing arts schools; not long into office, Lynda developed a friendship with Judy, who is a classical pianist, resulting in the two performing together at a charity benefit held at the White House in early 2010. Lynda reports gets along very well with all of the former Second Ladies right now, but tension between her and Joni Brown allegedly lasted for years; the "frostiness" between them was only thawed by First Lady Marissa inviting Lynda and Joni to join her on numerous charity drives in order to help them find common ground and break bread. After leaving office, Lynda was cautiously supportive of her husband's Presidential campaign in 2015 given his advanced age; her increased concern ahead of the 2020 election may have been a contributing factor in Bob's decision to not run "one last time" and instead enjoy their retirement together. They both currently reside in Bob's birth state of Florida, though they still often travel the country to either visit friends and relatives or promote various causes.

2020-2021: Carrie Smith (R-PO) – Little is really known about the nation’s first openly BLUTAGO Second Lady, given how little time there was for the nation to get to know her; on the other side of that same situation, Carrie had little time to truly promote any causes, at least any through some major projects, and thus she merely backed typical, generic causes (anti-poverty, children’s health and education, and – most noticeably – family safety) via press releases and postings on social media; from what one can tell, it seems she is a serious career woman like her wife, but is an avid supporter of people adopting pets; it does not help matter that her first actual interview did not occur until after her wife had already left office, and her general vagueness during it left more questions than answers surrounding the colorful characters of the almost-enigmatic Harley Brown administration.

2021-present: Dr. Lisa Moore (D-IL) – Lisa has only been married to Kwame since 2018, but the Second Family is already growing, with a second child recently reported to be “on the way”; since entering office, the current Second Lady seems to be making the office more transparent by posting family vids ontech and using the technet to connect with people to promote multiple causes related to her husband’s push for civil justice reform. She herself is promoting American families utilizing UHC and America's national parks to engage in family activities and trips. Lisa also supports First Gentleman Jim's efforts to implement full-pay family leave in order to allow parents to spend more time raising and nurturing their children.

Extra: Just some infobox graphic:



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[F1] Portions of the 1961-to-1990 sections of the First Ladies list are from an earlier version found here: . Also, pre-1991 portions of the first four cabinet lists were pulled from an early KFC alt-cabinets post, which can be found here: .
[C1] Bellamy has at least one sibling as she mentions a nephew in the first source listed in Chapter 58 of TTL
[B1] Bizzarre event is OTL but occurred earlier, as describe here:
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Index 7 – Wikiboxes (Part 1)
Index 7 – Wikiboxes (Part 1)

(Still-Alive Presidents)​


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Mondale is looked back on fairly favorably as a man who led his nation through several crises during a decade of social change and progress. A moderate on most issues, he won over enough middle class and suburban voters to win two terms and become a revered elder statesman to many future moderates in the party, including 1996 Presidential nominee John Glenn, 2016 VP nominee Bob Casey Jr., and former Presidential candidates James Blanchard and Tom Suozzi, among others. After 10 years in the US Senate, Mondale was able to mount a Presidential campaign that bested initial frontrunner Hubert Humphrey and Mike Gravel, but Mondale was forced to select the latter for running mate in order to united the moderate and progressive wings of the party. Under his administration, détente with the Soviets and the PRC continued on, while social improvements at home contributed to a feeling of stability and prosperity that allowed him to win re-election in a landslide over California Governor Ronald Reagan. His second term, though, proved to be a poisoned chalice that "Fightin' Fritz" was happy to be rid of come January 20, 1981.

During the 1980s, he strongly supported Scoop Jackson's presidential bid, offered tepid support to the Gravel'84 campaign, and endorsed Bellamy in 1988 after Glenn and Kennedy-Shriver withdrew. In the 2000s decade, his Presidency was compared to and overshadowed by Jackson's, especially when it came to the disasters and crises of the oughts. However, the former President was a welcomed advisor to the Wellstone'08 campaign, and got along well with the VP-turned-President. Mondale also reportedly gets along well with former Presidents Bellamy, Dinger, Jackson, and Grammer, but has reportedly not had much interaction with Harley Brown; he also endorsed Charlotte Pritt in 2020. Presently, Mondale and his Vice President, while back to being talking terms, have never truly buried the hatchet, with Mondale viewing Gravel as inhibiting efforts to seek compromise on legislation during crucial moments throughout the 1970s, and Gravel accusing Mondale of sabotaging his 1980 Presidential bid. This decades-old tension contrasts sharply with the friendship Mondale has formed with fellow Minnesotan Paul Wellstone, despite their political differences. Mondale currently resides in Minnesota, enjoying his 41st year of retirement.


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Bellamy is still a feminist icon for shattering the glass ceiling in 1988, but she is also a universally recognized diplomat and champion of various causes, working passionately to eliminate child poverty from the face of the Earth. During the 1990s, she worked closely with UK PM Lennon and other progressives to improve life quality and truncate poverty and food insecurity issues. In the early oughts, she coordinated with the Jackson administration and other world leaders to minimize the effects of the SARS Global Pandemic, which won her even more accolades and adoring fans. Though she did not get along that well with Presidents Iacocca and Dinger, she was on excellent terms with Jackson and Wellstone and on good terms with Presidents Mondale, Kemp and Grammer. As her life's work has been a source of inspiration to so many supporters, she has made her peace with never serving a second term (and reportedly made her peace with the matter a long time ago). Bellamy currently splits her time between New York and DC, working with both President Pritt and the United Nations to crack down on human rights abuses.



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Dinger's legacy is polarizing and controversial. Often "in the shadow" of his martyred predecessor, many question how his career and legacy would have unfolded if Iacocca had lived. Regardless, Dinger's supporters praise his leadership skills, which were often credited to his career in diplomatic and foreign policy-related positions during the 1980s. Backers praised his leadership abilities for keeping the country "strong and united" in the wake of the national tragedy that produced his ascension, for liberating those suffering from famine and torture under the reign of Kim Dynasty in the Hermit Kingdom, and for taking a firm stance on crime, recreadrugs, and illegal immigration.

On the other hand, critics call him a warmonger who needlessly expanded American intervention in Colombia (America's longest war, BTW) and whose escalation of the War on Recreadrugs hurt more lives than it helped. As his party continues to shift to the right and he stays pretty much ideologically similar to how he was in the 1990s, his critics have begun to come from the right of him, too. Regardless, Dinger has been able to got along decently with other Presidents. He reportedly interacted well with Denton, Kemp, and Iacocca, and later praised the work of Presidents Wellstone and Grammer, but reportedly does not have the kind of rapport that he wishes to have with Bellamy, Jackson, and even Harley Brown (who once called Dinger a "pitiful LID" (Liberal In Disguise)). Later reversing his attitudes on recreadrugs but justifying most of his other actions while President, Dinger has repeatedly declined to run for a second full term again, refusing to run in 2004, in 2008, in 2012 and even in 2020 despite some interventionist talking heads such as Bill Kristol calling for him to do so. No, the former President seems content to stay where he is currently, residing on his family's homestead in Iowa, enjoying a lengthy post-presidential retirement.


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America's First African-American President was a highly religious and passionate man. Starting off as a social activist and Baptist minister, the NAACP had him based in his birth state of South Carolina despite spending years working in Chicago. Shifting into politics, he ran for Mayor of Washington, D.C. in 1982, lost, but learned from the experience and successfully mounted a long-shot bid for the Governorship in 1986. He endorsed Mike Gravel in 1980 and 1984 and Bellamy in 1988. Limited to a single term (but eligible to a second one after leaving office), Jackson served was a “special liaison” to the Ivory Coast under President Bellamy from 1991 to 1993; he worked to cool rising tensions in that country over the breakaway nation of The Sanwi Kingdom (which later considered offering him the semi-ceremonial position of Crown Prince for his commitment to a peaceful secession) and over the Ivory Coast's neighboring country of Ghana's own turmoil stemming from its recently-discovered offshore oil deposits. Critical of Dinger's handling of the War on Recreadrugs, Jackson was elected back to the Governorship in 1998 and, two years later, successfully challenged him in the Presidential Election of 2000.

As President, Jackson led the US through a global pandemic, intense hurricanes, personal tragedy, and a resurgence in racist incidents in backlash to his election, his re-election, and his efforts at police reform. Jackson worked with Treasury Secretary Johnson to keep the federal government "out of the red" in accordance with the BBA, with rival-turned-Cabinet member to address diplomatic concerns, with his VP and Attorney General to push social justice measures, and with foreign leaders to promote peaceful resolutions to violent situations unfolding in Africa and Asia at the time. He reportedly got along well with former Presidents Kemp and Bellamy, and was on good terms with the four Presidents that came after him, but never fully thawed out of the icy relationship that he has with Larry Dinger. Now battling Parkinson's disease, this "fearless warrior...fighting for causes dear to him" divides his time between South Carolina, Potomac, and Illinois, as his children and grandchildren live across those three states.


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Not even the debilitating long-term effects of Multiple Sclerosis can keep this former President from offering his two cents on the latest political issues, partaking in TV and radio interviews to promote the progressive policies he has consistently held close to his heart. As Minnesota's Attorney General during the Second Ark Wave, Wellstone's fierce defending of women's rights in multiple DOJ cases led to him being labelled a rising star at the age of 42. After 22 more years of public service, first in The Land of Mondale And Ten Thousand Lakes and then in 1 Observatory Circle, Wellstone finally made it to the White House, where he oversaw electric energy projects and tax reform efforts despite the many Congressional Republicans snapping at his heels. After leaving office, several private health scares, worse than the ones he privately suffered while President, made him quick to decline running for a second term in 2016 or 2020. Wellstone reportedly got along well with Mondale, Kemp, Bellamy, Jackson, and even Dinger, and has many positive things to say about the incumbent President Pritt, but is on less positive terms with Grammer and Brown. He currently lives with his wife Sheila in Minnesota, but is reportedly in declining health and may pass away relatively soon.


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From Shakespearean productions to health scares and international missile crises, Grammer's life has certainly been a dramatic one. Facing personal tragedy with the murder of his father and the deaths of both half-brothers, Kelsey and his sister Karen faced their emotional demons together during the 1980s and because of this, both siblings prospered during the 1990s, with Kelsey becoming the wealthy star of TV's "Frasier" and Karen becoming involved in a diverse assortment of businesses in Colorado. Good fortune smiled on Kelsey again in the early 2000s decade when he began dating the star of "Sabrina the Teenage Witch," Marissa Joan Hart.

However, as Kelsey was increasingly bothered by state rules and regulations and embarrassed by the failures of California's tumultuous post-Christopher administrations, Grammer found himself increasingly involved in local and then national politics. After notable appearances on political radio and TV channels, Kelsey was invited to speak at the 2004 RNC, doing so with a speech that received more attention than that of the nominee. Then, in 2005, with the support of his friends and family, Kelsey fully made his way from the theatrical stage to the political stage with his own bid for public office. Roughly six short years later, the Grammers were living in the White House, for better and for worse.

As President, Grammer appreciated advise given to him by all of the former Presidents, including Jeremiah Denton. After nearly eight years of dealing with economic recession, cyber-terrorism, bipartisan opposition, and complex geopolitical shenanigans, the First Couple not to wait out the lame-duck period. Cutting their stay in D.C. short by a few weeks (leading to one co-host of SNL's Weekend Update replying "Now, this dude has nine kids, so you know this has got to be the first time that he has ever pulled out early"), Kelsey and his wife Marissa are now back to raising their several children at their main home in southern California, away from the chaos of D.C. Grammer has left politics, but he is not retired; he says he is looking into returning to acting in the near future.


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Flaunting the long-sought title of President (alright, former President), the most famous biker in the world is still planning his next move. Beloved by many war veterans and law enforcement officials, by certain foreign leaders, by most members of the Religious Right, by many bikers and motorcycle enthusiasts (obviously), and by many social conservatives (paradoxically, given Brown's longtime support for the BLUTAGO Community), it is unknown if Harley Davidson Brown currently believes that he has finished doing "God's work" or not.

The gaffe-prone, potty-mouthed, tough-as-nails Mr. Brown spent much the 1970s overseas in the Mud Marines and a good part of the 1980s working as a taxi driver. After experiencing a life-changing religious and spiritual experience (during which God apparently spoke to him) that convinced him that he was "destined...for greatness," Brown returned to the military in the 1990s, just in time to oversee some troops during the Second Korean War. From there, he managed to launched a quixotic and unique political career that culminated in a failed Presidential bid in 2020. Feeling sorry for his VP, though, President Grammer let him serve out the last 71 days of his term. The small term ended up demonstrating just how much can be accomplished during the lame-duck period, establishing major precedence. During this "mini-presidency," as some called it, Brown did not consult with former Presidents (he reportedly considers Mondale, Bellamy, Jackson, and Wellstone to be "hacks," but has praised Dinger in the passed) and instead reliex on his longtime allies to maximize his time behind the Resolute Desk.

Currently, Brown reportedly has a movie/TV deal in the works, and there's heavy debate over the merits of him running for public office again. However his future goes, Brown seems to be in a good place right now, enjoying the media attention while residing back in Nampa, Idaho with his wife and young children.


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The current president is capitalizing on the Democrats controlling both chambers of congress to get as much work done before the midterms arrive. Primarily concerned with improving the standard of living for American families in the wake of rising automation and the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Pritt is calling on congress to pass, at the very least, a Federal Freedom Fund pilot program to minimize the effects of unemployment.

Pritt's dedication to these policies and proposals reflect her background. As the daughter of a poor coal miner father and a labor activist mother, growing up and serving as a grade school teacher in West Virginia made her experience first-hand what it truly meant to go without, and she was determined to prevent others from experiencing such poverty. With this in mind, she entered politics and worked tirelessly to protect the rights and the health of miners during her eight years in the state congress, four years as state Secretary of State, six years in the US House, and eight years in the governorship.

As the incumbent President, Pritt is working to reinvest in national projects to preserve natural resources and promote green energy, returning national attention to electric power grids, solar panels, wind farms, water turbine projects, and even hydrogen power projects. She is also attempting to work with businesses to establish worker training and retraining programs, along with many other policies and goals, to minimize the impact that automation is having on the American workforce. President Pritt is currently enjoying a national approval rating average of roughly 61%.

Bonus: Wikiboxes For Still-Living Major-Party Presidential Nominees


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Bernie Goetz is hard to define as both a person and as a political figure. He is an activist businessman who received fame and statewide media attention for shooting an attempted robber of his store – fame that led to him being elected to the US Senate in a good year for Republicans. He forewent a run for re-election to lay the groundwork for a Presidential run, and upon entering the race, soon found an audience that dubbed themselves the “Bernie Bros.” But the Goetz campaign was very paradoxical – he won over religious members of the Republican party despite not being religious; he was a “darling” of gun enthusiasts (“for hunting purposes”) despite being a vegetarian; he was endorsed by several pro-military groups despite him never serving in the military (or even on a military-relevant committee or subcommittee while in the US Senate); and his bluntness made him be seen as a “real man of the people” despite becoming a multi-millionaire before entering office.

Somewhat like Harley Davidson Brown, many of Goetz’s most passionate supporters were unaware of who exactly he was outside of the specific policies that they cared about. That is how he tapped into a long-dormant faction of the GOP, a faction energized by the carnage of KW2, intrigued by the possibilities of ontech harassment, and infuriated by the election of America’s first African-American Fully-Socialist President. These individuals flocked to his faux-populism three separate times, in 2004, in 2008, and 2012, with the third time being cut short by a well-timed video leak revealing Goetz’s negative attitude toward one of the GOP’s most treasured institutions – the good ol' fixin’s of KFC.

No longer actively involved in politics, Goetz is reportedly enjoying his retirement years, spending his time mainly at family homesteads in Florida and upstate New York, and at his own home in Boulder, Colorado. According to a 2020 interview, he supported Presidents Denton, Kemp, Iacocca, and Dinger, did not "trust" Mondale, Bellamy, Jackson and Wellstone, had "conflicting thoughts" on Grammer, praised Brown, and was highly critical of then-candidate Pritt. Goetz may have faded from public view, but is still remembered for the role he played in American history during the oughts and early 2010s.


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Born to immigrants from Greece, breast cancer and heart disease left Olympia Snowe an orphan by the age of nine; living with relatives, she worked her way through college and into a career in politics. After her husband, Peter T. Snowe (b. 1943, currently 74 years old), who had served in the state House from 1967 to 1970 and in the state senate from 1970 to 1975, lost re-election to the state Senate in 1974 (despite it being a fairly good year for Republicans overall), Olympia decided to run for a state senate seat four years later in 1978 and won; her career only progressed from there, while her husband found himself enjoying a new career as a prosecuting attorney. By the end of the 1980s, Maine newspapers were calling them the state’s top “Power Couple” (and, impressively, both still found the time to raise three children (b. 1970, 1973, and 1975) during this time). In 1996, Maine’s Governor appointed Snowe to a US Senate seat made vacant by the death of longtime incumbent US Senator Edmund S. "Ed" Muskie; Olympia won a subsequent special election with ease; she won re-election in 2000 and 2006 in landslides. Tragedy struck her family again when her youngest, 28-year-old Georgia, was hit by a car in early 2003 (possibly explaining Olympia's decision to not run for President in 2004 despite many in the state wanting her to do so), but the daughter managed to make a full recovery by early 2006

Heading into 2008, her party was divided into libertarian, “populist,” hard-c conservative, Religious Right, and moderate factions. Goetz’s landslide loss in 2004 made Snow correctly predict that the political atmosphere was exactly right for a moderate to be nominated at the national level. Snowe had criticized President Dinger in the past, but his then-recent comments against his own recreadrug policies convinced many that she was an excellent judge of character, improving her standing in the polls heading into the primaries. Despite this and other factors that leaned in her favor, Snowe just barely convinced enough primary voters to give a much more centrist candidate a chance, and while she won the popular vote in November, it was the Electoral Vote that mattered more at that point in US history.

During her final ten years in the Senate, her reputation of finding compromise and leading bipartisanship was bolstered by her work under both Presidents Wellstone and Grammer, leading to her being called “the best President we never had” by some and a “Liberal In Disguise” by others. Being privately concerned that Vice President Harley Davidson Brown was cut from the same cloth as that of Bernie Goetz and Bo Gritz, she only gave tepid support to the Vice President’s run in 2020; after the race, she had more positive things to say about America’s second female President. Snowe currently maintains an active life, adhering to the "Sandersian" theory of aging, that, in essence, “retirement equals rust,” as she currently works as a senior fellow for the Bipartisan Policy Center as Chair of its Commission on Political Reform; she also enjoys spending time with her husband, children, and grandchildren.


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First elected to the US Senate in 1992 at the age of 42, Locke gained national attention for his efforts to address and lower anti-Asian violence and Asian-American hatred and attacks on those communities during the build-up to, execution of, and socio-economic/geopolitical fallout from the Second Korean War. For these actions, Locke was rumored to be a potential candidate for President in 1996 and 2000, and a potential candidate for Vice President in 1996, 2000 and 2008. After Grammer won the White House in 2012, Gary Locke believed his party had to go in a more moderate direction. In 2016, the Democratic party voters agreed (or, as was common for Locke, many mistakenly believed that he was much more progressive that he really was due to him hailing from a progressive state), but Locke failed to convince people in the general election to vote out the popular incumbent. Still serving in the US Senate, he remains a popular figure among most Asian American communities.
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Index 8 – Wikiboxes (Part 2)
Index 8 – Wikiboxes (Part 2)

(Still-Alive Vice Presidents)​


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The "grandfather" of America's Direct Democracy movement led the charge to implement the National Initiative Amendment, and has accused every single Presidential administration since the 1960s of being too interventionist to varying degrees (even Bellamy, Jackson and Wellstone a few times). Retiring from public life following his landslide loss in the 1984 election, the "Gravelite" wing of the Democratic party that he had led was vindicated with the election of the progressive Carol Bellamy to the Presidency just four years later (however, as he was still unpopular in D.C., Gravel declined serving in Bellamy's cabinet over concerns that conservative Democrats would block his confirmation to any "meaningful" position), and soon after moved to California. After almost a decade of maintaining a low profile - quietly promoting local, statewide, regional, and national candidates and policies close to his ideology while serving on the board of directors from several progressive non-profit organizations - the "destructive [and] dangerous nature" of Dinger's full term convinced him to run for the Senate again. Despite accusations from pretty much all of his opponents that he was a carpetbagger, Gravel proved to be much more popular in The Golden State than he had been in Alaska, winning the 1998 primary and general elections by comfortable margins and easily winning re-election in 2004, 2010, and 2016.

There was subsequent talk of progressive activists drafting Gravel for the Presidential nomination in 2000, but nothing came of it. Under Presidents and Wellstone, Gravel demonstrated a calmer demeanor than the one he had shown during his self-described "pigheaded years" of the 1970s and late 1960s (later acknowledging that his first run for the Presidency, as a freshman US Congress in 1968, was "an idiotic public display of ego stroking" more so than a protest bid to US troops remaining in Indochina). During his second time in the Senate, nearly 30 years after leaving the Senate and roughly 20 years after leaving the Vice Presidency, Gravel managed to work better with his fellow lawmakers to promote progressive policies, though he still butted heads with conservatives regardless of party label. This led to talk of Gravel potentially resigning from the Senate in early 2009 in exchange for a cabinet position in the Wellstone administration, only for Gravel to decide against such a move.

Through Gravel's more productive efforts in the Senate, though, not only was he able to see his National Initiative idea become a reality; not only did the NIA become a part of the US Constitution, but Gravel got to see it pass RCV implementation for all US Presidential elections after 2016 via the US holding its first national initiative vote in 2018. Now considered an elder statesman looked up to by many within the party, and having made peace with the fact that he never became President despite running for the job five times (in 1968, 1972, 1980, 1984, and 2000), Gravel recently announced that he will not run for a fifth consecutive term in 2022, and is looking forward to what he hopes will be a lengthy, but still active, retirement period.


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With so many Republicans falling from grace during the 1980s - Lukens, Packwood, Helms, Gingrich and of course, Denton - Alexander is often overlooked, lost in the crowd of crooks, as his unrelated scandal was pretty tame by comparison; some even allege that he could have very easily refused to resign and publicly ignore or downplay the controversy, and thus could have become President of the United States just 16 grueling months later. Regardless, once out of D.C., he re-entered private practice in the 1990s and (apart from endorsing Billy McCormack in 1988 and Estus Pirkle in 1992) pretty much kept a low profile. He even lived in Australia for a few years during the turn of the twentieth century to work for an international law firm, and for a while even considered moving there permanently to avoid the negative media attention that he repeatedly experienced back in the states. However, his wife and children convinced him to return to Tennessee in early 2002, coincidently right before President Jackson placed limits on air travel at the start of the SARS Global Pandemic.

In the late 2000s decade, Alexander received media attention when he led a major lawsuit concerning his ancestor's homeland of Ireland, with members of the Taoiseach opposing foreign businesses using the country as a tax shelter. Impressed by Alexander's diplomatic skills during the court case, Grammer appointed him Ambassador to Ireland. Alexander enjoyed the suddenly positive media coverage of his work at the American Embassy in Dublin, but he stepped down after less than two years in the office because he found private practice to be more lucrative and exciting. According to a 2021 interview, Alexander was reportedly on good terms with Denton, Iacocca, Dinger and Brown, but less so with Kemp, Bellamy, Jackson, Wellstone and even Grammer, surprisingly. Alexander currently still heads a large law firm in Nashville, Tennessee, but is beginning to spend more time with his friends, wife, children, and grandchildren.


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Often considered one of America's most forgettable modern Vice Presidents, Polonko left the military after surviving multiple injuries in the Cuba War, with subsequent concerns with veteran assistance leading him to entering politics in 1967. After quickly ascending to the US House of Representatives, he formed a close professional and personal friendship with fellow lawmaker Jack French Kemp of the neighboring state of New York, which of course led to accusations of nepotism when Kemp nominated him for the Vice Presidency (when really it was to counter Kemp's "weakness" when it came to foreign policy/military and veteran affairs). Regardless, the two worked well together during the Kemp years, and maintain their friendship long after leaving office.

It is currently still up for debate whether or not he would have been selected to be Kemp's running mate had "JFK" secured the GOP nomination in 1988, as selecting a more electorally-friendly nominee was discussed by members of Kemp's inner circle at the time, but both of the men in question repeatedly denied that a "replacement scheme" was afoot. After floating the idea of running for President in 1992 if Kemp did not attempt a comeback, Polonko served as an unofficial advisor to Presidents Iacocca and Dinger, then essentially retired from public life in 2001, commenting on public affairs and issues only once in a while, and mostly through op-eds instead of through interviews. He is currently enjoying retirement life, spending time with friends and family members while residing in southern New Jersey.


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The highest-ranking African-American in politics at the time, VP Meredith was almost always referred to as "independent"-minded, and for good reason. Meredith often feuded with members of his own party for either promoting "racist" policies or for not being conservative enough. His unique brand of Republicanism was not for everyone, which became clear when he ran for President in the GOP primaries of 2004 (though the fact that his platform was very similar to the one on which he ran for the Presidency back in 1980 demonstrated the consistency of his unique political ideology). In pre-primary polling, he was the undisputed frontrunner, but once he began to run and the Republican voters became more aware of his open support of minority groups (yet was willing to work with openly racist individuals to "get other things done") and his willingness to work with conservative Democrats, the party base shifted to backing a more populist-sounding candidate. Characterized as having a "fiery" and confrontational demeanor and personality, he refused running for President again, and only occasionally comments on contemporary political concerns. He currently resides in Mississippi with his wife, and reportedly enjoys spending time with her and his children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren.


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Frequently called "the greatest President we never had," Ross's legion of fans has only grown over the years. His supporters celebrate his life story, from overcoming war wounds from his time serving in the Air Force during the Cuba War to founding successful educational programs over the years to his many accomplishments while serving in public offices over the years. Praise is usually given most prominently to his support for the arts; for his passionate promotion of renewable energy and conservation efforts; for his pragmatic work on children's health, disability rights, and Veterans Affairs; and for his firm opposition to bloodshed, violence and warfare. But arguably the most interesting thing about Ross the Boss is his ability to win over people from such diverse walks of life and conflicting ideologies by focusing on unifying "bread-and-butter" issues, helped by his universally well-known soothing voice and persistent promotion of peace and love. Naturally, it has been reported the he is on friendly terms with all the living former Presidents and VPs, with the sole exception being Dinger (the two men have reportedly never met, allegedly of "scheduling conflicts"). While still concerned that his leukemia will resurface someday, Ross is currently enjoying a refreshingly humble retirement in Florida; Painter Bob still paints landscapes as a relaxing hobby (once remarking "I play a bit of golf from time to time, but I really much prefer these kind of strokes instead"), and still interacts with fans and supporters both at local events and ontech.


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Rising quickly out of obscurity only to just as quickly return to it, Dumanis was America's first BLUTAGO VP, but appears as a trivia question more so than a domestic policy correspondent on TV networks, reportedly due to her alleged relative inexperience. While no pundits seem to believe that she would be a major player in the 2024 Presidential primaries should she enter them, Dumanis could still run for public again, possibly for Governor of California in 2022. She does after all, reportedly, have many political connections, and got along well with Harley Brown and most members of his 71-day Presidency. However, at this point, she seems to be enjoying an advance on a book deal, and networking more with allies of law-and-order efforts moreso than with political donor. Then again, nothing about the future is set in stone, so for all we know, Dumanis will someday soon return to national attention as a serious candidate. Until then, one can only wait and see how certain things unfold.


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Our current VP is partnering with state and D.C. lawmakers and justice department heads to lead the charge to implement civil justice and police reform measures, despite intense opposition from certain social and political groups, individuals and organizations. Raoul, the U.S.'s first African-American Democratic VP and the nation's second African-American VP overall, currently enjoys approval ratings that are hovering at around roughly 54%.

Bonus: Wikiboxes For Major-Party Vice-Presidential Nominees


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Green was a “dark horse” candidate for Vice President; selected due to Glenn working well him with on fundraising efforts outside of the halls and walls of congress, Green was young, energetic, and was from an electorally rich state. Glenn’s aides suggested selecting someone who was not such a political unknown, but Glenn ultimately stuck with Green as his choice for running mate. However, despite what The Houston Chronicle had to say positively about him, “Another Lyndon Johnson” and "A Rising Star From The Lone Star State" he was not. Meredith mopped the floor with him and his moderateness during the sole VP debate of 1996, in what proved to be one of many errors on John Glenn’s part.

After the election, Green faced an uncertain political future as there were few options for higher office. Texas’ US Senate elections were not until in 2000 and 2002, and Governor Cisneros had already made it clear that he would seek a second term in 1998; so, the private conversations turned to the next presidential election, only for Green to publicly announce in early 1998 that he would not run in that year and instead pursued another House term. Then another. And another...

Having graciously faded into political obscurity, Green served on several committees while being overshadowed, overlooked, and overall forgotten by the general public during the Jackson and Wellstone administration. All the while, Green stayed comfortably in his seat. It was only until after the 2006 midterms that he rediscovered his old urge to seek higher office, and began re-inventing himself. In 2007, he reintroduced himself to the American people once again, shifting noticeably to the left while still being in the moderate lane. After considering running for an open US Senate seat in 2008 to replace the retiring Kay Bailey Hutchison, Green announced in 2011 that he was running for the other US senate in 2012. However, he lost the nomination to former Governor Henry Cisneros, attempting a political comeback of his own; Cisneros in turn lost to freshman incumbent Kay Granger.

Leaving congress after 24 years in the House, Green quickly found work as a corporate lobbyist. Despite this, he ran for the Democratic nomination for his old congressional seat in 2018 on a “progressive” platform; he finished in fourth place with 11% of the vote. He currently resides in Dallas.


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Chosen to “beef up” Goetz’s weak spot that was actual military experience (having served not served on any foreign-policy -related committees during his time in the Senate), Bargewell had, until just three years ago, spent his entire adult life in the US military.

Bargewell joined the US Army right out of high school, and just in time to participate in Operation Spicy Strychnine (a.k.a. Operation Fried Charlie 2.0), which impressively overthrew the government of communist North Vietnam in 1967. He then served in Cambodia, Laos, Angola, Uganda, Libya and Nicaragua. As a Lieutenant General, Bargewell’s troop coordination work during the Second Korean War led to him becoming a General in 1997. Upon the anti-military Jesse Jackson being elected President, Bargewell decided to retire “in protest” in 2001. From 2001 to 2004 (resigning to serve as Goetz’s running mate), Bargwell served as the Dean of the US Military Academy. During that time, he supported and endorsed several “interventionist” politicians, leading to him catching the attention of the national GOP and former Senator Goetz by the spring of 2004.

Bargewell’s selection, though, backfired significantly, largely because, while he was an enthusiastic speech-giver, he was a rather poor one-on-one debater. During the sole VP debate against incumbent Vice President Wellstone, Bargewell was able to discuss at length his experience with military affairs, including VA and national defense, but he fumbled terribly on questions about the nuances of domestic security, and struggled miserably to answer even basic questions about the economy and how domestic institutions and basic government systems functioned.

After the election was over, Bargewell moved to Alabama and declined seeking public office “ever again,” comparing it to “ordering an Army-man to do a Navy-man’s job.” While most view Bargewell being placed on the ticket as a mistake (with some suggesting Goetz should have gone with a more experienced candidate such as George Allen or Helen Chenoweth), Goetz is still on friendly terms with the retired General, as he blames the Jackson/Wellstone ticket for the poor performance of the Goetz/Bargewell ticket. Bargewell is currently enjoying retirement in his home state of Alabama [1].


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Beginning his career as a door-to-door handyman before founding his own mechanical contracting business, Johnson shifted to politics in the early 1990s by becoming the pot-smoking, bike-riding, mountain-climbing, pro-business, tax-cutting, environmentalist Mayor of Albuquerque. Johnson then made headlines for completely legalizing the use of recreation drugs such as marijuana, and at the height of the War on Recreadrugs, no less. Openly opposing the recreadrug policies of President Dinger (a fellow Republican of his) at first made him unpopular, but by the 2000 election, rising calls for legalizing marijuana led to Johnson being praised as a visionary who had been a few years ahead of his time. Capitalizing off the fame, Johnson – after a quick trip to the Himalayas to successfully trip Mt. Everest – was narrowly elected Governor of New Mexico in 2002, which was a bad year for Republicans, especially libertarian ones. Despite this, Johnson, a.k.a. “Governor Veto” proved be a capable leader; limited to one consecutive term at a time, he left office in 2007 and announced a bid for President a few months later. He lost the primaries, but as a “consolation prize” of sorts, the ultimate nominee (the moderate centrist US Senator Olympia Snowe) selected him (over US Senator Lyle Hillyard of Utah) to be her running mate in an attempt to win over libertarians and in turn secure several states out west. In exchange for her support, Johnson’s signature “FairTax” proposal was added to the party platform, but Johnson focused and campaigned on it much more than Snowe did.

After losing the 2008 election, Johnson ran for another gubernatorial term in 2010 and won by a larger-than-expected margin (though some believed he received sympathy votes after his wife died unexpectedly earlier in the year, most credit his name recognition and the pro-Republican trends of 2010 for his victory); this victory and the GOP ticket securing the popular vote in 2008 convinced Johnson that he could win in 2012. However, Johnson failed to dominate the GOP primaries after candidates Grammer and Brown were able to siphon away from him more than enough donations, endorsements, airtime and, ultimately, votes. However, as an attendee of the 2012, he was able to endorse Grammer in a crucial moment for the party and the nominee, ensuring the libertarian faction he led fell behind Grammer. In exchange, Grammer became the US Secretary of the Interior in 2017 (after Johnson finished up his gubernatorial term in early 2015).

Johnson reported has stayed on good terms with Snowe, Grammer and even the “prickly” Harley Brown. As Johnson’s FairTax proposal had received attention during the 2000s decade but failed to be made into a reality after the 2008 and 2012 election cycle, Johnson is currently pushing for it to be voted on in a National Initiative, recently saying “Hey, it worked for Mike Gravel.” He currently resides in New Mexico.


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Robert P. “Bob” Casey Jr. is the son of a former Governor of Pennsylvania who ran for President in 1972 and served in the US Senate from 1975 until his death 25 years later. “Junior” was appointed to the seat soon afterwards. Closer to the center than the moderate Locke, Casey was selected for running mate in 2016 in order to try and appeal to Harley Brown voters and to voters in the Rust Belt. However, due to his “privileged” background, he failed to connect to the voters. He after performing well in the sole 2016 VP debate against Brown, Casey failed to shake off the “elitist” label that Brown was able to slap onto him, caring not for the irony of Brown serving under one of the wealthiest US Presidents in history. After some consideration, Casey decided not to run for President in 2020, believing that the Democratic party was “moving very far away from me,” or rather, farther to the left of him.


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Jennifer Sandra Johnson checks a lot of boxes for the GOP. A conservative, non-white (of Caribbean descent), charismatic female from an electorally rich state and boasting impressive experience in business, governance, and the military? It’s no wonder that she was labelled a “rising star” as early as 2010. Her parents moved from Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, to Paducah, Kentucky in March 1959 [2], then moved to Long Island when she was eight years old. After attending college in New York and Florida, Johnson spent decades in the US Navy and saw combat in Libya and the northern half of present-day United Korea. She and Harley Brown got along very well on the campaign trail, and many credit her presence there for keeping the election from being the blowout that many Democrats had expected it to be. Upon losing the election, Johnson remarked “don’t count my chickens just yet” when a reporter asked if this was it for her political career on the national stage; indeed, there is talk that she is planning on a run for the Presidency in 2024. And early polls suggest that she has a real shot of winning the primaries.

[1] IOTL, Bargewell died in 2019 at the age of 71 in a gardening accident, when a lawnmower he was riding “rolled over an embankment behind his house in Eufaula, Alabama” ( ); I feel like that would be butterflied away, right?
[2] ITTL, her parents moved to the US roughly eight years earlier than in OTL due to the number of KFC outlets in Kentucky in 1959 being higher in number than IOTL, and so her parents are able to find work in the US much sooner; her parents arrive in the US when her mother is three months pregnant with her (this is why there were no eligibility issues when she ran for VP ITTL, save for a few liberal “fringe” technetters who claimed that she was born in Trinidad and Tobago, but they received little attention and were not really taken seriously at all).
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We all knew it was coming, but it’s still sad to see this AH coming to an end. Thank you for all the hard work and creating such an amazing universe and narrative

“No matter how much one reads, the whole story can never be told.”

Lemony Snicket [1]

I’d just like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who read and enjoyed this timeline. I want to also thank all who contributed to this TL, from PMing me and making in-thread recommendations, to simply voting in the polls.

Amid the hours spent perusing through hundreds of sources, dealing with behind-the-scenes real-life drama, struggling with writer’s block, and addressing other issues and situations, one major thing that got me through these past three years was knowing that somewhere in the world – in the UK, in California, even in Australia – somebody was looking forward to this TL’s next chapter.

I believe a Special Thanks are in order for the following people (in alphabetical order):

@ajm8888 – for helping me with many aspects of the 1990s chapters, especially with Japan and the “Tommy Gun” Thompson character

@DTF955Baseballfan – for using his encyclopedic knowledge of sports information to contribute to several chapters

@Gentleman Biaggi – for giving me the push I needed to get started in the first place

@Igeo654 – for all his help with many aspects of the chapters of the late 1980s/early 1990s concerning the UK and pop-culture, especially music and TV

@Kennedy Forever – for his many contributions to the chapters, especially for things concerning Australia, and for being a good and encouraging friend

@Ogrebear, @Unknown, @historybuff, @Wendell, @Brky2020, @Sunstone77, @Bookmark1995, and @PNWKing and all others who commented on this TL.

I also want to thank those who contributed to the article and the photos thread (links in the prologue). Even though some bullet points in the tropes article are a tiny bit inaccurate (it's "Kennedy News Network," not "Kable New Network"; it's the "Ms. Arkansas" Scandal, not the "Miss Arkansas" Scandal; this TL is not "millions of words" long, it's only roughly 1,420,000 words long (roughly 1,520,000 if you include the prologue, epilogue and indexes); minor things like that), I still very much appreciate the fact that somebody/somebodies actually went through all the trouble of making that page and writing up all those bullet points; amazing!

I am just so overwhelmed by the positive support that this literary treatise has received, and I just want to express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to you all.

This TL’s POD of Harley Sanders Jr. not dying at 9:30 AM on September 15, 1932 was finalized in February 2018, but the idea for the TL itself didn’t pop into my head until December 2017, when @Blair posted a wikibox showing Harland Sanders being elected President through a 1968 contigency election; when someone pointed out a plothole of sorts, he replied with something along the lines of “Look, I just wanted to make this man President.” That piqued my interest, and pretty soon a TL outline was born.

In fact, here is an early draft of the US Presidents that I originally planned to have in this TL:

1965-1973: 36) Harland David “The Colonel” Sanders Sr. (R-KY; 1890-1980) – Gov 1955-1959, KFC CEO 1950-1955/1959-1964
1964: Sanders/Scranton over Johnson/Humphrey and Patterson/Bryant
1968: Sanders/Scranton over Kennedy/Sawyer

Bryant and Patterson got reversed after realizing how the Cuban War would lead to a refugee crisis in Florida, which would boost Bryant’s national profile more than Patterson, and that Patterson would be an olive branch to voters and was not so far-right conservative as Bryant and Bryant's anti-Cuban/pro-segregation base.

1973-1977: 37) Maurice Robert “Mike” Gravel (D-AK; b. 1930) – US Sen 1969-73, US HoR 1967-69 (youngest President ever, even younger than TR!)
1972: Gravel/Moss over Scranton/Stepovich

I really wanted to go with a young candidate to contrast the Colonel’s youth. Mondale, Bayh and Paul Simon were also considered. I ultimately decided to let polls decide who was the nominee this year because Gravel ascending so quickly felt too unrealistic even for this TL and I wanted to know what you the readers thought about such a prospect.

1977-1978: 38) Thruston Ballard Morton (R-KY; 1907-1978) – US Sen 1957-1977 (assassinated alongside Speaker Boggs just weeks after death of VP Bolton was killed in a car crash)
1976: Morton/Bolton over Gravel/Edwards

Morton and Ohio Congressman Bolton both dying felt way too grim and dark for this kind of TL, so a scrapped it. Furthermore, Morton didn’t seem like the type of guy who would run for President – IOTL, when Vietnam escalated, instead of running for President to end it, he basically suffered depression over it and retired from the Senate.

1978-1985: 39) Barry Morris Goldwater (R-AZ; 1909-2001) – President pro tempore of the Senate 1977-1978, Sent 1957-1978
1980: Goldwater/Lukens over Rafferty/Crane, Hollings/Pickle and Chisholm/Lucey

While Goldwater is an interesting person to write about, I later decided that this was way too unrealistic.

1985-1991: 40) Donald Edgar “Buz” Lukens (R-OH; 1931-2010) – US VP 1977-85, Gov 1971-77, US HoR 1967-1971 (impeached over scandals)
1984: Lukens/Agnew over Kennedy-Shriver/Bumpers
1988: Lukens/Robertson over Nader/Cisneros

Too cringy for me to write so much about, but I left him in the 1980 poll just in case people were interested. So instead of becoming President, he became a “supporting player” in the TL. In a later draft, North Dakota Governor Aloha Eagles was written down in this point in the TL as serving as America's first female President from 1981 to 1989, but I wasn't sure if this was too unrealistic even with the First Ark Wave in mind, so I ultimately decided to place her and other interesting potential Presidents in that aforementioned poll for the 1980 primaries.

1991-1993: 41) Marion Gordon “Pat” Robertson (R-VA; b. 1930) – US VP 1989-1990, pastor/televangelist

Again, too unrealistic. Plus, 16 years of 4 Republican Presidents felt too much like a GOPwank.

1993-1997: 42) Martha Layne Hill Collins (D-KY; b. 1936) – US Sen 1989-1993, Gov 1983-1987
1992: Collins/Simon over Robertson/Dole

Hence why she was first mentioned all the way back in a 1950s chapter, why she was heavily discussed in 1987, and why she was included in the 1988 chapter.

1997-2005: 43) Jim Edgar (R-IL; b. 1946) – Gov 1991-1996
1996: Edgar/Rowe over Collins/Simon
2000: Edgar/Rowe over Folsom/Wheat

Thus why he had cameos in chapters as far back as the 1950s, and 1970s.

2005-2009: 44) Maurice Robert “Mike” Gravel (D-AK; b. 1930) – US Pres 1973-1977, US Sen 2001-2005
2004: Gravel/Jackson over Dunford/Dole

I figured Gravel winning the first time would possibly come off as being too close to the edge of ASB Territory, and that him returning to office 32 years after leaving it felt too much like a Gravelwank.

In a second draft I replaced him with African-American politician Wellington Webb (D-CO), which is why that individual received so many little bits here and there throughout the 1990s and 2000s chapters (those were edited pieces left over from that stage of development, which was before I decided to let the Presidential nominees be determined via polls so you the readers got to choose who you read about ITTL).

2009-2017: 45) Lisa Perez Jackson (D-NJ; b. 1962) – first Black President; US VP 2005-2009, US Sen 1997-2005, admin 1993-1996
2008: Jackson/Dodd over Dole/Gregg
2012: Jackson/Dodd over Tancredo/Allen

2017-2019: 46) Stephen McDannell “Steve” Hillenburg (R-CA; 1961-2019) – Seafood King CEO 1991-2014 (died from ALS)
2016: Hillenburg/Miller over Dodd/Durbin

I realized while researching him and his personal life that he’s way too much of a private, shy, and introverted person to ever mount a national campaign. It seems I also misjudged for how long he’d live. And I think what ended up happening with him in the final draft is way more interesting, anyway!

2019-2021: 47) Joseph Wayne “Joe” Miller (R-KS; b. 1967) – US VP 2017-2019, US Sen 2009-2017, state rep 2005-2009

Not exciting enough.

2021-present (2021): 48) Tammy Suzanne Green Baldwin (D-WI; b. ’62) – 3rd female President; US Sen 2013-21, US HoR 1999-2013, state assembly 1993-9
2020: Baldwin/Brown over Miller/Bevin

Furthermore, the original draft was not meant to be this long. It was supposed to be just 11 chapters – a TLIAW/M sort of thing! But, during the development process, a technical error in April 2018 caused me to lose much of what I had written, causing to have to basically rewrite large chunks (including the entire opening chapters) from scratch/memory. But you know what? That turned out to be a blessing in disguise, because it lead to me adding more and more details and ideas to the TL, fleshing out parts I would have just flown by originally.

One more thing, I would like to take this moment to apologize to everyone for all the typos, spelling and grammar errors, and wrong autocorrects that can be found throughout this treatise. I'll do my best to fix them as I prepare this TL for the Finished TLs section. I would also like to apologize in advance for any videos that stop being playable for whatever reason, as those kind of things are very bothersome, frustrating and annoying. On both counts, I appreciate the feedback and patience that you all have shown in helping me address these linguistic and technical issues.

In conclusion:

In the past three-and-a-half years, I’ve graduated from college, landed a job ( – ask for Georgie!), learned a whole lot of interesting information about this wonderful world that we get to live in, written something that’s much longer than Stephen King’s “The Stand,” and have made some friends along the way too. I won’t be forgetting this period of my life for quite a long while, and I have many of you to thank for that.

So, once again, from the bottom of my heart:

Thanks, everyone :)

[1] Courtesy of @Kennedy Forever; thanks again, buddy!

Now, if I recall it correctly, what I need to do now is start a thread in the Finished TL section and fill it with as many of the chapters as I can, and that will flag a mod who will or won’t approve of it. Apparently, also, the fewer posts in the thread, the better, for some reason. Given this is primarily about Colonel Sanders, who is famous for his 11 Secret Herbs And Spices, I was thinking of grouping all the chapters together into a total of 11 postings (11-12 chapters in each post (Post 1: Prologue-to-Chapter 10, Post 2: Chapters 11-to-21, Post 3: Chapter 22-to-32, etc.)), 1 posting for each ingredient. Would this all be alright, @CalBear or whomever this concerns? Also: Is there a picture limit? Should I include the complimentary “index” pieces as well or just the actual Chapters? Thanks in advance!
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You know, somewhere in that TL on an Alt History Netsite, your counterpart is finishing off his ''Camelot: A John F. Kennedy Timeline'', relaying the events of our world while the rest of us wish we could cross over and live in the comparatively better timeline he inhabits. I've loved seeing this grow into what it is now. Thank you for everything man. We won't forget this work for a very long time and it was a pleasure contributing to it.
@gap80 you're very welcome mate! Seriously I cannot sing your praises enough for completing this. I remember first stumbling across it just as President Lee Iaccoca had been assassinated and blown away by how detailed it was not just in regards to the US but other countries as well. I appreciate the work you have put into this and how thoroughly researched this obviously is. Your welcome for knowledge about Australia btw. :)
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The term 'mad lad' can best be described to these treats! All of the House Reps?!! My god man, that is insane! This timeline has been amazing, one that I'm going to come back to time and time again!
*pours out a KFC Famous Bowl in memory of this TL*

Wonderful TL, gap80. I can see myself coming back to read this one again and again!
Speaking as someone who found this TL fairly late in its development, I'm very sorry to see it end.

Still, it was a great read, and in many ways definitely a much better world to live in than ours. Thanks so much for all your hard work.
One thing I forgot, @gap80: Wrestler Grizzly Smith (the father of Jake Roberts (1), Rockin' Robin (2) and Sam Houston, with the two ArkWave movements, likely gets exposed for his abuse of children (including his own--Google him sometime; he makes Fritz Von Erich look like the best father in the world, and that isn't an exaggeration) in the 1980s in TTL and thrown in prison...

(1) When you find out about how Jake was conceived and his childhood, it's no wonder Roberts was so screwed up as an adult...
(2) Whom he sexually abused; this was in an episode of Dark Side of the Ring...
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Ah, one little error. Frank Brogan appears to be serving in the House of Representatives at the same time he is also Lieutenant Governor of Florida. It's nothing to worry about, but I did want to point it out.