Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

Nice update and looking forward to the Epilogue.

I am going to miss this TL.

Thanks for the answers but, on 4 I was actually asking what would be the TTL's equivalent of those cases. Similar to how they might say the Cactus Jack was this TTL's Pulse nightclub attack or Lee Iacocca is this TTL's Kennedy Assassination.

I understand if this is a matter you don't want to focus on.
 
Justice Floyd? That's cool.
Thanks, I thought so too
I can't believe that it's really gonna be all over soon. This TL has been around for so long. It will be missed. :(
Thanks!
I'm interested in the whereabouts of the following:
Mitt Romney
Brian Williams
Chris Wallace
Romney was mentioned briefly as being elected to the US Senate from Michigan in 1994 but lost re-election in 2000. He later attempted a rematch in 2006 but lost the GOP nomination in an upset and then afterwards considered but decided against running for Governor in 2014. He's even wealthier here than IOTL.
Williams was mentioned as a prominent TV news anchor in 2003; here, without the War in Iraq, he continued to be a trusted face in news until his retirement in 2019.
Wallace still got into journalism, but here became better at the behind-the-camera aspect of news, working as a manager and director before rising in prominence during the 1990s; here, he fell from grace after receiving much criticism/backlash for his poor job at moderating the first 2004 Presidential debate between Jesse Jackson and Bernie Goetz, and currently serves as an advisor for the Board of NBC Universal but still serves as an on-air news consultant/analyst from time to time.
Sad to see this wonder piece of work coming to an end. Fingers crossed we keep getting the occasional update from time to time
I don't know, we'll see.
Nooooo! It can't end I need more! George Floyd on the Supreme Court was a stroke of brilliance my friend. I must say it felt slightly strange reading about TTL's 2021. I really enjoyed the rankings of the Presidents of this TL and the Queen and all the President's she's meet. Prince Phillip still passes away in TTL:( I also liked that the Green New Deal was able to pass. Something tells me Pritt might overtake Wellstone as the most progressive President. The epilogue.... I wouldn't be ready!
Thank you for the compliments, dude!
While I'll be sad to see this end, better to go out on top!
Thanks, I hope I do (meaning I hope the epilogue isn't a letdown)
Well damn, this is great! One last stroke of brilliance having George Floyd be on the Supreme Court, terrific. I am scared to read the epilogue, for then it will be all over and what shall I do then?! Nah, I kid, this is good stuff. I'm curious to see what, if anything, you'll be doing after this. Whatever it is, I'll definitely be reading it!
Thanks. I haven't decided on what I'll be doing after this.
Loving how you brought it full circle by having the Colonel's great-great-grandson dedicating a school to him.

George Floyd as a Supreme Court Justice... there are no words I can use to properly describe the brilliance of this.

Liking the list of the Queen's relationships with the Presidents.

BTW, had a few pop culture questions. During the rundown of TTL's version of the Nightmare on Elm St franchise, you mentioned crossovers with Leprechaun and Texas Chainsaw Massacre. So, what are those franchises like ITTL? Oh, and also Child's Play, if that hasn't been covered yet (I can't remember if it has or not).
Thanks!

Thank you!

I'm glad you enjoyed it!

Leprechaun is similar to OTL. To showcase Davis' acting range, though, one of the sequels is a prequel showing Davis' origin story, and he plays both the Leprechaun and a "good twin" character in a movie often compared to Willow even though there's more differences than similarities between the two. BTW, Willow got a sequel in 1991 but it was about as good and as well-received as OTL's Terminator 3. TCM only had four sequels (1980, 1986, 1992, 1998), but a reboot in 2019 but very well, so a sequel to it is coming out soon ITTL. Child's Play isn't a franchise here; instead, the premise of a doll possessed by the soul of a killer is used in an episode of one of the Twilight Zone reboots.

I'm wondering if you could finish off this timeline by making another list of politicians like the one on page 52.
I'll be posting many such lists in the "Index" chapters which will be posted after the epilogue
I can not say how much you deserve for the time and effect you put into every post here. Thank you.
Thank you for the compliment!
Awesome update, as always. The research you do is very impressive. Nice idea with a version of George Floyd as an associate justice.
Thanks!

I wonder how this will be different in terms of the intro? Anyway this was a fun read.
The line-up of photos would probably be something close to this:
The 1960s - Berlin Wall, beatniks, Castro, the Civil Rights Act, shoutniks, Salad Oil stock crash, the Beatles, Colonel Sanders election victory, MLK, Vietnam warfare, the Fall of Hanoi, the moon landing
The 1970s - the Ms. Arkansas Scandal, the Oasis raid, the Attica massacre, Archie Bunker, Mary Tyler Moore, oil crisis, PM Foot, disco, Bicentennial, Trojan Tower Disaster, the first Chicken Dinner Summit, revolution in Romania
The 1980s - Denton, J.R. Ewing, Cheers, UT-Russian Warfare, Steve Jobs, BLUTAGO rights movement, David Bowie, Chretien, Soviet Union collapse, Mandela, Buz Lukens, Denton's resignation, Back to the Future, Bellamy
The 1990s - rise of the technet, John Lennon, Iacocca, Futurama, Bill Gates, Iacocca's assassination, KW2, Cartels/Recreadrug Epidemic, Violence in Mexico, Rap, Friends
The 2000s - Jesse Jackson election victory, SARS, safezoning, the Marstronaut Mission, Goetz/Goetz's defeat, Katrina, recreadrugs, warfare in Africa, evolving technology, Paul Wellstone election victory
What is Dr. Seuss's life like in this timeline?
Given that The Cat and the Hat came out in 1957, his bibliography is going to be very similar. ITTL, he passes away in 1997, with Diffendoofer Day being the last book he finished; I could see him also publishing something to address rising anti-Asian sentiment brought on by tensions with North Korea during the 1990s, ot maybe something addressing Mexican stereotypes during the War on Recreadrugs. I could see him being called out earlier than IOTL for earlier negative depictions of cultures and responding by re-publishing those books with new/re-drawn images he's personally fixed up or has supervised being amended. It's possible that his first wife could receive mental help, but given the stigma of mental health at the time, it's unlikely.
Wow what a good chapter. I was not expecting George Floyd to become a Supreme Court Justice. What a wild ride. Glad Mondale got to become president ITTL. Also WV being the Vermont of the South IMO could be explored more. The thought of Appalachian states becoming suburbanized is really interesting. Imagining the States of Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, and West Virginia being a Silicon Valley analogue would be a cool idea in another TL. I’m not an expert on Silicon Valley so my idea probably isn’t plausible IMO. I’ve thought about that one line way too much.

The Epilogue will probably be great. Can’t wait to see what you do next!
Thanks, thank you for comments, I really appreciate them!
Nice update and looking forward to the Epilogue.

I am going to miss this TL.

Thanks for the answers but, on 4 I was actually asking what would be the TTL's equivalent of those cases. Similar to how they might say the Cactus Jack was this TTL's Pulse nightclub attack or Lee Iacocca is this TTL's Kennedy Assassination.

I understand if this is a matter you don't want to focus on.
I hope I don't disappoint.
Thanks!
Oh, ok.
Thank you for understand.

And thanks for all comments, everyone! :D
 
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PNWKing

Banned
What would happen to the following people?:
Lin-Manuel Miranda
John Tesh
Cokie Roberts
Keith Moon
Paula Deen
Gerald Ford
Kurt Cobain
Howard Dean

What have some of the memorable Burger Czar ads been?

Has there been a show like Entertainment Tonight or Hard Copy ITTL?

What is the history of Ford ITTL?
 
What would happen to the following people?:
Lin-Manuel Miranda
John Tesh
Cokie Roberts
Keith Moon
Paula Deen
Gerald Ford
Kurt Cobain
Howard Dean

What have some of the memorable Burger Czar ads been?

Has there been a show like Entertainment Tonight or Hard Copy ITTL?

What is the history of Ford ITTL?
Lin-Manuel Miranda – If he still is born in early 1980, he likely wouldn’t have the same first name, given that it was inspired by a poem about the Vietnam, which went much differently ITTL; if he doesn’t follow his mother into politics (which he might, given he would have come of age in the late 1990s, at the height of the War on Recreadrugs and with the KW2 happening when he was 16, he might express anti-war and anti-racism sentiments through either musicals or political activism or both), his first musical might still be In the Heights (1999), so it might be some historical piece drawing parallels between the climate of the 1990s and an earlier era (um, Civil War, maybe?); where his career goes from there, though, I have no idea. Anyone have any thoughts on this?

John Tesh – already answered at the end of Chapter 119

Cokie Roberts – award-winning/highly-celebrated news anchor; worked for NPR until switching to The Overmyer Network in the 1980s; shared an Emmy with Hunter S. Thompson (1937-2014) in 1991 for co-writing the political documentary “Fear, Loathing, and Tacos: The 1988 Election,” and served as a superviser on the aforementioned movie about her sister; passed away last year from long-term health issues.

Keith Moon – given that his self-destructive tendencies were a deeply-ingrained part of himself and his personality, my guess is he still dies young

Paula Deen – already answered at the end of Chapter 119

Gerald Ford – unsuccessfully challenged Charles Halleck for speakership in January 1965; because Republicans won back the White House, a majority of House Republicans approved of Halleck’s leadership; Halleck did not appreciated the challenge, and endorsed another Republican who successfully challanged Ford for re-nomination in 1966; Ford later ran for the US Senate but lost, and retired from elective politics to instead serve on the board of several corporations and, years later, work for the Martha Griffiths Institute of Public Policy at the University of Michigan; he died in 2001 from heath issues.

Kurt Cobain – advocate of mental wellness and gastronomic health awareness since the 1990s; his music career keeps evolving as he looks for “the next fresh sound” to keep his music from going stale, and as a result, his discography is a very diverse compilation of unique tunes and vibes reflective of many musical styles from the 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s while still distinctly standing out on its own; floated the idea running for President in 2020 with Washington state and former bandmate Governor Krist Novoselic as his running mate (either seriously or jokingly, it’s still debated), but instead endorsed Jimmy McMillan in early 2020, possibly contributing to McMillan selecting Novoselic for running mate in mid-2020.

Howard Dean – Governor of Vermont from 1995 to 2005; supported incumbent President Jackson’s re-election bid in 2004 and considered for VP in 2008; declined offering to be an ambassadorship under Wellstone and later failed bid for DNC Chair to former US Rep. Tony Villar (D-CA); failing to gain national prominence, as evidenced by early hypothetical polling, led to him deciding against running for President in 2016 and 2020; currently a hedge fund manager.

Some memorable Burger Czar ads

2001: ad campaign to promote its late opening and closing times by suggesting the chain was “still stuck on Moscow time”

2004: viral ad that begins with an angry mob on the march and the palace staff being worried, but the chain’s mascot, an unnamed Czar (allegedly, similar in appearance to Ivan the Terrible), points out they are patron of “the competiton” and are marching toward those outlets because “they tried oour burger for the first time. Now they know what they’ve been missing all this time,” and closes the ad with “my burgers are too good to overthrow.”

2005: SuperBowl ad showing The Burger Czar disrupting a fancy but boring regal ball, convincing attendees to eat the burgers however they like to (pinkies out, cutlery/silverware, etc), and letting the servants enjoy burgers as well, leading to the festivities evolving into an anachronistic rave.

2016-2018: series of ads as part of campaign to find a permanent replacement to longtime portrayer of the Burger Czar, Steve Bridges, who passed away in 2016 from an autoimmune disease; Canadian actor, comedian and impressionist Andre-Philippe Gagnon landed the job in 2018.

Shows like Entertainment Tonight – “Entertainment Tonight” still premiered in 1981, but was pretty tame until after 1986; “Rough Edge,” which shamelessly capitalized on gratiuitous violence, ran from 1987 until its cancellation in 1995 after claims that their kind of programming worsened mental health in the US, but was brought back in 1997 due to popular demand, only to finally go off the air in 2008; “Inside Scoop,” which was edgier than E.T. but not as much as R.E., and was initially very popular, ran from 2004 to 2015; several smaller shows and more technet-based reporting has filled in the voids they left behind.

The history of Ford Motor Company – introduced the Mustanf and the seat belt reminder light in the 1960s; future US President Lee Iacocca worked his way up to President of the Company but after being fired by Henry Ford II became the CEO of Chrysler; under Iacocca’s leadership, Chrysler managed to avoid filing for bankruptcy after the economic crash of 1978, and Ford failed to replicate this, leading to the latter company “going dormant” during the early 1980s; company finally bounced back in the mid-1980s, acquired the UK’s Jaquar in 1989 (but failed to get the Aston Martin) and founded the middle-class “Leopard” and high-speed ATV “Cheetah” lines in 1996 (capitalizing off new technology and a growing economy) and 2004 (capitalizing off people wanting to travel after months of safezoning), respectively; they never acquired the Land Rover or the Volvo, and still produces the Mercury brand, but at a smaller scale; changing views on fuel prices and the environmental impact of fossil fuels led to Ford introducing the electric “Bolt” line in 2015, but are still struggling to shift to developing more eco-friendly model; after Ford, GM and Chrysler all suffered huge financial crises in the 2013 recession, Ford came out on top, and in 2021 is the largest US-based automaker, and the fourth-largest in the world, behind Toyota, Volkswagon, and Hyundai (Chrysler collapsed but is redeveloping itself and has since returned to profitability, while GM spent years overcoming bankruptcy and is trying to reinvent itself with electric power).

Is a program like Nightline around in this world, if so, who have it's past and present hosts been?
Yes, I believe I referred to it before as “The Overmyer Network’s Nighttime News Hour,” or something like that; it was founded in 1984 amid the collapse of the Soviet union, the UT-Russian War and the aftermath of the Libya War.

Hosts:

1984-1987: Donald Fifield “Don” Bolles (1928-2019) – reassigned after creative differences in an effort to boost ratings

1987-2010: John Andrew “Jack” Kelly (1943-2020) – retired due to declining health

2010-present: Elizabeth Vargas (b. 1962)

Rest in peace, Mike Gravel (1930-2021).
“What we once enjoyed and deeply loved we can never lose, for all that we love deeply becomes part of us.” – Hellen Keller

RIP, Gravel. May angels guide you to friends and family in that country of no return.

First Mondale now Gravel😢 RIP
Yeah. :'(

IOTL, people who become President live longer than usual, as explained in the following articles:




For these reasons, Mondale and Wellstone are still kickin’ ITTL. And given Dick Cheney’s OTL longevity (I forgot to mention his fate ITTL but he's been dead from a heart attack for quite some time now), it’s apparent the same basic principle applies to VPs as well. So, ITTL, both Mondale and Gravel are still alive, but will most likely pass away within the next few years or so.

Thank god for that. wait is Carter still alive?
The former US Senator and former US Secretary of State passed away in February 2021, age 96
 
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For these reasons, Mondale and Wellstone are still kickin’ ITTL. And given Dick Cheney’s OTL longevity (I forgot to mention his fate ITTL but he's been dead from a heart attack for quite some time now), it’s apparent the same basic principle applies to VPs as well. So, ITTL, both Mondale and Gravel are still alive, but will most likely pass away within the next few years or so.
Thank god for that. wait is Carter still alive?
 
Epilogue
Epilogue
“Take the giant step across the sky to the question marks that sparkle and beckon from the vastness of the universe.”

– Rod Serling (OTL)



“I’m really zapping out here, man,” I informed one of my few RL friends.

“Dont” they quickly texted back.

Oh yeah, that really helps, I thought as I rolled his eyes at the message on my lar phone. “Just wish me luck,” I counter-texted, then slipped the device back into my inner suit pocket.

I tried to think about something else but my mind just went on betraying me, directing my thought process away from efforts to calm down to ideas that only fueled my nervousness – leaving out something important, some embarrassing technical oversight, my pants falling down for some reason.

I’m not entirely sure why I suffer from social anxiety. I speculate that it has something to do with some kind of incident in my youth. For one class I took back in college, I studied cases showing a link between traumatic incidents in the first few years of life with fears developed later in life. Given my family’s many connections, it wouldn’t be at all surprising if I was frightened at some by a crowd of strangers looking at me – likely as I stood near one of my more famous relatives.

“Nervous, huh?” a man beside me said, breaking up my thoughts. It was a larger, burley man with his techslab in one hand, screen on, but not being used as the man was preoccupied with the uncooperative nature of his tie.

“Maybe,” my attempt at a calm voice sounded more like a deep and ragged squeak. Clearing my throat, I added “I’ve got to prep for a pretty important announcement.”

“Yeah, I know the feeling. Good luck to ya.”

– Bill Adams Jr., blog transcript, 6:15 AM



Leslie WALL: “But anyway, how are ya?”

Kathy PITCHFORD: “Uh, still a pain in your ass, probably. Hey. But, seriously, Liz, thanks. I’m not this kind of day person. Your check-in is like the only thing I wanted to get up for today.”

WALL: “Really?”

PITCHFORD: “Well, I’m not heading down until later in the day, so until then, I don’t have much to do outside of classes.”

WALL: “Are they usually held so close to such a big holiday? And on Saturday, no less?”

PITCHFORD: “It’s the summer semester program, so, yeah, for some of the classes. Mine, at least.”

WALL: “Huh. Well, if you have extra time, you can just send out more job applications.”

PITCHFORD: “What else is new?”

WALL: “Ah. And I take it you still don’t want to take up my internship offer?”

PITCHFORD: “Is your workaholism still contagious?”

WALL: “Okay, fair enough.”

PITCHFORD: “Uh-huh.”

WALL: “So, you got all your stuff ready?”

PITCHFORD: “Already packed, ready to ship off when the time comes.”

WALL: “What’s your class line-up for today?”

PITCHFORD: “Just three easy ones. Two Creative Writing courses, then the last one’s political philosophy.”

WALL: “Oof. Sorry.”

PITCHFORD: “No, I kind of like it. At least it’s not like my last semester’s personal finance class. Who needs to know that stuff?”

WALL: “A lot more people than you realize, apparently.”

PITCHFORD: “Ah well.”

WALL: “Now I don’t want to mother you, but, please don’t skip breakfast this time, okay?”

PITCHFORD: “Yeah, yeah, yeah, I know, I know. I’ll grab an egg stick.”

WALL: “I mean a real breakfast. Some fruit. Brain food.”

PITCHFORD: “I’ll drink plenty of water and I’ll grab a toast-bar.”

WALL: “Good enough for now I guess.”

PITCHFORD: “Okay, I’ve got to dart off now.”

WALL: “Stay safe.”

PITCHFORD: “Toodles!”

– University of Kentucky, Millie Sanders dormitory, private vidcall transcript, 6:45 AM



I was all set for the big announcement. Then my boss arrived.

“Hey!”

“Oh, hi, ma’am.”

“Adams, my coffee?”

“Right here, ma’am.”

“Just how I like it, right?”

“Right. Uh, ma’am.”

Taking a sip, she mumbled, “Mm, Good.”

At times it can be more demeaning than usual to be a “30-something” glorified coffee boy, but hey, everyone has to start somewhere. Even when they definitely could be starting somewhere closer to the top.

I took my place on the side next to Menéndez, and watched my boss walk past me and toward the podium before the media. In the crowd of reporters, I spotted the burley man from the elevator. “Son of a –”

“Hey, did you remember to place the water bottle on the little shelve-thing under her podium?” Menéndez suddenly whispered to me.

In the moment I couldn’t remember. With my heart skipping a beat, I quickly leaned over to take a peak before the boss could block the view. My breath returned when I saw it, and my memory of having just put it there swept back into my head. “Whew! You jumpstarted my heart there.”

“Sorry,” he replied in a way that showed he didn’t even care to hide the fact that he really wasn’t.

– Bill Adams Jr., blog transcript, 6:59 AM



“Patrons, welcome. We were planning to make this announcement later this month, but due to recent ontech data spills, we have decided to address the reports immediately. We would like to inform you all that the spilled reports are true – NASA and Glenn Horizons, in collaboration with partnerized space agencies in Europe and India, have agreed to an ambitious plan to use the international Sustained Orbital Gateway, more commonly referred to as the Lunar Bot Hub, as a launch base to send remote vehicles to – and bring back iron, nickel and gold from – the core of the proto-planet ‘16 Psyche.’ Now, for those of you who are not familiar with 16 Psyche, allow me to explain. Most asteroid belts contain asteroids that are rocky or icy, but this one, possibly the heart of some long-dead planet, lost its rocky surface from violent collisions over the course of millions of years. The loss of the asteroid’s outermost layer has exposed its interior composition, which consists of large quantities of many valuable minerals.”

“Yes, for this project, we are weighing the expenses of the robot drilling, as you put, against the many positive benefits from this investment.”

“We are very much aware of the critical comments ontech claiming that this endeavor will devalue the prices of these minerals and bring about economic collapse. But we have published economic reports indicating that this will not occur due to supply-and-demand. These independently-funded reports clearly show that, if anything, economic downturn may occur if we don’t obtain these materials. In short, people, we cannot afford to go on without these minerals, especially since many of these materials are predominantly used in next-gen solar polar technology and manufacturing processes. The planet cannot afford to continue to rely on and use fossil fuels. To convert to renewable energy, securing materials required for solar panels and hydrogen projects is a must.”

“We aim to launch in six years, but the total extraction and round trip will take roughly six more years. Even with that in mind, the launch will be a major milestone for international mineral-harvesting endeavors.”

– NASA spokesperson, NASA Headquarters, Waterfront, PO, 7:00 AM



I had just one more class to go. But before that, I met up with Arty for our soon-to-end tradition to eating at the campus’s KFC.

Art was already there, rewatching the latest Dwiffix Nymity music video. We talked at it yet again as we got our orders.

“Man, there’s never enough soda in the cup,” Arty remarked for the en-teenth time. “There’s just too much ice, like three-fifths is the actual drink.”

“Yeah,” I go again, “But it’s the cleanest part of the food court.”

“Yeah, yeah. So, you heading back to The Homestead tonight, right?”

I nodded.

“Oh, don’t look so glum. We’ll keep in touch on TellTalk.”

“That’s the new one, right.”

“Doi. BuddyTalk is getting too overrun with Centurion people. Entussasic’s getting a lot of ’em, too.”

I paired my eye roll with the groan, “Freakin’ Centurions. They’re such drama award winners! It’s always ‘SARS’ this, ‘pandemic’ that, KW2, Lee Iacocca. It’s like, hello, all that stuff was decades ago, I mean, move on with your lives already! Everyone else has – we haven’t had any war as big as KW2 since KW2!”

I’m not going to win over certain people by writing that, but it’s true. The pandemic sounded like it was an awful thing, but I’m too young to remember it. And before you call me insensitive, I know people – even relatives – who contracted SARS and lived but had health issues for the rest of their lives because of it. Even one of my many cousins got it at the time. They were, I want to say, three of four, and they have to take these pills to boost their immunity and combat all these brain issues, but they’re otherwise just fine. I’m not saying the pandemic wasn’t this awful thing, because it was, but was it really the only thing that certain people can remember from their entire childhood’s. Because it’s not healthy dwell on tragedy. Centurions – celebrate how far we’ve come since the pandemic and take stock of the many years that separate us from it, not just for our sake but for your own as well!

Anyway, back to the hanging-out.

After we finished our Spicy Chicken Combo Wraps we listened to some old Chong beats before I had to shove off to my last class.

“Don’t become a stranger,” Art said.

Now I’m just chillin’ in the classroom, waiting for the teach to show up. If Davis doesn’t arrive in another five minutes, we’re permitted to leave!

– Kathy Pitchford, buddytalk plog, 3:10 PM



DAVIS: “Every person who’s ever lived must be understood contextually to their own time and place. We change with our societies. Yes?”

STUDENT 1: “But given how social movements, uh, influence things, doesn’t that also mean that our societies change with us?”

DAVIS: “That’s an excellent question. And it was one debated by many during the 1960s, a decade dominated in our collective memories more by the events of the first half (like the shoutniks versus the hippies and civil rights) than by the accomplishments of its second half. But let’s talk about the shoutniks and hippies to answer your question. Hippies opposed racial integration and claimed that it went against the nature of American citizens. Shoutniks argued the exact opposite, that racial prejudice was the result of segregationist policies and not the other way around. In the end, the fact that report and report confirm racism in the US against Black people is at an all-time low essentially proves the hippies wrong. So the answer is both – Civil Rights activists changed society, and those societal changes in turn influenced the racial relations of future generations. Yes?”

STUDENT 2: “Yeah, in the last article you assigned us, the author said the 1990s was a time of ‘rational conservatism’ and ‘political politeness.’ But given the bloodshed of the Dinger administration, isn’t that kind of inaccurate?”

DAVIS: “Heh, you never check the date on things, Mitchell. Check the doc, it says publication: 2012. That was assigned to give you an understand of how people in the early 2010s viewed America’s political landscape at the time, with Democrats depending President Wellstone and Republicans torn on the sharply different optics of Kelsey Grammer and Harley Brown, especially when compared to previous administrations.”

STUDENT 2: “Oh. Okay. Never mind, then.”

STUDENT 3: “'T'sokay, dude, it was ’90s – the H.C. era – dawn of the home computer. Technet privacy levels weren’t such a hot-button issue.”

DAVIS: “Actually they were toward the end of the decade.”

STUDENT 3: “Man, teach, you’re harshin’ everyone’s buzzes today. Mell out, it’s the last day of classes!”

DAVIS: “And you’re just going to miss me terribly, aren’t you, Ambrose?”

STUDENT 3: “Eh, sure.”

– Professor Geoff Davis, University of Kentucky, classroom recording, 4:50PM



AHMED: “Jeez, dude, if you hate interning there, why don’t you get another job.”

ADAMS: “It’s my foot in the door. Not just anyone can work for NASA. And once I get more than just my foot into the door, there’s no telling how I’ll help humanity expand into space.”

SCHWARTZ: “Why do you even care? It’s just an empty void with black holes and hots balls of gas.”

AHMED: “But wait, if it’s got balls and stuff, how’s it empty. …Heh-heh. Balls.”

ADAMS: “Demetri, think about it. If the universe is 13.8 billion years old and modern man is not even half a million years old, then we’re only at the very beginning of human history. Humanity is still in its infancy. And if all those parenting books have taught me one thing – ”

AHMED: “It’s how to parent?”
ADAMS: “If there’s one other thing those books have taught me, it’s that the early years of someone’s life are the most influential. The things they’re exposed to can affect their entire outlook on and pathway in life. So right now, anyone who has the ability to help humanity get the best ‘early years’ it possibly can absolutely should.”

SCHWARTZ: “So how is space exploration essential to our early development?”

ADAMS: “Relatively speaking, we just figured out how to fly to other planets, and there’s a practically infinite number of galaxies out there for us to explore. If there’s life out there, that will just make humanity’s future more interesting. And if not, will just make it easier to mankind to spread out among the stars. It’s a total win-win either way. And it’s like I’ve said, nobody on this planet really knows what’s out there. The possibilities are endless. And while we ourselves will not live long enough to see what happens with space exploration in the long run, the best kind of legacy we can leave behind is the legacy of giving humanity the tools and the opportunities to reach its full potential at the ‘early’ stages of its existence.”

AHMED: “So if humanity’s in its infancy, we won’t make it to even see it get into a good college!”

ADAMS: “Come on, dude, I’m being serious.”

SCHWARTZ: “You know, Stephen King once described life as being repetitive like a wheel, predictably cyclical, with humanity doomed to always fall back into old bad habit. But Mr. King is overlooking something. If humanity is a wheel, it is circular, but it is also affected by the road it choose to go down. A wheel gets muddied, roughed up, worn down. It changes. It shows its age. Just something to think about.”

ADAMS: “The past never dies. It always slips into the present, past those whom fail to learn its lessons, and then into the future.”

SCHWARTZ: “Hey, who’s the history dude around here?”

ADAMS: “I ain’t steppin’ on your toes, Demetri, I’m just saying that humanity is not inherently cruel, violent, and brutal. If that were true, the very concepts of love, mercy and compassion would be novel or obscure ones. And we never would have been able to work together to get to the moon and to Mars.”

AHMED: “We went to the Moon because of military competition and we went to Mars because of economic competition. I don’t need to drop by Demetri’s office to learn about that.”

ADAMS: “There was more to it than that.”

SCHWARTZ: “No, actually, Mo’s kind of right on this, competition was a major factor. But think of it – humanity’s tendency to form competing groups is what has spurred innovations for centuries, so really, it’s a good thing, and it only becomes a bad thing – warfare, slavery, exploitation, murder, et cetera – when left unchecked.”

ADAMS: “Then here’s hopin’ that future generations of competitors can show some more self-control.”

AHMED: “I’ll drink to that. Hey, Joey! Another one of these!”

SCHWARTZ: “See, it’s because of the future that I work in the archives. It’s not just about understanding the past but also preparing for the future, because the past is the map of yesterday you use to navigate the foggy waters of tomorrow.”

AHMED: “You swiped that from somewhere, didn’t ya?”

SCHWARTZ: “What, no I didn’t!”

ADAMS: [replying to lar phone murmur] “Oh s#!t, it’s getting late.”

SCHWARTZ: “Only relatively.”

ADAMS: “No foolin’.” [checking lar phone] “Okay, the next Maglev is leaving at… S#!t, I gotta leave like right now.”

AHMED: “So long then, bud!”

SCHWARTZ: “Yeah, take care, man!”

AHMED: “Okay, now that he’s gone, you can tell me – where’d you swipe that map line from?”

SCHWARTZ: “I didn’t!”

AHMED: “Alright, alright.”

– Thirsty Fish Bar & Grill, bar room A/V security camera, Waterfront, PO, 5:58 PM



MARCUS: “I’m telling you, Democrats fall in love, Republicans fall in line.”

JAMES: “You know what, I’m just going to look it up. Hang on a sec.” [opened techslab, split the screen to browse clickopedia and work on Apple Notes.]

CHELSEA: “Okay, while he’s working on that, I’m going to check on the slow-cooker.”

MARCUS: “What’s even the point of that thing, honey? Life is so precious, why do you want to waste so much of it cooking something slowly when you cook use pretty much anything else to cook it quicker?”

CHELSEA: “We’ve gone over this before, sweetums, and you just aren’t getting it.”

MARCUS: “I’m getting smells wafting over here that wouldn’t smell so different if they were coming from a regular oven.”

CHELSEA: “Didn’t your mother ever tell you not to insult a woman’s cooking?”

MARCUS: “But you forget – this isn’t cooking, this is slow-cooking! Emphasis on the slow!”

CHELSEA: “If you’re so impatient, go do something while you wait.”

MARCUS: “I am doing something. I’m watching the game.”

CHELSEA: “I thought it wasn't until 8:30.”

MARCUS: “I’m watching the pre-game.”

CHELSEA: “What –”

JAMES: “Okay, sis, hold back your dogs for a second. Marcus, I have it.” [wholed the techslab’s screen] “Okay. First, the Democrats. Starting with the WWWII era. Democrats fell in line behind FDR and then behind Truman. The establishment backed Stevenson twice despite Kefauver being an option, and they back Johnson in 1960, with two other 1960 candidates, Humphrey and Kennedy, falling in line behind LBJ then and in 1964, too. In 1968, Both Humphrey and Kennedy were candidates but Kennedy won out so I don’t think it counts. We get our first ‘in-love’ candidate in ’72 with Mondale, as he beat Humphrey, who was that year’s ‘in-line’ candidate. Falling in love instead of in-line happened again in 1980 when Senator Scoop Jackson bested VP Gravel for the nomination, but Democrats returned to falling in line to back Gravel in 1984. But they did fall in love with Bellamy, nominating her over ’84 candidate John Glenn. But they fell in line behind Glenn in 1996. Then in 2000, they fell in line with Jackson, who had run in 1996 – everyone forgets that for some reason – but they fell in line for his VP, Paul Wellstone. Democrats then fell in love with Locke in 2016 and in love with Pritt in 2020.”

MARCUS: “So…Democrats fall in love more often?”

JAMES: “Almost evenly split, but, yeah.”

CHELSEA: “They also win elections more often when they fall in love, don’t they?”

JAMES: “Hm…The fell in line in 1968, 1984, and 1996, and they lost each time. But they did fall in line in 2000 and 2008 and win, but, yeah, you’re right.”

CHELSEA: “Huh!”

MARCUS: “And Republicans?”

JAMES: [rolled to next screen-page] “For Republicans, Dewey ran in 1940, but won the nomination in 1944. Despite Stassen running in 1944, the GOP did not fall in line behind him in 1948 and the nomination went to Dewey again. They fell in love with Eisenhower and fell in line behind Nixon. They fell in love with Sanders and fell in line with Scranton. The same falling in love phenomenon occurred in 1976 and 1980, and even in 1988 against incumbent President Kemp, and again with Iacocca in 1992. They also didn’t fall in line in 2004, as former VP Meredith lost to first-time candidate Bernie Goetz. Falling in love with a first-time candidate instead of falling in line behind of previous candidate happened again in 2008 and in 2012. But they did fall in line behind Brown in 2020.”

MARCUS: “Huh. So…Republicans fall in love with candidates more often?”

JAMES: “Yes. Less so recently – in very, very, very recent years, not so much – but historically, as in for most of the past century, yes!”

MARCUS: “Huh! Then the phrase is a dad-burned lie! Consarn it!”

– Winger residence, home security footage, A/V camera, 6:19 PM



…I didn’t arrive too late. I mean, yeah, Arista and Jasmine arrived at the home before my train even reached the station, but, heh, they’ve always been better organized than me.

Chelsea was in the kitchen trying to put together her own version of KFC, and by the time I’d found somebody to talk to – my “Uncle” James ain’t too bad – her efforts had sparked a debate with some other relatives over the merits fast food.

“There’s been great strides in making it healthy!” Went one side of the argument.

A more political side went, “I don’t know any Democrats that eat The Colonel’s food. What napkins,” referring to the latest term for chumps and push-overs.

My mother was smart to sit off to the side, avoiding the conflict. Mother is still set in her old ways, doing everything old-fashioned. Tonight, she seems almost happy that Chelsea’s dishwater keeps breaking down (I heard something about Chelsea trying to use its heating/drying feature to try and cook chicken, what?). The malfunctioning appliance seems to be giving my Mother the excuse to wash the dishes manually, allowing her to make sure first-hand that they get washed “just right.” A Mother’s Touch and all that jazz.

Then again, Mother probably avoided getting involved in the argument not to avoid headache or wash dishes, but because she believed that the way that she made chicken was “100%” better than KFC.

Nobody exactly agreed with the statement, but no one ever pressed her on it that back. No good can come from opposing such a claim from one’s own mother, after all...

– Bill Adams Jr., blog transcript, 6:41 PM



MARCUS: “Hey, kiddo!”

LIZ: “Hey Dad.”

MARCUS: “Where’s LeMarr?”

LEMARR: “Hi Grampa!”

LIZ: “Hey, there’s my little Havana banana! Ha-ha-ha-ha.”

TIBERIUS: “Hey Mom, Dad.”

CHELSEA: “Tibby! I haven’t seen you for so long!”

TIBERIUS: “We just vidcalled a few hours ago!”

CHELSEA: “Oh that doesn’t count and you know it.”

MARCUS: “Hey, son. Hey, go say hello to Uncle Bill, he’s got like nobody on his side showing up.”

CHELSEA: “Marcus.”

MARCUS: “Well it’s true! He’s holed up in the family room listening to your uncle James.”

TIBERIUS: “Okay, okay.”

CHELSEA: “Liz, back on the text treadmill again?”

LIZ: “It’s a really important client.”

CHELSEA: “It’s a holiday. They’ll understand.”

LIZ: “It takes a village to take care of a village.”

MARCUS: “What the heck does that mean?”

LIZ: “It means nothing pays for itself, Dad. You need to put effort into getting stuff done.”

CHELSEA: “That’s right, and that includes helping your cousins set the table.”

LIZ: “So you want me to put off this work to do other work.”

CHELSEA: “Like you said, it takes a village.”

LIZ: “Ugh, fine.”

MARCUS: “You know, I think it was Sean Astin who once said that parents are the most influential people in the world. They mold the minds of the people of tomorrow. Or something like that. I forgot the exact quote, though.”

CHELSEA: “We just saw that movie. It was ‘the hand that rocks the cradle is the hand that rules the world.’ [1] Why do you ask?”

MARCUS: “No reason. I was just thinking about Tiberius when he was LeMarr’s age.”

LEMARR: “Day was once my age? But he’s a grownup.”

MARCUS: “What, don’t you know where grownups come from.”

LEMARR: “Nobody will tell me where babies come from. Why should I ask question when I never get any answers?”

MARCUS: “Hmm, I’ll give you that one, kid.”

CHELSEA: “I remember when your father was your age, LeMarr. Tibby was so adorable, just like you.”

LEMARR: “I’m not adorable, I’m a man!”

MARCUS: “There’s nothing wrong with being an adorable man, there, kid. Just look at Hugh Jackman or your Great Uncle Marvin.”

CHELSEA: “Oh, I remember the colds, the colic, the ear infection scare.”

MARCUS: “the vomiting, the diapers.”

CHELSEA: “But it was all worth it!”

MARCUS: “Yeah…I could have done without all that vomiting, though.”

CHELSEA: “Well, yeah, obviously.”

– Winger residence, home security footage, A/V camera, 6:49 PM



After a not-too-hearty but kind-of-late dinner, I helped Chelsea and Martha with some last-minute pre-holiday decorating. Now I’m turning in for the night. The Wingers were courteous enough to let me sleep on the pull-out instead of the futon. The Pitchfords got the guestroom.

– Bill Adams Jr., blog transcript, 10:57 PM



“Morning everyone! Big day today! Wishing everyone a happy and joyous celebration of this awesome holiday! I’ll be spending the day hanging out with my extended family members; we’re having a big pool party with music, slip-in-slide, water balloons and all the classic fixin’s – but sorry, it’s pretty much relatives only – but you can still reach out to me on this channel, my secondary channel, and my profiles on Quinny, Shandle, Volsov, Nyvyn, Ta-da, and my newest profile, which is on TeleTalk. H.A.G.T., everyone!”

– Kathy Pitchford, buddytalk plog, 9:02 AM



Caetlyn looked at the painting with awe. “Wow! Sis, come over here!” She called over Kathy to join her in starting at the artwork successfully hiding the family safe.

Seeing a Ross original in person is a rare treat. Most are in museums, but the Wingers have connections. That’s one good thing I can say about Marcus – the man has taste. Indeed, observing the works of the technet’s favorite VP ontech pales in comparison to studying the real thing up close, where the viewer can notice little details such as the way the paint breaks over the mountains, the detailed bark that appears three dimensional, and ghostly trees nestled into the background. [2] Features that simply fail to pop out at you on video alone.

“Well, at least they know good art when they see it,” I commented to “Uncle” James.

“Hm.”

As they both gawked at the ripple effect used from the small brook in the left-hand corner, I asked James, “How exactly are they related to us?”

“They’re Millie’s great-granddaughters.”

“Ah.” [3]

Outside, I could hear the younger relatives splashing about in the Winger pool. A booming voice ended the nearby sound of fast-paced flip-flops. Great-Grandmother Clarise was almost 80 years old, but she could still holler out “No running” from her spot under her sunbrella without even slightly straining her voice.

At that moment, Liz – James’ brother’s daughter-in-law – came walking around the corner. Her hand practically glued to her head, she was having an argument with someone on her lar phone. Her husband, hot on her trail, caught up to her and remarked, “You know honey, research shows that close personal relationships, a challenging job or hobby, and helping others through pro-social behavior are keys to happiness. But getting yourself worked up over your job, well, isn’t.”

Liz gave him a certain kind of look and he seemed to back down, but then Tiberius began to utilize the skills he picked up calming down suspects for law enforcement. “Honey, who do you work for?”

“What?”

“Who do you work for?” He reiterated.

“Why’s he egging her on?” I whispered to James.

“Just watch, he knows what he’s doing,” James quietly answered.

“Nobody,” Liz replied, “I’m freelance.”

“Alright, think about that for a minute,” Tiberius asked sweetly but cautiously, “What does that mean?”

“It means I am my own boss.”

“Then who’s bossing you around right now?”

“Nobody.”

“…Then what are you doing?”

After a momentary pause, Liz broke the intensity of the situation by groaning, “Okay, alright, I see what you’re saying.” Talking into the phone, she said, “I’m sorry, sir, but something’s come up. I’m going to have to call you later.”

“Tomorrow,” Tiberius whispered.

“Tomorrow. Later tomorrow,” Liz added, then hung up the phone.”

As the two hugged it out, Old Marcus sauntered into the room, “Ah, it’s good to see those too still acting like newlyweds. Say James, I was I pecking at that idea you had for Chelsea’s recipe.”

“Which one?”

“BBQ grill.”

As the two walked away, I looked around the room and found myself walking over to Old Marcus’ den. Front and center was this huge desk made out of hand-carved mahogany, facing a wall strewn with pictures of family gatherings, reunions, outings, vacations, trips, graduations and weddings. “Learn to scan-and-uploaded, Marcus.” I thought out loud, but quietly. Then I spotted a newspaper on the desk. An old-fashioned, paper-and-ink, corporeal, printed newspaper. Marked from the previous week, the page it was opened to read KFC CEMENTS NO. SPOT 1 IN PRC …Kentucky Fried Chicken is still the No. 1 Fast Food Company in China, after two competing domestic brands struggled to beat them in the markets… “Man, he’s more comfortably set in old ways than I thought,” I remarked aloud, thinking about the last time I’d even seen a print newspaper. It must be some sort of special subscription thing.

– Bill Adams Jr., blog transcript, 5:43 PM



MARTHA: “It’s actually very common for children to think that The Colonel is a fictional creation. It’s only when they see his likeness on the banner of US Presidents running along the top of their elementary school classroom that they finally realize that The Colonel was indeed a real person, and isn’t just some mascot like Tony the Tiger or the Cookie Crisp Coyote.”

MARCUS: “That’s an injustice to The Colonel’s legacy.”

MARTHA: “Not really, because the children are always amazed by his life and legacy. ‘Why was he President,’ a student may ask. And I’ll joke, ‘Why? Because his chicken was so good, we though he deserved the Presidency!’ To this, the child will go and say something like, ‘cool!’ or, rather, ‘bizzin!,’ to use the more modern lingo.”

MARCUS: “It that how the kids in your class talk, LeMarr?”

LEMARR: “Kinda.”

JAMES: “Yeah, it’s because of The Colonel that Martha got into teaching in the first place, isn’t that right, dear?”

MARTHA: “Yes. The Colonel always believed in the good of our youth. He understood that they are the future, and that the actions we adults do will affect them and their own children long after we are gone.”

BILL: “They will remember us by how we treat them.”

MARCUS: “Huh. It speaks.”

MARTHA: “Yes, Bill, exactly, thanks.”

MARCUS: “Hey, Bill, I got a question for ya.”

BILL: “Y-yes?”

MARCUS: “I hear you work for NASA. Since we’re talking about KFC, what do think about KFC being on the Milestone and Seeker.”

KATHY: “Oh yeah, I learned about that in school. It was like a ‘fun fact’ or something, KFC made special food packages for the Marstronaut mission of, like, 2003 or whenever.”

MARCUS: “Right.”

KATHY: “They made The Colonel’s chicken ‘out of this world,’ or some gimmicky thing like that. It was called ‘Operation Plucked Martian’ or something.”

MARCUS: “Well, Bill? What did you think of it?”

BILL: “Well, um – well, I think it was good that NASA partnered with lots of different companies, it really opened the door for the privatization of space, and showed that NASA can and will work with anybody to achieve major scientific milestones. So, uh, yeah, I thought it was a, uh, a great thing.”

MARCUS: “Felt like a lousy gimmick to me.”

BILL: “Oh. [clears throat] Well, maybe, but sending anything into space isn’t a cheap gimmick, at least.”

MARCUS: “Eh, you might be right about that, maybe.”

– Winger residence, home security footage, A/V camera, 7:23 PM



“No, we started eating at around 7:00… Forever, like a marathon, but we were done in time to see the lights at 10 o’clock… Not too much, just some old family recipes. Hot biscuits and corn fritters, some corn chowder, hush puppies. Candied sweet potatoes, scalloped sweet potatoes, and some old-fashioned onion pie – I could LeMarr hated it, he didn’t have to say anything, I could read it on his face, the sweet boy. …No, for the turkey I tried something new. …Roast turkey with fried green tomato bread stuffing. ...No, most seemed to really like it! But, I also made some apple-stuffed pork chops and lots of hot dogs just in case. …We ate those too. …Well of course I made chicken, too, that just goes without saying by now! …Pecan pie, and apple pie for the three relatives allergic to pecan. …No, if anything, allergy issues let you come up with new ways of making old classics, so there’s no problems with it on my end. …Mint Juleps… Really? Huh! Well, ain’t that something… How sweet! …Yeah? …Oh, you just missed them. …No, sorry, they already said their goodbyes, and the Pitchfords just left, too. But Bill and his wife and little girl are sticking around a bit longer to help me with more chicken ideas. I insisted, poor Bill’s practically skin and bones. You want to talk to Bill? …Oh. Okay. No, it’s alright… Yes, Leslie’s here, too, but she and Tiberius volunteered to clean up the living room. …Yeah, lots of plates need washing. …Yeah, the machine’s still not working for some reason…”

– Chelsea Winger, lar phone conversation with her brother Darrell Winger, privacy recording, 8:38 PM



“I’m failing to get to sleep, so I’m going to try and will myself to do so by focusing on simply breathing. That’s the secret key to relaxing. Don’t try and block out thoughts or external sounds. Instead, just focus on one thought, the act of breathing, an automatic program responsible for living, for experiencing existence. With that, I should be able to drift off to that place where dreams are formed. You know, consciousness is really a beautiful thing. It can inspire you or terrify you into being courageous with the one life that you, me, each of us get, and work to overcome any challenges to make our dreams real.”

– Kathy Pitchford, buddytalk plog, 11:15 PM



It is approaching midnight, and Chelsea is still slaving away over the pressure fryer. By now, with Arista taking Jasmine home, the taste-testing committee was down to just me, Chelsea’s brother James, James’ wife Martha, Old Marcus, Liz, Tiberius and LeMarr. LeMarr represented the “future customers” opinion of our little ad hoc collection of amateur chicken judges; Old Marcus had made sure of that.

“This time, I know I’ve done it right!” You could hear her exclaim from the adjacent room.

“Honey,” her husband pleaded, rubbing his stomach, “You’ve been at this for hours. How about starting again fresh first thing tomorrow?”

“Because for all you know, Marcus, somebody else will figure it out by then,” was her reply as she fiddled with the sleek new model. “The early bird gets the worm, but the second mouse gets the cheese!”

Shaking his head, he countered, “But you can’t rush art.”

“Who said anything about rushing? Don’t you remember the slow-cooker?”

“I still don’t know why you thought that would work.”

“You enjoyed that chicken.”

“I did, but now that you’ve had us sample so much, I’ve reached my limit.”

“Alright, hun. Just this last batch, and that’s it for the night,” she promised while jotting a not down on her Nokia5.0, “Okay?”

“Okay.”

As Marcus returned to the table, Martha began to tap an Oneida spoon on her matching glass. Rising, she began, “Well with one last go at it, I think we should a toast to Martha for trying so hard.” Raising her glass, she took a quick for careful sip. “You know, when Colonel Sanders started his company, he probably never thought in even his wildest dreams that he would become such a revered pop-culture icon. Even after cameoing in all those movies, like It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, and in all those Jerry Lewis vehicles, he still probably never thought that decades after his demise he would still be used as an examples of success, or used to poke fun at the ‘ridiculousness’ of American politics and society.”

“If your product is good enough, we might just make you our leader!” Marcus recited the tired old line, with only LeMarr giving it a chuckle.

“Yes, well,” Martha concluded, “I would like to also make a toast to The Colonel. May his dedication to pursuing efforts to help people be not a source of ridicule but a source of inspiration for many more years to come.”

“Amen to that, sister,” Marcus remarks.

“Alright, everyone,” Chelsea walked out with a plate of eight bird pieces, one for each of us. “I’m certain this new batch is the one to perfectly replicate the Colonel’s recipe.”

Expecting these delectable helpings to be like the rest of them had been - delicious but still a bit off the mark - we all began to chow down, but quickly stopped. We were all astounded by the familiarity of the blend coating the skin of these birds. Marcus proclaimed with awe, “Chelsea…I think you cracked the code.”

Surprised and elated by the family approval of her most accurate replication yet, she uttered in happy disbelief, “Well I’ll be! You really think so?”

"If The Colonel could taste this, I bet he'd think it was his own!" Tiberius remarked.

James added, "Yeah, he'd appreciate the hard work put into this, I'm sure, but when he'd realize he'd been hornswoggled, I bet he'd shout out a thunderous 'Consarn it!'"

– Bill Adams Jr., blog transcript, 11:55 PM



diBZGGT.png

[pic: imgur.com/diBZGGT.png ]​



NOTE(S)/SOURCE(S)
[1] OTL quote from the film “Moms’ Night Out” (2014)
[2] These italicized passages were pull from the 9/10/2019 gardenandgun.com article by Jessica Giles “Bob Ross Gets The Recognition He Deserves”
[3] This family’s “tree” was included in Chapter 112



Stay tuned for the Index Chapters!
 
Last edited:
Index 1 – World Leaders
Index 1 – World Leaders

World Leaders from this TL (c. 1960-present (2021))
Secretary-General of the UNITED NATIONS
1946-1952: 1) Trygve Lie of Norway – resigned
1953-1961: 2) Dag Hammarskjold of Sweden – died in a plane crash
1961-1971: 3) U Thant of Myanmar – retired
1972-1981: 4) Max Jakobson of Finland – retired
1981-1986: 5) Salim Ahmed Salim of Tanzania – lost re-election over alleged regional favoritism
1986-1996: 6) Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan of Iran and Switzerland – withdrew from re-election bid amid criticisms over his handling of human rights crises in Africa and Asia
1996-2006: 7) Carol Bellamy of the United States – term-limited; praised for her actions during the early stages of the Global SARS Pandemic
2006-2011: 8) Kofi Annan of Ghana – retired
2011-present: 9) Surakiart Sathirathai of Thailand – incumbent

Kings of AFGHANISTAN
1933-2007: Mohammed Zahir Shah
2007-present: Ahmad Shah Khan

Presidents of ANGOLA
1975-1979: 1) Agostinho Neto (MPLA) – organized response to US troops “intervening” (1975-1978); died from cancer
1979-2020: 2) José Eduardo dos Santos (MPLA) – accused of human rights violations and massive corruption; stepped down amid declining health
2020-present: 3) José Filament dos Santos (MPLA) – is the oldest son of the previous President

Presidents of ARGENTINA
12 Oct 1973 – 1 Feb 1982: Juan Peron (Judicialist) – overthrown by military junta
1 Feb 1982 – 18 Jun 1982: Leopoldo Galtieri (Military) – overthrown by military junta after the Falklands War
18 Jun 1982 – 28 Jul 1982: Alfredo Saint-Jean (Military) – interim Head of State
28 Jul 1982 – 1 Nov 1985: Juan Peron (Judicialist) – died in office from natural causes
1 Nov 1985 – 9 Mar 1988: Isabel Martinez de Peron (Judicialist) – lost election to a full term
9 Mar 1988 – 9 Mar 1996: Adolfo Perez Esquivel (SERPAJ) – retired
9 Mar 1996 – 9 Mar 2000: Ramon Bautista Ortega (Judicialist) – lost re-election
9 Mar 2000 – 15 Aug 2002: Domingo Cavallo (Action) – resigned amid violent and deadly protests to his handling of the SARS pandemic
15 Aug 2002 – 9 Mar 2004: Alberto Rodriguez Saa (Action) – lost election to a full term
9 Mar 2004 – 9 Mar 2008: Carlos Ruckauf (Judicialist) – lost re-election
9 Mar 2008 – 9 Mar 2016: Ricardo Lopez Murphy (UCR) – term-limited
9 Mar 2016 – present: Margarita Stolbizer (Progressive) – incumbent

Prime Ministers of AUSTRALIA
1966-1972: 17) Harold Holt (Liberal) – lost re-election
1966: Arthur Calwell (Labor)
1969: Arthur Calwell (Labor)
1972-1976: 18) John McEwen (Country) – lost re-election amid economic woes
1973: Harold Holt (Liberal) and Arthur Calwell (Labor)
1976-1978: 19) Eric Reece (Labor) – lost re-election
1976: John McEwen (Country)
1978-1981: 20) Doug Anthony (Country) – lost re-election as his party began to decline in both popularity and prominence nationwide
1978: Eric Reece (Labor)
1981-1985: 21) Manfred Cross (Labor) – lost re-election
1981: Doug Anthony (Country)
1985-1987: 22) Sir Billy Snedden (Liberal) – resigned due to poor health
1985: Manfred Cross (Labor)
1987-1987: 23) Shirley de la Hunty (Liberal) – first female PM of Australia; lost election
1987-1989: (21)) Manfred Cross (Labor) – lost re-election
1987: Shirley de la Hunty (Liberal)
1989-2001: (23)) Shirley de la Hunty (Liberal) – resigned amid low approval ratings connected to her handling of a national flag referendum
1989: Manfred Cross (Labor)
1993: Bob Ellicott (Labor) and Charles Blunt (National)
1995: Bob Ellicott (Labor)
1998: Michael Ignatieff (Labor) and Ben Carson (Country)
2001-2002: 24) Barry Goldwater Jr. (Liberal) – first PM born in the US; lost election
2002-2009: 25) Michel Ignatieff (Labor) – resigned amid low approval ratings; was highly popular for leading the post-SARS recovery period, but lost support after raising taxes
2002: Barry Goldwater Jr. (Liberal), Ben Carson (Country), Bob Brown (Greens) and Pauline Seccombe (Greatness)
2007: Alexander Michael Somlyay (Liberal) and Alasdair Webster (Christian Democratic)
2009-2012: 26) Warren Williams (Labor) – first Aborigine PM; lost re-election
2010: Joanna Gash (Liberal) and Alasdair Webster (Christian Democratic)
2012-2018: 27) Nick Varvaris (Liberal) – lost re-election after failing to address economic issues and cyberattack concerns
2011: Warren Williams (Labor), Alasdair Webster (Christian Democratic) and Mark Latham (Outsiders)
2014: Maxine McKew (Labor) and Bob Katten (Outsiders)
2018-present: 28) Jenny Leong (Labor) – incumbent
2018: Nick Varvaris (Liberal) and Bob Katten (Outsiders)
2021: Andrew Nikolic (Liberal) and Bob Katten (Outsiders)

Presidents of BELARUS
1984-1991: 1) Stanislav Shushkevich (Independent) – lost re-election in a rematch
1986: Vyacheslav Kebich (Independent)
1991-1996: 2) Vyacheslav Kebich (Independent) – lost re-election
1991: Stanislav Shushkevich (Independent)
1996-2006: 3) Zianon Pazniak (Conservative Christian) – retired
1996: Vyacheslav Kebich (Independent)
2001: Alaksander Dubko (Independent)
2006-2016: 4) Sergei Gaidukevich (Liberal Democratic (renamed Social Democratic in 2015)) – retired
2006: Uladzimir Hancaryk (Unity (endorsed by Conservative Christian))
2011: Aleksandar Milinkievich (Unity)
2016-present: 5) Alyaksandr Kazulin (Social Democratic) – had a tense relationship with Russia's President Nikolayev; incumbent
2016: Mikola Statkevich (Independent (endorsed by Unity)) and Tatsiana Karatkevich (Transparency)

Presidents of BOLIVIA
1966-1970: (47)) Rene Barrientos – implemented small-scale mechanization of industries to curb food insecurity and create jobs; lost re-election in an upset; due to exhausted political capital had to abandon plans to stay in power via coup
1970-1974: 49) Juan Jose Torres – nicknamed Ol’ Jota-Jota; overthrown ahead of next election
1974-1975: 50) Luis Adolfo Siles – fiercely anti-communist and pro-free markets, but still overthrown by 1974 opponent
1975-1975: (48)) Alfredo Ovando – failed to keep junta together amid feuding internal factions; fled the country
1975-1975: disputed – multiple factions ruled sections of the country in an unofficial multi-faceted Civil War
1975-1976: (47)) Rene Barrientos – agreed to serve until general elections were held due to his declining health
1976-1984: (46)) Hernan Siles Zuazo – modernized industries but criticized for dictatorial crackdowns on petty crime and recreadrug use; constitutionally barred from running for another term until after spending 1 term of office
1984-1988: 51) Lidia Gueiler – first female Head of State; cousin of American actress Requel Welch; defeated a bloody coup launched by her cousin Luis Garcia Meza in 1986; lost re-election in an upset but did not contest the results
1988-1993: (46)) Hernan Siles Zuazo – overthrown
1993-1995: (49)) Juan Jose Torres – died in office from natural causes at the age of 77
1995-1996: 52) Juan Lechin Oquendo – retired due to declining health (entered office at the age of 81)
1996-2001: 53) Guido Vildoso – lost re-election but refused to leave office, alleging vote rigging; after multiple recounts, he still refused to back down, so congress impeached him for abusive of power and removed him from office after he failed to launch a successful self-coup
2000-2001: disputed – either Paz or Chamber Speaker Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada
2001-2008: 54) Jaime Paz – won re-election over Manfred Reyes Villa; oversaw tech boom; term-limited
2008-2016: 55) David Choquehuanca – continued predecessor’s investments into both mineral deposits and alternative energy; term-limited; lost election bid for a third term in 2020
2016-2020: 56) Chi Hyun Chung – former doctor and conservative evangelical pastor; first Korean-Bolivian Head of State; lost re-election in a landslide and failed to form a self-coup, leading to him being impeached and removed from office prematurely
2020-2020: 57) Andronico Rodriguez – as Chamber Speaker, was next in line after both of Chi Hyun Chung’s Vice Presidents were impeached and removed from office; entered the Presidency at the age of 32; served for the roughly two weeks left of Chi Hyun Chung’s term
2020-present: 58) Luis Fernando Camacho – former businessman; incumbent

Presidents of The Republic of BOTSWANA
1966-1980: 1) Seretse Khans (BDP) – died from pancreatic cancer
1980-1988: 2) Quett Masire (BDP) – died when his plane was accidently shot down by Angolan Air Force fighter jet
1988-2004: 3) Peter Mmusi (BDP) – leader during the Botswana-Angola “war” conflict of 1988; infamous for increasing corruption in the nation; retired
2004-2014: 4) Otsweletse Moupo (BNF) – infamous for sustaining (if not worsening) corruption in the nation; overthrown in a bloody and violent revolution
Presidents of The Democratic Republic of BOTSWANA
2014-2016: 1) Steve Biko (Independent) – initially served under the title “Acting President” until 2015; retired
2016-present: 2) Slumber Tsogwane (People’s) – incumbent

Presidents of BRAZIL
1974-1980: 29) Ernesto Geisel (ARENA) – the dictator regime ended relatively peacefully thanks to intervention from US Secretary of State Jimmy Carter
1980-1984: 30) Tancredo Neves (PMDB) – announced he would resign due to poor health, but of died from diverticulitis before he could step down
1984-1985: 31) Barbosa Lima Sobrinho (MDB) – retired due to advanced age
1985-1993: 32) Ulysses Silveira Guimaraes (MDB) – helped structure the country’s post-dictatorship constitution; died in office from a heart attack at the age of 77
1993-1995: 33) Plinio de Arruda Sampaio (PT) – lost election to a full term
1995-2000: 34) Marco Maciel (PSDB) – lost re-election
2000-2005: 35) Hamilton Mourao (PRTD) – lost re-election over his “dictatorial” handling of the 2002-2005 SARS Pandemic
2005-2015: 36) Heloisa Helena (PT) – first female President of Brazil; former nurse; term-limited
2015-2020: (34)) Marco Maciel (DEM) – successfully launched a political comeback; retired at the age of 80
2020-present: 37) Aloizio Mercadante (PT) – incumbent

Leaders of BULGARIA
GENERAL SECRETARIES of The PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC of BULGARIA
1954-1984: Todor Zhivkov (C) – fired Defense Minister Dobri Dzhurov in late 1971 over the Bulgarian Fire Plot; attempted (and failed) to implement reforms to try and keep communism from collapsing
PRESIDENTS of The REPUBLIC of BULGARIA
1/5/1985-1/5/1995: 1) Zhelyu Zhelev (UDF) – term-limited; responded to national “brain drain” and 1992 coup attempt by establishing policies meant to support “knowledge transfers” among employers, and by offering tax breaks and pay raises for tutors and educators of all kinds
1/5/1995-1/5/2005: 2) George Ganchev (BBB) – term-limited; led movement to shift relations closer to the West, culminating in the country joining the EU in 2003
1/5/2005-1/5/2010: 3) Reneta Indzhova (DPS) – first female President; lost re-election
1/5/2010-present: 4) Angel Marin (Socialist) – incumbent; ousted from capital during internationally unrecognized 2015 coup led by opposition leader Volen Siderov of the Patriotic Nationalist party; served elsewhere in Bulgaria until coup thwarted several months later; improved relations with Greece and Turkey

Kings of CAMBODIA
1953-1955: 4) Norodom Sihanouk – abdicated and succeeded by his father (who had previously been past over for the throne) in order to directly participate in politics
1955-1960: 5) Norodom Suramarit – died
1960-1989: (4)) Norodom Sihanouk – In 1971, Pol Pot was apprehended but beaten to death by an angry mob before he could be put on trial; abdicated over nationwide riots over his increasingly oppressive rule
1989-2003: 6) Norodom Sihamoni – abdicated amid major rioting over his “hands-off” approach to the SARS pandemic; succeeded by his older half-brother
2003-present: 7) Norodom Ranariddh – incumbent

Prime Ministers of CANADA
7/21/1957-11/18/1965: 13) John George Diefenbaker (Progressive Conservative-SK) – party lost majority control
1963: Diefenbaker (PC) over Lester B. Pearson (Liberal), Robert Thompson (Social Credit) and Tommy Douglas (New Democracy)
11/18/1965-12/17/1969: 14) Paul Theodore Hellyer (L-ON) – party lost majority control
1965: Hellyer (L) over John Diefenbaker (PC), Tommy Douglas (ND), Réal Caouette (Ralliement créditiste) and Robert N. Thompson (SC)
12/17/1969-1/26/1980: 15) Robert Lorne Stanfield (PC-NS) – party lost majority control
1969: Stanfield (PC) over Paul Hellyer (L), Tommy Douglas (Progressive Tomorrow ("Progressive" (new party (a SC/ND merger))) and Réal Caouette (Rc)
1973: Stanfield (PC) over Paul Martin Sr. (L), Ed Broadbent (PT) and Réal Caouette (Rc)
1976: Stanfield (PC) over Paul Martin Sr. (L), Ed Broadbent (PT) and Réal Caouette (Rc)
1/26/1980-6/25/1980: 16) J. J. Jean Chretien (L-QC) – party lost majority control
1980 (January): Chretien (L) over Robert Stanfield (PC) and Ed Broadbent (PT)
6/25/1980-11/2/1980: 15) Robert Lorne Stanfield (PC-NS) – party lost majority control
1980 (June): Stanfield (PC) over Jean Chretien (L) and Ed Broadbent (PT)
11/2/1980-9/29/1989: 16) J. J. Jean Chretien (L-QC) – retired
1980 (October): Chretien (L) over Robert Stanfield (PC) and Ed Broadbent (PT)
1985: Chretien (L) over Erik Nielsen (PC) and Ed Broadbent (PT)
9/29/1989-3/30/1990: 17) Sheila Copps (L-ON) – party lost majority control
3/30/1990-9/4/1992: 18) Erik Hersholt Nielsen (PC-YK) – party lost majority control
1990: Nielsen (PC) over Sheila Copps (L), Audrey McLaughlin (Progressive Tomorrow) and Pierre-Marc Johnson (Quebec)
9/4/1992-4/3/1999: 19) Margaret Anne Mitchell (PT-BC) – party lost majority control
1992 (minority government coalitioned with the Liberals): Mitchell (PT) over Paul Martin Jr. (L), Erik Nielsen (PC) and TBD (Quebec)
1995 (minority government coalitioned with the Liberals): Mitchell (PT) over Paul Martin Jr. (L), Dianne Cunningham (PC), Lucien Bouchard (Quebec), Paul Hellyer (Action), Roger S. Bacon (Canadian) and Bob Ringma (Alberta/Frontier)
4/3/1999-12/15/1999: (14)) Paul Theodore Hellyer (Action Alliance(A)-ON) – lost party support
1999 (minority government coalitioned with the PCs, Quebecois, and Baconites): Hellyer (Action) over Margaret Anne Mitchell (PT), Paul Martin Jr. (L), Dianne Cunningham (PC), Lucien Bouchard (Quebec) and Roger S. Bacon (Canadian)
12/15/1999-5/19/2001: 20) Jean Charest (Action Alliance(PC)-QC) – party lost majority control
5/19/2001-2/26/2013: 21) Maureen Anne McTeer (Progressive Liberal Alliance(PT)-ON before 2010, Progressive Liberal-ON after 2010) – party lost majority control
2001: Jean Charest (PC), Pierre-Marc Johnson (Quebec), Dwain Lingenfelter (Frontier) and Stephen Harper (True Conservative)
2006: Belinda Stronach (PC), Pauline Marois (Quebec) and Michaelle Jean (Maple)
2009: Jim Prentice (PC), Andre Boisclair (Maple), Louise Harel (Quebec), Maude Barlow (Organized Grassroots) and Frank de Jong (Green)
2/26/2013-11/11/2017: 22) George Rogers (PC-AB) – lost party support
2013: Maureen McTeer (PL), Jacques Duchesneau (Quebec) and David Chernushenko (Green)
11/11/2017-6/14/2020: 23) André Bachand (PC-QC) – party lost majority control
2018: Olivia Chow (PL), Pierre Paquette (Quebec), Ken Melamed (Green) and Tim Hudak (New Maple)
6/14/2020-present: 24) Roméo Dallaire (PL-QC) – incumbent
2020: Bachand (PC), Mario Beaulieu (Quebec), Jean-Francois Archambault (People’s), Jody Wilson-Raybould (Green), Naheed Nenshi (Purple Dawn) and Alanna Koch (New Maple)

Presidents of CHILE
3 Nov 1958 – 3 Nov 1964: 71) Jorge Alessandri (Independent (conservative-leaning)) – term-limited
3 Nov 1964 – 3 Nov 1970: 72) Eduardo Frei Montalva (Christian Democratic (conservative wing)) – term-limited
3 Nov 1970 – 3 Nov 1976: 73) Radomiro Tomic (Christian Democratic (progressive wing)) – term-limited
3 Nov 1976 – 3 Nov 1982: 74) Gen. René Schneider (Constitutionalist (conservative)) – term-limited; harsh austerity measures to combat the 1979 recession led to riots and an alleged coup attempt; stayed neutral during the Falklands War
3 Nov 1982 – 3 Nov 1988: 75) Arturo Alessandri Besa (Centrist Alliance (conservative wing)) – term-limited
3 Nov 1988 – 12 Dec 1988: 76) Hernan Buchi (Centrist Alliance (far-right wing)) – ousted in a coup after raising taxes on the lower classes to improve the still-poor economy; his removal from office prompted the brief 1988-1989 Chilean Civil War; having fled to Mexico, he was tried in absentia and found guilty of treason; was controversially allowed to return to Chile in 2004, and unsuccessfully ran for President again in 2007
12 Dec 1988 – 24 Jul 2002: 77) Francisco Javier “Fra-Fra” Errazuriz (Progressive Union (progressive wing)) – suspended elections, restructured the government and nationalized most industries; opposed by the CIA from 1993 to 2001; ousted in a coup amid his poor handling of the SARS Global Pandemic
24 Jul 2002 – 6 Feb 2003: 78) Gen. Juan Miguel Fuente-Alba (Independent (centrist)) – head of an “emergency interim” military government; resigned over unpopularity and inability to unify various intergovernmental factions
6 Feb 2003 – 3 Nov 2003: 79) Gen. Ricardo Izurieta (Independent (centrist)) – head of a “transitional” military government; retired
3 Nov 2003 – 3 Nov 2007: 80) Joaquin Lavin (Democratic Union (centrist)) – lost re-nomination and retired
3 Nov 2007 – 3 Nov 2015: 81) Leonardo Farkas (Independent (left-leaning)) – term-limited
3 Nov 2015 – 3 Nov 2019: 82) Claudio Orrego (Christian Democratic) – lost re-election
3 Nov 2019 – present: 83) Evelyn Matthei (Democratic Union) – incumbent

Chairpersons/Premiers of THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
3/20/1943-11/24/1975: Mao Tse-Tung (Communist) – died from poor health worsened by the stress of warfare
Vice-Chairman: Zhou Enlai (C) (since 1969)
11/24/1975-12/1/1975: Zhou Enlai (C) – stepped down after losing the Chinese Civil War of 1975
Vice-Chairman: none
12/1/1975-12/1/1987: Deng Xiaoping (C) – retired after establishing a term limit of a single 12-year term per premier
Vice-Chairman: Bo Yibo (C) (since 1977)
12/1/1987-6/21/1992: Li Xiannian (C) – died in office from heart failure
Vice-Chairman: Lee Teng-hui (C) (since 1988)
6/21/1992-6/21/2004: Zhu Rongji (C) – term-limited
Vice-Chairman: Lee Teng-hui (C) (since 1988)
6/21/2004-10/15/2007: Bo Xilai (C until 9/16/2007, then I) – removed from office after being found guilty of committing corruption
Vice-Chairman: Yang Gang (C) (since 2004)
10/15/2007-10/15/2019: Yang Gang (C) – term-limited
Vice-Chairwoman: Guo Jianmei (C) (since 2007)
10/15/2019-present: Guo Jianmei (C) – first female Head of State for the PRC; incumbent
Vice-Chairman: Zhu Xiaodan (since 2019)

Presidents of COTE D’IVOIRE
1960-1993: 1) Felix Houphouet-Boigny – opposed Sanwi Kingdom from breaking off in 1991 under King Amon N’Douffou IV; died in office
1993-1995: 2) Henri Bedie – ousted in a military coup after he failed to keep the Sanwi Kingdom from securing independence in 1994 (with American musician Jimi Hendrix being coronated Crown Prince of The Sanwi, a semi-ceremonial position, later that year)
1995-1997: 3) Robert Guéï – recruited to serve as interim leader until new elections were held, but then decided to run for a full term, only to withdraw his candidacy after being temporarily blinded in an assassination attempt; regained eyesight two years after relinquishing title
1997-2021: 4) Alassane Dramane Ouattara – won 1996 election over First Lady Rose Doudou Guéï; re-elected in 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016; retired amid waning popularity
2021-present: 5) Pascal Affi N'Guessan – was predecessor’s preferred successor; incumbent

Leaders of The CONGO
Presidents of The REPUBLIC of The CONGO
1960-1965: 1) Joseph Kasa-Vubu
1965-1971: 2) Mobutu Sese Seko

Presidents of The REPUBLIC of ZAIRE
1971-1997: (2)) Mobutu Sese Seko
1997-1998: 3) Mobutu Nzanga

Presidents of The DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC of The CONGO
1998-2004: 4) Etienne Tshisekedi – assassinated
2004-2005: 5) Adolphe Muzito – assassinated
2005-2007: disputed (multiple claims) – Jean-Pierre Bemba controlled a plurality of the country for most of this period; Ernie Wamba and Laurent Nkunda controlled different territory concurrently; Gabriel Amisi Kumba launched a brief “partial” coup over a portion of the country in 2006 but lost most of said territory by the end of the year
2007-2017: 6) Moise Katumbi – rose to power after rebels formed a united front to overthrow Bemba; stepped down after winning free elections in 2009 and 2013
2017-present: 7) Martin Fayulu – won free elections in 2017 and 2021

Presidents of the Second REPUBLIC OF CUBA
9/17/1961-7/24/1966: 1) Jose Miro Cardona (Independent) – oversaw government reform after the defeat of communist forces
1961: Cardona over minor, scattered opposition (effectively unopposed)
7/24/1966-7/24/1972: 2) Rufo Lopez-Fresquet (Conservative) – fixed terms to six years apiece; term-limited
1966: Lopez-Fresquet over Pepe San Roman (Stability) and Carlos Prio Socarras (New Authority)
7/24/1972-7/24/1978: 3) Erneido Oliva (Conservative) – term-limited
1972: Oliva over Aureliano Sanchez (New Authority) and Manuel Artime (Stability)
7/24/1978-7/24/1984: 4) Pedro Luis Boitel (Stability) – term-limited
1978: Boitel over Andres Rivero Aguero (Conservative) and Eulogio Cantillo (New Authority)
7/24/1984-7/24/1990: 5) Armando Valladares (Conservative) – term-limited
1984: Valladares over Huber Matos (Stability) and Emilio Ochoa (New Authority)
7/24/1990-7/24/1996: 6) Gustavo Arcos (Stability) – term-limited
1990: Arcos over Jorge Mas Canosa (Conservative)
7/24/1996-7/24/2002: 7) Alfredo Abon Lee (Stability) – term-limited
1996: Lee over Albio B. Sires (Conservative)
7/24/2002-3/1/2003: 8) Sebastian Arcos Bergnes (Conservative) – died in office from cancer
2002: Felix Rodriguez (Stability)
3/1/2003-7/24/2008: 9) Jorge Luis Garcia Perez (Conservative) – term-limited
2003 (special): Felix Rodriguez (Stability)
7/24/2008-7/24/2014: 10) Jose Ramon Balaguer (Progressive) – term-limited
2008: Orlando Sanchez (Conservative, endorsed by Stability)
7/24/2014-7/24/2020: 11) Berta Soler (National Coalition) – term-limited
2014: Miguel Faria (Independent, endorsed by Progressive)
7/24/2020-present: 12) Oscar Elias Biscet (Progressive) – incumbent
2020: Leopoldo Cintra Frias (National Coalition)

Leaders of CZECHOSLOVAKIA
PRESIDENTS of the CZECHOSLOVAK SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
1948-1953: 5) Klement Gottwald (C) – imposed the Soviet model of government onto the country, including the nationalization of industry and the collectivization of the farms; instigated a series of purges; died in office from a burst artery (the result of long-time alcoholism and suffering from heart disease caused by syphilis that had gone untreated for several years) at the age of 56
1953-1957: 6) Antonin Zapotocky (C) – governed more humanely than his predecessor; died in office from natural causes at the age of 72
1957-1968: 7) Antonin Novotny (C) – enforced strict government regulations and quasi-authoritarian practices; removed from power by USSR leader Shelepin amid poor efforts to quell calls for reform
1968-1975: 8) Vasil’ Bil’ak (C) – hardline conservative politician; strongly supported Shelepin but had a frosty relationship with Kosygin; forced into retirement by reformers that came to power in a bloodless political inner-party coup
1975-1984: 9) Ota Sik (C, with the party dissolving the same day he left office) – implemented reforms and raised restrictions overall; introduced rudimentary free markets in 1982 with the permission of the USSR’s Podgorny, only to have to scale them back after pressure from Podgorny’s successor, which only increased anti-communist sentiment; stepped down amid the fall of Communism
1984-1984: 10) Ludvik Vaculik (I) – former journalist; led transitional non-communist government; retired from politics and did not attempt to influence the free elections that determined his successor and multiple details of the new government
PRESIDENTS of The DEMOCRACY of CZECHOSLOVAKIA
1984-1994: 1) Valtr Komarek (independent, Czech) – elected over a “pro-separation” candidate and re-elected over a rabbi; increased Slovakian autonomy and encouraged people in both halves of the country to interact with one another
1984 Presidential Election: Vaclav Klaus (independent, Czech)
1989 Presidential Election: Karol Sidon (independent, Czech)
1992 Referendum ("Should Czechoslovakia split into two countries?"): 56% No, 44% Yes
1993 Referendum (“Should Czechoslovakia ratifying the EU Accession Treaty?”): 64% Yes, 36% No
1994-1997: 2) Alexander Dubcek (Reform, Slovak) – former Communist leader who during the 1980s supported reform efforts in the country and in the USSR; previously served in the Federal Assembly during the late 1960s and again in the early 1990s; elected over an academic drafted into running; ran on the campaign theme of “freedom and forgiveness,” worked to improve Czech and Slovak relations, and pushed the nation closer to western Europe; died in office from poor health at the age of 75
1994 Presidential Election: Vaclav Havel (Peace, Czech), Vaclav Klaus (independent, Czech) and Jan Slota (independent, Slovak)
1996 Referendum ("Should Czechoslovakia adopt the Euro?") – 59% Yes, 41% No
1997-1999: 3) Miroslav Sladek (Reform, Czech) – succeeded to office amid controversy, as the law did not make clear who became President if the office was vacated prematurely; was Minister of State (First Minister) at the time of his ascension; lost nomination (to the head of the House of Schwarzenberg, a former leading family of the Habsburg empire) and retired
VP (vacant, 1997-1997): 1) Vladimir Meciar (Reform, Slovak)
1997 Referendum (“Should Czechoslovakia have a Vice President?”): 72% Yes, 28% No
1998 Referendum (“Should Czechoslovakia shift Presidential elections years [a la the French model] upon an incumbent vacating office?”): 61% No, 39% Yes
1999-2004: 4) Ivan Gasparovic (Democratic, Slovak) – lost re-election over their handling of the SARS pandemic
VP: Jan Sokol (Democratic, Czeck)
1999 Presidential Election: Prince Karel Schwarzenberg (Reform, Czech) and Marie Stiborova (Better Communist, Czech)
2004-2014: 5) Mirek Topolanek (National Freedom, Czech) – conservative former business manager known for numerous controversial remarks and actions, and for supporting electric power; response to the Unlucky Recession of 2013 was considered poor and ineffective to most
VP: Vlasta Parkanova (National Freedom, Czech)
2004 Presidential Election: Ivan Gasparovic (Democratic, Slovak), Jan Svejnar (Reform, Czech) and Stanislav Fischer (Better Communism, Czech)
2008 Referendum (“Should we limit the powers of the presidential branch by requiring a simple majority of the supreme court to approve of the President’s executive orders in order for them to go into effect?”) – 65% No, 35% Yes
2009 Presidential Election: Jiri Dienstbier Jr. (Democratic, Czech), Milan Ftacnik (independent, Slovak) and Magdalena Vasaryova (Reform, Slovak)
2010 Referendum (“should Czechoslovakia split into two countries?”): 80% No, 20% Yes
2014-present: 6) Anna Zaborska (Democratic, Slovak) – first female President of Czechoslovakia; responded to massive cyberattacks in 2017 that breached thousands of ontech bank accounts by reforming financial firewall processes and procedures; dealt with deadly and destructive wildfires in early 2018; to lower the nation’s carbon emissions, has set a goal of the country producing net zero emissions by 2050
VP: Milan Stech (Democratic, Czech)
2014 Presidential Election: Premysl Sobotka (Reform, Check) and Vlasta Parkanova (National Freedom, Czech)
2014 Referendum (“Should Czechoslovakia reform the national income tax from a flat tax of 5% to a gradual curve tax starting at 1% for the poorest and ending at 10% for the wealthiest”?) – 52% Yes, 48% No
2014 Referendum (“should Czechoslovakia split into two countries?”): 74% No, 26% Yes
2019 Presidential Election: Mikulas Dzurinda (Reform, Slovak), Radek John (Transparency, Czech) and Tomio Okamura (National Freedom, Czech)

Presidents of DARFUR
2011-2021: 1) Minni Minnawi
2021-present: 2) Abdul Wahid al Nur

Presidents of The DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
1963-1971: Juan Bosch (PRD) – defeated a paramilitary coup in 1963; retired amid threats of another coup attempt in 1969
1971-1979: Juan Isidro Jimenez Grullon (SDA) – established term limits to prevent another coup attempt in 1975; term-limited
1979-1979: Rafael Filiberto Bonnelly (NCU) – died at age 75
1979-1987: Francisco Augusto Lora (NCU, then PR) – term-limited
1987-1995: José Rafael Abinader (SDA) – defeated coup attempt in 1993
1995-1998: José Francisco Peña Gómez (PRD) – died at age 61
1998-2003: Jacinto Peynado Garrigosa (PRD, then Reform) – lost re-election and failed to overturn results, first in court and then via an attempted self-coup
2003-2011: Milagros Ortiz Bosch (PRD) – first female President; niece of Juan Bosch; term-limited
2011-2019: Eduardo Estrella (PDC) – term-limited; struggled to improve economy after the 2013 recession; just barely won re-election
2019-present: Fello Suberví (PRD) – entered office at age 76; incumbent

Presidents of EGYPT
1953-1954: 1) Mohamed Naguib – resigned
1954-1970: 2) Gamal Abdel Nasser – in office during the Sukkot War (1967); died in office
1970-1982: 3) Anwar Sadat – shared a Nobel Peace Prize for the Atlanta Peace Treaty; retired six weeks after announcing he would do so in December 1981
1982-2009: 4) Hosni Mubarak – a reluctant ally of Israel; in office when Egypt the Summer Olympics of 1996; dealt with rising civil disobedience issues as he continued safezoning policies long after the 2002-2005 SARS pandemic subsided; overthrown in military coup
2009-2011: 5) Mohamed Hussein Tantawi – stepped down after overseeing free and fair elections
2011-2021: 6) Moussa Mostafa Moussa – former architect; won in 2011 and 2016; controversial for having an icy relationship with Israel; term-limited
2021-present: 7) Mohamed Anwar Esmat Sadat – is the nephew of the late Anwar Sadat; previously was heavily involved in organizing the annual Chicken Dinner Summits in Jerusalem; won 2021 election over Alaa Mubarak; incumbent

Leaders of ERITREA
PRIME MINISTERS
1978-1981: 1) Isaias Afwerki – political infighting led to parliament removing him from office; killed in 1982
1981-1982: 2) Alamin Mohammed Seid – overthrown in a military coup
SECRETARY-GENERALS
1982-1987: 3) Osman Saleh Sabbe – died from cancer; succeeded by his brother
1987-1989: 4) Mahmoud Saleh Sabbe – overthrown in internal military coup
1989-present: 5) Sebhat Ephrem – sided with North Korea in the Second Korean War and played a central role in the Eritrean Missile Scandal; incumbent

Emperors of ETHIOPIA
1930-1977: Haile Selassie I
1977-1983: Amha Selassie I
1983-present: Zera Yacob Amha Selassie I

Presidents of FINLAND
1956-1980: 8) Urho Kakkonen (Centre)
1980-1992: 9) Mauno Koivisto (Social Democratic)
1992-2004: 10) Elisabeth Rehn (Swedish People’s Alliance)
2004-2016: 11) Dr. Pekka Puska (Green/Social Democratic, Green/Liberal after 2008)
2016-present: 12) Pekka Haavisto (Green)

Presidents of FRANCE
8 Jan 1959 – 16 Jan 1965: 18) Charles de Gaulle (Union for the New Republic (UNR)) – resigned amid nationwide protests
21 Dec 1958 (no runoff needed): de Gaulle over George Marrane (French Communist Party (PCF)) and Albert Chatelet (Union of the Democratic Forces (UFD))
16 Jan 1965 – 7 Mar 1965: Acting) Alain Poher (Popular Republican Movement (MRP)) – lost election
7 Mar 1965 – 7 Mar 1979: 19) Francois Mitterrand (Convention of Republican Institutions (CIR)), Unified Socialist Party after 1 May 1965) – term-limited
14 Feb 1965 (1st round): Mitterrand (CIR) over Charles de Gaulle (UNR), Jean Lecanuet (Popular Republican Movement (MRP)), Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour (Miscellaneous far right (DVED)), Pierre Marcilhacy (European Liberal Party (PLE)) and Marcel Barbu (Miscellaneous left (DVG))
28 Feb 1965 (2nd round): Mitterrand (CIR) over Charles de Gaulle (UNR)
14 Feb 1972 (1st round): Mitterrand (USP) over Georges Pompidou (UNR), Alain Poher (MRP), Jacques Duclos (French Communist Party (PCF)), Gaston Deffere (French Section of the Workers’ International (SFIO)), Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour (DVED), and Gaston Monnerville (L’Réforme)
28 Feb 1972 (2nd round): Mitterrand (USP) over Georges Pompidou (UNR)
7 Mar 1979 – 7 Mar 1986: 20) Pierre Mauroy (USP) – lost re-election in a major upset amid multiple scandals
14 Feb 1979 (1st round): Mauroy (USP) over Michel Jean-Pierre Debré (UNR), Valery Giscard d’Estaing (MRP), Jean Royer (Conservative), Arlette Laguiller (Workers’), Rene Dumont (Reform), Jacques Duclos (PCF), Gaston Defferre (SFIO), and Bertrand Renouvin (New Royalist Action)
28 Feb 1979 (2nd round): Mauroy (USP) over Michel Jean-Pierre Debré (UNR)
7 Mar 1986 – 17 May 1989: 21) Jean-Marie Le Pen (National Front (FN)) – impeached, convicted, and removed from office upon conviction for multiple offenses
14 Feb 1986: Le Pen (Nationl Front (FN)) over Jaques Chaban-Delmas (Republican), Pierre Mauroy (USP), Valery Giscard d’Estaing (MRP), Jean Royer (Conservative), Arlette Laguiller (Workers’), Rene Dumont (Independent), Michel Rocard (Independent Socialist), Marie-France Garaud (Centrist), Georges Marchais (French Communist Party (PCF)), and Michel Crepeau (Radical Party of the Left (PRG))
28 Feb 1986: Le Pen (Nationl Front (FN)) over Jaques Chaban-Delmas (Republican)
17 May 1989 – 30 July 1989: Acting) Alain Poher Popular (Republican Movement (MRP)) – lost election
30 July 1989 – 30 July 2003: 22) Claude Estier (Socialist Alliance (SA))
– term-limited
9 July 1989 (1st round): Estier (Socialist Alliance (SA)) over Brice Lalonde (Green), Jean-Claude Gaudin (Union for French Democracy (UDF)), Rene Monory (Center), Raymond Barre (Independent), Bertrand Renouvin (New Royalist Action) and Maurice Papon (National Front (FN)).
23 July 1989 (2nd round): Estier (Socialist Alliance (SA)) over Brice Lalonde (Green)
9 July 1996 (first round): Jean-Claude Gaudin (Republican), Edith Campion Cresson (Independent Socialist), Jean-Pierre Stirbois (National Front), and others
23 July 1996 (runoff): cancelled – Estier received over 50% in the first round
30 July 2003 – 30 July 2010: 23) Marie-Segolene Royal (Socialist Alliance (SA)) – lost re-election
9 July 2003 (first round): Marie-Segolene Royal (SA) over Francois Bayrou (Centrist), Jean-Louis Debré (Republican), Marie-France Stirbois (National Front), and others
23 July 2003 (runoff): Marie-Segolene Royal (SA) over Francois Bayrou (Centrist)
30 July 2010 – 30 July 2017: 24) Francois Leotard (Republican) – lost re-election
9 July 2010 (first round): Marie-Segolene Royal (SA) over Francois Leotard (Republican), Jean-Luc Melenchon (Democratic Socialist), Charles M. J. V. Napoleon (Centrist), Jean-Pierre Raffarin (Sensible), and others
23 July 2010 (runoff): Francois Leotard (Republican) over Marie-Segolene Royal (SA)
30 July 2017 – present: 25) Joseph “José” Bové (Green) – incumbent
9 July 2017 (first round): Francois Leotard (Republican) over Joseph “José” Bové (Green), Benoit Hamon (Socialist Alliance), Dominique Voynet (Democratic Socialist), Francois Bayrou (Democratic Union), Jean-Christophe Napoleon (Centrist), Jeremie Renier (Independent), Jacques Cheminade (National Front), Laurent Fabius (Sensible) and Romain Duris (Action)
23 July 2017 (runoff): Joseph “José” Bové (Green) over Francois Leotard (Republican)

Presidium-Generals of GAGAUZIA
1991-2011: 1) Mihail Kendighelean (Independent)
2011-present: 2) Petr Tomaily (Socialist)

Leaders of GERMANY
Heads of State of EAST GERMANY
1950-1973: Walter Ulbricht (C) - died in office from a stroke at the age of 80
1973-1989: Erich Honecker (C) - attempted reforms to quell public unrest; communist rule collapsed
Chancellors of WEST GERMANY
1949-1963: Konrad Adenauer (CDU) - coalition lost majority control
1963-1969: Ludwig Erhard (CDU) - coalition lost majority control
1969-1974: Willy Brandt (SPD) - coalition lost majority control
1974: Walter Scheel (FDP) - coalition lost majority control
1974-1976: Helmut Schmidt (SPD) - coalition lost majority control
1985-1985: Helmut Kohl (CDU/CSU) - oversaw the unification of East Germany and West Germany
Chancellors of WEST GERMANY
1985-1992: Helmut Kohl (CDU/CSU) - stepped own ahead of elections due to rising unpopularity over his handling of the early 1990s recession
1992: Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (CDU/CSU) - first female Chancellor of Germany; coalition lost majority control
1992-2000: Oskar Lafontaine (SPD) - coalition lost majority control
2000-2007: Edmund Stoiber (CDU/CSU) - response to SARS Global Pandemic was effective but controversial; coalition lost majority control
2007-2010: Petra Kelly (SPD/Green) - second female Chancellor of Germany; coalition lost majority control
2010-present: Gerhard Schroder (SPD) - incumbent

Prime Ministers of GREECE
5/17/1958-9/20/1961: Konstantinos Karamanlis (ERE)
9/20/1961-11/4/1961: Konstantinos Dovas (Independent)
11/4/1961-6/18/1963: Konstantinos Karamanlis (ERE)
6/18/1963-11/8/1963: Panagiotis Pipinelis (ERE)
11/8/1963-6/10/1965: Georgios Papandreou (EK)
6/10/1965-6/22/1965: Ilias Tsirimokos (Independent)
6/22/1965-10/9/1972: Grigoris Lambrakis (EK/EDA alliance)
10/9/1972-3/5/1977: Konstantinos Karamanlis (New Democracy)
3/5/1977-5/8/1977: Georgios Mavros (New Democracy)
5/8/1977-12/12/1978: Andreas Papandreou (PASOK)
12/12/1978-10/20/1985: Alexandros Panagoulis (Centre Union)
10/20/1985-10/11/1987: Andreas Papandreou (PASOK)
10/11/1987-9/8/1989: Alexandros Panagoulis (Centre Union)
9/8/1989-4/9/1992: Alexandros Onassis (Centre Union)
4/9/1992-5/7/1998: Melina Mercouri (PASOK)
5/7/1998-1/17/1999: Andreas Papandreou (PASOK)
1/17/1999-7/8/1999: George Papandreou (PASOK)
7/8/1999-6/15/2005: Giorgos Vassiliou (United Democrats)
6/15/2005-2/24/2007: Yannis Dragasakis (United Democrats)
2/24/2007-3/30/2008: Costas Simitis (PASOK)
3/30/2008-8/16/2010: Kostas Karamanlis (Democratic Alliance)
8/16/2010-1/2/2015: Theodoros Pangalos (PASOK)
1/2/2015-5/14/2017: Antonis Manitakis (Democratic Front)
5/14/2017-11/28/2017: Ioannis Plakiotakis (Multi-Partisan Coalition)
11/28/2017-3/23/2021: Fotini “Fofi” Gennimata (PASOK)
3/23/2021-present: Evangelos-Vasileios “Vangelis” Meimarakis (Democracy Now)

Presidents of GUYANA
1970-1980: 1) Arthur Chung (I) – first-ever ethnic Chinese head of state of a non-Asian country; retired
1980-1985: 2) Forbes Burnham (PNC) – died from a sudden heart attack
1985-1992: 3) Desmond Hoyte (PNC) – lost re-election
1992-1997: 4) Cheddi Jagan Sr. (PPP) – died from a sudden heart attack
1997-1997: 5) Sam Hinds (PPP) – lost party leadership position to more popular challenger
1997-1999: 6) Janet Jagan (PPP) – widow of Cheddi Jagan Sr.; first white, first Jewish, and first female President; resigned due to rising health issues
1999-2000: 7) Bharrat Jagdeo (PPP) – lost election
2000-2009: 8) Barton U. A. Scotland (PNC) – lost re-election
2009-2014: 9) Cheddi “Joey” Jagan Jr. (PPP) – son of two former Presidents; lost re-election
2014-2018: 10) Sandra Marie Chan-A-Sue (PNC) – second female President, second Chinese President, and first female Chinese President; lost re-election
2018-2020: 11) Manzoor Nadir (PPP) – lost party leadership position to more popular challenger
2020-present: (7)) Bharrat Jagdeo (PPP) – incumbent

Prime Ministers of ITALY
1960-1963: ((32)) Amintore Fanfani (Christian Democracy)
1963-1963: 37) Giovanni Leone (CD)
1963-1965: 38) Aldo Moro (CD)
1965-1969: (37)) Giovanni Leone (CD)
1969-1975: 39) Benigno Zaccagnini (CD)
1975-1978: (38)) Aldo Moro (CD)
1978-1985: 40) Francesco De Martino (United Socialist)
1985-1987: (38)) Aldo Moro (CD)
1987-1991: (40)) Francesco De Martino (US)
1991-1992: 41) Ottaviano Del Turco (US)
1992-1992: 42) Pierre Carniti (Independent)
1992-1999: 43) Arnaldo Forlani (CD)
1999-2004: 44) Gianfranco Fini (Conservative National Alliance)
2004-2005: 45) Gianni De Michelis (New Socialist Alliance, but officially Independent)
2005-2012: (44)) Gianfranco Fini (CNA)
2012-2016: 46) Bobo Craxi (NSA)
2016-2020: (44)) Gianfranco Fini (CNA)
2020-present: 47) Stefania Craxi (NSA)

Presidents of IRAQ (elected by the Council of Representatives by a 2/3rds majority until the implementation of the Electorate College-based indirect presidential elections system in 1989-1991 reforms):
7/14/1958-2/8/1963: 1) Muhammad Najib ar-Ruba’i (1904-1965) Independent – deposed
2/8/1963-4/13/1966: 2) Abdul Salam Arif (1921-1966) ASU – died in office
4/13/1966-11/2/1975: 3) Abdul Rahman Arif (1916-2007) ASU – retired due to waning popularity
11/2/1975-1/20/1979: 4) Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (1914-1985) Iraqi Ba’ath/Independent – rejected from Ba’ath Party in early 1978 for participating in Atlanta Peace Talks; retired, officially due to “my failure to handle the national recession”
1/20/1979-3/4/1986: 5) Tahir Yahya (1915-1986) Iraqi Ba’ath – retired due to waning popularity; passed away soon after leaving office
3/4/1986-5/8/1991: 6) Abdul Rahman Arif (1916-2007) ASU – retired due to waning health
5/8/1991-5/8/2003: 7) Abd ar-Razzaq Said al-Naif (1934-2010) ASU (“Pro-West” faction) – retired despite popularity, establishing a precedence
5/8/2003-5/8/2009: 8) Saleh Muhammed al-Mutlaq (b. 1947) ASU (“moderate” faction) – former Ba’ath Party member, rejected for supporting justice reform; lost re-election but did not contest election results, establishing a precedence
5/8/2009-5/8/2015: 9) Nouri al-Maliki (b. 1950) People of Iraq – lost re-election, and was pressured by party leadership to withdraw court challenges to the results; controversial for past anti-Zionist comments despite his more moderate political stances while in office
5/8/2015-present: 10) Hussain al-Shahristani (b. 1942) ASU (“Pro-West” faction) – incumbent; term-limited after winning re-election in May 2021
Governors of The Autonomous Republic of KURDISTAN
12/13/2003-1/3/2013: 1) Jalal Talabani (Patriotic Union)
1/3/2013-1/3/2017: 2) Nechirvan Barzani (Kurdistani Democratic)
1/3/2017-present: 3) Rowsch Shaways (Patriotic Union)

Presidents of IRELAND
19/12/1974-21/3/1978: Cearbhall O Dalaigh (All-Party Nomination) – died in office
17/11/1974: unopposed
22/5/1978-21/5/1992: Patrick Hillery (Fianna Fail) – term-limited
23/4/1978: unopposed
23/4/1985: Austin Currie (Fine Gael)
22/5/1992-21/5/2006: Mary Robinson (Independent) – term-limited
23/4/1992: Mary McAleese (Fianna Fail) and Mary Banotti (Fine Gael)
23/4/1999: unopposed
22/5/2006-21/5/2020: Avril Doyle (Fine Gael) – term-limited
23/4/2006: Mary O’Rourke (Fianna Fail) and Martin McGuinness (Sinn Fein)
23/4/2013: Dana Rosemary Scallon (Independent) and Martin McGuinness (Sinn Fein)
22/5/2020-present: Dana Rosemary Scallon (Independent) – incumbent
23/4/2020: Bernadette Devlin McAliskey (Labour) and Gay Mitchell (Fine Gael)
Taoiseachs of IRELAND
1993-1997: Dick Spring (Labour)
1997-1999: John Bruton (Fine Gael)
1999-2003: Maire Geoghegan-Quinn (Fianna Fail)
2003-2009: Ruairi Quinn (Labour)
2009-2014: Dermot Ahern (Fianna Fail)
2014-present: Michael Noonan (Fine Gael)

Prime Ministers of INDIA
1984-1989: 6) Rajiv Gandhi (INC) – lost election over rising geopolitical tensions
1989-1995: 7) V. P. Singh (JD/NF) – initially popular for signing landmark peace accord with Pakistan that ended conflict over Kashmir
1995-1997: (6)) Rajiv Gandhi (INC) – removed from office after being convicted of embezzlement
1997-1998: 8) P. V. Narasimha Tao (INC) – lost re-election amid economic downturn
1998-2001: 9) Lalu Prasad (JD/UF) – lost re-election after struggling to maintain a coalition government
2001-2004: 10) Lal Krishna Advani (BJP) – forced out of office by his own party over his very poor and very divisive handling of the 2001-2004 SARS pandemic
2004-2005: 11) Aral Bihari Vajpayee (BJP) – entered office at the age of 79; lost election in a landslide
2005-2010: 12) Sonia Maino Gandhi (INC) – established fixed terms; lost re-election over controversial taxes and business regulations; wife of a former PM
2010-present: 13) N. Chandrababu Naidu (TD) – incumbent; left-of-center technocrat and former businessman

Presidents of INDONESIA
1945-1965: 1) Sukarno – overthrown in bloody military coup
1965-1992: 2) Suharto – took over West Irian in 1969; almost invaded East Timor in 1975; resigned amid major financial crisis
1992-2005: 3) Sudharmono – defeated challenger Try Sutrisno in 1993 civil war; won 1995 election over Ali Sadikin; retired due to waning popularity
2005-2015: 4) Megawati Sukarnoputri – daughter of Sukarno; won in 2005 over Tommy Suharto and in 2010 over Prabowo Subianto; retired
2015-present: 5) Alwi Shihab – won in 2015 over Surya Paloh; won re-election in landslide; nation will host the 2024 summer Olympics; incumbent

Shahs of IRAN
1941-1978: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi – assassinated
1978-present: Reza Pahlavi – entered office at the age of 17; cooled tensions with the Saudis to work with the Saudi Arabian Space Center and contribute to the regional effort to send a manned lunar module to the moon in 2008; country hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics; incumbent

Prime Ministers of ISRAEL
1969-1974: 4) Golda Meir (Labor) – retired due to declining popularity
1974-1977: 5) Yitzhak Rabin (Labor) – lost election
1977-1985: 6) Menachem Begin (Likud) – retired due to declining health
1985-1988: 7) Yitzhak Shamir (Likud) – lost re-election
1988-1990: (5)) Yitzhak Rabin (Labor) – lost re-election
1990-1991: (7)) Yitzhak Shamir (Likud) – lost re-election
1991-1994: 8) Shulamit Aloni (Meretz) – lost re-election
1994-1996: (5)) Yitzhak Rabin (Labor) – retired after cancer diagnosis
1996: 9) Teddy Kollek (Labor) – interim leader until Labor’s factions could agree on a single compromise leader candidate
1996-1997: 10) Ami Ayalon (Labor) – lost election
1997-2000: 11) Ariel Sharon (Likud) – lost re-election
2000-2001: 12) Yossi Sarid (Meretz) – lost re-election
2001-2004: (11)) Ariel Sharon (Likud) – lost re-election
2004-2010: 13) Dr. Yosef “Yossi” Beilin (Labor/Meretz coalition) – lost re-election
2010-2015: 14) Moshe Feiglin (Likud/Libertarian coalition) – lost re-election
2015-present: 15) Tziporah Malka “Tzipi” Livni (Labor/Hatnua coalition) – incumbent

Prime Ministers of JAPAN
1989-1991: Toshiki Kaifu (LDP) – lost party confidence and ousted from leadership position
1991-1993: Kiichi Miyazawa (LDP) – lost majority control
1993-1994: Morihiro Hosokawa (New) – lost majority control
1994-1994: Tsutomu Hata (Renewal) – lost majority control
1994-1995: Tomiichi Murayama (Socialist) – lost majority control
1995-1999: Ryutaro Hashimoto (LDP) – ousted from party leadership amid economic recession and fighting among internal factions
1999-2000: Takeo Hiranuma (LDP) – ousted from party leadership
2000-2001: Shintaro Ishihara (LDP) – ousted from party leadership
2001-2002: Junichiro Koizumi (LDP) – ousted from party leadership
2002-2008: Ryutaro Hashimoto (LDP) – mounted successful political comeback; announced stepping down due to declining health, and passed away soon after leaving office
2008-2008: Taro Aso (LDP) – lost majority control as coalition crumbled among internal division
2008-2010: Ichiro Ozawa (Centrist Coalition) – lost majority control
2010-2016: Mizuho Fukushima (Social Democratic) – lost majority control
2016-2020: Renho (Constitutional Democratic) – lost coalition confidence
2020-2021: Seiji Maehara (Constitutional Democratic) – lost coalition confidence
2021-present: Renho (Constitutional Democratic) – incumbent

Kings of LAOS
1959-1992: Sisavang Vatthana (1907-1992) – died from natural causes
1992-2019: Vong Savang (1931-2019) – died from natural causes
2019-present: Soulivong Savang (b. 1963) – is an openly avid Anglophile; incumbent

Presidents of LEBANON
1970-1976: 11) Suleiman Frangieh (Marada Movement) – term-limited
1976-1982: 12) Elias Sarkis (unaffiliated) – term-limited
1982-1988: 13) Musa al-Sadr (Amal Movement) – first non-Christian President; term-limited
1988-1994: 14) Antoine “Tony” Frangieh (Marada Movement) – term-limited
1994-2000: 15) Hussein El-Husseini (Amal Movement) – term-limited
2000-2006: 16) Nayla Moawad (Qornet Shehwan Gathering) – first female President; term-limited
2006-2011: 17) Nassib Lahoud (Democratic Renewal Movement) – died in office after a long illness
2011-2012: – ) Elias Murr (Labour Organization) – served as “Acting” President and was not a candidate for a full term
2012-2018: 18) Albert Mansour (Call For Sustainable Peace) – term-limited
2018-present: 19) Boutros Harb (Independent) – incumbent

Leaders of LIBYA
MONARCHS of The KINGDOM of LIBYA
1951-1969: 1) Idris I (Senussi Dynasty) – first and only King of Libya; overthrown in a coup
REVOLUTIONARY COMMAND COUNCIL CHAIRMEN of The LIBYAN ARAB REPUBLIC
1969-1982: 2) Muammar Gaddafi (Arab Socialist Union) – overthrown during the US-Libya War
PRIME MINISTERS of The REPUBLIC of LIBYA
1982-1985: 3) Mustafa Ben-Halim (Libyan Movement) – coalition lost majority control
1985-1987: 4) Sadiq Al-Ghariani (National Identity) – slightly pro-West, conservative “third-way”; party lost majority control
1987-1993: (3)) Mustafa Ben-Halim (Libyan Movement) – coalition lost majority control
1993-1995: 5) Aguila Saleh Issa (Independent Pathway) – slightly anti-West but strongly anti-US; party lost majority control
1995-2000: (3)) Mustafa Ben-Halim (Libyan Movement) – stepped down at the age of 79
2000-2007: 6) Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab (Libyan Movement) – coalition lost majority control
2007-2012: 7) Mohammed Magariaf (Renewal) – socially conservative and anti-West; party lost majority control
2012-2017: (4)) Sadiq Al-Ghariani (National Identity) – stepped down amid corruption investigation; later arrested and tried but acquitted
2017-2019: 8) Hussein Al-Qatrani (National Identity) – party lost majority control
2019-2021: 9) Mustafa Abdul Jalil (Independent) – compromise candidate; coalition lost majority control
2021-present: 10) Salwa Bughaighis (Justice) – first female Libyan Prime Minister; won position as part of compromise to form majority coalition; incumbent

Presidents of MEXICO
1958-1964: 55) Adolfo Lopez Mateos (PRI)
1964-1970: 56) Gustavo Diaz Ordaz (PRI)
1970-1976: 57) Luis Echeverria (PRI)
1976-1982: 58) Jose Lopez Portillo y Pacheco (PRI)
1982-1988: 59) Miguel de la Madrid (PRI)
1988-1994: 60) Luis Alvarez (PAN)
1994-2000: 61) Luis Colosio (PRI)
2000-2006: 62) Esteban Moctezuma (PRI)
2006-2012: 63) Marcela Guerra Castillo (PRI)
2012-2018: 64) Santiago Creel (PAN)
2018-present: 65) Miguel Angel Osorio Chong (PRI)

Presidents of MOZAMBIQUE
1975-present: 1) Samora Machel (FRELIMO) – currently 87 years old and has been in office for just over 46 years now; incumbent

Prime Ministers of NEW ZEALAND
1957-1957: 26) Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake (National) – party lost majority
1957-1960: 27) Walter Nash (Labour) – won in 1957; party lost majority
1960-1966: (26)) Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake (National) – won in 1960 and 1963; party lost majority over his “undecisive” approach to US foreign policy during the Cuba and Indochina Wars
1966-1972: 28) Norman Eric Kirk (Labour) – won in 1966 and 1969; died from a heart attack at the age of 49
1972-1972: Acting) Arthur James Faulkner (Labour) – was Deputy Prime Minister; served temporarily and unofficially, from 19 February to 26 February; lost bid to serve as full PM
1972-1981: 29) Bill Rowling (Labour) – won in 1972, 1975, and 1978; party lost majority
1981-1984: 30) Sir Robert Muldoon (National) – won in 1981; party lost majority
1984-1989: (29)) Bill Rowling (Labour) – won in 1984 and 1987; stepped down due to declining health, after a total of 14 non-consecutive years in office
1989-1999: 31) Jim Anderton (Labour) – won in 1990, 1993 and 1996; party lost majority
1999-2002: 32) Sir Simon William “Johnny” English (National) – won in 1999; entered office at the age of 38; part lost majority over his poor handling of the SARS Global Pandemic
2002-2011: 33) Dame Tariana Turia (Labour) – won in 2002, 2005 and 2008; born to an American father and a Maori mother; first female NZ PM; stepped down amid waning popularity
2011-2011: 34) Rodney David Donald (Labour until 2011, then Labour-Green Alliance) – alliance lost majority amid incumbency fatigue
2011-2016: (32)) Sir Simon William “Johnny” English (National-People’s Alliance) – experienced a political comeback in 2009; won in 2011 and 2014; was praised for his handling of the 2013 economic downturn; resigned in November amid waning popularity, criticisms for several gaffes, and an investigation into a workplace pestering allegation
2016-2017: 35) Simon Joseph Bridges (National-People’s Alliance) – entered office at the age of 40; was of Maori descent; died in a plane crash
2017-2017: Acting) Winston Peters (National-People’s Alliance) – was Deputy Prime Minister; served temporarily and unofficially, from 17 June to 24 June; lost bid to serve as full PM
2017-2017: 36) Margaret Mary “Maggie” Barry (National-People’s Alliance) – second female NZ PM; party lost majority
2017-present: 37) Metiria Turei (Labour-Maori-Green Alliance) – won in 2017 and 2020; incumbent; born into a Maori family; third female NZ PM; her Deputy PM is Hone Harawira

Sultans of OMAN
1932-1970: Said bin Taimur – overthrown by son after several years of mental decline and poor leadership leading to Oman’s living standards plummeting
1970-2020: Qaboos bin Said – praised for improving Oman’s living conditions, including sanitation, literacy and nutrition; played an instrumental role in bringing regional leaders together for peace negotiations during the 1970s and again in the 1990s
2020-present: Haitham bin Tariq – Qaboos’ nephew; chosen by Qaboos to be his successior due to dedication to improving Omani quality of life

Presidents of PALESTINE
The Transfer of Authority from Israel to an interim Palestinian Authority (headed by Arafat as “Interim President”) occurred after the landmark 1978 Peace Treaty, and the transfer process was completed in 1982, with an independent Palestinian state sustaining a “special relationship” (i.e., a complicated but functioning and relatively peaceful one) with Israel and Jordan being established.
1982-1994: 1) Nasser Arafat (Popular Palestinian Democratic Front) – retired
1994-1995: 2) Samir Ghawshah (PPDF) – lost re-election
1995-1999: 3) Yasser Abed Rabbo (Strength Through Peace) – lost re-election
1999-2007: 4) Sari Nusseibeh (The Centrist Way) – retired
2007-2017: 5) Farouk Kaddoumi (Fatah) – retired amid low approval ratings linked to “hostile” comments made against Israel’s PM in 2016
2017-present: 6) Salam Fayyad (The Centrist Way) – incumbent

Presidents of PANAMA
1968-1973: 10) Arnulfo Arias – retired
1973-1983: 11) Demetrio Lakas – the son of Greek immigrants; overthrown in coup
1983-1983: 12) Manuel Noriega – killed in US-backed countercoup in December, roughly six months after taking office
1983-1990: (11)) Demetrio Lakas – reinstated, won re-election in 1984, then retired
1990-1996: 13) Carlos Duque – term-limited
1996-2002: 14) Mireya Moscoso – first female President; former First Lady (Arias); term-limited
2002-2008: 15) Rubén Blades – famous actor, singer-songwriter, and activist; term-limited
2008-2014: 16) Ricardo Martinelli – the son of Italian and Spanish immigrants; later tried and convicted for wiretapping and other forms of abuse of power
2014-2020: 17) José Miguel Alemán – term-limited
2020-present: 18) Balbina Herrera – second female President; term-limited

Presidents of PARAGUAY
1954-1996: 60) Alfredo Stroessner (ANR-Colorado) – dictator; died in plane crash
1996-1997: 61) Andrez Rodriguez (ANR-Colorado) – died in office from cancer
1997-2001: 62) (ANR-Colorado) – deposed in a coup d’etat
2001-2010: 63) Julio Cesar Franco (Independent until 2002, then Liberation) – became a more active opponent of the Stroessner regime after his brother Federico Franco was killed in a 1989 purge in Asuncion; initially served on a temporary basis; organized free and fair elections for 2002, but they were postponed for nearly two years due to the severity of the nation’s SARS crisis; won a single 6-year term in 2004 due to his highly-approved handling of the SARS virus; tried and failed to become an eligible candidate in 2010, which diminished his popularity considerably
2010-2016: 64) Pedro Fadul (BF-PPL Alliance) – term-limited; unpopular due to lackluster handling of economic decline in 2013-2014
2016-present: 65) Maria Gloria Solaeche (Democratic Progressive) – incumbent; anti-corruption; term-limited

Presidents of The PHILIPPINES
1965-1986: 10) Ferdinand Marcos (Nationalist/KBL) – was instrumental to US actions during Indochina Wars; ran a dictatorship; fled to Hawaii during the People Power Revolution that ousted him from power
1986-1995: 11) Corazon Aquino (UNIDO/Independent) – widow of resistance leader Benigno S. Aquino Jr.; established term limits and retired
1995-2000: 12) Fernando Poe Jr. (KNP) – lost re-election
2000-2005: 13) Jose de Venecia Jr. (Lakas) – accused of corruption; lost re-election
2005-2015: 14) Miriam Defensor Santiago (PRP) – term-limited
2015-present: 15) Dr. Luis Antonio Tagle (Pragmatic) – incumbent; is improving relations with the US after a relations strained under last two predecessors

Leaders of POLAND
BEFORE 1984 COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT CAPITULATION:
Wojciech Jaruzelski (as First Secretary of the Polish Union Workers’ Party) and Henryk Jablonski (As Chairman OF the Council of the state)
AFTER 1984 COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT CAPITULATION (AS PRESIDENT OF POLAND):
5/23/1984-5/23/1994: 1) Jarek Kuron (Solidarity) – term-limited
5/2/1984: Kuron over Tadeusz Mazowiecki (Independent)
5/2/1989: Kuron over Jan Olszewski (Conservative Movement)
5/23/1994-5/23/1999: 2) Leszek Kolakowski (Solidarity) – retired
5/2/1994: Kolakowski over Waldemar Pawlak (Christian Democratic) and Leszek Balcerowicz (Economic Reform)
5/23/1999-5/23/2009: 3) Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (Civility) – term-limited
5/2/1999: Gonkiewicz-Waltz over Andrzej Olechowski (Defense) and Marian Krzaklewski (Solidarity)
5/2/2004: Gonkiewicz-Waltz over Waldemar Pawlak (Christian Democratic), Janusz Korwin-Mikke (Defense/Polish Right) and Janusz Sniadek (Solidarity)
5/23/2009-5/23/2019: 4) Krystyna Bochenck (Civility) – term-limited
5/2/2009: Bochenck over Donald F. Tusk (Christian Democratic) and Piotr Duda (Solidarity)
5/2/2014: Bronislaw Maria Komorowski (Christian Democratic) and Anna Grodzka (Green, endorsed by Solidarity)
5/23/2019-present: 5) Jaroslaw Leszek Walesa (Solidarity) – incumbent
5/2/2019: Jerzy Szmajdzinski (Democratic Left Alliance)

Leaders of ROMANIA
GENERAL SECRETARIES (1945-1982)
10/16/1945-4/19/1954: Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (Communist) – stepped down
4/19/1954-9/30/1955: Gheorghe Apostol (Communist) – stepped down
9/30/1955-3/19/1965: Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (Communist) – died in office from lung cancer
3/19/1965-3/29/1971: Gheorghe Apostol (Communist) – ousted in a coup
3/29/1971-7/21/1971: Ion Gheorghe Maurer (Communist) – assassinated by an unknown sniper
7/21/1971-4/28/1981: Elena Ceausescu (Communist) – fled the capitol during riots but continued to claim office until her capture and execution in July 1982
4/28/1981-7/25/1982: Ilie Verdet (Communist) – stepped down
7/25/1982-12/12/1982: Gheorghe Apostol (Communist)
PRESIDENTS (1982-present)
7/25/1982-12/12/1991: 1) Gheorghe Apostol (Communist, then Independent after June 1983) – resigned after holding Moldovan unification referendums
12/12/1991-1/7/1993: 2) Alexandra Barladeanu (Independent) – led the unofficial “transitional government”
1/7/1993-1/7/1998: 3) Michael I (Independent) – former King of Romania; upheld one-term pledge; officially called “Michael Romanescu”
1/7/1998-1/7/2003: 4) Nicolae Manolescu (Liberal Democratic (left-wing centrist)) – upheld one-term pledge
1/7/2003-1/7/2013: 5) Theodor Stolojan (Christian Democratic (right-wing centrist)) – term-limited
1/7/2013-present: 6) Dumitru Ciubasenco (Liberal Democratic (endorsed by Social Democratic in 2012 and 2017)) – incumbent; first President from the former Moldova

Kings of SAUDI ARABIA
1964-1975: Faisal – assassinated
1975-1982: Khalid – died from heart attack
1982-1993: Fahd – died from a massive stroke due to poor health being aggravated by rising protests over human rights violations
1993-2015: Abdullah – died from pneumonia
2015-present: Salman – incumbent

Presidents of SENEGAL
1960-1980: 1) Leopold Sedar Senghor (Socialist)
1980-1982: 2) Abdou Diouf (Socialist)
Presidents of The GAMBIA
1970-1982: 1) Sir Dawda Jawara (People’s)
Presidents of The SENEGAMBIA CONFEDERATION
1982-1990: 1) Abdou Diouf (Socialist)
1990-2000: 2) Assan Musa Camara (People’s)
2000-2010: 3) Abdou Diouf (Socialist)
2010-2015: 4) Moustapha Niasse (Progressive)
2015-present: 5) Adama Barrow (People’s)

Presidents of SOMALIA
1969-1995: 3) Siad Barre (Socialist) – died from complications from a heart attack suffered earlier that month
1995-2014: 4) Muhammad Ali Samatar (Socialist) – contributed to regional goal of sending astronauts to the moon in 2008 via test probe launches from the Jilib Launch Base north of Jilib; investigated for committing a series of illegal and impeachable actions; pardoned self and stepped down amid economic crisis
2014-present: 5) Abdirahman Mohamed Abdullahi (Socialist) – introduced reform to bring country out of recession; incumbent

Presidents of SOUTH AFRICA
1984-1989: 1) Nelson Mandela (ANC) – succeeded P. W. Botha; retired
1989-1994: 2) Steve Biko (BCM/Inkatha Freedom (People’s)) – lost re-election
1994-2004: 3) Chris Hani (ANC) – term-limited
2004-2008: 4) Mangosuthu Buthelezi (People’s) – impeached and removed from for his involvement in the 2007 I.O.C. Bribery Scandal
2008-2014: 5) Keorapetse Kgositsile (ANC, Independent after 11/2/2013) – was elected Deputy President in 2004; elected to a full term in 2009; retired
2014-2019: 6) Nosimo Zisiwe Beauty Balindlela (Democratic Alliance) – first female President; lost re-election
2019-present: 4) Mosima G. “Tokyo” Sexwale (ANC) – incumbent

Prime Ministers of SPAIN (1975-present)
1975-1976: Carlos Arias Navarro (NM) – oversaw transition from Francoism to democracy; resigned amid waning popularity
1976-1981: Adolfo Suarez (NM until 1977, then UCD) – legalized all political parties and negotiated the creation of autonomous communities
1981-1982: Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo (UCD) – supported efforts to have Spain join NATO; oversaw responses to the 1981 Spanish coup d'état attempt
1982-1990: Felipe Gonzalez (PSOE) – implemented liberal reforms and economic restructuring, and improved education and the social security system
1990-1995: Adolfo Suarez (CDS) – addressed worker strikes with denationalization measures meant to lower unemployment rates
1995-2007: Felipe Gonzalez (PSOE) – learned from his previous administration's mistakes to successfully combat unemployment with lower interest rates, expanding labor markets, and modernizing industries; resigned, after roughly 20 non-consecutive years as PM, due to fatigue
2007-2008: Joaquin Almunia (PSOE) – eased recreadrug restrictions and sought to strengthen relations among all the nations of Europe
2008-2011: Angel Acebes (PP) – worked to deregulate economy to encourage entrepreneurial growth
2011-2013: Jose Blanco (PSOE) – struggled to deal with the Great European recession of 2013
2013-2014: Soraya Saenz de Santamaria (PP) – struggled to deal with both economic recession and rising secession movements
2014-2015: Jose Antonio Perez Tapias (PSOE) – dealt with unemployment-fueled secession efforts by improving post-recession conditions
2015-2019: Alfredo Perez Rubalcaba (PSOE) – protected trans rights and improved relations abroad; died in office suddenly from a massive stroke
2019-2020: Susana Diaz (PSOE) – championed laws to protect women from workplace pestering and prejudice
2020-present: Santiago Abascal (PP/Vox Alliance) – incumbent; a “compromise” candidate during the last election now seen as highly controversial and divisive for multiple far-right statements and actions

Presidents of SRI LANKA
1972-1978: 1) William Gopallawa (Independent) – position altered in 1978 from ceremonial to executive
1978-1989: 2) J. R. Jayawardene (UNP) – term-limited
1989-1993: 3) Ranasinghe Premadasa (UNP) – assassinated
1993-2001: 4) Dingiri Banda Wijetunga (UNP) – allowed UK PM John Lennon mediate peace talks between him and LTTE leader Selvarasa Pathmanathan in early 1994, resulting in the three of them sharing the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize for ending the Sri Lankan Civil War earlier that year; term-limited
2001-2007: 5) Gamini Dissanayake (UNP) – term-limited
2007-2013: 6) Victor Hettigoda (Freedom) – term-limited
2013-2019: 7) Ranil Wickremesinghe (UNP) – term-limited
2019-present: 8) Shirani Bandaranayake (Freedom) – incumbent

Presidents of SUDAN
1969-1985: 6) Jaafar Nimeiry (Military/SSU) – deposed
1985-1986: 7) Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab (Military) – handed over power to civilian government
1986-1989: 8) Ahmed al-Mirghani (DUP) – deposed
1989-2013: 9) Omar al-Bashir (Military/NCP) – deposed; fled and captured; tried and found guilty of numerous charges by the UN International Tribunal Court and sentenced to life in prison at Helmond
2013-2014: 10) Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf (Military/NCP) – deposed
2014-2017: 11) Abdel Fattah al-Burhan (Military) – handed over power to civilian government
2017-present: 12) Rebecca Nyandeng De Mabior (SUP) – first female President; incumbent

Co-Presidents of SOUTH SUDAN
2014-present: 1 and 2) Khalil Ibrahim and Ahmed Diraige (Independents)

Presidents of SURINAME
1975-1978: 1) Johan Ferrier – overthrown in a coup
1978-1978: disputed – position essentially shared by Desi Bouterse and Henck Arron
1978-1982: 2) Desire Delano “Desi” Bouterse – overthrown in a coup
1982-1993: 3) Wilfred Hawker – restored democracy in 1985 and was democratically elected to two four-year terms; arrested after attempted a self-coup
1993-1993: 4) Henk Chin A Sen – completed Hawker’s term
1993-2001: 5) Ronnie Brunswijk – youngest President; term-limited
President-Elect in 2001: Pretaap Radhakishum – died suddenly from a heart attack at the age of 66, one week before he could be sworn into the Presidency
2001-2009: 6) Niermala Badrising – first female President (TTL’s Sarah Palin); term-limited
2009-2013: 7) Robert Ameerali – term-limited
2013-2014: 8) Dino Bouterse – arrested after evidence was spilled ontech of his ties to several major international recreadrug cartels
2014-2017: 9) Gregory Rusland – lost re-election
2017-2021: 10) Ashwin Adhin – lost re-election
2021-present: 11) Diana Pokie – second female President; incumbent

Prime Ministers of SWEDEN
1946-1969: 25) Tage Erlander (Social Democrats) – introduced universal health insurance and pension additions; hosted the 1968 Sanders-Shelepin Summit in Gothenburg
1969-1976: 26) Olof Palme (Social Democrats) – maintained a “non-alignment” policy during the Cold War
1976-1978: 27) Thorbjorn Falldin (Centre Party) – rose quickly in politics after a career in farming
1978-1979: 28) Ola Ullsten (People’s Party) – led minority government amid inter- and intra- party disagreements over energy policy
1979-1982: (27)) Thorbjorn Falldin (Centre Party) – lauded for humbleness and straightforwardness, but failed to form coalitions to pass meaningful legislation
1982-1988: (26)) Olof Palme (Social Democrats) – restructured and modernized several industries
1988-1989: 29) Carl Bildt (Moderate) – failed to pass tax reform over concerns of it negatively impacting social programs
1989-2001: (26)) Olof Palme (Social Democrats) – implemented a progressive tax plan; worked well with US President Carol Bellamy and strengthened Swedish relations with Yugoslavia, leading to many Yugovs naming their children after him
2001-2008: 30) Anna Lindh (Social Democrats) – first female PM; close ally of predecessor during the 1990s; praised for handling the Global SARS Pandemic of 2002-2003 but criticized in 2007 for raising taxes to pay for “unprecedental” national medical expenses
2008-2011: 31) Bo Lundgren (Alliance) – lowered taxes and replaced anti-unemployment policies with anti-inflationary policies, which were later blamed for worsening economic conditions during The Great European Recession of 2013
2011-2013: 32) Lennart Daléus (Social Democrats) – environmentalist and former centrist; often feuded with Deputy PM Håkan Juholt
2013-2014: 33) Maud Olofsson (Centre) – allegedly worsened economic conditions by allying with Moderates and the Neoliberal wing of the Social Democrats to deregulate banking procedures and reduce wealth taxes
2014-present: 34) Mona Ingeborg Andersson Sahlin (Social Democrats) – reversed predecessor’s actions; currently enjoying high approval ratings

Presidents of SYRIA
1971-1997: 18) Hafez al-Assad – died
1997-1999: -- Bassel al-Assad (claimed office)
1997-2009: 19) Abdul Halim Khaddam – retired
2009-2021: 20) Farouk al-Sharaa – Khaddam’s preferred successor; retired
2021-present: 21) Ghazi Kanaan – al-Sharaa's preferred successor; incumbent

Presidents of TAIWAN
1948-1975: 1) Chiang Kai-shek (Kuomintang) – died in office amid PRC Civil War
1975-1978: 2) Yen Chia-kan (Kuomintang) – considered invading the PRC during its Civil War of 1975; retired
1978-1988: 3) Chiang Ching-kuo (Kuomintang) – died in office
1988-2000: 4) Lee Teng-hui (Kuomintang) – implemented free elections in 1995; won 1996 election in a landslide as it occurred two days after the Second Korean War officially ended; retired; left office with high approval ratings
2000-2008: 5) Peng Ming-min (Democratic Progressive) – entered office at the age of 76; term-limited
2008-2012: 6) You Ching (Democratic Progressive) – lost re-election
2012-2020: 7) Elmer Fung (Kuomintang) – term-limited
2020-present: 8) Lin Ting-chun (Democratic Progressive) – first female President; daughter of former Presidential candidate Lin Yi-hsiung; her twin sister Liang-chun serves in the national legislature; incumbent

Presidents of TRANSNISTRIA (independence declared in 1991, achieved in 1992)
1991-2001: 1) Andrey Manoylov (Independent until 1993, then Country) – retired due to poor health
2001-2006: 2) Alexandru Caraman (Country) – lost re-election over his poor handling of SARS Global Pandemic
2006-2014: 3) Aleksandr Radchenko (Socialist-Democratic) – died in office from poor health
2014-2016: 4) Ilona Tyuryaeva (Socialist-Democratic) – lost election
2016-2021: 5) Oleg Khorzhan (Socialist-Democratic) – lost re-nomination
2021-present: 6) Yevgeny Shevchuk (Independent) – incumbent

List of Presidents of TURKEY
1961-1966: 4) Cemal Gursel – died in office from poor health
1966-1969: 5) Cevdet Sunay – removed from office over the Turkish Missile Crisis of 1969
1969-1974: 6) Sadi Irmak – co-led a shift in Greco-Turkish relations after the Bulgarian Plot of 1971 was uncovered
1974-1980: 7) Naim Talu – former economist and banker who left office willing after losing re-election
1980-1990: 8) M. Fethullah Gulen – left-of-center reformist; almost overthrown in 1982; another coup attempt was planned in 1984 for later in the year but the plan fell apart once the USSR collapsed
1990-1997: 9) Suleyman Demirel – center-right
1997-2009: 10) Deniz Baykal – left-leaning
2009-2019: 11) Kemal Kilicdaroglu – centrist reformer
2019-present: 12) Cem Uzan – former businessman; incumbent

Leaders of UGANDA
PRESIDENTS of The FIRST REPUBLIC
1963-1966: 1) Edward Mutesa (Kabaka Yekka) – overthrown
1966-1971: 2) Milton Obote (Uganda People’s Congress) – overthrown
PRESIDENT of The MILITARY JUNTA
1971-1976: 3) Idi Amin (Ugandan Armed Forces) – overthrown, fled and captured alive in UK-led, US-based military intervention
PRIME MINISTERS of The SECOND REPUBLIC
1976-1979: 4) Paul Ssemogerere (Democratic) – politically moderate; stepped down over continued political partisan fighting
1979-1980: 5) Edward Rugumayo (Democratic) – party lost majority control; results contest by both parties
1980-1982: 6) Dani Wadada Nabudere (Uganda People’s Congress) – left-leaning intellectualist; overthrown in a coup later discovered to have been strongly backed by the US’s Denton administration and CIA
PRESIDENTS of The THIRD REPUBLIC
1982-1996: 7) Tito Lutwa Okello (Liberty) – passed away from an undisclosed illness at the age of 81
1996-1999: 8) Henry Oryem Okello (Liberty) – entered office at the age of 36; son of Tito Okello; overthrown in nationwide pro-democracy movement; currently resides in London
PRESIDENTS of The FOURTH REPUBLIC
1999-1999: Temporary Governing Council – committee of 27 community leaders who worked with local officials to form a consensus when developing a new constitution; dissolved upon inauguration of newly elected President
1999-2005: (2)) Milton Obote (People’s) – dealt with the SARS global pandemic; died in office at the age of 80
2005-2007: 9) Olara A. Otunnu (People’s) – lost election to a full term and failed to overturn the election results or rally enough members of the military to launch a self-coup
2007-2015: 10) Dr. Kizza Besigye (New Democratic) – term-limited
2015-2019: 11) Robinah Nabbanja (Nationalist) – first female President; lost re-election; received praise for accepting the election results and conceding graciously, leading to her receiving a position in her successor’s cabinet
2019-present: (10)) Dr. Kizza Besigye (New Democratic) – incumbent

Presidents of The UKRAINE
1984-1991: 1) Leonid Kravchuk (Independent) – term-limited
1991-1998: 2) Viachselav Chornovil (People’s Movement) – term-limited
1998-2005: 3) Levko Lukyanenko (Republican) – term-limited
2005-2012: 4) Leonid Kuchma (Independent) – surrounded by scandals; term-limited
2012-2017: 5) Oleksandr Moroz (Social Centric) – died in plane crash
2017-2019: 6) Inna Bohoslovska (Social Centric) – ascended to the position due to being Vice President; first female President; lost election
2019-present: 7) Yulia Tymoshenko (Ukrainian Left) – incumbent

Prime Ministers of The UNITED KINGDOM
10 Jan 1957 – 18 Oct 1963: Harold Macmillan (Conservative) – stepped down
1959: Macmillan over Hugh Gaitskell (Labour) and Jo Grimond (Liberal)
18 Oct 1963 – 27 Aug 1965: Alec Douglas-Home (C) – party lost majority
1964: Douglas-Home over Harold Wilson (Labour) and Jo Grimond (Liberal)
27 Aug 1965 – 15 May 1968: George Brown (Labour) – stepped down
1965: Brown over Douglas-Home (C) and Jo Grimond (Liberal)
15 May 1968 – 10 Oct 1968: John Stonehouse (Labour) – removed from office for treason
10 Oct 1968 – 3 Dec 1968: Michael Foot (Labour) – party lost majority
3 Dec 1968 – 28 Mar 1973: Enoch Powell (C) – party lost majority
1968: Powell over Jeremy Thorpe (Liberal) and Michael Foot (Labour)
28 Mar 1973 – 15 Sept 1983: Dingle M. Foot (Labour) – stepped down
1973: Foot over Enoch Powell (C) and David Steel (Liberal)
1975: Foot over Edward Heath (C) and David Steel (Liberal)
1979: Foot over Edward Heath (C), David Steel (Liberal) and Mary Whitehouse (Moralist)
15 Sept 1983 – 26 Nov 1987: Shirley Williams (Labour) – party lost majority
1984: Williams over Jim Prior (C), David Steel/David Owen (SDP-Liberal Alliance), United Kingdom Intrepid Progressive (Eric Heffer) and Mary Whitehouse (Moralist)
26 Nov 1987 – 4 Feb 1992: Alastair Goodlad (C) – party lost majority
1987: Goodlad over Shirley Williams (Labour), David Steel/David Owen (SDP-Liberal Alliance), and Eric Heffer (UKIP)
4 Feb 1992 – 8 Mar 2004: John Winston Lennon (Labour) – resigned per campaign promise
1992: Lennon over Goodlad (C), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal Democrats), and Jeremy Corbyn (UK Intrepid Progressive)
1995: Lennon over Jill Knight (C), Paddy Ashdown (LD), and Jeremy Corbyn (UKIP)
2000: Lennon over Nigel Lawson (C), Charles Kennedy (LD), and Rosemary Byrne/Tommy Sheridan (UKIP/Socialist Alliance)
2002: Beckett over Ken Clarke (C), Charles Kennedy (LD), and Belinda Lee (UKIP)
8 Mar 2004 – 28 Nov 2006: Harriet Harman (Labour) – lost re-election
2005: Beckett over Ken Clarke (C), Charles Kennedy (LD), and Belinda Lee (UKIP)
28 Nov 2006 – 16 Aug 2011: Michael Heseltine (C) – lost re-election
2006: Heseltine over Harman (Labour), Charles Kennedy (LD), and Belinda Lee (UKIP)
2010: Heseltine over Alan Beith (Labour) and Charles Kennedy (LD), and Peter Bevan-Baker (UKIP)
16 Aug 2011 – 3 Mar 2015: Mary Creagh (L) – resigned unexpectedly
2011: Creagh over Michael Heseltine (C), Lynne Featherstone (LD), Caroline Lucas (Green), and Peter Bevan-Baker (UKIP)
2014: Creagh over Jacob Rees-Mogg (C), Greg Mulholland (LD), Blair Jenkins (Scottish People’s), and Caroline Lucas (Green)
3 Mar 2015 – 10 Oct 2015: Lawrence Sanders (L) – resigned once “a more long-term” party leader was elected
10 Oct 2015 – 17 Dec 2016: Ed Balls (L) – lost re-election
17 Dec 2016 – 28 Sept 2020: Alastair Goodlad (C) – lost re-election
2016: Goodlad over Ed Balls (L), Wera Hobhouse (LD), Blair Jenkins (Scottish People’s) and Caroline Lucas (Green)
28 Sept 2020 – present: Guy Standing (L) – incumbent
2020: Standing over Alastair Goodlad (C), Daisy Cooper (LD), Louise Hay Linton (Scottish People’s) and Amelia Womack (Green)
Mayors of LONDON
1993-2001: Chris Patten (Conservative) – term-limited
2001-2005: Tony Banks (Labour) – lost re-election
2005-2013: Steven Norris (Conservative) – term-limited
2013-2021: Nicky Gavron (Labour) – term-limited; first female mayor
2021-present: Eddie Izzard (Labour) – incumbent; first BLUTAGO mayor, announcing a preference for “she/her” pronouns in 2020

Presidents of The Republic of UNITED KOREA (formed in 1996)
1996-1998: 1) Kim Young-sam (Democratic Liberal Party, then New Korea, then Independent) – was president of South Korea 1993-1996
1998-2003: 2) Kim Dae-jung (Democratic Liberal Party, then Millennium Democratic Party) – term-limited
1997: Lee Hoi-chang (Democratic Conservative Party)
2003-2008: 3) Hong Sook-ja (Social Democratic Party) – first female President; term-limited
2002: Lee In-je (MDP), Choi Byung-ryul (GNP), Kwon Young-ghil (DLP), Roh Moo-hyun (DCP) and Chung Dong-young (Independent)
2008-2013: 4) Lee Hoi-chang (Grand National Party) – term-limited
2007: Chun Young-se (SDP), Park Jie-won (DUP), Thae Yong-ho (DLP) and Roh Moo-hyun (MDP)
2013-2018: 5) Han Myeong-sook (Democratic Unity Party, then Centrist Democratic Party) – second female President; term-limited
2012: Lee Myung-bak (GNP), Kang Gi-gap (DLP) and Kim Je-dong (SDP)
2018-2020: 6) Roh Hoe-chan (Social Democratic Party, then Independent) – initially highly popular; impeached, convicted and removed from office for accepting bribes and workplace misconduct, shifting election cycles by nearly three years; later put on suicide watch after attempting suicide over his fall from grace
2017: Moon Sung-hyeon (DLP), Chung Dong-young (CDP), Park Won-soon (GNP) and Lee Jae-oh (Populist)
2020-2021: 7) Woo Hee-jong (Grand National Party, then National Sensibility Party) – served as interim leader while staying on as Prime Minister
2021-present: 8) Ji Seong-ho (Democratic Liberal Party) – first United Korea President from “the former North”; youngest Korean President ever, entering office at the age of 38; incumbent
2020: Rhyu Si-min (SDP), Sim Sang-jeong (Populist), Lee Sang-don (Reform)

Presidents of The UNITED STATES of AMERICA
1/20/1961-1/20/1965: 35) Lyndon Baines Johnson (Democratic-TX) – lost re-election
VP: 37) Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D-MN) – lost re-election
1960: Johnson/Humphrey over Richard M. Nixon/Walter Judd (R)
1/20/1965-1/20/1973: 36) Harland David “Colonel” Sanders (Republican-KY) – term-limited
VP: 38) William Scranton (R-PA) – term-limited
1964: Sanders/Scranton (R) over Lyndon B. Johnson/Hubert Humphrey (D) and John M. Patterson/C. Farris Bryant (Heritage and Independence Party)
1968: Sanders/Scranton (R) over Jack Kennedy/Grant Sawyer (D)
1/20/1973-1/20/1981: 37) Walter Frederick “Fritz” Mondale (D-MN) – term-limited
VP: 39) Maurice Robert “Mike” Gravel (D-AS) – term-limited
1972: Mondale/Gravel (D) over William Scranton/Mike Stepovich (R)
1976: Mondale/Gravel (D) over Ronald Reagan/William Westmoreland (R)
1/20/1981-12/28/1986: 38) Jeremiah Andrew Denton Jr. (R-AL) – resigned
VP: 40) Andrew Lamar Alexander Jr. (R-TN) (resigned), then none (between 8/15/1985 and 11/14/1985), then 41) Jack French Kemp (R-NY) – ascended
1980: Denton/Alexander (R) over Scoop Jackson (D)/Jimmy Carter (replaced Jake Butcher) (D) and Phil Hoff/Pete McCloskey (Progressive/“Far-Left coalition”)
1984: Denton/Alexander (R) over Mike Gravel/J. Charles Jones (D)
12/28/1986-1/20/1989: 39) Jack French Kemp (R-NY) – lost nomination
VP: none (until 4/2/1987), then 42) J. J. Polonko Jr. (R-NJ) – not nominated for a full term
1/20/1989-1/20/1993: 40) Carol Bellamy (D-NY) – lost re-election
VP: 43) Jerry Litton (D-MO) – lost re-election
1988: Bellamy/Litton (D) over Maureen Reagan/Richard Lugar (R) and Glen Bell/Bill Daniels (Independent)
1/20/1993-5/9/1995: 41) Lido A. “Lee” Iacocca (R-CA) – assassinated
VP: 44) Larry Miles Dinger (R-IA) – ascended
1992: Iacocca/Dinger (R) over Bellamy/Litton (D)
5/9/1995-1/20/2001: 42) Larry Miles Dinger (R-IA) – lost re-election
VP: none (until 10/12/1995), then 45) James Howard Meredith (R-MS) – lost re-election
1996: Dinger/Meredith (R) over John Glenn/Raymond Eugene Green (D)
1/20/2001-1/20/2009: 43) Jesse L. Jackson Sr. (D-SC) – term-limited
VP: 46) Paul David Wellstone (D-MN) – term-limited
2000: Jackson/Wellstone (D) over Dinger/Meredith (R)
2004: Jackson/Wellstone (D) over Bernie Goetz/Eldon Bargewell (R)
1/20/2009-1/20/2013: 44) Paul David Wellstone (D-MN) – lost re-election
VP: 47) Robert Norman “Bob” Ross (D-AS) – lost re-election
2008: Wellstone/Ross (D) over Olympia Snowe/Gary Johnson (R) and Bernie Goetz/Beverly J. “Bev” Kilmer (Boulder/Strong/Action)
1/20/2013-11/10/2020: 45) Allen Kelsey (Kelsey) Grammer (R-CA) – resigned to “recover from stress and recent health issues, and spend more time with family,” but also to let his friend, the VP, serve as President
VP: 48) Harley Davidson Brown (R-ID) – ascended
2012: Grammer/Brown (R) over Paul Wellstone/Bob Ross (D) and Jason Buck/Bob Wise (Boulder/Strong)
2016: Grammer/Brown (R) over Gary Locke/Robert P. Casey Jr. (D) and Jimmy McMillan/John J. Capozzi Jr. (various)
11/10/2020-1/20/2021: 46) Harley Davidson Brown (R-ID) – completed Grammer’s term
VP: none (until 12/1/2020), then 49) Bonnie Dumanis (R-MA) – completed Brown’s term
1/20/2021-present: 47) Charlotte Pritt (D-WV)
– incumbent
VP: 50) Kwame Raoul (D-IL)
– incumbent
2020 (first round): Pritt/Raoul (D) over Harley Davidson Brown/Jennifer Sandra Johnson (R), Jimmy McMillan/Krist Novoselic (People’s), and many others
2020 (final round): Pritt/Raoul (D) over Harley Davidson Brown/Jennifer Sandra Johnson (R)

Leaders of RUSSIA
Premiers of The U.S.S.R. (SOVIET RUSSIA)
14 Oct 1953 – 5 Feb 1963: Nikita Khrushchev (Communist) – deposed
5 Feb 1963 – 10 Dec 1968: Alexander Nikolayevich Shelepin (C) – died in accident, during an argument over the merits of detente, at the age of 50
10 Dec 1968 – 21 Apr 1969: Aleksi Inauri (C) – in office during the Turkish Missile Crisis; died from stress and poor health at the age of 61
21 Apr 1969 – 7 Dec 1976: Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (C) – died in office at the age of 72 from exhaustion from overworking
7 Dec 1976 – 12 March 1977: Nikolai Tikhonov (C)
– Kosygin ally; deposed
12 March 1977 – 25 Jan 1982: Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov (C)
– died in office at the age of 79 from arteriosclerosis and diabetes
25 Jan 1982 – 12 Jan 1983: Nikolai Viktorovich Podgorny (C) – died in office at the age of 79 from cancer
23 Jan 1983 – 9 May 1984: Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov (C) – died in office at the age of 75 from multiple factors, including stress, pneumonia, and issues with his liver, kidneys and aortic valve
9 May 1984 – 15 May 1984: Vladimir Orlov (C) – retired
15 May 1984 – 16 Sept 1984: Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev (C) – position dissolved
Presidents of The N.D.R.R. (RUSSIAN REPUBLIC)
16 Sept 1984 – 17 Aug 1985: 1) Vladimir Orlov (independent) – retired
17 Aug 1985 – 17 Aug 1995: 2) Vladislav Volkov (Democratic)
– former cosmonaut; retired amid declining popularity
17 Aug 1995 – 17 Aug 2000: 3) Viktor Chernomyrdin (Motherland) – lost re-nomination and retired
17 Aug 2000 – 17 Aug 2005: 4) Nina Lobkovskaya (independent) – had a long and colorful military career (starting with being a sniper during WWII); retired at the age of 80; still alive (as of July 4, 2021) at the age of 96
17 Aug 2005 – 17 Aug 2015: 5) Oleg Malyshkin (National/Iron Fist until 2012, National after Iron Fist dissolved in 2012) – retired amid declining popularity
17 Aug 2015 – 17 Aug 2020: 6) Vladimir Nikolayev (National) – highly controversial; lost re-election over declining economy, and unsuccessfully contested the results; fled the country after leaving office amid criminal investigations into his ties to numerous scandals and other actions
17 Aug 2020 – present: 7) Sholban Kara-ool (Protectionist) – incumbent

Presidents of UNITED TURKESTAN
12/28/1983-1/5/1993: 1) Mukhtar Ablyazov of Kazakhstan (Independent/Unity) – one of the nation’s co-founders; elected in 1983, 1986, and 1989
1/5/1993-1/5/1999: 2) Ishenbai Kadyrbekov of Kyrgyzstan (Unity) – elected in 1992 and re-elected in 1995; lost re-election
1/5/1999-12/6/2006: 3) Han Ahmedow of Turkmenistan (Unity) – elected in 1998, 2001, and 2004; died in office from a sudden heart attack
12/6/2006-7/7/2008: 4) Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan (National) – ascended to the Presidency due to being Head of the National Gathering; elected in 2007 over Zamanbek Nurkadilov (disputed); accussed to being a dictator for implementing restrictive and biased rules and regulations; assassinated
7/7/2008-1/5/2011: 5) Imangali Tasmagambetov of Kazakhstan (Unity) – ascended to the Presidency due to being Head of the National Gathering; retired
1/5/2011-1/5/2017: 6) Roza Otunbayeva of Kyrgystan (Social Democratic) – first female President; lost re-election amid poor approval ratings
1/5/2017-present: 7) Muhammad Salih of Uzbekistan (Prosperity) – incumbent

Presidents of SOUTH VIETNAM
1955-1965: Ngo Dinh Diem (Personalist Labor Revolutionary) – resigned under US pressure
1965-1967: Nguyen Khanh (Unity Through Strength) – cooperated with US ahead of the successful Invasion of Hanoi
Presidents of UNITED VIETNAM
1967-1969: 1) Nguyen Khanh (Unity Through Strength) – resigned under US pressure
1969-1972: 2) Nguyen Xuan Oanh (Unity Through Strength until 1971, Peaceful Today and Tomorrow after 1971) – lost re-election
1972-1975: 3) Nguyen Hop Doan (Healing and Rebuilding) – expanded Presidential terms from two years to three, then lost re-election
1975-1979: 4) Phan Huy Quat (Strength Through Peace) – died, shifting elections
1979: 5) Ngo Quang Truong (Strength Through Peace)
– lost bid for a full term
1979-1988: 6) Have Thich Tri Quang (Tranquility) – retired after serving for three 3-year terms
1988-1998: 7) Nguyen Ngoc Loan (Order) – died, shifting elections
1998: 8) Gen. Cao Van Vien (Order) – Loan’s preferred successor; lost bid for a full term
1998-2007: 9) Nguyen Thi Binh (b. 1928) (Strength Through Peace) – first female Head of State; limited to three 3-year terms following 1999 reforms
2007-2013: 10) Nguyen Thien Nhan (b. 1953) (Order) – lost re-election
2013-2016: 11) Viet D. Dinh (b. 1968) (Safe Center) – lost re-election
2016-2019: 12) Vo Thi Anh Xuan (b. 1970) (Strength Through Peace) – lost re-election
2019-present: 13) Cao Quang Anh (b. 1967) (Safe Center) – incumbent

Presidents of URUGUAY
1985-1990: 57) Julio Maria Sanguinetti (b. 1936) (Colorado (centrist)) – term-limited
1990-1995: 58) Carlos Julio Pereyra (1922-2020) (National (right-leaning centrist))
– term-limited
1995-2000: 59) Julio Maria Sanguinetti (b. 1936) (Colorado) – term-limited
2000-2005: 60) Tabare Vazquez (1940-2020) (Broad Front (left-leaning centrist)) – oversaw the effective implementation of “safezoning” measures
2005-2010: 61) Azucena Berrutti (b. 1929) (Broad Front) – first female head-of-state
2010-2015: 62) Jose Mujica (b. 1935) (Broad Front) – won over initial frontrunner Julio Maria Sanguinetti; term-limited
2015-2020: 63) Jorge Larranaga (b. 1956) (National) – term-limited
2020-present: 64) Graciela Villar (b. 1957) (Broad Front) – term-limited

President of VENEZUELA
1969-1974: 39) Rafael Caldera (COPEI) – term-limited
1974-1979: 40) Carlos Andres Perez (Democratic Action) – term-limited
1979-1984: 41) Luis Pinerua Ordaz (Democratic Action) – term-limited
1984-1989: 42) Jose Rangel (MAS) – term-limited
1989-1994: 43) Teodoro Petkoff (MAS) – term-limited
1994-1999: 44) Eduardo Fernandez (COPEI) – term-limited
1999-2004: 45) Claudio Fermin (Democratic Action) – term-limited
2004-2009: 46) Oswaldo Alvarez Paz (COPEI) – term-limited
2009-2012: 47) Tarek William Saab (MAS) – resigned amid legal issues
2012-2014: 48) Henri Falcon (MAS) – lost election to a full term
2014-2019: 49) Leopoldo Lopez (Democratic Action) – term-limited
2019-present: 50) Stalin Gonzalez (Democratic Action) – incumbent

Presidents of NORTH YEMEN
1962-1967: 1) Abdullah al-Sallal (Military) – deposed
1967-1974: 2) Abdul Rahman al-Iryani (Independent) – deposed
1974-2003: 3) Ibrahim al-Hamdi (Military) – died from complications to SARS
2003-2005: 4) Abdul Karim Abdullah al-Arashi (Military) – deposed
2005-present: 5) Ali Abdullah Saleh (Military until 2009, then People’s) – incumbent

General-Secretaries of SOUTH YEMEN
1978-1996: 1) Abdul Fattah Ismail (Yemeni Socialist Party) – ousted in inner-party coup after he supported North Korea in the Second Korean War
1996-2017: 2) Ali Salem al Beidh (Yemeni Socialist Party) – stepped down due to declining health
2017-present: 3) Aidarus al-Zoubaidi (Yemeni Socialist Party) – is the protégé of his predecessor; incumbent

Presidiums of YUGOSLAVIA
1953-1984: Josip Broz Tito (of Croatia) – died in office
1984-1989: Veselin Duranovic (of Montenegro) – helped stabilize the country after his predecessor’s demise
1989-1992: Radovan Vlajkovic (of Vojvodina)
– terms amended to three years per Presidium
1992-1995: Ibrahim Rugova (of Kosovo) – term-limited
1995-1998: Stojan Andov (of Macedonia)
– term-limited
1998-2001: Raif Dizdarevic (of Bosnia/Herzegovina) – term-limited
2001-2004: Lojze Peterle (of Slovenia) – term-limited
2004-2005: Radoman Bozovic (of Serbia) – removed from office over scandals, creating a brief constitutional crisis
2005-2007: Zoran Dindic (of Serbia) – completed Bozovic’s term; served as “Acting Presidium” for the first 8 days, until national court ruled in his favor over Meta’s
2007-2010: Ilir Meta (of Albania) – shifted national policy to be more favorable to the rest of Europe; very popular for relinquishing claim to office in 2005
2010-2013: Kolinda Graber-Kitarovic (of Croatia) – first female Presidium; term-limited
2013-2016: Milo Dukanovic (of Montenegro) – term-limited
2016-2019: Bojan Pajtic (of Vojvodina) – term-limited
2019-present: Atifete Jahjaga (of Kosovo) – second female Presidium; incumbent

Presidents of ZAMBIA
1964-2014: 1) Kenneth Kaunda (Independence) – stayed in power for so long due to opposition failing to unite against him and by allowing moderate reform on occasion to placate riotous masses; nearly overthrown at least two dozen times but also managed to either broker peace deals that kept him in power or defeat his opponents outright through military action or political purges; stepped down due to poor health, shortly after celebrating his 50th year in power, and less than three years after the death of his wife; has been under house arrest intermittently since 2015; still alive as of July 4, 2021, at the age of 97
2014-2014: 2) Guy Scott (Independence) – first white (Caucasian; half-English, half-Scottish) President in mainland sub-Saharan Africa since apartheid ended in South Africa; appointed Vice President in 2011 after serving in several administrative posts; scheduled the nation’s first-ever truly free elections; retired
2014-2019: 3) Hakainde Hichilema (Democratic) – former businessman; lost re-election and failed to contest the election results due to the size of the runoff’s margin; previously ran in the rigged elections held in 2004 and 2010 and has already announced his intention to run again in the 2024 election
2019-present: 4) Christine Kaseba (Patriotic) – first female President; former physician and surgeon; incumbent

Presidents of ZIMBABWE
1980-1992: 1) Canaan Banana (ZANU) – won election in 1980, 1985, 1990; resigned amid waning popularity
1992-1999: 2) Joshua Nkomo (ZANU) – won a full term in 1995; died in office from prostate cancer
1999-2000: 3) Bernard Chidzero (ZANU) – retired due to declining health
2000-2005: 4) Abel Muzorewa (UANC) – won election in 2000; dealt with SARS pandemic ravaging communities by pleading with populace to follow safezoning guidelines; retired from office at the age of 80
2005-2018: 5) Morgan Tsvangirai (ZAPDU) – won election in 2005, 2010, and 2015; dealt with nationwide energy crises; died in office from prostate cancer
2018-present: 6) Arthur Mutambara (ZAPDU) – won a full term in 2020; incumbent

Also:
List of Popes
1958-1963: 261) John XXIII (b. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli in Sotto il Monte, Italy) – became Pope at the age of 76; supported nuclear disarmament; excommunicated Fidel Castro; died in office
1963-1978: 262) Paul VI (b. Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini in Concesio, Italy) – became Pope at the age of 65; first Pope since 1809 to travel outside of Italy; died in office
1978: 263) John Paul I (b. Albino Luciani in Forno di Canale, Italy) – became Pope at the age of 65; abolished the Papal Coronation tradition and the use of the sedia gestatoria; died in office
1978-2005: 264) John Paul II (b. Karol Jozef Wojtyla in Wadowice, Poland) – became Pope at the age of 58, making him the youngest Pope since Pius IX (1846); first Slavic Pope and first non-Italian Pope since Adrian VI (1522-1523); traveled extensively; second-longest reigning Pope; died in office
2005-present: 265) Patrick (b. Francis Arinze in Onitsha, Nigeria) – became Pope at the age of 72; first Black Pope and first Pope born outside of Europe since Gregory III (731-741); conservative reluctant to institute massive reform to church procedures and traditions; incumbent

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[pic: imgur.com/JzJ4gGy.png ]
World Map, c. July 2021 (includes: Czechoslovakia, Transnistria, Gagauzia, United Romania, Yugoslavia, Alania, United Turkestan, United Korea, North Yemen, South Yemen, Darfur, The Fulani Republic, Vakaga (a.k.a. The Birao Republic), and The Kingdom of Sanwi)
 
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"It's the end but the moment has been prepared for". The Fourth Doctor (Tom Barker)
Congratulations on finishing this amazing TL @gap80. Seeing the continuing space program was very sweet to read. This TL is phenomenal and while not quite a utopia it's damn near close to it and that puts a smile on my face. I also enjoy the friendship you and I have formed too :) While this story may have finished the future is a wondrous possibility for further stories and who knows maybe one day a continuation of Colonel Sanders ;) Well done brilliantly written and I can't wait to see what you do next my friend. Also happy 4th of July from Australia! :)
 
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Index 2 – U.S. Senators
Index 2 – U.S. Senators


Senate Majority Leaders:

1961-1977: Mike Mansfield (D-MT) – retired from the Senate at the age of 73

1977-1979: Robert Byrd (D-WV) – party lost majority

1979-1987: Howard Baker (R-TN) – party lost majority

1987-1997: Robert Byrd (D-WV) – party lost majority

1997-1999: Bob Dole (R-KS) – party lost majority

1999-2000: Robert Byrd (D-WV) – party lost majority mid-congressional session due to "vacancy-appointee" situation that unfolded

2000-2001: Bob Dole (R-KS) – party lost majority

2001-2005: Robert Byrd (D-WV) – retired from position due to party's shift to the left but retained Senate seat

2005-2011: Gary Locke (D-WI) – party lost majority

2011-2021: Webb Franklin (R-MS) – party lost majority

2021-present: Midge Osterlund (D-PA) – incumbent



Democratic Party Leaders:

1961-1977: Mike Mansfield (D-MT) – retired from the Senate at the age of 73

1977-2005: Robert Byrd (D-WV) – retired from position due to party shifting to the left but retained Senate seat

2005-2016: Gary Locke (D-WI) – resigned from position (but not from seat) to focus on a run for President

2016-present: Midge Osterlund (D-PA) – incumbent



Republican Party Leaders:

1959-1969: Everett Dirksen (R-IL) – died in office from complications to surgery that had successfully removed cancer from his lungs

1969-1971: Barry Goldwater (R-AZ) – resigned from position (but not from seat) to focus on a run for President

1971-1987: Howard Baker (R-TN) – retired from the position but retained Senate seat

1987-2005: Bob Dole (R-KS) – retired from the position due to declining health issues but retained Senate seat

2005-present: Webb Franklin (R-MS) - incumbent



US Senate Committees

Committee – Chair – Ranking Member

1) Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry – Mike Gravel (D-AS) – Robert Lee Vander Plaats (R-IA)

2) Appropriations – Sharon Sayles-Belton (D-MN) – Carla J. Stovall (R-KS)

3) Armed Services and Domestic Security – Upendra Chivukula (D-NJ) – Allen West (R-FL)

4) Banking, Commerce, Finance, and Trade – Warren Mosler (D-CT) – Jackie Walorski (R-IN)

5) Budget – Sheila Simon (D-IL) – Bob Dole (R-KS)

6) Energy and Natural Resources – Sherrod Brown (D-OH) – Sarah Hearne Steelman (R-MO)

7) Environment and Public Works – Dina Titus (D-NV) – Randy Brock (R-OH)

8) Education, Health, Housing and Community Affairs – Gary Locke (D-WA) – Dr. Rex Floyd Rammell (R-ID)

9) Foreign Relations – Allyson Schwartz (D-NY) – Ted Gatsas (R-NH)

10) Labor and Pensions – Demetrius J. Atsalis (D-MA) – Kay Granger (R-TX)

11) Judiciary – Carl Frank Stokes (D-MD) – Orrin Hatch (R-NE)

12) Rules, Administration, and Governmental Affairs – Mazie Hirono (D-HI) – Jan Brewer (R-AZ)

13) Science, Technology and Transportation – Roberto Mondragon (D-NM) – Kelly Schmidt (R-ND)

14) Small Business and Entrepreneurship – Kathleen Hartington Kennedy-Roosevelt (D-MA) – Herman Cain (R-GA)

15) Veterans’ Affairs – Hansen Clarke (D-MI) – Patrick H. “Pete” Johnson (R-MS)



US Senators by State:



US Senators from Alabama’s Class 2 Seat

1946-1973: John J. Sparkman (Democratic) – retired
1946 (special election): unopposed
1948: Paul Parsons (Republican)
1954: J. Foy Guin Jr. (R)
1960: Julian E. Elgin (R)
1966: John Grenier (R)

1973-1976: John L. LeFlore (D) – first African-American US Senator from Alabama; died in office at the age of 73 from a heart ailment
1972: Red Blount Jr. (R)

1976-1985: John J. Sparkman (D) – appointee; retired
1976 (sp): Glen Browder (D)
1978: Jerome B. Couch (Prohibition)

1985-2003: Albert Lee Smith Jr. (R) – retired due to declining health
1984: Howell Heflin (D)
1990: John Glen Browder (D)
1996: Roger Bedford (D)

2003-2021: Spencer T. Bachus III (R) – lost re-election in an upset; was considered for the GOP VP nomination in 2008, 2012 and 2020
2002: Susan Parker (D)
2008: Vivian D. Figures (D)
2014: Quinton T. Ross Jr. (D)

2021-present: Randall Woodfin (D) – Mayor of Birmingham, 2017-2020; second African-American US Senator from Alabama; sworn in at age 39; incumbent
2020: Spencer T. Bachus III (R)

US Senators from Alabama’s Class 3 Seat

1938-1963: J. Lister Hill (D) – lost re-nomination and lost re-election as an independent despite never changing party registration
1938 (sp): unopposed
1938: J. M. Pennington (R)
1944: John A. Posey (R)
1950: John G. Crommelin Jr. (Independent)
1956: unopposed

1963-1981: James D. Martin (R) – lost re-election
1962: John G. Crommelin Jr. (D) and J. Lister Hill (I)
1968: John M. Patterson (Heritage & Independence Party) and James Allen (D)
1974: Clair Chisler (D) and Sam Engelhardt (HIP)

1981-1984: Walter Flowers (D) – died in office at the age of 51 by suffering a fatal heart attack while playing tennis
1980: James D. Martin (R) and Emory Folmar (Conservative)

1984-1987: Jack Edwards (R) – appointee; lost re-election amid the Second Ark Wave
1984 (sp): Richard Shelby (D)

1987-2005: Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D) – first female US Senator from Alabama; retired
1986: Jack Edwards (R)
1992: Dick Sellars (R) and Jerome Shockley (Liberty)
1998: Jerome Shockley (R)

2005-2017: Doug Jones (D) – won in a good year for Democrats, barely won re-election, and lost re-election in a good year for Republicans
2004: Tim James (R) and Bettye Frink (Rational Republican)
2010: Clint Moser (R)

2017-present: Young Boozer (R) – incumbent
2016: Doug Jones (D)



US Senators from Alaska’s Class 2 Seat

1959-1968: Bob Bartlett (D) – died in office at the age of 64, following heart surgery
1958 (sp): R. E. Robertson (R)
1960: Lee L. McKinley (R)
1966: Lee L. McKinley (R)

1968-1970: Ted Stevens (R) – appointee; lost election

1970-1973: Mike Gravel (D) – the son of Quebecois immigrants; retired to run for President
1969 (sp): Ted Stevens (R)

1973-1979: Eben Hopson (D) – first Inupiaq-American US Senator ever; lost re-election in a bad year for Democrats; died from cancer in 1980 at the age of 57
1972: Howard Wallace Pollock (R)

1979-1991: Hazel P. Heath (R) – first female US Senator from Alaska; retired at the age of 81
1978: Eben Hopson (D)
1984: Steve Cowper (D) and William D. “Bill” Overstreet (Independent)

1991-2009: Jalmar “Jay” Kerttula (R) – the son of Finnish immigrants; retired at the age of 80 and passed away from natural causes in 2020 at the age of 92; his daughter is Democratic state senator Elizabeth J. "Beth" Kettula (b. 1956), who may run for Governor in 2022
1990: Sarah J. “Sally” Smith (D) and Kathryn Poland (Green)
1996: Frank Vondersaar (D)
2002: Jim Sykes (D)

2009-2021: Kevin Meyer (R) – lost re-election
2008: Ray Metcalfe (D)
2014: Ray Metcalfe (D) and Susan Lindauer (Country)

2021-present: Scott Kawasaki (I) – first Japanese-American US Senator from Alaska; born in Japan to American citizens; incumbent
2020: Kevin Meyer (R) and Corey Flintoff (D)

US Senators from Alaska’s Class 3 Seat

1959-1974: Ernest Gruening (D) – died in office at the age of 87
1958 (sp): Mike Stepovich (R)
1962: Ted Stevens (R)
1968: Elmer E. Rasmuson (R)

1974-1975: Ted Stevens (R) – appointee; lost election

1975-1981: Clark Gruening (D) – is the son of Ernest Gruening; entered office at the age of 31; lost re-election
1974: Ted Stevens (R)

1981-2005: Frank Murkowski (R) – withdrew re-election bid late into the race due to rising unpopularity
1980: Clark Gruening (D)
1986: Glen Olds (D)
1992: Mary Jordan (D)
1998: Tony Knowles (D), Billy Toien (L), Jeffrey Gottlieb (G) and Marc Millican (I)

2005-2011: Kevin Danaher (D) – won in a good year for Democrats due to divided opposition; lost re-election
2004: Jerry Sanders (R), Marc Millican (I), and Jim Dore (HIP)

2011-present: J. R. Myers (R) – populist supporter of Harley Davidson Brown; incumbent
2010: Kevin Danaher (D)
2016: Jacob Seth Kern (D)



US Senators from Arizona’s Class 1 Seat

1953-1995: Barry Goldwater Sr. (R) – ran for President in 1964, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1988, and 1992; retired
1952: Ernest McFarland (D)
1958: Ernest McFarland (D)
1964: Roy Elson (D)
1970: Renz L. Jennings (D)
1976: Dennis DeConcini (D) and Sam Grossman (Independent Democrat)
1982: Sam Grossman (D)
1988: Harry Braun (D) and Peter Dunn (Independent Republican)

1995-2013: Harry Braun (D) – significant promotor of hydrogen energy; ran for President in 2000; retired to lead energy projects outside of D.C.
1994: Scott Grainger (R/Liberty)
2000: Doug Wead (R), Barry Hess (Liberty), William Toel (I), and Vance Hansen (Green)
2006: David F. Nolan (R/Liberty) and Richard Mack (Country)

2013-2021: Grant Woods (R before 2/2/2018, D after 2/2/2018) – switched parties over disapproval of VP Brown's rhetoric; resigned for US cabinet position
2012: David Garcia (D), Richard Mack (Liberty) and Jim Pederson (I)
2018: David Schweikert (R)

2021-present: Debra A. Haaland (D) – appointee; Native American (Laguna-Pueblo); incumbent

US Senators from Arizona’s Class 3 Seat

1927-1969: Carl Hayden (D) – retired at the age of 91
1926: Ralph H. Cameron (R)
1932: Ralph H. Cameron (R)
1938: Burt H. Clingan (R)
1944: Fred Wildon Fickett Jr. (R)
1950: Bruce Brockett (R)
1956: Ross F. Jones (R)
1962: Evan Mecham (R)

1969-1987: Paul Fannin (R) – lost re-nomination
1968: Roy Elson (D)
1974: Jonathan Marshall (D)
1980: Bill Schulz (D)

1987-2011: Eddie Najeeb Basha Jr. (D) – businessman; Roman Catholic; early supporter of same-sex marriage; retired due to declining health; died in 2013 at the age of 75
1986: Evan Mecham (R)
1992: Kiana Delamare (R)
1998: Robert Lee Park (R)
2004: John Wayne Bobbitt (R)

2011-present: Jan Brewer (R) – incumbent
2010: Cathy Eden (D)
2016: Gary Swing (D/Green) and Kelli Ward (Bigfoot)



US Senators from Arkansas’s Class 2 Seat

1943-1977: John L. McClellan (D) – died in office at the age of 1977, following surgery to implant a pacemaker
1942: unopposed
1948: R. Walter Tucker (I)
1954: unopposed
1960: unopposed
1966: unopposed
1972: Wayne H. Babbitt (R)

1977-1979: Kaneaster Hodges Jr. (D) – appointee; lost nomination

1979-present: Jim Guy Tucker (D) – conservative-leaning; will likely retire in 2026; incumbent
1978: Tom Kelly (R) and John J. Black (I)
1984: Ed Bethune (R)
1990: Tim Hutchinson (R)
1996: Virginia Johnson (R)
2002: Jim Bob Duggar (R)
2008: Rebekah Kennedy (Green)
2014: Tom Cotton (R) and Susan Benjamin (Green)
2020: Rick Crawford (R)

US Senators from Arkansas’s Class 3 Seat

1945-1995: J. William Fulbright (D) – died in office from a stroke at the age of 89
1944: Victor M. Wade (R)
1950: unopposed
1956: Ben Henley (R)
1962: Kenneth Jones (R)
1968: Charles T. Bernard (R)
1974: John H. Jones (R)
1980: William Clark (R) and Walter McCarty (I)
1986: Asa Hutchinson (R)
1992: Dale Huckabee (R)

1995-1996: Harriet Mayor Fulbright (D) – appointee; widow of J. William Fulbright; retired

1996-2017: F. Winford Boozman III (R) – retired due to declining health
1995 (special): Patrick Henry Hays (D)
1998: Lottie H. Shackelford (D)
2004: Winston Bryant (D)
2010: Bill Halter (D)

2017-present: Adrienne Elrod (R) – incumbent
2016: Dan Whitfield (D)



US Senators from California’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1964: Clair Engle (D) – died in office (on July 30) at the age of 52 from complications from surgery in August 1963 (to remove a brain tumor) which left him partially paralyzed, followed by additional brain surgery in April 1964
1958: Goodwin Knight (R)

1964-1965: Alan Cranston (D) – appointee; lost election; later worked on Mike Gravel's 1972, 1980, and 1984 Presidential campaigns

1965-1994: Richard Nixon (R) – died
1964: Alan Cranston (D)
1970: Tom Hayden (D) and Robert Scheer (Natural Mind)
1976: George E. Brown (D) and David Wald (NM)
1982: Leo Ryan (D) and Peter Duel (Progressive)
1988: Stetson Kennedy (D), Stanley Bruce Herschensohn (Conservative), Hugh G. Bagley (I), Maria E. Munoz (Natural Mind) and Merton Short (Country)

1994-1995: Augustus Hawkins (D) – first African-American US Senator from California; appointee; retired

1995-2018: George Deukmejian (R) – died in office from natural causes at the age of 89 (was retiring from the office)
1994: Peter Camejo (D/Green/La Rada Unida)
2000: Georges Eshoo (D) and Medea Benjamin (Green)
2006: Tony West (D) and Meredith “Murdock” Hunter (Green/Natural Mind)
2012: Judy May Chu (D)

2018-2019: Malia Cohen (D) – African-American female; appointee; lost election

2019-present: Jane Jungyon Kim (D) – Korean-American female; sworn into office at the age of 41; progressive; incumbent
2018: Malia Cohen (D)

US Senators from California’s Class 3 Seat

1951-1953: Richard Nixon (R) – resigned to become VP
1950: Helen Gahagan Douglas (D)

1953-1981: Thomas Kuchel (R) – retired at the age of 70
1954 (sp): Sam Yorty (D)
1956: Richard Richards (D)
1962: Richard Richards (D)
1968: Anthony C. Beilsenson (D) and Paul Jacobs (NM)
1974: Keneth Frederick Hahn (D)

1981-1987: Maureen Reagan (R) – first female US Senator from California; retired to run for President in 1988
1980: Tom Hayden (D/NM) and David Bergland (Liberty)

1987-1999: Mario Obledo (D) – Latino-American; retired; briefly ran for President in 2000
1986: Pete Wilson (R)
1992: John Seymour (R), Gore Vidal (Natural Mind), Genevieve Torres (Green) and Merton D. Short (Country)

1999-present: Mike Gravel (D) – incumbent; has announced that he will not seek another term in 2022
1998: Edward C. Nixon (R)
2004: Howard Kaloogian (R) and Marsha Feinland (Natural Mind)
2010: Elizabeth Emken (R)
2016: Sarah Elizabeth Cupp (R) and James “Kamala” Harris (Green)



US Senators from Colorado’s Class 2 Seat

1955-1979: Gordon L. Allott (R) – retired
1954: John A. Carroll (D)
1960: Robert L. Knous (D)
1966: Byron Johnson (D) and Henry Olshaw (HIP)
1972: Floyd K. Haskell (D) and Secundion Salazar (La Raza Unida)

1979-1991: William L. Armstrong (R) – term-limited by 1981 state law passed by a then-bipartisan state congress
1978: Floyd K. Haskell (D)
1984: Nancy Dick (D)

1991-1997: Hank Brown (R) – retired
1990: Josie Heath (D) and Carlos F. Lucero (La Raza Unida)

1997-2003: Bernie Goetz (R) – businessman; retired; ran for President in 2004, 2008, and 2012
1996: Nancy E. Dick (D) and Wayne Allard (I)

2003-2009: Josie Heath (D) – female; lost re-election
2002: Joseph Bernard Rogers (R)

2009-2021: Langhorne “Lang” Sias (R) – term-limited
2008: Josie Heath (D) and Donna Primavera (Green)
2014: Tom Strickland (D)

2021-present: Amy Stephens (D) – incumbent
2020: Darryl Glenn (R)

US Senators from Colorado’s Class 3 Seat

1957-1963: John A. Carroll (D) – lost re-election
1956: Dan Thornton (R)

1963-1975: Peter H. Dominick (R) – lost re-election
1962: John A. Carroll (D)
1968: Stephen L. R. McNichols (D) and Gordon G. Barnwall (HIP)

1975-1987: George L. Brown (D) – term-limited by 1980s state law
1974: Peter H. Dominick (R)
1980: Mary E. Buchanan (R) and Earl Higgerson (Statesman)

1987-1993: Pat Schroeder (D) – first female US Senator from Colorado; lost re-election
1986: Ken Kramer (R)

1993-2005: Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R) – Native-American (Northern Cheyenne); term-limited
1992: Pat Schroeder (D)
1998: Dottie Lamm (D)

2005-2017: Mark Udall (D) – term-limited
2004: Bob Schaffer (R)
2010: Jane Norton (R)

2017-present: Penfield Tate III (D) – African-American; incumbent
2016: Peggy Littleton (R)



US Senators from Connecticut’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1971: Thomas J. Dodd (D) – died in office from a heart attack at the age of 64
1958: William A. Purtell (R)
1964: John Davis Lodge (R)
1970: Antonina P. Uccello (R)

1971-1995: Antonina P. Uccello (R) – first female US Senator from Connecticut; retired; still alive (as of July 4, 2021) at the age of 99
1972 (sp): Gloria Schaffer (D)
1976: Gloria Schaffer (D)
1982: Toby Moffett (D)
1988: Rosa DeLauro (D)

1995-2007: Ralph Nader (I) – retired
1994: Daniel C. Esty (D) and Gary Franks (R)
2000: Richard Blumenthal (D) and Chris Shays (R)

2007-present: Warren Mosler (D) – incumbent
2006: Lowell Palmer Weicker Jr. (I) and Alan Schlesinger (R)
2012: Penny Bacchiochi (R)
2018: Matthew Corey (R)

US Senators from Connecticut’s Class 3 Seat

1963-1981: Abraham Ribicoff (D) – Jewish; retired
1962: Horace Seely-Brown Jr. (R)
1968: Edwin H. May Jr. (R)
1974: James H. Brannen III (R) and Arthur F. Capozzi Jr. (Country)

1981-2011: Chris Dodd (D) – is the son of Thomas J. Dodd; retired
1980: James L. Buckley (R)
1986: Roger Eddy (R)
1992: Gary Alvin Franks (R) and Robert Giaimo (Independent Democratic)
1998: Wildley Moore (R) and Clarine Nardi Riddle (True Republican)
2004: Jack Orchulli (R)

2011-present: William Morten Tong (D) – Asian-American; entered office at the age of 37; incumbent
2010: Daniel E. “Dan” Carter (R)
2016: August Wolf (R)



US Senators from Delaware’s Class 1 Seat

1947-1970: John J. Williams (R) – retired and resigned early
1946: James M. Tunnell Sr. (D)
1952: A. I. DuPont Bayard (D)
1958: Elbert N. Carvel (D)
1964: Elbert N. Carvel (D)

1970-2001: William Victor Roth Jr. (R) – appointed to the seat he had just won after the retiring incumbent resigned; retired
1970: Jacob Zimmerman (D)
1976: Thomas C. Mahoney (D)
1982: David N. Levinson (D)
1988: Shien Biau Woo (D)
1994: Charles Oberly (D)

2001-2019: Daniel S. Frawley (D) – retired
2000: William Victor Roth Jr. (R)
2006: Jan Ting (R)
2012: Kevin Wade (R)

2019-present: Peter C. Schwartzkopf (D) – incumbent
2018: Rob Arlett (R)

US Senators from Delaware’s Class 2 Seat

1961-1985: J. Caleb Boggs (R) – lost re-election
1960: J. Allen Frear Jr. (D)
1966: James M. Tunnell Jr. (D)
1972: Joe Biden (D)
1978: Emily Womach (D)

1985-1997: Joe Biden (D) – lost re-election in a bad year for Democrats and due to his alleged flip-flopping on several issues; ran reportedly been planning a run for the Presidency in 2000
1984: J. Caleb Boggs (R)
1990: M. Jane Brady (R)

1997-2003: Raymond J. Clatworthy (R) – lost re-election
1996: Joe Biden (D)

2003-present: Marjorie “Midge” Osterlund (D) – incumbent
2002: Raymond J. Clatworthy (R)
2008: Christine O’Donnell (R)
2014: Kevin Wade (R)
2020: James DeMartino (R)



US Senators from Florida’s Class 1 Seat

1946-1971: Spessard Holland (D) – retired at the age of 78
1946: J. Harry Schad (R)
1952: unopposed
1958: Leland Hyzer (R)
1964: Claude R. Kirk Jr. (R)

1971-1998: Lawton Chiles (D) – died in office from a heart attack at the age of 68; had previously considered retiring in 1988 and again in 1994, but was convinced by high approval ratings and allies to run again each time; he reportedly planned to not run for another term in 2000
1970: G. Harrold Carswell (HIP), Raymond Claiborne Osborne (R) and Claude R. Kirk Jr. (Conservative)
1976: Jack Eckerd (R) and John Grady (HIP)
1982: Van B. Poole (R)
1988: Louis Frey Jr. (R)
1994: Tom Gallagher (R)

1998-2001: Rhea Chiles (D) – widow of Lawton Chiles; appointee; retired

2001-2013: Alexander Penelas (D) – Cuban-American; considered for VP spot on Democratic Presidential ticket in 2008; lost re-election
2000: John Thrasher (R)
2006: Daniel “Dan” Webster (R)

2013-present: Allen West (R) – conservative African-American; KW2 veteran; considered for VP spot on GOP Presidential ticket in 2020; incumbent
2012: Alexander Penelas (D)
2018: Alan Mark Grayson (D) and Douglas Scott Rogo (Bigfoot)

US Senators from Florida’s Class 3 Seat

1951-1969: George Smathers (D) – lost re-election in a bad year for Democrats
1950: John P. Booth (R)
1956: unopposed
1962: Emerson Rupert (R)

1969-1981: William Cato “Bill” Cramer Sr. (R) – retired
1968: George A. Smathers (D) and C. Farris Bryant (HIP)
1974: LeRoy Collins Sr. (D) and Thomas Burton Adams Jr. (HIP)

1981-1987: Paula Hawkins (R) – first female US Senator from Florida; retired; ran for President in 1988
1980: Bill Gunter (D)

1987-2011: Michael Bilirakis (R) – Greek-American; retired at the age of 80
1986: Bill Nelson (D)
1992: Harry A. Johnston (D)
1998: Franklin B. Mann (D)
2004: Nan Rich (D)

2011-present: Gus Bilirakis (R) – is the son of Michael Bilirakis; moderate; does not get along well with Allen West; incumbent
2010: Janet Cruz (D)
2016: Bolley L. “Bo” Johnson (D)



US Senators from Georgia’s Class 2 Seat

1933-1971: Richard Russell Jr. (D) – died in office at the age of 73 from complications from emphysema
1933 (sp): unopposed
1936: unopposed
1942: LeVert Dwyer Shivers (I)
1948: Larkin Marshall (I)
1954: unopposed
1960: unopposed
1966: J. B. Stoner (HIP)

1971-1973: Ernest Vandiver (D) – appointee; retired

1973-1977: Jimmy Carter (D) – resigned to become the US Secretary of State; won a Nobel Peace Prize for the Atlanta Peace Treaty; was the 1980 Democratic nominee for VP; ran for President in 1984
1972: Fletcher Thompson (R) and J. B. Stoner (HIP)

1977-2003: Sam Nunn (D) – retired
1978: Fletcher Thompson (R)
1984: Jon M. Hicks (R)
1990: unopposed
1996: John Gregory Cashin (R)

2003-2021: Bob Barr (R) – lost re-nomination to a populist Harley Brown supporter
2002: Terry Coleman (D)
2008: Vernon Jones (D)
2014: Edward Jerome Tarver (D) and Ollisteen “Steen” Miles (Women’s Rights)

2021-present: R. J. Hadley (D) – African-American; incumbent
2020: Buzz Brockway (R)

US Senators from Georgia’s Class 3 Seat

1957-1963: Herman Talmadge (D) – lost re-nomination, then lost re-election as an Independent despite not officially leaving the Democratic party
1956: unopposed

1963-1981: John William Davis (D) – drafted by President Johnson to primary Talmadge in response to Talmadge opposing Johnson's agenda; lost re-election
1962: Herman Talmadge (I)
1968: E. Earl Patton (R)
1974: Jerry Johnson (R)

1981-1987: Mack Mattingly (R) – lost re-election in a bad year for Republicans
1980: John William Davis (D)

1987-2005: Dr. John Skandalakis (D) – Greek-American; immigrant; retired
1986: Mack Mattingly (R)
1992: Dr. Paul Broun (R)
1998: Paul Coverdell (R)

2005-present: Herman Cain (R) – businessman; former CEO of KFC; first African-American US Senator from Georgia; survived battle with cancer in the late 2000s; ran for President in 2012; incumbent
2004: John W. Carter (D), Denise Majette (Green), and Allen Buckley (Liberty)
2010: Michelle Nunn (D)
2016: Robby Wells (D)



US Senators from Hawaii’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1977: Hiram Leong Fong (R) – Chinese-American; retired at the age of 70
1959 (sp): unopposed
1964: Thomas Ponce Gill (D)
1970: Cecil Heftel (D)

1977-2007: Patsy Matsu Takemoto Mink (D) – first female US Senator from Hawaii; Japanese-American; retired at the age of 79 and passed away last year at the age of 92
1976: William F. Quinn (R)
1982: Clarence J. Brown (R) and E. Bernier-Nachtwey (Independent)
1988: Maria M. Hustace (R) and Ken Schoolland (Liberty)
1994: Maria Hustace (R)
2000: John S. Carroll (R)

2007-present: Mazie Hirono (D) – Japanese-American; incumbent
2006: Cynthia Thielen (R)
2012: Linda Lingle (R)
2018: Ron Curtis (R)

US Senators from Hawaii’s Class 3 Seat

1959-1963: Oren E. Long (D) – retired
1959 (sp): unopposed

1963-2015: Daniel Ken Inouye (D) – Japanese-American; WWII veteran; died in office at the age of 91 from natural causes
1962: Ben Dillingham (R)
1968: Wayne C. Thiessen (R) and Oliver M. Lee (Natural Mind)
1974: James D. Kimmel (R)
1980: Cooper Brown (R)
1986: Frank Hutchinson (R)
1992: Linda Martin (Green) and Richard O. Rowland (R)
1998: Crystal Young (R)
2004: Campbell Cavasso (R)
2010: John Roco (R)

2015-2017: Irene Hirano Inouye (D) – widow of Daniel Inouye; appointee; retired

2017-present: Colleen Wakako Hanabusa (D) – Japanese-American; incumbent
2016: Cam Cavasso (R) and Joy Allison (Country)



US Senators from Idaho’s Class 2 Seat

1949-1962: Henry Dworshak (R) – staunchly conservative; died in office from a heart attack at the age of 67
1950 (sp): Claude J. Burtenshaw (D)
1954: Glen H. Taylor (D)
1960: R. F. “Bob” Mclaughlin (D)

1962-1963: Len Jordan (R) – appointee; lost election

1963-1964: Gracie Pfost (D) – died suddenly from severe pneumonia at the age of 58
1962 (sp): Len Jordan (R)

1964-1973: Len Jordan (R) – lost re-election
1964 (sp): Vernon K. Smith (D)
1966: Ralph Harding (D)

1973-1979: Richard H. Stallings (D) – lost re-election
1972: Len Jordan (R)

1979-1997: George Vernon Hansen (R) – retired
1978: Richard H. Stallings (D)
1984: Peter M. Busch (D)
1990: Ron Twilegar (D)

1997-2015: Helen Chenoweth (R) – retired amid low approval ratings; still alive at the age of 83
1996: Susan Vegors (D)
2002: Alan Blinken (D)
2008: Dave Sneddon (D)

2015-present: Dr. Rex Floyd Rammell (R) – incumbent; far-right conservative former veterinarian
2014: Nels Mitchell (D)
2020: James Vandermaas (D)

US Senators from Idaho’s Class 3 Seat

1957-1984: Frank Church (D) – died in office at the age of 59 less than three months after being hospitalized for a pancreatic tumor
1956: Herman Welker (R)
1962: Jack Hawley (R)
1968: George V. Hansen (R)
1974: Robert L. Smith (R)
1980: Steve Symms (R) and Larry Fullmer (Freedom)

1984-2005: Bethine Clark Church (D) – was the widow of Frank Church; appointee; retired at the age of 81
1984 (sp): Donald Billings (R)
1986: Steve Symms (R)
1992: Dirk Kempthorne (R)
1998: Mike Crapo (R)

2005-2011: Bo Gritz (R) – lost re-nomination and then launched an unsuccessful write-in campaign
2004: Lawerence Denney (Rational Republican), Wendy Jaquet (D), and Scott F. McClure (Independent Democrat)

2011-present: Carlos Bilbao (R) – entered office at the age of 74; incumbent; has announced that he will not run for another term in 2022
2010: Tom Sullivan (D) and Bo Gritz (R (write-in))
2016: Walt Minnick (D)



US Senators from Illinois’s Class 2 Seat

1949-1973: Paul Douglas (D) – retired
1948: Charles W. Brooks (R)
1954: Joseph T. Meek (R)
1960: Samuel W. Witwer (R)
1966: Lawrence J. S. “Lar” Daly (R) and Robert Sabonjian (HIP)

1973-1985: Charles Percy (R) – retired
1972: Roman Pucinski (D)
1978: Alex Seith (D)

1985-1997: Paul Simon (D) – lost re-election in a bad year for Democrats
1984: Paul Findley (R)
1990: Lynn Morley Martin (R)

1997-2003: John Bayard Anderson (R) – retired
1996: Paul Simon (D)

2003-2009: Jim Edgar (R) – retired to run for US President in 2008
2002: Arthur Simon (replaced Rod Blagojevich) (D)

2009-2021: Kwame Raoul (D) – Haitian-American; retired; ran for President in 2016 and 2020; elected Vice President in 2020
2008: James Comey (I) and Anthony R. “Andy” Martin-Trigona (R)
2014: Evelyn Sanguinetti (R)

2021-present: Napoleon Harris (D) – African-American; entered office at the age of 41; former NFL linebacker and former state senator; incumbent
2020: Chuck Weaver (R)

US Senators from Illinois’s Class 3 Seat

1951-1969: Everett Dirksen (R) – died in office at the age of 73 from a cardiopulmonary arrest brought on by progressive complications (that developed into bronchopneumonia) from a right upper lobectomy that removed an asymptomatic peripherally located mass from the upper lobe of his right lung, which proved to have been lung cancer (adenocarcinoma)
1950: Scott W. Lucas (D)
1956: Richard Stengel (D)
1962: Sidney R. Yates (D)
1968: William G. Clark (D)

1969-1970: Ralph Tyler Smith (R) – appointee; lost election

1970-1981: Adlai Stevenson (D) – retired
1970 (sp): Ralph Tyler Smith (R)
1974: George M. Burditt (R)

1981-1999: Alan J. Dixon (D) – retired
1980: David C. O’Neal (R)
1986: Judy Koehler (R)
1992: Lynn Morley Martin (R) and J. Quinn Brisben (Socialist)

1999-2009: Paul G. Vallas (D) – Greek-American; resigned for a position in the Wellstone Administration
1998: George Ryan (R)
2004: Steve Rauschenberger (R)

2009-present: Sheila Simon (D) – female; progressive; incumbent
2009 (sp): John Mondy Shimkus (R)
2010: Kathleen Thomas (R)
2016: Judy Koehler (R)



US Senators from Indiana’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1983: Vance Hartke (D) – lost re-election
1958: Harold W. Handley (R)
1964: Russell Bontrager (R)
1970: Richard Roudebush (R)
1976: Earl F. Landgrebe (R)

1983-1989: Earl Landgrebe (R) – lost re-election
1982: Vance Hartke (D)

1989-2013: Katie Beatrice Hall (D) – first African-American US Senator from Indiana; ran for President in 2000; retired
1988: Earl Landgrebe (R)
1994: Barbara Bourland (R)
2000: Paul Hager (R)
2006: John Herman Cox (R)

2013-present: Jackie Walorski (R) – incumbent
2012: Brad Ellsworth (D)
2018: Mike Braun (D)

US Senators from Indiana’s Class 3 Seat

1945-1963: Homer E. Capehart (R) – lost re-election
1944: Henry F. Schricker (D)
1950: Alex Campbell (D)
1956: Claude R. Wickard (D)

1963-1975: Birch Bayh (D) – lost re-election
1962: Homer E. Capehart (R)
1968: William Ruckelshaus (R)

1975-1999: Richard Lugar (R) – lost re-election; was the GOP nominee for VP in 1988
1974: Birch Bayh (D)
1980: Adam Benjamin Jr. (D)
1986: Jill L. Long (D)
1992: Tom Carper (D)

1999-2017: Evan Bayh (D) – lost re-election in a bad year for Democrats; declined interest in running for President or VP in 2000, 2008 and 2016
1998: Richard Lugar (R)
2004: Marvin Scott (R)
2010: Becky Skillman (R)

2017-present: Brian C. Bosma (R) – incumbent
2016: Evan Bayh (D)



US Senators from Iowa’s Class 2 Seat

1961-1973: Jack Miller (R) – lost re-election
1960: Herschel C. Loveless (D)
1966: E. B. Smith (D) and Robert D. Dilley (HIP)

1973-1979: Dick Clark (D) – lost re-election
1972: Jack Miller (R) and William A. Rocap Jr. (HIP)

1979-1991: Roger Jespen (R) – retired
1978: Dick Clark (D)
1984: Tom Harkin (D)

1991-1992: Larry Miles Dinger (R) – resigned to become Vice President of the United States
1990: Berkley Warren Bedell (D)

1992-2021: Terry Branstad (R) – lost re-election in an upset
1994 (special): David R. Nagle (D)
1996: Jim Ross Lightfoot (D)
2002: Tim Hathan (D)
2008: Daryl Beall (D)
2014: Stephen N. Six (D)

2021-present: Elizabeth Ann “Liz” Mathis (D) – incumbent
2020: Terry Branstad (R)

US Senators from Iowa’s Class 3 Seat

1945-1965: Bourke Blakemore Hickenlooper (R) – resigned to join the administration of US President Harland “Colonel” Sanders
1944: Guy Gillette (D)
1950: Albert J. Loveland (D)
1956: R. M. Evans (D)
1962: E. B. Smith (D)

1965-1967: Henry Oscar Talle (R) – appointee; lost election

1967-1993: Harold Hughes (D) – retired at the age of 70; passed away in 1996 at the age of 74
1966: Henry Oscar Talle (R)
1968: David M. Stanley (R)
1974: David M. Stanley (R)
1980: James Leach (R)
1986: Chuck Grassley (R)

1993-1999: John William Judge (R) – lost re-election
1992: Jean Hall Lloyd-Jones (D

1999-2011: Patty Jean Poole (D) – first female US Senator from Iowa; lost re-election
1998: John William Judge (R)
2004: Jerry Kohn (R) and Albert Franzen (I)

2011-present: Robert Lee Vander Plaats (R) – incumbent
2010: Patty Jean Poole (D)
2016: Rob Hogg (D) and Ray Zirkelbach (I)



US Senators from Kansas’ Class 2 Seat

1949-1962: Andrew F. Schoeppel (R) – former Governor of Kansas and former college football player; died in office from abdominal cancer at the age of 67
1948: George McGill (D) and C. Floyd Hester (Prohibition)
1954: George McGill (D) and David C. White (Prohibition)
1960: Frank Theis (D)

1962-1979: James B. Pearson (R) – retired
1962 (sp): Paul L. Aylward (D)
1966: George W. Snell (HIP), James Floyd Breeding (D) and Earl Dodge (Prohibition)
1972: Arch Tetzlaff (D) and Gene Miller (Conservative)

1979-1997: Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R) – first female US Senator from Kansas; retired
1978: William R. Roy (D)
1984: James R. Maher (D)
1990: Joan Finney (D)

1997-present: Carla J. Stovall (R) – incumbent
1996: Sally Thompson (D)
2002: John W. Carlin (D)
2008: Nancy Boyda (D)
2014: Chad Taylor (D)
2020: Monique Singh-Bey (D)

US Senators from Kansas’ Class 3 Seat

1950-1969: Frank Carlson (R) – retired
1950 (sp): Paul Aiken (D)
1950: Paul Aiken (D) and Verne L. Damon (Prohibition)
1956: George Hart (D)
1962: K. L. Smith (D)

1969-present: Bob Dole (R) – WWII veteran; longest-serving US Senator, as he has held this seat for over 52 years; currently (as of July 4) still alive at the age of 97; incumbent; may not run for re-election in 2022
1968: William I. Robinson (D)
1974: Bill Roy (D)
1980: John Simpson (D)
1986: Guy MacDonald (D)
1992: Gloria O’Dell (D)
1998: Gloria O’Dell (D)
2004: Lee Jones (D)
2010: Lisa Johnston (D)
2016: Patrick Wiesner (D)



US Senators from Kentucky’s Class 2 Seat

1952-1955: John Sherman Cooper (R) – lost re-election
1952 (sp): Thomas R. Underwood (D)

1955-1956: Alben W. Barkley (D) – died of a heart attack at the age of 78
1954: John Sherman Cooper (R)

1956-1956: James Stephen Golden (R) – appointee; retired

1956-1973:
John Sherman Cooper (R) – retired
1956 (sp): Lawrence W. Wetherby (D)
1960: Keen Johnson (D)
1966: Gaines P. Wilson (D)

1973-1991: Lawrence W. Wetherby (D) – was a close, lifelong friend of Colonel Sanders; retired; passed away in January 2011, just days after turning 103
1972: Jesse Nicholas Ryan Cecil (R), Louie Nunn (I) and Helen Breeden (HIP)
1978: Louie Nunn (R)
1984: Roger Harker (R)

1991-2021: Martha Layne Osborne (D) – first female US Senator from Kentucky; ran for President in 1988; retired at the age of 84
1990: Jim Bunning (R)
1996: Dennis L. Lacy (R)
2002: Jeff Hoover (R)
2008: Daniel Essek (R)
2014: David Patterson (R)

2021-present: Whitney Westerfield (R) – entered office at the age of 40; incumbent
2020: Reginald “Reggie” Thomas (D)

US Senators from Kentucky’s Class 3 Seat

1950-1957: Earle Clements (D) – lost re-election
1950: Charles I. Dawson (R)

1957-1982: Thruston Ballard Morton (R) – died in office at the age of 74
1956: Earle C. Clements (D)
1962: Wilson W. Wyatt (D)
1968: John Y. Brown Jr. (D)
1974: Wendell H. Ford (D)
1980: Wendell H. Ford (D)

1982-1984: Charles Rowland Peaslee “Charlie” Farnsley (D) – appointee; retired

1984-1993: Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr. (R) – was the son of Colonel Sanders; retired
1983 (sp): John Y. Brown Jr. (D)
1986: William P. Curlin Jr. (D)

1993-2011: Patrick “Kelly” Downard (R) – lost re-election in an surprise upset
1992: Jim Whitlock (D)
1998: Scotty Baesler (D)
2004: Paul E. Patton (D)

2011-2017: Daniel Mongiardo (D) – is the son of Italian immigrants; retired; very briefly ran for President in 2016 and 2020
2010: Patrick “Kelly” Downard (R)

2017-present: Charles Merwin “Trey” Grayson III (R) – incumbent
2016: Tom Recktenwald (D)



US Senators from Louisiana’s Class 2 Seat

1937-1972: Allen J. Ellender (D) – died in office at the age of 81; known by his colleagues for his Cajun cooking, including his roast duck and shrimp jambalaya dishes, leading to him developing a rapport with US President Colonel Sanders and the nickname "The Colonel of Louisiana"; the US Senate dining room currently (as of July 4, 2021) still serves his famous "Ellender Gumbo"
1936: unopposed
1942: unopposed
1948: unopposed
1954: unopposed
1960: George W. Reese Jr. (R)
1966: unopposed

1972-1985: Jack P. F. Gremillion Sr. (D) – appointee; previously served as the Attorney General of Louisiana from 1956 to 1972; retired to unsuccessfully run for President in 1984 at the age of 70
1972: B. C. Toledano (R) and Hall M. Lyons (HIP)
1978: Woody Jenkins (Independent)

1985-2020: Clyde Cecil Holloway (R) – resigned due to declining health
1984: Jerry Huckaby (D)
1990: William Jennings Jefferson (D) and David Duke (Heritage)
1996: Richard Ieyoub (D)
2002: Mary Landrieu (D)
2008: Richard Ieyoub (D)
2014: Troyce Guice (D)

2020-2021: Suzanne Haik Terrell (R) – appointee; lost election

2021-present: Antoine Pierce (D) – first African-American US Senator from Louisiana; entered office at the age of 50; incumbent
2020: Suzanne Haik Terrell (R)

US Senators from Louisiana’s Class 3 Seat

1948-1987: Russell B. Long (D) – retired
1948 (sp): Clem S. Clarke (R)
1950: Charles S. Gerth (R)
1956: unopposed
1962: Taylor W. O’Hearn (R)
1968: unopposed
1974: unopposed
1980: DeLesseps Story “Toni” Morrison Jr. (D), Woody Jenkins (D) and Jerry Bardwell (R)

1987-2005: Buddy Roemer (“D” until 1991, then “R” after 1991) – lost re-election
1986: Henson Moore (R)
1992: Chris John (D)
1998: Marty James Chabert (D)

2005-2006: John Georges (D) – Greek-American businessman; resigned for CEO position
2004: Buddy Roemer (R)

2006-2017: Christopher Charles "Chris" John (D) – Roman Catholic former US Representative; lost re-election in a bad year for Democrats
2006 (special): Chet Traylor (R)
2010: Chet Traylor (R), Neeson Chauvin (D) and Nick Accardo (R)

2017-present: Charles E. “Chas” Roemer IV (R) – is the son of Buddy Roemer; entered office at the age of 50; incumbent
2016: Chris John (D)



US Senators from Maine’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1996: Ed Muskie (D) – died in office from natural causes at the age of 81
1958: Frederick G. Payne (R)
1964: Clifford McIntire (R)
1970: Neil S. Bishop (R)
1976: Robert A. G. Monks (R)
1982: Edward I. Bernstein (R)
1988: Jasper S. Wyman (R)
1994: John R. McKernan Jr. (R) and Plato Truman (I)

1996-2019: Olympia Snowe (R) – was the Republican nominee and popular vote winner in the US Presidential election of 2008; retired
1998 (special): Sean Faircloth (D)
2000: Mark Lawrence (D)
2006: Dawn Hill (D)
2012: Benjamin Pollard (D) and Andrew Ian Dodge (Independent)

2019-present: Mike Michaud (D) – openly BLUTAG; incumbent
2018 (first round of RCV): Max Linn (R) and Joe Brooks (Independent)
2018 (final round of RCV): Max Linn (R)

US Senators from Maine’s Class 2 Seat

1949-1973: Margaret Chase Smith (R) – lost re-election
1948: Adrian H. Scolten (D)
1954: Paul A. Fullam (D)
1960: Lucia M. Cormier (D)
1966: Elmer H. Violette (D)

1973-1979: William Hathaway (D) – lost re-election
1972: Margaret Chase Smith (R)

1979-1985: William Cohen (R) – lost re-election
1978: William Hathaway (D)

1985-1989: Peter Kyros (D) – Greek-American; resigned for a cabinet position in the Bellamy administration
1984: William Cohen (R)

1989-1991: Nancy Nye Masterton (D) – appointee; lost election

1991-present: Angus King (I) – incumbent; may not run for another term in 2026
1990: Nancy Nye Masterton (D) and Bob Nutting (R)
1996: Susan M. Collins (R) and John Rensenbrink (D)
2002: Chellie Pingree (D) and J. D. Libby (R)
2008: Chandler Woodcock (R) and Tom Connolly (D)
2014: Shenna Bellows (D) and Scott D’Amboise (R)
2020 (first round of RCV): Jared Golden (D) and Derek Levasseur (R)
2020 (final round of RCV): Jared Golden (D)



US Senators from Maryland’s Class 1 Seat

1953-1971: James Glenn Beall (R) – lost re-nomination and then lost re-election as an Independent Republican without changing his party registration
1952: George P. Mahoney (D)
1958: Thomas D’Alesandro (D)
1964: Joseph D. Tydings (D)

1971-1977: Rogers Clark Ballard Morton (R) – was the brother of US Senator Thruston Ballard Morton (R-KY); lost re-election; passed away in 1979 at the age of 64, after being diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1973, which was only a minor political issue during the 1976 election
1970: Carlton R. Sickles (D) and James Glenn Beall (Independent Republican)

1977-2007: Paul Spyros Sarbanes (D) – Greek-American; declined interest in running for President or VP in 1980, 1984, 1988, 1996, and 2000; retired
1976: Rogers Clark Ballard Morton (R)
1982: Lawrence Hogan (R)
1988: Alan Keyes (R)
1994: Constance “Connie” Morella (R)
2000: Paul Rappaport (R)

2007-2013: Michael Steele (R) – first African-American US Senator from Maryland; was considered for the VP spot on the 2012 GOP Presidential ticket; lost re-election
2006: Ben Cardin (D) and Kevin Zeese (G)

2013-present: Carl Frank Stokes (D) – second African-American US Senator from Maryland; considered running for President in 2016 and 2020; incumbent
2012: Michael Steele (R)
2018: Tony Campbell (R)

US Senators from Maryland’s Class 3 Seat

1951-1963: John Marshall Butler (R) – retired
1950: Millard E. Tydings (D)
1956: George P. Mahoney (D)

1963-1969: Daniel J. Brewster (D) – lost re-election
1962: Edward T. Miller (R)

1969-1987: Charles Mathias Jr. (R) – retired
1968: Daniel J. Brewster (D) and George P. Mahoney (HIP)
1974: Barbara Mikulski (D)
1980: Edward T. Conroy (D)

1987-2017: Barbara Mikulski (D) – first female US Senator from Maryland; retired
1986: Linda Chavez (R)
1992: Martha Scanlan Klima (R)
1998: Ross Pierpont (R)
2004: E. J. Pipkin (R)
2010: Jim Rutledge (R)

2017-present: Rand Beers (D) – incumbent
2016: Kathy Szeliga (R)



US Senators from Massachusetts’ Class 1 Seat

1953-1961: John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy (D) – resigned to join the Johnson administration; was the Democratic nominee for President in 1968
1952: Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R)
1958: Vincent Celeste (R)

1961-1962: Benjamin Smith (D) – appointee; retired

1962-2001: Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D) – first female US Senator from Massachusetts; was a younger sister of Jack Kennedy; ran for President in 1988 after declining to run in 1972 and 1984; retired
1962 (sp): George Cabot Lodge II (R) and H. Stuart Hughes (I)
1964: Howard Whitmore Jr. (R)
1970: John Volpe (R) and Josiah A. Spaulding (Independent)
1976: Michael S. Robertson (R)
1982: Ray Shamie (R)
1988: Joseph Malone (R)
1994: John Lakian (R)

2001-present: Kathleen Hartington Kennedy-Roosevelt (D) – is a niece of Jack Kennedy and Eunice Kennedy-Shriver; married to a relative of FDR; was a possible candidate for President in 2016 and 2020; incumbent
2000: Carla Howell (R)
2006: Kenneth Chase (R)
2012: Brian Paul Lees (R)
2018: Curt Schilling (R)

US Senators from Massachusetts’ Class 2 Seat

1945-1967: Leverett Saltonstall (R) – retired
1944 (sp): John H. Corcoran (D)
1948: John I. Fitzgerald (D)
1954: Foster Furcolo (D)
1960: Thomas J. O’Connor (D)

1967-1991: Ed Brooke (R) – first African-American US Senator from Massachusetts; ran for President in 1980 and 1988; retired
1966: Endicott Peabody (D)
1972: John J. Droney (D)
1978: Paul Tsongas (D)
1984: James Shannon (D)

1991-2013: Bill Weld (R) – ran for President in 2004 and briefly in 2008 and 2012; resigned for US Cabinet position in the Grammer administration
1990: Ken O’Donnell (D)
1996: Robert Stowe (D) and Susan Gallagher (Conservative)
2002: Tom Birmingham (D)
2008: Edward O’Reilly (D)

2013-2015: Lewis George “Lew” Evangelidis (R) – Greek-American; appointee; lost election

2015-present: Demetrius J. Atsalis (D) – Greek-American; incumbent
2014: Lewis George “Lew” Evangelidis (R)
2020: Kevin O’Connor (R)



US Senators from Michigan’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1971: Philip Hart (D) – lost re-election
1958: Charles E. Potter (R)
1964: Elly M. Peterson (R)

1971-1989: George W. Romney (R) – ran for President in 1976 and 1980; retired
1970: Philip Hart (D)
1976: Donald Riegle (D)
1982: Walter Reuther (D)

1989-1995: Elly Maude Peterson (R) – retired
1988: Milton Robert “Bob” Carr (D)

1995-2001: W. Mitt Romney (R) – is the son of George W. Romney; lost re-election
1994: Milton Robert “Bob” Carr (D)

2001-2007: Barbara-Rose Collins (D) – lost re-election
2000: W. Mitt Romney (R) and Matthew Abel (Green)

2007-2013: Andrew “Rocky” Raczkowski (R) – entered office at the age of 38; ran for President in 2012; lost re-election
2006: Barbara-Rose Collins (D)

2013-present: Hansen Clarke (D) – first Bangladeshi-American US Senator ever; ran for President in 2016; incumbent
2012: Andrew “Rocky” Raczkowski (R)
2018: Tagg Romney (R)

US Senators from Michigan’s Class 2 Seat

1955-1966: Patrick V. McNamara (D) – died in office from a stroke at the age of 71
1954: Homer S. Ferguson (R)
1960: G. Mennen Williams (R)

1966-1985: Robert P. Griffin (R) – appointee; retired
1966: Richard F. Vander Veen (D)
1972: Frank J. Kelley (D), Jerome P. Cavanaugh (I), Patrick Dillinger (HIP) and Barbara Halpert (Human Rights)
1978: Carl Levin (D)

1985-2015: Jack R. Lousma (R) – former astronaut; retired
1984: Donald J. Albosta (D)
1990: Barbara-Rose Collins (D)
1996: William Roundtree (D)
2002: John D. Cherry Jr. (D) and John S. Mangopoulos (Reform)
2008: Bart Stupak (D)

2015-2021: Terry Lynn Stern Rakolta (R) – lost re-election
2014: Mark Hamilton Schauer (D)

2021-present: Abdul El-Sayed (D) – Egyptian-American; lost re-election
2020: Terry Lynn Stern Rakolta (R)



US Senators from Minnesota’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1971: Eugene McCarthy (D) – retired
1958: Edward John Thye (R)
1964: Wheelock Whitney (R)

1971-1985: Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D) – died in office after a long battle with cancer
1970: Clark MacGregor (R)
1976: Gerald W. Brekke (R) and Paul Helm (I)
1982: David Durenberger (R)

1985-2001: Joan Growe (D) – retired
1985 (sp): Arlen Ingolf Erdahl (R)
1988: Arlen Overvig (R)
1994: Rod Grams (R) and Dean Barkley (I)

2001-2019: Hubert Horatio “Skip” Humphrey III (D) – is the son of VP Hubert Humphrey; retired
2000: Carol Molnau (R) and Jim Gibbons (I)
2006: Mark Kennedy (R)
2012: Rod Grams (R) and Michael C. Colley (Country)

2019-present: Farheen Hakeem (D) – Muslim; entered office at the age of 43; incumbent
2018: Leonard J. Richards (R)

US Senators from Minnesota’s Class 2 Seat

1949-1960: Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D) – resigned after being elected Vice President of the United States
1948: Joseph H. Ball (R)
1954: Val Bjornson (R)
1960: P. Kenneth Peterson (R)

1960-1961: Roy Weir (D) – appointee; retired

1961-1972: Walter Mondale (D) – resigned after being elected President of the United States
1961 (sp): Elmer L. Andersen (R)
1966: Robert A. Forsythe (R)
1972: Phil Hansen (R)

1972-1982: Bob Short (D) – died in office from cancer at the age of 65
1973: Phil Hansen (R)
1978: Harold Stassen (R)

1982-1997: Mark Dayton (D) – lost re-election; despite 1996 being a bad year for Democrats, the loss was still considered to be a major upset
1983 (sp): Tom Hagedorn (R)
1984: Tom Hagedorn (R)
1990: Vin Weber (R)

1997-2003: Gilbert Gutknecht Jr. (R) – moderate; retired; unsuccessfully ran for President in 2004 and has recently expressed interest in running for President again in 2024
1996: Mark Dayton (D)

2003-present: Sharon Sayles-Belton (D) – African-American female; ran for President in 2016; incumbent
2002: Carol Molnau (R)
2008: Jack Shepard (R)
2014: Tim Penny (R)
2020: Karin Housley (R)



US Senators from Mississippi’s Class 1 Seat

1947-1989: John C. Stennis (D) – retired
1947 (sp): unopposed
1952: unopposed
1958: unopposed
1964: unopposed
1970: William R. Thompson (I)
1976: unopposed
1982: Haley Barbour (R)

1989-present: William Webster “Webb” Franklin (R) – incumbent
1988: Dick Molpus (D)
1994: Ken Harper (D)
2000: Troy Brown (D)
2006: Erik Fleming (D)
2012: Roger Weiner (D)
2018: Mike Espy (D)

US Senators from Mississippi’s Class 2 Seat

1943-1979: James Eastland (D) – retired
1942: unopposed
1948: unopposed
1954: James A. White (R)
1960: Joe A. Moore (R)
1966: Prentiss Walker (R) and Clifton R. Whitley (I)
1972: James H. Meredith (R) and Prentiss Walker (I)

1979-1995: James H. Meredith (R) – first African-American US Senator from Mississippi; resigned after being confirmed for the US Vice Presidency
1978: Maurice Dantin (D)
1984: Maurice Dantin (D)
1990: George Raymond Jr. (D)

1995-1997: James E. Chaney (D) – appointee; lost election

1997-2004: Kirkwood Fordice (R) – died in office from leukemia at the age of 70
1996: James E. Chaney (D)
2002: Gilbert Fountain (D)

2004-2006: Erik R. Fleming (D) – appointee; lost election

2006-present: Patrick H. “Pete” Johnson (R) – member of the Johnson political family of Mississippi (both his grandfather and uncle served in public office, too); incumbent
2005 (sp): Erik R. Fleming (D)
2008: Grady F. “Gray” Tollison (Independent R) and Bootie Hunt (D)
2014: Travis Childers (D)
2020: J. P. “Jay” Hughes Jr. (D)



US Senators from Missouri’s Class 1 Seat

1953-1961: Stuart Symington (D) – resigned for US Cabinet position
1952: James P. Kem (R)
1958: Hazel Palmer (R)

1961-1963: Albert S. J. Carnahan (D) – appointee; retired

1963-1977: Leonor Sullivan (D) – first female US Senator from Missouri; retired
1962 (sp): William C. Cole (R)
1964: Jean P. Bradshaw (R)
1970: John Danforth (R) and Gene Chapman (HIP)

1977-1989: Jerry Litton (D) – resigned after being elected Vice President of the United States
1976: John Danforth (R)
1982: R. Wendell Bailey (R)
1988: Norvell William “Bill” Emerson (R)

1989-1993: Margaret Blake Kelly (D) – appointee; resigned
1989 (sp): John William “Jack” Buechner (R)

1993-1995: Thomas M. Keyes (D) – appointee; lost nomination

1995-2013: Alan Wheat (D)
– first African-American US Senator from Missouri; lost re-election
1994: Bill Johnson (R)
2000: Grant Samuel Stauffer (R)
2006: Jim Talent (R)

2013-present: Sarah Hearne Steelman (R) – incumbent
2012: Alan Wheat (D) and Velma Steinman (Liberty)
2018: Travis Gonzalez (D) and Leonard J. Steinman II (Liberty, b. 1952)

US Senators from Missouri’s Class 3 Seat

1960-1975: Edward V. Long (D) – lost re-election
1960 (sp): Lon Hocker (R)
1962: Crosby Kemper (R)
1968: Thomas B. Curtis (R)

1975-1987: Thomas B. Curtis (R) – lost re-election
1974: Edward V. Long (D)
1980: Robert Anton Young III (D)

1987-2005: Bill Bradley (D) – briefly ran for President in 1996 and 2000; retired; later served as a US Ambassador under President Wellstone
1986: Thomas B. Curtis (R)
1992: Jeanne Bojarski (R)
1998: Tamara Millay (R) and Wayne Cryts (D write-in)

2005-2017: Wayne Cryts (D) – previously served in the US House of Representatives; was often called "the voice of the farmers" when in both chambers; retired due to declining health
2004: Mike Steger (R)
2010: Chuck Purgason (R)

2017-present: David A. Catania (R) – incumbent
2016: Joseph “Chief Wana Dubie” Bickell (D, 1958-2021) and Susan Montee (Independent Democrat)



US Senators from Montana’s Class 1 Seat

1953-1977: Mike Mansfield (D) – retired
1952: Zales Ecton (R)
1958: Lou Welch (R)
1964: Alex Blewett (R)
1970: Harold E. Wallace (R)

1977-1983: John Melcher (D) – lost re-election
1976: Stanley C. Burger (R)

1983-1989: Ron Marlenee (R) – lost re-election
1982: John Melcher (D)

1989-2007: Jack Mudd (D) – lost re-election in a bad year for Democrats
1988: Ron Marlenee (R)
1994: Tom Faranda (R)
2000: Rick Hill (R)

2007-2013: Stan Jones (R) – lost re-election
2006: Jack Mudd (D)

2013-2019: Denise Juneau (D) –first female US Senator from Montana; lost re-election
2012: Stan Jones (R)

2019-present: Stan Jones (R) – incumbent
2018: Denise Juneau (D) and Steve Bullock (Moderate Democratic)

US Senators from Montana’s Class 2 Seat

1961-1973: Lee Metcalf (D) – lost re-election
1960: Orvin B. Fjare (R)
1966: Tim M. Babcock (R)

1973-1979: Henry S. “Hank” Hibbard (R) – lost re-nomination
1972: Lee Metcalf (D)

1979-2021: Larry Williams (R) – retired
1978: Paul G. Hatfield (D)
1984: John Driscoll (D)
1990: John Patrick “Pat” Williams (D)
1996: Stephen Heaton (D)
2002: Hal G. Harper (D)
2008: Robert Kelleher (D)
2014: Amanda Curtis (D) and Roger Roots (Liberty)

2021-present: Jenny Eck (D) – incumbent
2020: Jon Sonju (R)



US Senators from Nebraska’s Class 1 Seat

1954-1971: Roman Hruska (R) – lost re-election
1954 (sp): James F. Green (D)
1958: Frank B. Morrison (D)
1964: Raymond W. Arndt (D)

1971-2007: Ted Sorensen (D) – retired
1970: Roman Hruska (R)
1976: John Y. McCollister (R)
1982: Jim Keck (R) and Virginia Walsh (I)
1988: David Karnes (R) and Ernie Chambers (New Alliance)
1994: Jan Stoney (R)
2000: Don Stenberg (R)

2007-2017: Don Stenberg (R) – resigned for position in the Grammer administration
2006: Maxine Moul (D)
2012: Chuck Hassebrook (D)

2017-2018: Charlie Janssen (R) – appointee; lost election

2018-present: Oletha Faust-Goudeau (D) – first female African-American US Senator from Nebraska; ran for President in 2016 and 2020; incumbent
2017 (sp): Charlie Janssen (R)
2018: Charles Herbster (R)

US Senators from Nebraska’s Class 2 Seat

1955-1965: Carl Curtis (R) – resigned for a cabinet position in the Sanders administration
1954: Keith Neville (D)
1960: Robert B. Conrad (D)

1965-1973: Dwight W. Burney (R) – appointee; retired
1966: C. Armstrong Callan (D)

1973-present: Orrin Hatch (R) – moved to Nebraska in the 1960s; incumbent; may not run for re-election in 2026
1972: Philip C. Sorensen (D) and Terry Carpenter (I)
1978: J. James Exon (D)
1984: J. James Exon (D)
1990: John J. Cavanaugh III (D)
1996: Ben Nelson (D) and John DeCamp (Liberty)
2002: Charlie A. Matulka (D)
2008: Scott Kleeb (D)
2014: David Domina (D) and Jim Jenkins (Independent)
2020: Preston Love Jr. (D)



US Senators from Nevada’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1965: Howard W. Cannon (D) – lost re-election
1958: George W. Malone (R)

1965-1995: Paul Dominque Laxalt (R) – considered running for president in 1980, 1988, and 1992; considered for VP nomination in 1972, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1992, 1995, and 1996; retired
1964: Howard W. Cannon (D)
1970: Howard W. Cannon (D)
1976: James David Santini (D)
1982: Harry Reid (D)
1988: Richard Byran (D)

1995-2007: Anna Nevenic (D) – lost re-election
1994: Kenny Guinn (R)
2000: Jim Gibbons (R)

2007-2019: Patricia Anne “Patty” Cafferata (R) – retired
2006: Anna Nevenic (D)
2012: Barbara Buckley (D)

2019-present: Doug Swanson (R) – incumbent
2018: Jan Laverty Jones (D)

US Senators from Nevada’s Class 3 Seat

1954-1974: Alan H. Bible (D) – retired and resigned after a successor was elected
1954 (sp): Ernest S. Brown (R)
1956: Cliff Young (R)
1962: William B. Wright (R)
1968: Edward Fike (R)

1974-1999: Barbara Vucanovich (R) – appointed to seat to which she was elected after retiring incumbent resigned; first female US Senator from Nevada; retired
1974: Mike O’Callaghan (D) and Jack C. Doyle (HIP)
1980: Mary Gojack (D)
1986: Myron E. Leavitt (D)
1992: Lois Avery (D) and Joe Garcia (Country)

1999-2005: Patricia Anne “Patty” Cafferata (R) – is the daughter of Barbara Vucanovich; lost re-election
1998: James Bilbray (D)

2005-present: Dina Titus (D) – Greek-American; condered for VP nomination in 2008; declined running for President in 2016 and in 2020; incumbent
2004: Patricia Anne “Patty” Cafferata (R)
2010: Sue Lowden (R)
2016: Tyrus O. “Ty” Cobb (R)



US Senators from New Hampshire’s Class 2 Seat

1937-1961: Styles Bridges (R) – retired
1936: William N. Rogers (D)
1942: Francis P. Murphy (D)
1948: Alfred E. Fortin (D)
1954: Gerard L. Morin (D)
1960: Herbert W. Hill (D)

1961-1967: Maurice Murphy (R) – lost re-election
1962 (sp): Thomas J. McIntyre (D)

1967-1973: Thomas J. McIntyre (D) – lost re-election
1966: Maurice J. Murphy (R) and Chester Earl Merrow (Independent)

1973-1979: Harrison Reed Thyng (R) – retired
1972: Thomas J. McIntyre (D)

1979-1981: Carmen C. Chimento (I) – appointee; retired
1978: Gordon J. Humphrey (R) and Thomas J. McIntyre (D) – the 1978 election between Humphrey and McIntyre was too close to call ahead of the new session, so the governor appointed a nonpartisan centrist to serve as an “interim” Senator; soon after, with the election winner deemed “undeterminable,” a special election was called
1979 (sp): Gordon J. Humphrey (R) and Thomas J. McIntyre (D) – the 1979 special election was, similar to the 1978 election, too close to call ahead of congress reconvening in early 1980; a second special election was thus called for and held in 1980, with both Humphrey and McIntyre separately deciding against a third matchup

1981-1981: Wesley Powell (R) – died suddenly, just days after entering office, triggering a third special election in as many years
1980 (sp): Norman D’Amours (D) and incumbent Carmen C. Chimento (I)

1981-1981: Lane Dwinell (R) – appointee; retired

1981-1985: Hugh Gregg (R)
– entered office in December 1981; lost re-election
1981 (sp): John Rauh (D)

1985-1997: Endicott Peabody (D) – retired
1984: Hugh Gregg (R)
1990: Harold Burns (R)

1997-2003: Ken Blevens (R) – lost re-election
1996: Dick Swett (D)

2003-2009: Beverly Hollingworth (D) – lost re-election
2002: Ken Blevens (R)

2009-2013: Kelley Ashby (R) – resigned for a position in the Grammer administration
2008: Beverly Hollingworth (D)

2013-present: Yvonne Katrina Lantos (D) – appointee; incumbent
2014: Frank Christopher Guinta (R)
2020: Regina Birdsell (R)

US Senators from New Hampshire’s Class 3 Seat

1954-1987: Norris Cotton (R) – retired
1954 (sp): Stanley J. Betley (D)
1956: Laurence M. Pickett (D)
1962: Alfred Catalfo Jr. (D)
1968: John W. King (D)
1974: John A. Durkin (D) and Carmen C. Chimento (HIP)
1980: John A. Durkin (D)

1987-1993: Emile Dorilas Beaulieu Jr. (D) – lost re-election
1986: Robert F. Shaw (R)

1993-1999: Katherine M. Alexander (R) – first female US Senator from New Hampshire; very libertarian; narrowly lost re-election in a surprise upset (while it was a bad election year for most Republican candidates, most polls suggested that she would narrowly win)
1992: Emile Dorilas Beaulieu Jr. (D)

1999-2011: Lou D’Allesandro (D) – lost re-election
1998: Katherine M. Alexander (R)
2004: Sharon Carson (R)

2011-present: Ted Gatsas (R) – Greek-American; considered for his party's VP nomination in 2020; incumbent; may run for President in 2024 (he has not yet announced whether or not he will run for re-election in 2022)
2010: Lou D’Allesandro (D)
2016: Carol Shea-Porter (D)



US Senators from New Jersey’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1982: Harrison Arlington "Pete" Williams Jr. (D) – resigned ahead of a planned expulsion vote for his conviction for taking bribes in the Abscam sting operation of 1981
1958: Robert W. Kean (R)
1964: Bernard M. Shanley (R)
1970: Nelson G. Gross (R)
1976: David A. Norcross (R)

1982-1983: Frank Lautenberg (D) – appointee; lost re-election

1983-2007: Frank X. McDermott (R) – moderate; retired at the age of 82 and passed away in late 2020
1982: Frank Lautenberg (D)
1988: Jim Florio (D)
1994: Herb Klein (D)
2000: Jon Corzine (official write-in) (D) and John A. Lynch Jr. (withdrew amid scandal) (D)

2007-2013: Thomas Kean Jr. (R) – elected in a good year for Republicans; a member of the Kean political family of New Jersey; lost re-election
2006: Gina Rose Genovese (D)

2013-present: Upendra Chivukula (D) – born in southern India in 1950; incumbent
2012: Thomas Kean Jr. (R)
2018: Alison Elizabeth Littell McHose (R)

US Senators from New Jersey’s Class 2 Seat

1955-1982: Clifford Philip Case Jr. (R) – died in office at the age of 77, only days after US Senator Harrison A. Williams (D-NJ) resigned
1954: Charles R. Howell (D)
1960: B. B. Thorn Lord (D)
1966: Warren W. Wilentz (D)
1972: B. B. Thorn Lord (D)
1978: Ray “Buttercup” Rollinson (D)

1982-1983: Richard J. Coffee (D) – appointee; lost election

1983-2015: Mary V. Mochary (R) – born in Hungary in 1942 and settled with her family in New Jersey when she was 9 years old retired; first female US Senator from New Jersey; retired
1982 (sp): Richard J. Coffee (D)
1984: Alexander J. Menza (D)
1990: Barbara Wright McConnell (D)
1996: Robert Torricelli (D)
2002: Rob Andrews (D)
2008: Donald Cresitello (D) and Gregory “Greg” Pason (Socialist)

2015-2021: Lisa Perez Jackson (D) – first female African-American US Senator from New Jersey; resigned upon being confirmed for a position in the current Presidential administration
2014: Steve Lonegan (R)
2020: Hirsh Singh (R)

2021-present: Dawn Zimmer (D) – appointee; incumbent



US Senators from New Mexico’s Class 1 Seat

1935-1962: Dionisio "Dennis" Chavez (D) – first-ever Hispanic person elected to a full term in the US Senate; died in office from cancer, which was attributed to his being a lifelong smoker, at the age of 74
1936 (sp): M. A. Otero Jr. (R)
1940: Albert K. Mitchell (R)
1946: Patrick J. Hurley (R)
1952: Patrick J. Hurley (R)
1958: Forrest S. Atchley (R)

1962-1964: Edwin L. Mechem (R) – appointed; lost election

1964-1978: Joseph Manuel Montoya (D)
– died in office at the age of 62
1964 (sp): Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1964: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1970: Anderson Carter (R)
1976: Harrison Schmitt (R)

1978-1981: Mary Coon Walters (D) – appointee; lost nomination

1981-2007: Pedro “Pete” Jiménez (D)
– retired
1980 (sp): Manuel Lujan (R)
1982: Harrison Schmitt (R)
1988: Bill Valentine (R)
1994: Robin Dozier Otten (R)
2000: William T. Redmond (R)

2007-2009: Gloria Tristani (D) – first female US Senator from New Mexico; resigned for a cabinet position in the Wellstone administration
2006: Joseph J. Carraro (R)

2009-present: Debbie Jaramillo (D) – appointee; incumbent
2010 (special): Retta Ward (R)
2012: Greg Sowards (R)
2018: Mick Rich (R)

US Senators from New Mexico’s Class 2 Seat

1949-1973: Clinton Presba Anderson (D) – retired
1948: Patrick J. Hurley (R)
1954: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1960: William Colwes (R)
1966: Anderson Carter (R)

1973-present: Roberto Mondragon (D) – sworn into office at the age of 32; progressive environmentalist; recorded some music albums in the 1970s and 1980s, and subsequently is the only incumbent US Senator to have a hit single ("Aloha Amigos," 1979); incumbent; has expressed interest in running for another term in 2026 (interestingly, if he and Senator Orrin Hatch (R-NE) retire in 2026 and Senator Bob Dole (R-KS) retires in 2022, all three men would "tie" for the record for longest-serving US Senator in history at 54 years for each of them; this has led to a semi-serious "competition" of sorts between the three to see when each of them will leave office, a competition that may be the reason behind Hatch, Dole and Mondragon all still being in office and declining interest in resigning any time soon)
1972: Pete Domencini (R) and Jack Daniels (Independent Democratic)
1978: Pete Domencini (R)
1984: Joseph Skeen (R)
1990: Manuel Lujan Jr. (R)
1996: Bruce M. Bush (R)
2002: Orlin G. Cole (R)
2008: Heather Wilson (R)
2014: David Clements (R)
2020: Elisa Martinez (R)



US Senators from New York’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1971: Kenneth Keating (R) – lost re-election
1958: Frank S. Hogan (D)
1964: Samuel S. Stratton (D)

1971-1983: Paul O’Dwyer (D) – lost re-election
1970: Kenneth B. Keating (R), James L. Buckley (Conservative) and Allard K. Lowenstein (Liberal/Natural Mind)
1976: James L. Buckley (Conservative) and William E. Miller (R)

1983-1995: Michael Rockefeller (R/Liberal) – is the son of former New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller; often labeled a "LID"; lost re-election; currently (as of July 4, 2021) still alive
1982: Paul O’Dwyer (D), Florence M. Sullivan (C) and Allard K. Lowenstein (Progressive)
1988: Edolphus Towns (D), Adelle R. Nathanson (Conservative) and Charlene Mitchell (Progressive)

1995-2007: Gabriel “Gabe” Kaplan (D/Labor/Working Families/Progressive/Green) – former actor and professional poker player; focused on education reform; unsuccessfully ran for President in 2000; retired
1994: Michael Rockefeller (R/Liberal), and Henry F. Hewes (Conservative/Life)
2000: Rick Lazio (R) and John O. Adefope (Conservative/Life)

2007-present: Thomas Richard "Tom" Suozzi (D) – moderate; briefly ran for President in 2016 and 2020; incumbent
2006: Edward Ridley Finch Cox (R)
2012: George Maragos (R)
2018: Chris Gibson (R)

US Senators from New York’s Class 3 Seat

1957-1981: Jacob Javits (R) – lost re-election
1956: Robert F. Wagner Jr. (D)
1962: James B. Donovan (D)
1968: Joseph Y. Resnick (D)
1974: Lee Alexander (D) and Barbara A. Keating (Conservative)

1981-2005: Mario Biaggi (D/Conservative until 2000, then R/Conservative) – retired
1980: Jacob K. Javits (R) and Bess Myerson (Liberal/Natural Mind)
1986: Al D’Amato (R), Mark Green (Green) and John S. Dyson (Liberal)
1992: Norma Segal (R/Liberal) and Mohammad T. Mehdi (Green)
1998: William P. McMillen (R)

2005-present: Allyson Schwartz (D) – incumbent
2004: Howard Mills III (R)
2010: Gary Berntsen (R), Colia Clark (Green/Natural Mind) and Randy Credico (Liberty)
2016: Larry Kudlow (R) and Vito Russo (I)



US Senators from North Carolina’s Class 2 Seat

1958-1973: B. Everett Jordan (D) – retired
1958 (sp): Richard C. Clarke Jr. (R)
1960: Kyle Hayes (R)
1966: John S. Shallcross (R)

1973-1991: Terry Sanford (D) – lost re-election
1972: Jesse Helms (R)
1978: George Wimbish (R)
1984: James Holshouser (R)

1991-2003: James Grubbs “Jim” Martin (R) – lost re-election
1990: Terry Sanford (D)
1996: Harvey Gantt (D)

2003-2009: Daniel Terry Blue Jr. (D) – African-American; lost re-election
2002: James Grubbs “Jim” Martin (R)

2009-2015: Margaret A. “Meg” Ryan (R) – no relation to the actress Meg Ryan; lost re-election
2008: Daniel Terry Blue Jr. (D)

2015-2021: Dan Clodfelter (D) – retired
2014: Margaret A. “Meg” Ryan (R)

2021-present: Charles Graham (D) – Native-American; incumbent
2020: Theodore Paul “Ted” Budd (R)

US Senators from North Carolina’s Class 3 Seat

1954-1975: Sam Ervin (D) – retired
1954 (sp): unopposed
1956: Joel A. Johnson (R)
1962: Claude L. Greene Jr. (R)
1968: Robert V. Somers (R)

1975-2011: Nick Galifianakis (D) – Greek-American; retired
1974: Wood Hall Young (R) and William Stevens (Country)
1980: Earl Baker Ruth (R)
1986: Jim Broyhill (R)
1992: Robert Cannon Hayes (R)
1998: Barbara Howe (R)
2004: John Ross Hendrix (R)

2011-present: Rand Paul (R) – incumbent
2010: Elaine Marshall (D)
2016: Deborah K. Ross (D)



US Senators from North Dakota’s Class 1 Seat

1960-1965: Quentin N. Burdick (D) – lost re-election
1960 (sp): John E. Davis (R)

1965-1971: Thomas S. Kleppe (R) – lost re-election
1964: Quentin N. Burdick (D)

1971-2001: Arthur Albert Link (D) – retired
1970: Thomas S. Kleppe (R)
1976: Robert Stroup (R)
1982: Gene Knorr (R)
1988: Kenneth C. Gardner (R)
1994: Ben Clayburgh (R)

2001-2007: Eliot Glassheim (D) – lost re-election
2000: Duane Sand (R)

2007-2019: John Hoeven (R) – retired
2006: Eliot Glassheim (D)
2012: Paul Gulleson (D)

2019-present: David Dean Andahl (R) – incumbent
2018: Earl Ralph Pomeroy III (D)

US Senators from North Dakota’s Class 3 Seat

1945-1981: Milton R. Young (R) – retired
1946 (sp): William Lanier (D) and Gerald P. Nye (Independent)
1950: Harry O’Brien (D)
1956: Quentin N. Burdick (D)
1962: William Lanier (D)
1968: Herschel Lashkowitz (D)
1974: James R. Jungroth (D) and Kenneth C. Gardiner (Country)

1981-1987: Mark Andrews (R) – lost re-election
1980: Kent Johanneson (D)

1987-2011: Kent Conrad (D) – retired
1986: Mark Andrews (R)
1992: Steve Sydness (R) and Darold Larson (I)
1998: Donna Nalewaja (R)
2004: Mike Liffrig (R)

2011-present: Kelly Schmidt (R) – incumbent
2010: Joan Heckaman (D)
2016: Joel C. Heitkamp (D)



US Senators from Ohio’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1965: Stephen M. Young (D) – lost re-election
1958: John W. Bricker (R)

1965-1971: Robert A. Taft Jr. (R) – lost re-election
1964: Stephen M. Young (D)

1971-2001: John Glenn (D) – former NASA astronaut; retired
1970: Robert A. Taft Jr. (R)
1976: Richard B. Kay (R)
1982: Paul Pfeifer (R)
1988: John R. Kasich Jr. (R)
1994: Paul E. Pfeifer (R) and Joseph Slovenec (I)

2001-2007: Terry A. Anderson (D) – retired
2000: Frank A. Cremeans (R)

2007-present: Sherrod Brown (D) – progressive and pro-labor unions; incumbent
2006: David Smith (R)
2012: Eric Deaton (R)
2018: Jim Renacci (R)

US Senators from Ohio’s Class 3 Seat

1957-1969: Frank J. Lausche (D) – retired
1956: George H. Bender (R)
1962: John M. Briley (R)

1969-1987: William B. Saxbe (R) – retired
1968: John Gilligan (D), Frank J. Lausche (I) and John M. Briley (HIP)
1974: Howard Metzenbaum (D)
1980: Mary Rose Oakar (D) and John E. Powers (I)

1987-1994: Carl Stokes (D) – African-American; announced early retirement due to worsening health, triggering a special election after which he resigned
1986: Tom Kindness (R)
1992: Mike DeWine (R), Martha Grevatt (Country) and Douglas DeGood (Independent Democrat)

1994-2003: Anthony J. Celebrezze Jr. (D) – appointed to the seat to which he was elected after retiring incumbent resigned; died in office
1994 (special): Phyllis Goetz (R)
1998: George Voinovich (R)

2003-2009: Peter Lawson Jones (D) – resigned for ambassadorship
2004: Nancy Putnam Hollister (R) and Tony Patrick Hall (Independent Democrat)

2009-present: Randy Brock (R) – African-American; conservative; entered office in late November 2009; considered for VP nomination in 2012; incumbent
2009 (sp): Robert L. Burch Jr. (D)
2010: Michael B. Coleman (D) and Eric Deaton (Constitutionalists’)
2016: Joyce Beatty (D)



US Senators from Oklahoma’s Class 2 Seat

1949-1963: Robert S. Kerr (D) – died in office
1948: Ross Rizley (R)
1954: Fred M. Mock (R)
1960: Hayden Crawford (R)

1963-1965: J. Howard Edmondson (D) – appointed; lost election

1965-2003: Bud Wilkinson (R)
– retired and passed away days later
1964 (sp): J. Howard Edmondson (D)
1966: Fred R. Harris (D)
1972: Ed Edmondson (D) and William G. Roach (HIP)
1978: David L. Boren (D)
1984: David L. Boren (D)
1990: Dave McCurdy (D)
1996: Glen D. Johnson Jr. (D)

2003-present: Steve Largent (R) – incumbent
2002: David Walters (D)
2008: Jim Rogers (D)
2014: Dan Boren (D)
2020: Sheila Bilyeu (D)

US Senators from Oklahoma’s Class 3 Seat

1951-1969: A. S. Mike Monroney (D) – retired
1950: W. H. Bill Alexander (R)
1956: Douglas McKeever (R)
1962: Hayden Crawford (R)

1969-1981: Henry Bellmon (R) – retired
1968: A. S. Mike Monroney (D)
1974: Ed Edmondson (D)

1981-2005: Marvin Henry “Mickey” Edwards (R) – lost re-election
1980: Andrew Coats (D), Billy Joe Clegg (Conservative) and Charles R. Nesbitt (I)
1986: James R. Jones (D)
1992: Steve Lewis (D)
1998: Laura Boyd (D)

2005-2011: Brad Carson (D) – of Native-American descent; lost re-election
2004: Marvin Henry “Mickey” Edwards (R)

2011-2017: Evelyn Rogers (R) – retired
2010: Brad Carson (D)

2017-present: Lisa J. Billy (R) – Native-American; incumbent
2016: Mike Workman (D) and Dax Ewbank (Liberty)



US Senators from Oregon’s Class 2 Seat

1960-1967: Maurine Brown Neuberger (D) – retired
1960 (sp): Elmo Smith (R)
1960: Elmo Smith (R)

1967-1997: Mark Hatfield (R) – retired
1966: Robert B. Duncan (D)
1972: Edith Green (D)
1978: Vernon Cook (D)
1984: Mary Wendy Roberts (D)
1990: Harry Lonsdale (D)

1997-2009: Norma Paulus (R) – retired
1996: Peter DeFazio (D)
2002: Bill Bradbury (D)

2009-present: Jefferson Smith (D) – incumbent
2008: Gordon Smith (R)
2014: Jo Rae Perkins (R (and endorsed by the Boulder Party of Oregon))
2020: Brad Avakian (R) and Winona LaDuke (Green)

US Senators from Oregon’s Class 3 Seat

1945-1974: Wayne Morse (D since 1955, I 1952-1955, R before 1952) – died in office
1944: Edgar W. Smith (D)
1950: Howard Latourette (R)
1956: Douglas McKay (R)
1962: Sig Unander (R)
1968: Wendell Wyatt (R)

1974-1975: Earl T. Newbry (R) – appointee; retired

1975-1981: Tom McCall (R) – retired due to cancer
1974: Betty Roberts (D)

1981-1987: John R. Dellenback (R) – lost re-election
1980: Ted Kulongoski (D)

1987-present: Walter Leslie “Les” AuCoin (D) – incumbent
1986: John R. Dellenback (R)
1992: Dennis Alan “Denny” Smith (R)
1998: Tonie Nathan (R) and Aaron Dixon (Green)
2004: Al King (R)
2010: Jim Huffman (R)
2016: Faye Stewart (R) and Shanti Lewallen (Working Families)



US Senators from Pennsylvania’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1977: Hugh Scott (R) – retired
1958: George M. Leader (D)
1964: Genevieve Blatt (D)
1970: William G. Sesler (D)

1977-1983: Bill Green (D) – lost re-election
1976: Elmer Greinert “Bud” Shuster (R)

1983-1989: Elmer Greinert “Bud” Shuster (R) – lost re-election
1982: Bill Green (D)

1989-2001: Darcy Richardson (D) – retired
1988: Elmer Greinert “Bud” Shuster (R)
1994: Dick Santorum (R), Diane G. Blough (Country) and Donald Ernsberger (Liberty)

2001-2007: Paul Kanjorski (D) – lost re-election
2000: Patrick J. Toomey (R)

2007-2019: H. J. Heinz III (R) – retired
2006: Paul Kanjorski (D)
2012: Jason Altmire (D)

2019-present: Luke R. Ravenstahl (D) – incumbent
2018: Camera Chatham Bartolotta (R)

US Senators from Pennsylvania’s Class 3 Seat

1957-1969: Joseph S. Clark (D) – lost re-election in a bad year for Democrats
1956: James H. Duff (R)
1962: James E. Van Zandt (R)

1969-1975: Herman T. Schneebeli (R) – lost re-election
1968: Joseph S. Clark (D) and Frank W. Gaydosh (HIP)

1975-2000: Bob Casey Sr. (D) – died from cancer
1974: Herman T. Schneebeli (R)
1980: Arlen Specter (R)
1986: George Gekas (R)
1992: Wayne Curtis Weldon (R) and John Perry III (I)
1998: Barbara Hafer (R)

2000-present: Bob Casey Jr. (D) – appointee; incumbent
2000 (special): Philip Sheridan English (R)
2004: Betsy Summers (R)
2010: John Kennedy (R)
2016: Lou Barletta (Country) and William Scranton III (R)



US Senators from Potomac’s Class 1 Seat

2006-present: Eleanor Holmes Norton (D) – African-American; one of the most popular US Senators in the nation; incumbent
2006: Carol Schwartz (R)
2012: unopposed
2018: unopposed

US Senators from Potomac’s Class 2 Seat

2006-2015: David Schwartzman (D) – retired
2008: Carol Schwartz (R)

2015-present: Anthony A. Williams (D) – African-American; known for sporting a bowtie; incumbent
2014: Bruce Majors (R)
2020: unopposed



US Senators from Puerto Rico’s Class 1 Seat

2006-2019: Luis Fortuno (R) – lost re-election
2006: Rafael Hernandez Colon (D)
2012: Cirilo Tirado Rivera (D)

2019-present: Alexandra Lugaro (D) – incumbent
2018: Luis Fortuno (R)

US Senators from Puerto Rico’s Class 2 Seat

2006-2021: Norma Burgos (R) – lost re-election
2008: Jorge Santini (D)
2014: Margarita Nolasco Santiago (D)

2021-present: Brenda Lopez de Arraras (D) – incumbent
2020 (first round of RCV): Norma Burgos (R), Carmen Milagros Ortiz (D) and Maria Elvira Salazar (Conservative)
2020 (final round of RCV): Norma Burgos (R)



US Senators from Rhode Island’s Class 1 Seat

1950-1977: John Pastore (D) – retired
1950 (sp): Austin T. Levy (R)
1952: Bayard Ewing (R)
1958: Bayard Ewing (R)
1964: Ronald R. Lageux (R)
1970: John McLaughlin (R)

1977-1989: Robert Owens Tiernan (D) – lost re-election
1976: Donald P. Ryan (R)
1982: Vincent Marzullo (R)

1989-2001: Claudine Schneider (R) – lost re-election
1988: Robert Owens Tiernan (D)
1994: Linda Kushner (D)

2001-present: Myrth York (D) – incumbent
2000: Claudine Schneider (R)
2006: Ellerton Pratt “Mark” Whitney III (“Liberty” Republican) and Steve Laffey (Independent Republican)
2012: Barry Hinckley (R)
2018: Martha Elizabeth McSally (R)

US Senators from Rhode Island’s Class 2 Seat

1961-1997: Claiborne Pell (D) – retired
1960: Raoul Archambault Jt. (R)
1966: Ruth M. Briggs (R)
1972: John Chafee (R) and John Quattrocchi Jr. (Independent)
1978: James G. Reynolds (R)
1984: Barbara Leonard (R)
1990: Robert Machtley (R)

1997-2003: Nancy J. Mayer (R) – lost re-election
1996: Donald Gill (D)

2003-present: Elizabeth H. Roberts (D) – incumbent
2002: Nancy J. Mayer (R)
2008: Robert Tingle (R)
2014: Mark Zaccaria (R)
2020: Scott Avedisian (R)



US Senators from South Carolina’s Class 2 Seat

1954-1956: Strom Thurmond (Independent Democrat) – resigned
1954: Edgar A. Brown (D)

1956-1956: Thomas Wofford (D) – appointee; retired

1956-2005: Strom Thurmond (D until 1962/R after 1962) – died in office
1956 (sp): unopposed
1960: unopposed
1966: Bradley Morrah (D)
1972: Eugene N. Zeigler (D)
1978: Charles D. Ravenel (D)
1984: Melvin Purvis Jr. (D)
1990: Bob Cunningham (D)
1996: Elliot Close (D)
2002: Alexander Sanders (D)

2005-2006: Strom Thurmond Jr. (R) – appointee; lost election

2006-2015: Mike Thurmond (D) – African-American; lost re-election
2005 (sp): Strom Thurmond Jr. (R)
2008: Mark Sanford (R) and Michael Cone (I)

2015-present: J. Gary Simrill (R) – was a close ally of US House Speaker McMaster; incumbent
2014: Mike Thurmond (D)
2020: Mandy Powers Norrell (D)

US Senators from South Carolina’s Class 3 Seat

1945-1965: Olin D. Johnston (D) – died
1944: James B. Gaston (R)
1950: unopposed
1956: Leon P. Crawford (R)
1962: W. D. Workman Jr. (R)

1965-2011: Fritz Hollings (D) – retired
1966 (sp): unopposed
1968: Marshall Parker (R)
1974: Gwenyfred Bush (R)
1980: Marshall T. Mays (R)
1986: H. Dargan McMaster (R)
1992: Thomas F. Hartnett (R)
1998: Richard Quillian (R)
2004: Jim DeMint (R)

2011-present: Sherry Shealy Martschink (R) – incumbent
2010: A. Victor “Vic” Rawl (D)
2016: Laurie Funderburk (D)



Senators from South Dakota’s Class 2 Seat

1948-1973: Karl Earl Mundt (R) – retired
1948: John A. Engel (D)
1954: Kenneth Holum (D)
1960: George McGovern (D)
1966: Donn H. Wright (D)

1973-1979: James Abourezk (D) – retired
1972: Robert W. Hirsch (R)

1979-2009: Larry Pressler (R) – retired
1978: Don Barnett (D)
1984: George V. Cunningham (D)
1990: Ted Muenster (D) and Dean L. Sinclair (Independent)
1996: Gene N. Lebrun (D)
2002: Herman Eilers (D)

2009-present: SuAnne Big-Crow (R) – Native-American; paraplegic since a car accident in her 20s; incumbent
2008: Scott Heidepriem (D)
2014: R. J. Volesky (D)
2020: Dennis Feickert (D)

Senators from South Dakota’s Class 3 Seat

1951-1962: Francis H. Case (R) – died
1950: John A. Engel (D)
1956: Kenneth Holum (D)

1962-1975: Joseph H. Bottom (R) – lost re-election
1962: George McGovern (D)
1968: Wayne Peterson (D)

1975-1981: George McGovern (D) – lost re-election
1974: Joseph H. Bottom (R)

1981-1994: Frank Farrar (R) – died in a plane crash
1980: George McGovern (D)
1986: Tom Daschle (D)
1992: Franklin Edvard Denholm (D)

1994-1995: Carole Hillard (R) – appointee; lost election

1995-2017: Teresa McGovern (D) – retired
1994 (special): Carole Hillard (R)
1998: Ron Schmidt (R)
2004: John Thune (R)
2010: James A. “Jim” Lintz (R)

2017-present: Doug Sombke (R) – incumbent
2016: Bernie Hunhoff (D)



US Senators from Tennessee’s Class 1 Seat

1953-1998: Albert Arnold “Al” Gore Sr. (D) – died in office from natural causes
1952: Hobart F. Atkins (R)
1958: Hobart F. Atkins (R)
1964: Dan H. Kuykendall (R)
1970: Bill Brock (R)
1976: Bill Brock (R)
1982: Robin Beard (R)
1988: Bill Anderson (R)
1994: Bill Frist (R) and John Jay Hooker (I)

1998-2001: Charles V. Brown (D) – appointee; lost nomination

2001-2013: Bob Clement Jr. (D) – lost re-election
2000: Mae Beavers (R) and Jeff Clarke (I)
2006: Van Hilleary (R)

2013-present: Mae Beavers (R) – incumbent
2012: Bob Clement Jr. (D) and Zach Poskevich (Independent Republican)
2018: Roy Herron (D) and Stephen Fincher (Rational Republican)

US Senators from Tennessee’s Class 2 Seat

1949-1963: Estes Kefauver (D) – died in office
1948: B. Carroll Reece (R)
1954: Tom Wall (R)
1960: A. Bradley Frazier (R)

1963-1964: Herbert S. Walters (D) – appointee; lost nomination

1964-1991: Howard Baker (R)
– retired
1964 (sp): Ross Bass (D)
1966: Frank G. Clement (D)
1972: Ray Blanton (D)
1978: Joseph L. Evins (D)
1984: Jane Eskind (D) and Ed McAteer (Salvation)

1991-1997: Marilyn Lloyd (D) – lost re-election
1990: William R. Hawkins (R)

1997-2017: Hillary Rodham-Clinton (R) – resigned after being confirmed for a cabinet position in the Grammer administration
1996: Marilyn Lloyd (D)
2002: Jim Cooper (D)
2008: Bob Tuke (D)
2014: Lincoln Davis (D)

2017-2017: Joey Hensley (R) – appointee; lost nomination

2017-present: Dr. Manish Kumar “Manny” Sethi, Ph.D. (R) – entered office in late November 2017; incumbent
2017 (sp): Sara Peery Kyle (D)
2020: Madeline Anne Rogero (D)



US Senators from Texas’s Class 1 Seat

1957-1971: Ralph Yarborough (D) – lost re-nomination
1958: Roy Whittenburg (R)
1964: George H. W. Bush (R) and Bruce Alger (HIP)

1971-1983: Lloyd Bentsen (D) – lost re-election
1970: John Connally (R) and Jack Carswell (HIP)
1976: Alan Steelman (R) and Pedro Vasquez (Socialist Workers/La Raza Unida)

1983-1989: James M. Collins (R) – retired due to poor health
1982: Lloyd Bentsen (D)

1989-2001: Ann Richards (D) – resigned for a position in the Jesse Jackson administration
1988: Audie Murphy (R), Eldon Boulter (Liberty) and Albert G. Bustamante (La Raza Unida)
1994: Harry “Steve” Bartlett (R), Mary J. Ruwart (Liberty) and Jose Angel Gutierrez (La Raza Unida)

2001-2007: Mickey Leland (D) – lost re-election
2000: Joe Barton (R) and Adrian Garcia (La Raza Unida)

2007-present: Kay Granger (R) – incumbent
2006: Mickey Leland (D)
2012: Henry Cisneros (D), Gene Kelly (I) and Rick Noriega (La Raza Unida)
2018: Ricardo Sanchez (D) and Joaquin Castro (La Raza Unida)

US Senators from Texas’s Class 1 Seat

1949-1961: Lyndon B. Johnson (D) – resigned to become President of the United States
1948: Jack Porter (R)
1954: Carlos G. Watson (R)
1960: John G. Tower (R)

1961-1961: William A. Blakley (D) – appointee election

1961-1967: John G. Tower (R) – lost re-election
1961 (special): William A. Blakley (D)

1967-1975: Lyndon B. Johnson (D) – died in office
1966: John G. Tower (R) and Bruce Alger (HIP)
1972: Bruce Alger (R)

1975-1979: J. J. Pickle (D) – lost re-election
1976 (sp): George H. W. Bush (R) and Frank Tejeda (La Raza Unida)

1979-1991: Ron Paul (R) – retired; failed all bids for President
1978: J. J. Pickle (D), Wingate Hezekiah Lucas (Big), and Luis A. Diaz de Leon (LRU)
1984: Sam Johnson (D) and Silvestre “Silver” Reyes (La Raza Unida)

1991-2009: Kay Bailey Hutchison (R) – retired
1990: Kathryn J. Whitmire (D) and Gary Johnson (Liberty)
1996: Richard W. Fisher (D) and Victor Morales (La Raza Unida)
2002: Ron Kirk (D/LRU) and Roy H. Williams (Green)

2009-present: Mac Thornberry (R) – incumbent
2008: Ahmad Hassan (D), Sylvia Garcia (LRU), and Tina Villanueva (I)
2014: Nancy Nathanson (D), David Alameel (La Raza Unida) and Steve Stockman (Liberty)
2020: Ruben Hinojosa (D) and Solomon Ortiz Jr. (La Raza Unida)



US Senators from Utah’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1995: Frank E. Moss (D) – retired
1958: Arthur V. Watkins (R)
1964: Ernest L. Wilkinson (R)
1970: Laurence J. Burton (R) and Clyde B. Freeman (HIP)
1976: Sherman P. Lloyd (R)
1982: David D. Marriott (R)
1988: Wilford V. Oveson (R)

1995-2019: David D. Marriott (R) – retired
1994: Patrick A. Shea (D)
2000: Gary Van Horn (Country)
2006: Pete Ashdown (D)
2012: Benjy McAdams (D)

2019-present: Spencer Cox (R) – incumbent
2018: James Singer (D)

US Senators from Utah’s Class 3 Seat

1951-1975: Wallace F. Bennett (R) – retired
1950: Elbert D. Thomas (D)
1956: Alonzo F. Hopkin (D)
1962: David S. King (D)
1968: Milton N. Wellenmann (D)

1975-1993: Jake Garn (R) – retired
1974: Wayne Owens (D), Utah Phillips (I) and Kenneth Rex Larson (HIP)
1980: Den Berman (D)
1986: Craig Oliver (D) and Mary Zins (I)

1993-1996: Rex Edwin Lee (R) – died in office
1992: Bill Orton (D)

1996-2017: Lyle Hillyard (R) – considered "the heart of the Senate"; retired
1996 (special): Karen Hale (D)
1998: Scott Leckman (D)
2004: Paul Van Dam (D)
2010: Sam Granato (D)

2017-present: Shawn Bradley (R) – retired NBA player; tallest US Senator ever at 7-foot-6; incumbent
2016: Jonathan Swinton (D)



Vermont Senators from the Class 1 Seat

1959-1971: Winston L. Prouty (R) – died in office
1958: Frederick J. Fayette (D)
1964: Frederick J. Fayette (D)
1970: Fiore L. Bove (D) and William H. Meyer (Liberty Union/Natural Mind)

1971-1973: Thomas P. Salmon (D) – appointee; lost election

1973-1983: Robert Theodore Stafford (R) – lost re-election
1972 (special): Thomas P. Salmon (D)
1976: Scott Skinner (D) and Nancy Kaufman (Liberty Union)

1983-2001: Phil Hoff (Progressive until 1987, I 1987, D after 1987) – retired
1982: Robert Theodore Stafford (R) and James A. Guest (D)
1988: Mike Griffes (R) and Jerry Levy (Liberty Union)
1994: Jim Jeffords (R) and Peter Diamondstone (Liberty Union)

2001-2001: Fred Tuttle (R) – resigned immediately upon getting a law passed
2000: Ed Flanagan (D)

2001-present: Anthony Pollina (D) – appointee; incumbent
2002 (sp): William Meub (R)
2006: Greg Parke (R)
2012: H. Brooke Paige (R) and Boots Wardinski (Liberty Union)
2018: Jasdeep Pannu (R), B.J. Peacock (Independent), Folasade Adeluola (Independent) and Reid Kane (Liberty Union)

Vermont Senators from the Class 3 Seat

1941-1984: George Aiken (R) – died in office
1940 (sp): Herbert Comings (D)
1944: Harry Witters (D)
1950: James Bigelow (D)
1956: Bernard O’Shea (D)
1962: W. Robert Johnson (D)
1968: unopposed
1974: Nathaniel Frothingham (D)
1980: Pete Diamondstone (Liberty Union)

1984-1987: Peter Plympton Smith (R) – lost re-election
1985 (special): James A. Guest (D)

1987-1999: Madeleine M. Kunin (D) – retired
1986: Peter Plympton Smith (R)
1992: Jim Douglas (R) and Jerry Levy (Liberty Union)

1999-2005: Peter Diamondstone (Liberty Union) – only US Senator to ever attempt to pass legislation to abolish the US Senate (it died in committee); lost re-election
1998: Bob Melamede (D) and Hugh Douglas (R)

2005-present: William Sorrell (D, then Independent after 7/7/2017) – incumbent
2004: Peter D. Moss (R) and Peter Diamondstone (Liberty Union)
2010: Len Britton (R) and Darcy Troville (Liberty Union)
2016: H. Brooke Paige (R) and B.J. Peacock (Liberty Union)



US Senators from Virginia’s Class 1 Seat

1933-1965: Harry F. Byrd Sr. (D) – resigned
1933 (sp): Henry A. Wise (R)
1934: Lawrence C. Page (R)
1940: Hilliard Berstein (I) and Alice Burke (I)
1946: Lester S. Parsons (R)
1952: H. M. Vise Sr. (Independent Democratic) and Clarke T Robb (Social Democratic)
1958: Louise Wensel (I)
1964: Richard A. May (R) and James W. Respess (Independent)

1965-1995: Harry F. Byrd Jr. (D before 1970/I after 1970) – retired
1966 (sp): Lawrence M. Traylor (R) and John W. Carter (I)
1970: George Rawlings (D) and Ray Garland (R)
1976: Martin H. Perper (D)
1982: Dick Davis (D) and Maurice A. Dawkins (R)
1988: Abner Linwood “Lin” Holton Jr. (R) and Gerald Baliles (D)

1995-2001: Frank Wolf (R) – lost re-election
1994: Rick Boucher (D)

2001-2007: Bobby Scott (D) – lost re-election
2000: Frank Wolf (R)

2007-2013: Ben Lewis Jones (R) – lost re-election
2006: Bobby Scott (D)

2013-present: Tom Perriello (D) – incumbent
2012: Ben Lewis Jones (R) and Harris N. Miller (Independent Democrat)
2018: Denver Riggleman (R/Bigfoot)

US Senators from Virginia’s Class 2 Seat

1946-1971: A. Willis Robertson (D) – died in office
1946 (sp): Robert H. Woods (R)
1948: Robert H. Woods (R)
1954: Charles W. Lewis Jr. (Independent Democratic) and Clarke T. Robb (Southern Democratic)
1960: Stuart D. Baker (ID)
1966: James P. Ould Jr. (R) and F. Lee Hawthorne (HIP)

1971-1973: William Lloyd Scott (R) – appointee; lost election

1973-1979: John Otho Marsh Jr. (D) – lost re-election
1972: William Lloyd Scott (R) and Horace E. Henderson (Independent)

1979-2003: Richard Dudley Obenshain (R) – retired due to declining health
1978: John Otho Marsh Jr. (D)
1984: Edythe C. Harrison (D)
1990: Lyon Gardiner Tyler Jr. (D)
1996: Leslie Byrne (D)

2003-2015: George Allen (R) – lost re-election
2002: Meyera Oberndorf (D)
2008: Tim Kaine (D)

2015-present: Brian Moran (D) – incumbent
2014: George Allen (R)
2020: Omari Faulkner (R) and Nick Freitas (Bigfoot)



US Senators from Washington’s Class 1 seat

1953-1987: Henry M. “Scoop” Jackson (D) – died in office
1952: Harry P. Cain (R)
1958: William B. Bantz (R)
1964: Lloyd J. Andrews (R)
1970: John Ehrlichman (R)
1976: George M. Brown (R)
1982: Doug Jewett (R) and King Lysen (I)

1987-1989: Norm Dicks (D) – appointee; retired

1989-2007: Jolene Unsoeld (D) – retired
1988: John Spellman (R) and Floyd Hicks (Independent Democratic)
1994: Rod Chandler (R)
2000: Mike McGavick (R)

2007-present: Norm Rice (D) – incumbent
2006: Linda Smith (R)
2012: Mike Baumgartner (R)
2018: Hong Tran (R)

US Senators from Washington’s Class 3 Seat

1944-1975: Warren G. Magnuson (D) – lost re-election
1944: Harry P. Cain (R)
1950: Walter Williams (R)
1956: Arthur B. Langlie (R)
1962: Richard G. Christensen (R)
1968: Jack Metcalf (R)

1975-1981: Daniel J. Evans (R) – retired
1974: Warren G. Magnuson (D)

1981-1993: Catherine Dean May (R) – retired
1980: Allen Byron Swift (D)
1986: Deborah Senn (D)

1993-present: Gary Locke (D) – incumbent
1992: Slade Gorton (R)
1998: Linda Smith (R)
2004: George Nethercutt (R)
2010: Paul Akers (R)
2016: Steve Litzow (R)



US Senators from West Virginia’s Class 1 Seat

1959-2010: Robert C. Byrd (D) – died in office
1958: Chapman Revercomb (R)
1964: Cooper P. Benedict (R)
1970: Elmer H. Dodson (R)
1976: unopposed
1982: Cleveland Benedict (R) and William B. Howland (Progressive)
1988: M. J. Wolfe (R)
1994: Stanley L. Klos (R)
2000: David T. Gallaher (R)
2006: Hiram Lewis (R)

2010-2019: Betty Ireland (R) – lost re-election
2010 (sp): Brooks F. McCabe Jr. (D)
2012: Natalie Tennant (D)

2019-present: Jesse Johnson (D) – incumbent
2018: Betty Ireland (R)

US Senators from West Virginia’s Class 2 Seat

1958-1985: Jennings Randolph (D) – lost re-election
1958 (sp): John D. Hoblitzell Jr. (R)
1960: Cecil Underwood (R)
1966: Francis J. Love (R)
1972: Louis Leonard (R)
1978: Arch Moore Jr. (R)

1985-1997: John Raese (R) – lost re-nomination
1984: Jay Rockefeller (D)
1990: Harley O. Staggers Jr. (D)

1997-2009: Jon McBride (R) – retired
1996: Joseph P. Albright (D)
2002: Jim Lees (D)

2009-2015: Nick Rahall (R until 7/5/2011, then D until 2/8/2013, then back to R again) – lost re-election
2008: Sheirl Fletcher (D)

2015-2021: Sylvia Mathews Burwell (D) – retired to run for US President
2014: Nick Rahall (R)

2021-present: Charles S. Trump IV (R) – incumbent
2020: Mike Pushkin (D)



US Senators from Wisconsin’s Class 1 Seat

1957-1989: William Proxmire (D) – retired
1958: Roland J. Steinle (R)
1964: Wilbur N. Renk (R)
1970: John E. Erickson (R)
1976: Stanley York (R)
1982: Scott McCallum (R)

1989-2001: Susan Engeleiter (R) – ran for President in 1992; lost re-election
1988: Herb Kohl (D)
1994: Alvin Baldus (D)

2001-2019: Russ Feingold (D) – considered running for President in 2016; lost re-election
2000: Susan Engeleiter (R) and James Powers Moody (I)
2006: Robert Lorge (R)
2012: Kris Kobach (R)

2019-present: Steven Craig Gunderson (R) – incumbent
2018: Russ Feingold (D) and Robert Welch (Moral Conservative)

US Senators from Wisconsin’s Class 3 Seat

1939-1967: Alexander Wiley (R) – died in office
1938: F. Ryan Duffy (D)
1944: Howard J. McMurray (D) and Harry Sauthoff (Progressive)
1950: Thomas E. Fairchild (D)
1956: Henry W. Maier (D)
1962: Gaylord Nelson (D)

1967-1973: Philleo Nash (D) – appointee; resigned for US cabinet position
1968: Jack B. Olson (R)

1973-1975: Gaylord Nelson (D) – appointee; lost election to a full term

1975-1987: Roman Blenski (R) – retired
1974: Gaylord Nelson (D)
1980: Lynn Ellsworth Stalbaum (D/Progressive)

1987-2014: Bronson La Follette (D) – announced he was retiring due to poor health, triggering a special election
1986: Russell Olson (R)
1992: Scott L. Klug (R)
1998: Stephen B. “Steve” King (R)
2004: Tim Michels (R)
2010: David Westlake (R)

2014-present: Douglas J. La Follette (D) – incumbent
2014 (special): Rebecca Ann Reed (R)
2016: Dick Linenkugel (R)



US Senators from Wyoming’s Class 1 Seat

1959-1965: Gale W. McGee (D) – lost re-election
1958: Frank A. Barrett (R)

1965-2017: John S. Wold (R) – died in office
1964: Gale W. McGee (D)
1970: Edness Kimball Wilkins (D)
1976: Peter M. Jorgensen (D)
1982: Rodger McDaniel (D)
1988: John Vinich (D)
1994: Susan Anderson (D)
2000: Mel Logan (D)
2006: Dale Groutage (D)
2012: William Bryk (D)

2017-present: Marian Orr (R) – appointee; incumbent
2018: Curt Meier (Independent Republican) over Mike Massie (D)

US Senators from Wyoming’s Class 2 Seat

1961-1962: John J. Hickey (D) – lost re-election

1962-1967: Milward L. Simpson (R) – retired
1962 (sp): John J. Hickey (D)

1967-1991: Gale W. McGee (D) – retired
1966: Clifford P. Hansen (R)
1972: Keith Thomson (R)
1978: Alan K. Simpson (R)
1984: Gordon H. Barrows (R)

1991-2015: Barbara Cubin (R) – retired
1990: Kathy Helling (D)
1996: Kathy Karpan (D)
2002: Joyce Jansa Corcoran (D)
2008: Chris Rothfuss (D)

2015-present: Foster Stephen Friess (R) – incumbent
2014: Mary Throne (D)
2020: Lincoln Chafee (Liberty) and Jason Shogren (D)



US Senate composition on 7/4/2021:

AL: Randall Woodfin (D) 2021, Young Boozer (R) 2017

AK: Scott Kawasaki (I) 2021, J. R. Myers (R) 2011

AZ: Deb Haaland (D) 2021, Jan Brewer (R) 2011

AR: Jim Guy Tucker (D) 1979, Adrienne Elrod (R) 2017

CA: Jane Kim (D) 2019, Mike Gravel (D) 1999

CO: Amy Stephens (D) 2021, Penfield Tate III (D) 2017

CT: Warren Mosler (D) 2007, William Tong (D) 2011

DE: Peter C. Schwartzkopf (D) 2019, Midge Osterlund (D) 2003

FL: Allen West (R) 2013, Gus Bilirakis (R) 2011

GA: R. J. Hadley (D) 2021, Herman Cain (R) 2005

HI: Mazie Hirono (D) 2007, Colleen Hanabusa (D) 2017

ID: Rex Rammell (R) 2015, Carlos Bilbao (R) 2011

IL: Napoleon Harris (D) 2021, Sheila Simon (D) 2009

IN: Jackie Walorski (R) 2013, Brian C. Bosma (R) 2017

IA: Liz Mathis (D) 2021, Robert Lee Vander Plaats (R) 2011

KS: Carla J. Stovall (R) 1997, Bob Dole (R) 1969

KY: Whitney Westerfield (R) 2021, Trey Grayson (R) 2017

LA: Antoine Pierce (D) 2021, Chas Roemer (R) 2017

ME: Mike Michaud (D) 2019, Angus King (I) 1991

MD: Carl Frank Stokes (D) 2013, Rand Beers (D) 2017

MA: Kathleen Kennedy-Roosevelt (D) 2001, Demetrius Atsalis (D) 2015

MI: Hansen Clarke (D) 2013, Abdul El-Sayed (D) 2021

MN: Farheen Hakeem (D) 2019, Sharon Sayles-Belton (D) 2003

MS: Webb Franklin (R) 1989, Pete Johnson (R) 2006

MO: Sarah Hearne Steelman (R) 2013, David A. Catania (R) 2017

MT: Stan Jones (R) 2019, Jenny Eck (D) 2021

NE: Oletha Faust-Goudeau (D) 2018, Orrin Hatch (R) 1973

NV: Doug Swanson (R) 2019, Dina Titus (D) 2005

NH: Yvonne Katrina Lantos (D) 2013, Ted Gatsas (R) 2011

NJ: Upendra Chivukula (D) 2013, Dawn Zimmer (D) 2021

NM: Debbie Jaramillo (D) 2009, Roberto Mondragon (D) 1973

NY: Tom Suozzi (D) 2007, Allyson Schwartz (D) 2005

NC: Charles Graham (D) 2021, Rand Paul (R) 2011

ND: David Dean Andahl (R) 2019, Kelly Schmidt (R) 2011

OH: Sherrod Brown (D) 2007, Randy Brock (R) 2009

OK: Steve Largent (R) 2003, Lisa J. Billy (R) 2011

OR: Jefferson Smith (D) 2009, Les AuCoin (D) 1987

PA: Luke R. Ravenstahl (D) 2019, Bob Casey Jr. (D) 2000

PO: Eleanor Holmes Norton (D) 2006, Anthony A. Williams (D) 2015

PR: Alexandra Lugaro (D) 2019, Brenda Lopez de Arraras (D) 2021

RI: Myrth York (D) 2001, Elizabeth H. Roberts (D) 2003

SC: J. Gary Simrill (R) 2015, Sherry Shealy Martschink (R) 2011

SD: SuAnne Big-Crow (R) 2009, Doug Sombke (R) 2017

TN: Mae Beavers (R) 2013, Manny Sethi (R) 2017

TX: Kay Granger (R) 2007, Mac Thornberry (R) 2009

UT: Spencer Cox (R) 2019, Shawn Bradley (R) 2017

VT: Anthony Pollina (D) 2001, William Sorrell (I) 2005

VA: Tom Perriello (D) 2019, Brian Moran (D) 2015

WA: Norm Rice (D) 2007, Gary Locke (D) 1993

WV: Jesse Johnson (D) 2019, Charles S. Trump IV (R) 2021

WI: Steven Craig Gunderson (R) 2019, Doug La Follette (D) 2014

WY: Marian Orr (R) 2017, Foster Friess (R) 2015


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56 Democrats, 3 Democrat-caucusing Independents, 45 Republicans


35 female Senators (24 Democratic, 11 Republican); 14 black Senators (11 Democratic, 3 Republican); 11 Asian/Indian/Middle-Eastern Senators (9 Democratic, 1 Republican, 1 Independent); 5 Hispanic/Latinic-American Senators (4 Democratic, 1 Republican); 4 Greek-American Senators (2 Democratic, 2 Republican); 4 Native American Senators (1 Democratic, 3 Republican); 2 BLUTAGO-American Senators (1 Democratic, 1 Republican)

So yeah, less polarized and much more ethnically diverse than in OTL...
 
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Index 3 – U.S. Representatives
Index 3 – U.S. Representatives

House Speakers:

1955-1961: Sam Rayburn (D-TX) – died in office from cancer

1961-1967: John W. McCormack (D-MA) – party lost majority for the first time since the 1952 House elections

1967-1971: Charles Halleck (R-IN) – party lost majority

1971-1975: Morris K. Udall (D-AZ) – party lost majority

1975-1977: Robert H. Michel (R-IL) – party lost majority in a bad year for Republicans in general

1977-1981: Morris K. Udall (D-AZ) – party lost majority

1981-1987: Robert H. Michel (R-IL) – part lost majority after showcasing indecisiveness over the move to impeach President Denton

1987-1991: Hale Boggs (D-LA) – party lost majority

1991-1995: Robert Smith Walker (R-PA) – lost leadership position to interparty challenger amid inability to unite party members

1995-2001: David F. Emery (R-ME) – party lost majority

2001-2007: Barbara Kennelly (D-CT) – first female House Speaker; party lost majority

2007-2009: H. Dargan McMaster (R-SC) – party lost majority

2009-2011: Barbara Kennelly (D-CT) – party lost majority

2011-2019: H. Dargan McMaster (R-SC) – retired due to declining interparty popularity

2019-present: Ed Markey (D-MA) – incumbent



Democratic Leaders

1955-1961: Samuel Taliaferro "Sam" Rayburn (TX) – died in office at the age of 79 from pancreatic cancer

1961-1969: John William McCormack (MA) – unseated in party leadership vote at the age of 77 due to his poor handling of the 1966 and 1968 races

1969-1981: Morris King "Mo" Udall (AZ) – entered office at the age 46 in a what was described at the time as a "generational shift"; retired (from both the leadership and his seat) due to Parkinson's disease diagnosis

1981-1989: Hale Boggs (LA) – entered office at the age of 66; planned to oversee impeachment proceedings in early 1987 prior to Denton resigning; retired (from both the leadership and his seat) due to declining health

1989-1997: Richard Andrew "Dick" Gephardt (MO) – entered office at the age of 47; retired from leadership (but did not resign from his seat) in response to his poor handling of the 1996 races

1997-2011: Barbara Bailey Kennelly (D-CT) – retired (from leadership, her seat, and public life) at the age of 74

2011-present: Edward John "Ed" Markey (D-MA) – entered office at the age of 64 in a political shift from the moderate Kennelly to the more progressive Markey; incumbent



Republican Leaders

1959-1975: Charles Abraham Halleck (R-IN) – retired (from leadership, his seat, and public life) at the age of 74

1975-1991: Robert Henry Michel (R-IL) – retired at the age of 67 (from leadership and his seat) in light of the rise of the pro-obstructionist Walker as a likely challenger in 1991

1991-1995: Robert Smith Walker (R-PA) – entered office at the age of 48; challenged Bellamy's administration much more aggressively than did his predecessor; unseated by Emery after alienating a slim majority of House Republicans, allegedly via being biased in favor of the Religious Right over all other factions of the GOP

1995-2005: David Farnham Emery (R-ME) – entered office at the age of 46; unseated by McMaster in response to the GOP's poor performances in the 2004 elections

2005-2019: H. Dargan McMaster (R-SC) – entered office at the age of 57; brought back Walker's obstructionist policies; retired amid rising disapproval from Republicans across the party over his handling of the 2018 elections

2019-present: Larry Lee Householder (R-OH) – party factions agreed to back him for speaker as a "compromise" candidate; entered office at the age of 59; has been accused by watchdog organizations of being corrupt; incumbent



Current members of the House (245 (D), 195 (R), 1 (I))

(note: congressional district lines are not exactly the same as in OTL due to gerrymandering happening under different congressional majorities in 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011, and 2021, and due to the methods used in some states in TTL being different to those used by those same states in OTL)

District number: incumbent (party initial, birth year (if available); notes) – year they began serving

Alabama (7; 1D, 6R)

(1) 1: Benjamin Nash "Rusty" Glover III (R, b. 1966; previously served in the state senate from 2006 to 2010) – 2011

(2) 2: Jay Love (R, b. 1968; former candidate for Mayor of Montgomery; previously served in the state House from 2002 to 2012) – 2013

(3) 3: Jason Dial (R; conservative) – 2003

(4) 4: Bill Cabaniss (R; member of several committees concerning agriculture and the interior) – 1991

(5) 5: Clayton Hinchman (R; former political activist) – 2019

(6) 6: Marty Connors (R; conservative) – 1997

(7) 7: Shelia Smoot (D; former WBRC-TV reporter) – 2009

Alaska (1; 1R)

(8) At-large: David Seaward (R; previously served as the Mayor of Seward) – 2021

Arizona (9; 4D, 5R)


(9) 1: Paul Babeu (R, b. 1969 in Massachusetts; KW2 veteran; openly BLUTAGO; previously served as Sheriff of Pinal County from 2009 to 2017; severed in some political offices in Massachusetts during the late 1990s and early 2000s decade before moving to Arizona to pursue a career in law enforcement; may run for Govenror or the US Senate in 2022) – 2017

(10) 2: Powell Gammill (R; libertarian) – 2009

(11) 3: Amanda Aguirre (D; former political activist) – 2013

(12) 4: Don Karg (R; conservative) – 2007

(13) 5: Joan Greene (D; former political activist) – 2019

(14) 6: Curtis L. "Curt" Pringle (R, b. 1959 in Iowa but moved with his family to Arizona at the age of 9 in 1968; considered to be a pro-business moderate; previously served in the state House from 1989 to 2001 and in the state Senate from 2001 to 2007) – 2007

(15) 7: Catherine Miranda (D, b. 1964; previously served in the state senate from 2015 to 2018) – 2019

(16) 8: Randy J. Graf (R, b. 1957; socially conservative aligned with the likes of Tommy Tancredo, Bo Gritz, and Bernie Goetz; previously served in the state House from 2001 to 2005) – 2007

(17) 9: Juan Jose Mendez (D, b. 1985) – 2021

Arkansas (4; 1D, 3R)

(18) 1: Leslie Carol Rutledge (R, b. 1976; previously served as the state Attorney General from 2011 to 2019, then lost a bid for the GOP nomination for governor in 2018) – 2021

(19) 2: Dustin Blake McDaniel (D, b. 1972; to the right of his party; previously served as the state Attorney General from 2007 to 2015) – 2015

(20) 3: Jim L. Holt (R, b. 1965; Baptist minister who believes evolution is "an unproven theory"; previously served in the state House from 2001 to 2003) – 2007

(21) 4: Beth Anne Rankin (R; former Miss Arkansas, 1995) – 2011

California (53; 41D, 12R)

(22) 1: Carlos Santamaria (D; former engineer and educator) – 2017

(23) 2: William Penn Patrick (R, b. 1930; former businessman; aviator best known for crash-landing his private plane into the Potomac - twice; may retire in 2022) – 1997

(24) 3: Kim Vann (D) – 2015

(25) 4: Jessica Morse (D) – 2019

(26) 5: Marc Levine (D, b. 1974; Jewish; party loyalist; previously served in the state assembly from 2012 to 2016) – 2017

(27) 6: Heather Fargo (D, b. 1952; previously served as the Mayor of Sacramento from 2000 to 2008) – 2009

(28) 7: Deborah V. Ortiz (D, b. 1957; previously served in the state senate from 1998 to 2005) – 2005

(29) 8: Rosario Marin (R, b. 1958; Mexican-American; previously served as a US Undersecretary of the Treasury from 1997 to 2001 and several roles under Presidents Iacocca and Dinger before that) – 2003

(30) 9: Michael Derrick Tubbs (D, b. 1990; African-American; previously served as Mayor of Stockton, declining to run for re-election to instead run for Congress; strongly supports passing a nationwide Federal Freedom Fund program) – 2021

(31) 10: Joan Buchanan (D, b. 1952; previously served in the state assembly from 2008 to 2012) – 2013

(32) 11: Michela Alioto (D, b. 1968; granddaughter of former San Francisco Mayor Joseph Alioto) – 1999

(33) 12: Michelle McMurry (D) – 2009

(34) 13: Fiona Ma (D, b. 1966; previously served on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors from 2002 to 2004; currently serves on House Committees concerning financing and the treasury) – 2005

(35) 14: Karen Lorraine Speier (D, b. 1950; previously served in the state assembly from 1986 to 1990) – 1991

(36) 15: Jose Moreno Hernandez (D, b. 1962; former NASA astronaut) – 2011

(37) 16: Debbie Bacigalupi (R; businesswoman) – 2013

(38) 17: Vinod Khosla (D, b. 1955; Indian-American; billionaire and one of the wealthiest members of Congress; former businessman and venture capitalist) – 2009

(39) 18: Pierluigi Oliverio (D, b. 1969; previously served on the San Jose City Council from 2007 to 2017; has been accused of corruption) – 2019

(40) 19: Louie Campos (D) – 2019

(41) 20: Helene Schneider (D, b. 1970; previously served as the Mayor of Santa Barbara from 2010 to 2018) – 2019

(42) 21: Evelyn Li (R) – 2017

(43) 22: Van Vo (R, b. 1950; Vietnamese-American; staunchly anti-Communist; former talk show host) – 2013

(44) 23: Monica Lewinsky (D, b. 1973; feminist; Jewish; considered for her party's VP nomination in 2016; gave a rousing keynote speech at the 2016 DNC; unsuccessfully ran for her party's presidential nomination in 2020 before running for another congressional term at the last minute) – 2011

(45) 24: Wendy Reed (D) – 2021

(46) 25: Sarah Kate Silverman (D, b. 1970; non-religious; originally from New Hampshire; progressive; previously a political activist and award-winning TV/film actress and comedian known for addressing social taboos and controversial topics through satirical and deadpan humor) – 2021

(47) 26: Amanda Andrea Renteria (D, b. 1974; Mexican-American; party loyalist) – 2015

(48) 27: Diane Trautman (D) – 1997

(49) 28: Jackie Conaway (D) – 2009

(50) 29: Christy Fisher (D, b. 1969; previously served in the state assembly from 2018 to 2020) – 2021

(51) 30: Maria Armoudian (D; Armenian-American) – 1999

(52) 31: Marjorie Musser Mikels (D) – 2003

(53) 32: Gilbert Anthony Cedillo (D, b. 1954; previously served in the state senate from 2002 to 2009) – 2010

(54) 33: Emanuel Alberto Pleitez (D, b. 1982; the son of Mexican and Salvadoran immigrants) – 2013

(55) 34: Gloria J. Romero (D, b. 1955; previously served as majority leader of the state senate from 2001 to 2008; notable promoter of charter schools) – 2009

(56) 35: Marguerite Archie-Hudson (D, b. 1937; previously served in the state assembly from 1990 to 1995) – 1995

(57) 36: Mark Ridley-Thomas (D, b. 1954; African-American; previously served as a city councilman from 1991 to 2002) – 2003

(58) 37: Isadore Hall III (D, b. 1971; African-American; serves of the House Agricultural Committee, overseeing matters concerning labor relations; previously served as a city councilman from 2003 to 2008) – 2009

(59) 38: Rick Zbur (D, b. 1957; openly BLUTAGO; civil rights activist and environmentalist) – 1997

(60) 39: Zak Ringelstein (D; progressive; originally from Maine but moved to California in 2010) – 2019

(61) 40: Rodolfo Cortes Barragan (D; child therapist and behavioral health specialist) – 2019

(62) 41: David John Sanchez (D, b. 1947; Chicano activist involved in the "Free Cheech" movement of the 1970s) – 1987

(63) 42: Anthony A. “Tony” Strickland (R, b. 1970; previously served in the state senate from 2008 to 2012) – 2013

(64) 43: Rocky De La Fuente (D, b. 1954 in San Diego but raised in Mexico and the US; moderate, reformist, conservative-leaning former businessman; his son is serving with him in congress from a seat in Texas) – 2017

(65) 44: Aja Lena Brown (D, b. 1982; African-American; former Mayor) – 2019

(66) 45: David “Dave” Min (D, b. 1976 to immigrants from South Korea; political activist; previously served as an attorney and assistant law professor) – 2019

(67) 46: Antonio Ramon "Tony" Villar (D, b. 1953; Hispanic American; previously served as Democratic National Committee Chair from 2013 to 2017) – 2019

(68) 47: Robert “Harlando” Garcia (D, b. 1977 in Peru and immigrated to the US with his mother at the age of 5; openly BLUTAGO; his nickname is a surprisingly common name among some Latin American communities; previously served as the Mayor of Long Beach from 2014 to 2021) – 2021

(69) 48: Sukhee Kang (D, b. 1952 in South Korea, served in the SK Army from 1973 to 1975, and immigrated to the US in 1977; entered politics in response to hate crimes against Asian-Americans rising amid the KW2; previously served as the Mayor of Irvine from 2008 to 2016; worked on the Locke'16 campaign) – 2019

(70) 49: Steven Seokho Choi (R, b. 1944 in South Korea and moved to the US in 1968; previously worked in academia and entered politics in response to post-war rebuilding efforts in United Korea; won a second term over declared winner Rockard John "Rocky" Delgadillo (D, b. 1960) after a recount) – 2007

(71) 50: Omar Navarro (R, b. 1989; marketing consultant and political activist with a history of criminal activities and controversial statements; won an open seat) – 2021

(72) 51: George “Jorge” Barraza (D) – 2001

(73) 52: Michael D. Lumpkin (D, b. 1964; retired US Navy Commander (SEALs) and KW2 veteran; currently serving on House committees concerning foreign policy; considered a crisis management expert; praised for working with ODERCA to execute immediate post-hurricane relief efforts throughout the 2010s) – 2009

(74) 53: Mara Woodworth Elliott (D, b. 1968; Latina; previously served as a City Attorney from 2016 to 2020) – 2021

Colorado (7; 2D, 4R, 1I)

(75) 1: Diana DeGette (D, b. 1957; previously served in the state House from 1993 to 1997; possible candidate for President or VP in 2016 and 2020) – 1997

(76) 2: Roger Barris (R) – 2019

(77) 3: Mark R. Charles (Independent; Native American (Navajo); progressive environmentalist, political activist, Reformed pastor, and computer programmer) – 2021

(78) 4: Wayne Warren Williams (R, b. 1963; previously served as the state Secretary of State from 2015 to 2020) – 2021

(79) 5: Ginette E. “Gigi” Dennis (R, b. 1961; previously served in the state senate) – 2007

(80) 6: Ted Harvey (R; previously served in the state senate from 2007 to 2015) – 2015

(81) 7: Wayne Wolf (D; was bitten by a wolf (non-severely) in a 2010 incident) – 2009

Connecticut (5; 4D, 1R)

(82) 1: Pedro E. Segarra (D, b. 1959 in Puerto Rico and raised in New York City; openly BLUTAGO; Hispanic-American; previously served as Mayor of Hartford from 2010 to 2015; may run for Governor someday) – 2017

(83) 2: Robert H. Steele (R, b. 1938; was previously a securities analyst for an insurance company; second-longest-serving incumbent Representative) – 1970

(84) 3: April Capone Almon (D, b. 1975; former businesswoman; previously served as the Mayor of East Haven from 2007 to 2011; accusations of corruption have followed her for years) – 2013

(85) 4: Diane Catherine Goss Farrell (D, b. 1955; finances specialist; moderate; party loyalist) – 2005

(86) 5: Mary Glassman (D; former state legislator) – 2019

Delaware (1; 1D)

(87) At-large: Karen Hartley-Nagle (D; children's rights advocate) – 2009

Florida (22; 7D, 15R)

(88) 1: Dennis K. Baxley (R, b. 1952; previously served in the state House) – 2013

(89) 2: Jimmy Theo Patronis Jr. (R, b. 1972; previously served in the state House) – 2021

(90) 3: Anthony Sabatini (R, b. 1988; previously served in the state House; best known for numerous controversial views, comments, and gaffes) – 2021

(91) 4: Panos D. Prevedouros (R, b. 1961 in Greece; former engineering professor who used to live in Hawaii) – 2011

(92) 5: Kionne L. McGhee (D, b. 1977; African-American; previously served in the state senate) – 2017

(93) 6: Jeanette Marie Nunez (R, b. 1972; Cuban-American; former Speaker of the state House) – 2019

(94) 7: Shevrin D. “Shev” Jones (D, b. 1983; African-American; openly BLUTAGO; previously served in the state House) – 2019

(95) 8: Carlos Lopez-Cantera (R, b. 1973 in Spain; Cuban-American; Jewish; previously served in the state House) – 2013

(96) 9: Sean Michael Shaw (D, b. 1978; African-American; previously served in the state House) – 2019

(97) 10: Jeffrey D. "Jeff" Kottkamp (R, b. 1960; previously served in the state senate) – 2011

(98) 11: Frank T. Brogan (R, b. 1953; previously served as Lieutenant Governor; serves on House Committees concerning education) – 2011

(99) 12: Ashley Brooke Moody (R, b. 1975; former judge of the 13th Judicial Circuit Court of Florida; strong supporter of Harley Brown in 2020 and successfully pushed for Jennifer Sandra Johnson for VP during the vetting process) – 2017

(100) 13: Pamela Jo "Pam" Bondi (R, b. 1965; former attorney and corporate lobbyist) – 2017

(101) 14: Maria Lorts Sachs (D, b. 1949; previously served in the state senate) – 2009

(102) 17: Bobby Lynn Brantley (R, b. 1948; previously served as Lieutenant Governor) – 1991

(103) 18: Perry Eugene Thurston Jr. (D, b. 1961; African-American; previously served in the state House 2006 to 2014) – 2015

(104) 19: Anna Holliday "Holly" Benson (R, b. 1971; previously served in the state House from 2000 to 2006) – 2007

(105) 20: Frank White (R, b. 1978; previously served in the state House from 2016 to 2018) – 2019

(106) 21: Jeremy Ring (D, b. 1970; former tech startup executive; previously served in the state senate) – 2021

(107) 22: Daryl Lafayette Jones (D, b. 1955 in Mississippi; KW2 veteran; served in the US Air Force for 20 years, retiring at the rank of Colonel in 1997) – 1999

Georgia (14; 6D, 8R)

(108) 1: Robert E. “Bob” Johnson (R) – 2015

(109) 2: Lester George Jackson (D, b. 1959; African-American; US Navy veteran; previously served in the state senate from 2009 to 2015) – 2015

(110) 3: Jeff Mullis (R; very conservative; previously served in the state senate) – 2003

(111) 4: Sheikh Rahman (D, b. 1960 in Bangladesh; Muslim; previously served in the state senate) – 2021

(112) 5: Jennifer Lyn Auer "Jen" Jordan (D, b. 1974 in North Carolina; focused on education issues; previously served in the state senate) – 2019

(113) 6: Nan Grogan Orrock (D, b. 1943; feminist activist; previously served in the state House from 1987 to 1995) – 1995

(114) 7: Samuel Zamarripa (D, b. 1952; former entrepreneur; previously served in the state Senate from 2003 to 2009) – 2009

(115) 8: Hunter Hill (R, b. 1977; previously served in the state Senate from 2013 to 2017) – 2017

(116) 9: Jim Ayers (R, b. 1982) – 2019

(117) 10: Vernon Jones (R, b. 1960; was a Democrat until 2005; African-American conservative; previously served as Chief Executive Officer of DeKalb County from 2001 to 2007) – 2007

(118) 11: Micah Gravley (R, b. 1974; previously served in the state House from 2013 to 2017) – 2017

(119) 12: Ceasar C. Mitchell (D, b. 1968; African-American; previously served as President of the Atlanta City Council from 2010 to 2018) – 2019

(120) 13: Katie Dempsey (R; previously served in the state House from 2007-2010) – 2011

(121) 14: Charlice H. Byrd (R; originally an elementary school educator from New Orleans, Louisiana; previously served in the state House from 2005 to 2013) – 2013

Hawaii (2; 2D)

(122) 1: Muliufi Francis "Frank" (also "Mufi") Hannemann (D, b. 1954; former Governor; ran for President in 2016 and 2020) – 2019

(123) 2: Ann Kobayashi (D, b. 1937; former businesswoman; previously served in the state senate from 1981 to 1994) – 1995

Idaho (2; 2R)

(124) 1: Christine “Christy” Perry (R, b. 1968 in Turkey to a US military family; previously served in the state House from 2010 to 2016) – 2017

(125) 2: Michael Keith "Mike" Simpson (R, b. 1950; previously served as Speaker of the state House from 1992 to 1998) – 1999

Illinois (19; 13D, 6R)

(126) 1: Donne Trotter (D, b. 1950; African-American; used to support gun rights for minority families living in high-crime/urban areas; previously served in the state senate from 1993 to 1997) – 1997

(127) 2: Toi Hutchinson (D, b. 1973; previously served in the state senate from 2009 to 2012) – 2013

(128) 3: Constance A. Howard (D, b. 1942; previously served in the state from 1995 to 2000; has been accused of corruption throughout her career) – 2000

(129) 4: LeAlan Marvin Jones (D, b. 1979; African-American; environmentalist; former journalist) – 2011

(130) 5: Patrick J. O’Connor (D, b. 1955; previously served as the City of Chicago's Alderman from its 40th Ward from 1983 to 1986) – 1987

(131) 6: Andre Vasquez (D, b. 1979; former hip-hop rapper and progressive community organizer) – 2021

(132) 7: Daniel Kalman Biss (D, b. 1977; progressive; previously served in the state senate from 2013 to 2019) – 2019

(133) 8: Julie Hamos (D, b. 1949 in Hungary fled with her family to the US at the height of the Hungarian Revolution in 1956; previously served in the state House from 1998 to 2010) – 2011

(134) 9: Daniel Joseph “Dan” Seals (D, b. 1971 to Chicago Bears lineman George Seals; political consultant; party loyalist) – 2007

(135) 10: Debbie Halvorson (D, b. 1958; previously served in the state senate from 1997 to 2009, has come very close to losing re-election several times) – 2009

(136) 11: Elizabeth Coulson (R, b. 1954; previously served in the state House from 1997 to 2003) – 2003

(137) 12: Theresa Kormos (R; former nurse) – 2011

(138) 13: Jeanne M. Remmes (R, b. 1964; previously served in the state House from 2013 to 2019) – 2019

(139) 14: Ricca Slone (D, b. 1947; previously served in the state House from 1997 to 2005) – 2005

(140) 15: Angela Michael (D) – 2013

(141) 16: Chris Miller (R, b. 1954; former farmer) – 2017

(142) 17: Esther Joy King (R; former attorney and businesswoman) – 2021

(143) 18: Jim McConoughey (R; conservative) – 2021

(144) 19: Jeanette Beatrice Taylor (D, b. 1975; progressive community organizer; previously served as a city councilwoman) – 2021

Indiana (9; 2D, 7R)

(145) 1: Katherine L. Davis (D, b. 1956; former entrepreneur and aide to several Democratic party officials) – 2003

(146) 2: Donald Rainwater (R; strongly libertarian) – 2015

(147) 3: Rebecca S. "Becky" Skillman (R, b. 1950; previously served as Lieutenant Governor from 2009 to 2013 and in the state senate from 1992 to 2004; unsuccessfully ran for Governor in 2004 and 2012) – 2015

(148) 4: Sue Boeglin (R, b. 1960; former academic; previously served in the state House from 2010 to 2016) – 2017

(149) 5: W. Roland Stine (R, b. 1940; previously served in the state House from 2002 to 2004) – 2005

(150) 6: Michael Richard "Dick" Pence (R, b. 1959; former conservative activist; elected as part of the overall cultural and political backlash to Bellamy's election in 1988) – 1991

(151) 7: Vi Simpson (D, b. 1946; previously served in the state senate from 1984 to 1992) – 1993

(152) 8: H. Jonathon Costas (R, b. 1957; guitarist; previously served as the Mayor of Valparaiso from 2004 to 2020) – 2021

(153) 9: John Massie Mutz (R, b. 1935; oldest member of Congress; former businessman; previously served as Lieutenant Governor) – 1989

Iowa (4; 1D, 3R)

(154) 1: Monica Vernon (D, b. 1957; previously served as the Mayor of Cedar Rapids) – 2019

(155) 2: Beneful “Benny” Johnson (R, b. 1987; former columnist and political activist; recently accused of plagiarizing with speeches from other politicians) – 2021

(156) 3: John Archer (R; conservative) – 2015

(157) 4: Greg Ganske (R, b. 1949; former plastic surgeon, and retired U.S. Army reserve lieutenant colonel) – 1995

Kansas (4; 1D, 3R)

(158) 1: Tami Wiencek (R; former reporter and anchor for KWWL-TV Waterloo; previously served in the state House from 2007 to 2009) – 2009

(159) 2: Michelle De La Isla (D, b. 1976; Latin-American; previously served as the Mayor of Topeka from 2018 to 2020 and on the Topeka City Council from 2013 to 2018; elected in a good year for Democrats) – 2021

(160) 3: Jacob Andrew Joseph "Jake" LaTurner (R, b. 1988; previously served as state Treasurer from 2017 to 2021) – 2021

(161) 4: Todd Tiahrt (R, b. 1951; previously served in the state senate from 1993 to 1995) – 1995

Kentucky (6; 1D, 5R)

(162) 1: Vickie Yates Glisson (R; previously served as state Secretary of Health and Family Services) – 2019

(163) 2: Robert Lee Perry (R) – 2021

(164) 3: Jack Conway (D, b. 1969; previously served as state Deputy Attorney General) – 2003

(165) 4: Alecia Webb-Edgington (R, b. 1966; previously served in the state House from 2008 to 2012) – 2013

(166) 5: Harold Dallas "Hal" Rogers (R, b. 1937; previously served as Commonwealth Attorney of Pulaski County and Rockcastle County from 1969 to 1981) – 1981

(167) 6: Stephen B. “Steve” Pence (R, b. 1953; previously served an award-winning Assistant US Attorney for the Western Division of Kentucky during the 1990s) – 2007

Louisiana (6; 1D, 5R)

(168) 1: Melvin Lee “Kip” Holden (D, b. 1952; African-American; previously served as Mayor-President of Baton Rouge and East Baton Rouge Parish from 2005 to 2008) – 2009

(169) 2: Claston Bernard (R, b. 1979; former Jamaican decathlete) – 2021

(170) 3: William Harold Nungesser (R, b. 1959; previously served as President of Plaquemines Parish from 2007 to 2014) – 2015

(171) 4: Randall Lord (R) – 2013

(172) 5: Luke Joshua Letlow (R, b. 1979; previously served as an aide and advisor to several local and statewide politicians) – 2021

(173) 6: Ralph “Trey” Baucum (R) – 2017

Maine (2; 2D)

(174) 1: Dennis L. "Duke" Dutremble (D, b. 1947; previously served in the state House and state Senate) – 1995

(175) 2: Emily Ann Cain (D, b. 1980; previously served in the state House from 2005 to 2012 and in the state Senate from 2012 to 2014) – 2015

Maryland (8; 7D, 1R)

(176) 1: Kostas Alexakis (D; Greek-American; former business owner and political activist) – 2005

(177) 2: Wendy Rosen (D) – 2013

(178) 3: Byron Sigcho-Lopez (D, b. 1983 in Ecuador; former educator and community activist) – 2021

(179) 4: Nancy Jacobs (R; alleged "LID") – 2017

(180) 5: Norman R. Stone Jr. (D, b. 1935; second-oldest member of Congress; won his first election to public office in 1962; moderate; previously served in the state Senate from 1983 to 1987) – 1987

(181) 6: Richard Madaleno (D, b. 1965; progressive; previously served in the state senate from 2007 to 2010) – 2011

(182) 7: Isiah “Ike” Leggett (D, b. 1944; African-American; previously served as a member of the Montgomery County Council from the At-Large district from 1986 to 1990) – 1991

(183) 8: Joseline Pena-Melnyk (D, b. 1966 in the Dominican Republican; previously served as a member of the state House of Delegates from the 21st district from 2007 to 2012) – 2013

Massachusetts (9; 9D)

(184) 1: Andrea F. “Andy” Nuciforo Jr. (D, b. 1964; previously served in the state senate from 1997 to 2007; focuses on real estate, healthcare, education, and business litigation issues) – 2007

(185) 2: Alex Morse (D, b. 1989; previously served as the Mayor of Holyoke from 2012 to 2021) – 2021

(186) 3: Michael Albano (D, b. 1950; former college professor and government affairs consultant; party loyalist; previously served as the Mayor of Springfield from 1995 to 2000, and in various appointments under Governors Dukakis and Murphy) – 2001

(187) 4: Kevin O’Sullivan (D, b. 1953; former businessman; previously served in the state House from 1987 to 1995) – 1995

(188) 5: Ed Markey (D, b. 1946; current House Speaker; previously served in the state House from 1973 to 1976) – 1976

(189) 6: Setti Warren (D, b. 1970; African-American; previously served as the Mayor of Newton from 2010 to 2016) – 2017

(190) 7: Barbara A. L’Italien (D, b. 1961; previously served in the state House from 2003 to 2011) – 2011

(191) 8: Brianna Wu (D, b. 1977; former video game developer and computer programmer; has a small but passionate "cult" following ontech) – 2019

(192) 9: Tito Jackson (D, b. 1975; African-American; previously served on the Boston City Council for District 7 from 2011 to 2017) – 2017

Michigan (15; 10D, 5R)

(193) 1: Lynn Afendoulis (R, b. 1958; Greek-American; previously worked as a reporter and media consultant, and in the state House from 2019 to 2021) – 2021

(194) 2: William Opalicky (D; progressive) – 2013

(195) 3: Justin Amash (R, b. 1980; Arab Christian; libertarian; previously served in the state House from 2009 to 2011) – 2011

(196) 4: Aric Nesbitt (R, b. 1980; previously served in the state House from 2011 to 2017) – 2017

(197) 5: Gretchen Demarest Driskell (D, b. 1958; previously served in the state House from 2013 to 2016 and as the Mayor of Saline for 14 years) – 2017

(198) 6: Frederick Stephen "Fred" Upton (R, b. 1953; previously served as a congressional staff members, and then in the White House Office of Management and Budget from 1981 to 1985; collaborated with investigators during the Lukens Hush Money Scandal) – 1987

(199) 7: Dale W. Zorn (R, b. 1953; previously served as a member of the Monroe County Board of Commissioners from 1991 to 2010) – 1999

(200) 8: Ellen Cogen Lipton (D, b. 1967; former patent attorney; previously served in the state House from 2009 to 2013) – 2013

(201) 9: Nancy Skinner (D; not to be confused for the California state senator with the exact same name) – 2007

(202) 10: Garlin Gilchrist II (D, b. 1982; African-American; previously served as Detroit City Clerk from 2018 to 2020) – 2021

(203) 11: Fayrouz Saad (D; born in Michigan to Lebanese immigrants; previously served in the Jackson administration's Department of Community Development on immigration reform, security issues and economic development programs, and in the Wellstone administration as a DCD Undersecretary; worked on congressional campaigns in 2014 and 2016) – 2019

(204) 12: Debbie Dingell (D, b. 1953; former executive director of Global Community Relations and Government Relations at GM and former member of Wayne State University's board of governors) – 2015

(205) 13: Greg Mathis (D, b. 1960; African-American; former TV court show arbitrator; previously served as a Judge of the District Court of the State of Michigan from 1995 to 1998; won special election; currently serves on judiciary committee) – 2018

(206) 14: Brenda Lawrence (D, b. 1954; African-American; previously served as the Mayor of Southfield from 2001 to 2015) – 2015

(207) 15: Kimberly Bizon (D; previously served as an online marketing director and as the head of a real estate agency) – 2021

Minnesota (8; 5D, 3R)

(208) 1: Al Quie (R, b. 1923; as the longest continuously serving member of the House, he is the "Dean of the House"; at 62+ years in office, he holds the record for longest-serving member of US Congress in history) – 1958

(209) 2: Bobby Joe Champion (D, b. 1963; African-American; former attorney; previously served in the state senate from 2013 to 2019 and in the state House from 2009 to 2013) – 2019

(210) 3: Terri E. Bonoff (D, b. 1957; previously served in the state senate from 2005 to 2009) – 2009

(211) 4: Susan Pendergast Sindt (D; former science teacher; previously owned and operated a tobacco vaping business) – 2019

(212) 5: Daniel La Spata (D, b. 1981 in New Jersey but went to college in MN; former activist; progressive Democratic Socialist; previously served in the state House from 2017 to 2021) – 2021

(213) 6: Jay Pond (D, b. 1959; environmentalist; "apprentice" of Jim McGovern) – 2005

(214) 7: Linda Runbeck (R, b. 1946; previously served in the state Senate from 1993 to 1997) – 1997

(215) 8: Jenifer W. Loon (R, b. 1963; previously served in the state House from 2009 to 2017) – 2017

Mississippi (4; 1D, 3R)

(216) 1: Nancy Adams Collins (R, b. 1947; previously served as President of Sanctuary Hospice house) – 2011

(217) 2: Henry William “Chuck” Espy III (D, b. 1975; African-American; previously served in the state House from 2000 to 2008; is just barely holding onto this seat despite the district being gerrymandered in his favor) – 2009

(218) 3: Hayes Dent (R, b. 1962) – 1997

(219) 4: Clinton Bernard LeSueur (R, b. 1969; African-American; socially conservative; left the Democratic party in 2001; former newspaper reporter) – 2005

Missouri (8; 3D, 5R)

(220) 1: William Clay Jr. (D, b. 1956; African-American; is the son of former US Rep. Bill Clay (D), who served this same seat from 1969 to 2001; previously served in the state senate from 1991 to 2001 and in the state House from 1983 to 1991) – 2001

(221) 2: Ted House (D, b. 1959; previously served in the state House from 1989 to 1993) – 1993

(222) 3: Francis E. “Franc” Flotron Jr. (R, b. 1964; serves on the US House Committee for small businesses; known for sporting a beard and ponytail; previously served in the state Senate and in the state House) – 2001

(223) 4: William J. Federer (R, b. 1957; conservative author; previously served on the board of several nonprofit organizations, ministries, and local schools) – 2007

(224) 5: Judy Baker (D, b. 1960; former business owner; previously served in the state House from 2005 to 2009) – 2009

(225) 6: Jeanne Patterson (R; serves on transportation committee) – 2007

(226) 7: Jack Goodman (R, b. 1973; previously served in the state senate from 2005 to 2012) – 2013

(227) 8: Mike Moon (R, b. 1958; previously served in the state House from 2013 to 2018) – 2019

Montana (1; 1R)

(228) At-large: Elsie Arntzen (R, b. 1956; previously served in the state House from 2005 to 2009; serves on education committee) – 2009

Nebraska (3; 3R)

(229) 1: Curt Bromm (R, b. 1945; previously served in the Nebraska Legislature from 2003 to 2004) – 2005

(230) 2: Colby Coash (R, b. 1975; cites conservative talking points for why he opposes the death penalty; previously served in the Nebraska Legislature from 2009 to 2013) – 2013

(231) 3: David Ingolf Maurstad (R, b. 1953; former insurance agent; previously served as Lieutenant Governor from 1999 to 2001) – 2001

Nevada (4; 3D, 1R)

(232) 1: Dario Herrera (D, b. 1973; previously served as Clark County (Nevada) Commissioner from district "G" from 1999 to 2003; has been investigated for corruption numerous times but keeps getting cleared of wrongdoing and keeps (barely) winning re-election) – 2005

(233) 2: Chad Christensen (R; when former police officer Chad Christensen of Idaho served in the US House from 2013 to 2017, both of these Republican men named Chad Christensen served on the agriculture committee, creating confusion that made its way onto late night comedy shows during that time period) – 2011

(234) 3: John Oceguera (D, b. 1968; Native-American (Walker River Paiute tribe); previously served as the Speaker of the Nevada Assembly from 2011 to 2013 and as a member of the Nevada Assembly from 2000 to 2013) – 2013

(235) 4: Patricia Ann "Pat" Spearman (D, b. 1955; former Military Police Corps Lieutenant Colonel; supporter of women's rights, veterans rights, and BLUTAGO rights; previously served in the state senate from 2013 to 2018) – 2019

New Hampshire (2; 1D, 1R)

(236) 1: Kathleen “Kathy” Sullivan (D, b. 1954; former chair of the New Hampshire Democratic Party) – 2021

(237) 2: Marilinda Joy Garcia (R, b. 1983; former professional harpist; previously served in the state House from 2006 to 2008 and again from 2010 to 2014) – 2015

New Jersey (12; 9D, 3R)

(238) 1: Steven Michael Fulop (D, b. 1977; Jewish; previously served as the Mayor of Jersey City from 2013 to 2019 and as a member of the Jersey City Council from 2005 to 2013) – 2019

(239) 2: Adam J. Taliaferro (D, b. 1982; African-American; former college football player known for making a miraculous recovery from a life-threatening accident; previously served in the state General Assembly from 2015 to 2020) – 2021

(240) 3: James R. Kern III (R, b. 1988; previously served as a Freeholder of Warren County from 2019 to 2021 and as the Mayor of Pohatcong Township from 2011 to 2018) – 2021

(241) 4: Matthew "Matt" Riccardi (R, b. 1987; self-declared "constitutionalist"; previously worked n several positions for the state Republican Party) – 2019

(242) 5: Victoria Lynn Spellman Napolitano (R, b. 1988; Catholic; previously served as the Mayor of Moorestown Township and on the Moorestown Town Council) – 2021

(243) 6: James Edward “Jim” Johnson (D, b. 1960; former prosecuting attorney; previously served as the US Under Secretary of the Treasury for Enforcement from 2001 to 2004) – 2005

(244) 7: John Wisniewski (D, b. 1962; Polish; previously served in the state General Assembly from the 19th district from 1996 to 2000; won the seat over incumbent Leonard Lance (R, b. 1952), who had held the seat since 1993) – 2001

(245) 8: Francis X. Tenaglio (D, b. 1949; previously served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from the 159th district from 1977 to 1978; worked as an accountant until landing a higher-paying job in New Jersey and moved there in 1981; worked in multiple positions for the state Democratic Party) – 1987

(246) 9: Ronald C. Rice (D, b. 1968; previously served on the Newark Municipal Council as a West Ward Councilman from 2006 to 2010; won special election) – 2010

(247) 10: Tamara Harris (D; African-American; former businesswoman and former equity research analyst; won the seat over incumbent Michael James "Mike" Pappas (R, b. 1960; Greek-American), who had held the seat since 1997) – 2019

(248) 11: Verlina Reynolds-Jackson (D, b. 1971; previously served as a member of the Trenton City Council from 2010 to 2018) – 2019

(249) 12: Rush Dew Holt III (D, b. 1976; former psephologist and political analyst for TON; elected to succeed his father, Rush Holt Jr. (D, b. 1948), who held this same seat from 1999 to 2005) – 2015

New Mexico (3; 1D, 2R)

(250) 1: Rebecca Vigil-Giron (D, b. 1954; Hispanic; previously served as the state Secretary of State from 1987 to 1991) – 1991

(251) 2: Janice E. Arnold-Jones (R, b. 1952; former business manager and community activist with close ties to the US military; previously served in the state House from 2003 to 2010) – 2011

(252) 3: Michelle Garcia-Holmes (R; former Chief of Staff for the state Attorney General's Office) – 2021

New York (27; 23D, 4R)

(253) 1: Randy Altschuler (R, b. 1970; wealthy former businessman) – 2011

(254) 2: James A. Garner (R; African-American; Army veteran of the Indochina Wars era; former Mayor of Hempstead Village from 1989 to 1993) – 1993

(255) 3: Kevan M. Abrahams (D; African-American; previously served as a Nassau County Legislator in the 1st Legislative District) – 2005

(256) 4: David A. Bishop (D, b. 1966; progressive; previously served in the Suffolk County Legislature from 1993 to 2001) – 2001

(257) 5: Julia Salazar (D, b. 1990; DSA member; former activist; progressive; known for supporting sex workers rights and other views; previously served in the state senate from 2019 to 2021) – 2021

(258) 6: Elizabeth Crowley-O’Hara (D, b. 1977; cousin of incumbent US Rep. Joe Crowley (D-NY14); previously served as a member of the New York City Council from the 30th district) – 2013

(259) 7: Evergreen Chou (D; born in Taiwan and moved to the US with his parents when he was 9; environmentalist; previously served in the NY State Assembly) – 2009

(260) 8: Darryl C. Towns (D, b. 1961; previously served in the state assembly from the 54th district; focused on urban housing and community renewal efforts) – 2013

(261) 9: William Colridge "Bill" Thompson Jr. (D, b. 1953; previously served as the New York City Comptroller from 2002 to 2007) – 2007

(262) 10: Margaret S. Chin (D, b. 1953 in Hong Kong; Asian-American; previously served in the state senate; first elected in special election) – 2020

(263) 11: Michael Tannousis (R; Greek-American; elected from a conservative district) – 2021

(264) 12: Nelson Antonio Denis (D, b. 1955; former film director; previously served in the state Assembly) – 2001

(265) 13: Suzan Johnson Cook (D, b. 1957; African-American; previously served in multiple positions in the Jackson and Wellstone administrations) – 2015

(266) 14: Joe Crowley (D, b. 1962; Chair of the House Democratic Caucus and is considered to be "next in line" for the position of Speaker of the House; previously served in the state Assembly from 1987 to 1998) – 1999

(267) 15: Adolfo Carrion Jr. (D, b. 1961; previously served in multiple positions under Presidents Jackson and Wellstone) – 2015

(268) 16: Robert J. "Harlando" Rodriguez (D, b. 1976; previously served in the state Assembly) – 2013

(269) 17: Adam Clayton Powell IV (D, b. 1962 in Puerto Rico to then-incumbent US Rep. Adam Clayton Powell Jr.; previously served as a member of the state senate from 1995 to 1997; first elected in a special election) – 1997

(270) 18: Kathy Hochul (D, b. 1958; previously served as a County Clerk and as a legislative aide) – 2009

(271) 19: Zephyr Rain Teachout (D, b. 1971; progressive; advocate of campaign finance reform and government transparency; former author, activist, and community organizer; previously worked as a college professor and law firm associate; briefly ran for President during 2020 election cycle) – 2015

(272) 20: Kirsten "Tina" Gillibrand (D, b. 1966; moderate; former law firm associate and former law clerk; previously held the same seat from 2005 until 2011, when she lost re-election in a bad year for Democrats) – 2015

(273) 21: Francis Joseph "Frank" Scaturro (R, b. 1972; constitutional law expert; previously served as a law clerk and as an aide for an Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court) – 2011

(274) 22: William Lewis "Bill" Owens (D, b. 1949; former partner at a law firm) – 2009

(275) 23: Svante L. Myrick (D, b. 1987; previously served as the Mayor of Ithaca from 2012 to 2018) – 2019

(276) 24: Eric Leroy Adams (D, b. 1960; moderate-to-conservative record; was a strong supporter of Mario Biaggi; former NYPD police officer from 1984 to 1996; previously served in the US House from New York from 1997 to 2001 (lost re-election); was a Republican from 1995 to 2011) – 2017

(277) 25: Stephanie Miner (D, b. 1970; previously served as the Mayor of Syracuse from 2010 to 2018) – 2019

(278) 26: Byron Brown (D, b. 1958; African-American; previously served as the Mayor of Buffalo from 2006 to 2010) – 2011

(279) 27: Crystal Peoples-Stokes (D, b. 1951; previously served in the State Assembly from 2001 to 2007) – 2007

North Carolina (13; 8D, 5R)

(280) 1: Donald G. “Don” Davis (D, b. 1971; African-American; previously served as the Mayor of Snow Hill from 2001 to 2004; first elected via special election) – 2004

(281) 2: Daniel Kent McCreary (D, b. 1983; former businessman, entrepreneur and US Marine Corps captain; first elected via special election after incumbent Representative L. McCrae Dowless Jr. (R, b. 1956) was expelled for voter fraud in the previous election which Dowless "stole" from incumbent (since 1997) Bobby Ray "Bob" Etheridge (D, b. 1941)) – 2019

(282) 3: George Grant Cleveland (R, b. 1939; previously served in the state house from 2005 to 2009; known for making "out of touch" statements such as suggesting that poverty does not exist in his state, and supporting the repeal of Article 1, Section 4 of the NC Constitution that prohibits the state from seceding from the US) – 2009

(283) 4: Clayton Holmes "Clay" Aiken (D, b. 1978; openly BLUTAGO; former musician, activist, and TV personality; recently criticized ontech for making several "elitist" comments) – 2019

(284) 5: Patricia Earlene “Pat” McElraft (R, b. 1947; former technical sales representative for Microbiology Product Company; previously served in the state House from 2007 to 2011) – 2011

(285) 6: Kandie Diane Smith (D, b. 1969; African-American; previously served in the state House from 2015 to 2021) – 2021

(286) 7: Dr. Joan T. Perry, MD (R; former primary care physician) – 2011

(287) 8: Vince Coakley (R; former talk radio host) – 2015

(288) 9: Dr. Ada M. Fisher (R, b. 1947; African-American; Jewish; her grandfather was freed from slavery via the Emancipation Proclamation when he was 10 years old; former physician; previously served in various positions for the state Republican party) – 2007

(289) 10: Patricia Timmons-Goodson (D, b. 1954; African-American; previously served as an Associate Justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court from 2006 to 2012) – 2013

(290) 11: Morris Durham “Moe” Davis (D, b. 1958; retired US Air Force Colonel; former attorney and educator) – 2021

(291) 12: Beverly Miller Earle (D, b. 1943; African-American; previously served in the state House from 1995 to 1999) – 1999

(292) 13: Viola Alexander Lyles (D, b. 1952; previously served as the Mayor of Charlotte) – 2021

North Dakota (1; 1R)

(293) At-large: Ryan Lee Provancher (R, b. 1987; previously worked as an oilman and a worker safety activist, and belonged to the Civil Air Patrol; considered a moderate and often accused of being a "LID" for supporting legislation to strengthen worker safety procedures, due to such measures saving his life in 2013 when he was almost exposed to hydrogen sulfide and again in 2014 when he was almost crushed by a collapsing structure) – 2017

Ohio (17; 5D, 12R)

(294) 1: Dennis Kucinich (D, b. 1946; has served several non-consecutive terms in the US House from total of three states, started with his first congressional victory in 1972, which was a good year for Democrats) – 2019

(295) 2: Gregory S. Lashutka (R, b. 1944; former football player (AFL); previously ran for Mayor of Columbus twice in the 1990s) – 2001

(296) 3: Michael B. Coleman (D, b. 1954; African-American; previously served as the Mayor of Columbus from 2000 to 2016) – 2017

(297) 4: James Peter “Jim” Trakas (R, b. 1965; previously served in the state House from 1999 to 2006) – 2007

(298) 5: Niraj J. Antani (R, b. 1991 in Ohio but briefly lived in Pennsylvania with his parents during middle school; party loyalist; previously served in the state House from 2013 to 2017 and in the state senate from 2017 to 2021) – 2021

(299) 6: Chuck Blasdel (R, b. 1971; previously served in the state House from 2001 to 2006) – 2007

(300) 7: Matt Huffman (R, b. 1960; previously served in the state House from 2007 to 2011) – 2011

(301) 8: Robert R. "Bob" Cupp (R, b. 1950; previously served in the state senate from 1985 to 1990) – 1991

(302) 9: Marcia Carolyn "Marcy" Kaptur (D, b. 1946; progressive and pro-labor unions; former academic; previously involved in Democratic organization and voter mobilization efforts) – 1983

(303) 10: Samuel Joseph "Joe the Plumber" Wurzelbacher (R, b. 1973; former small business owner and conservative political activist) – 2013

(304) 11: Bohdan Andrew Futey (D, b. 1939 in Buczacz, Poland (now Buchach, Ukraine) and moved with his family to the US in 1957; speaks Ukrainian fluently; former professor, founding law firm partner, and chief assistant police prosecutor; first elected as an Independent, then served as a Republican from early 1976 to early 2020, switching to the Democratic party in protest of his party "embracing his [Harley Brown's] dangerous version of Republican values" and barely winning the Democratic nomination and general election later in the year) – 1975

(305) 12: Larry Lee Householder (R, b. 1959; current House Minority Leader and Leader of the House Republican Conference; previously served in the state House from 1997 to 1999) – 1999

(306) 13: Charleta Tavares (D; previously served in the state senate from 1998 to 2004 and in the state House from 1993 to 1998) – 2005

(307) 14: Keith Faber (R, b. 1966; previously served in the state senate from 2007 to 2012 and in the state House from 2001 to 2007) – 2013

(308) 15: Larry J. Obhof (R, b. 1977; previously served in the state senate from 2011 to 2016) – 2017

(309) 16: Mark J. Romanchuk (R, b. 1962; previously served in the state house from 2013 to 2017; strongly supported Harley Brown in 2020 and was rumored to be a possible candidate for a cabinet position in a 2021-to-2025 Brown administration) – 2017

(310) 17: Theresa Gavarone (R, b. 1966; previously served in the state senate from 2019 to 2020 and in the state House from 2016 to 2019) – 2021

Oklahoma (5; 5R)

(311) 1: George Faught (R, b. 1962 in Texas; previously served in the state House from 2007 to 2009) – 2009

(312) 2: John Tyler Hammons (R, b. 1988; Native American (Cherokee); previously served as the Mayor of Muskogee, Oklahoma from 2008 to 2012 and as an assistant attorney general for the Cherokee Nation from 2015 to 2017) – 2021

(313) 3: Richard Castaldo (R; conservative; former small business owner) – 2019

(314) 4: Brian Bingman (R, b. 1953; Native American (Creek); previously served in the state senate from 2007 to 2011) – 2011

(315) 5: Janet Barresi (R, b. 1952; previously served as the state Superintendent of Public Instruction from 2011 to 2015) – 2017

Oregon (5; 3D, 2R)

(316) 1: Carol Voisin (D, b. 1947 in Kansas and raised in Colorado; former peace activist; academic; previously taught ethics, critical thinking, and writing at Southern Oregon University) – 2005

(317) 2: James M. Lindsay (R, b. 1959 in Massachusetts; author; former academic; considered to be a leading authority on foreign policy analysis ) – 2017

(318) 3: Elizabeth Steiner Hayward (D, b. 1963; previously served as a member of the state Senate from the 17th district from 2011 to 2015) – 2015

(319) 4: Aleksander Reed "Alek" Skarlatos (R, b. 1992; Greek-American; former US Army Specialist; previously served as Douglas County Commissioner from 2019 to 2021; as the youngest member of congress, he is sometimes referred to the "Baby of the House") – 2021

(320) 5: Mary Nolan (D, b. 1954; previously served as a member of the state House from 2001 to 2011) – 2011

Pennsylvania (19; 12D, 7R)

(321) 1: Debbie Williams (R; former conservative political activist) – 2017

(322) 2: Isabella Fitzgerald (D, b. 1949; previously served in the state house from 2017 to 2019) – 2019

(323) 3: Bibiana Boerio (D, b. 1954; former businesswoman; previously served as Chief of Staff to Governor Goldberg from 2011 to 2015 and as an advisor during his presidential campaign in late 2015 and early 2016) – 2019

(324) 4: Anndrea M. Benson (D; moderate-to-progressive) – 2003

(325) 5: Linda Deliah Thompson (D, b. 1961; previously served as the Mayor of Harrisburg from 2010 to 2014) – 2015

(326) 6: Eric Papenfuse (D, b. 1971; former businessman; previously served as the Mayor of Harrisburg from 2014 to 2020) – 2021

(327) 7: Steve Santarsiero (D; former state senator; focused on education, infrastructure investment, environmental protection, women's health issues, and mental health improvement initiatives) – 2011

(328) 8: Summer L. Lee (D, b. 1987; member of the DSA; former lawyer and community organizer; previously served in the state House from the 34th district from 2019 to 2021) – 2021

(229) 9: John Karl Fetterman (D, b. 1969; former football player and former business owner; progressive; became political involved after joining the Big Brothers Big Sisters of America program, initially to impress someone he was dating but the experience gave him perspective and his life a sense of greater purpose) – 2009

(330) 10: Dawn Keefer (R, b. 1972; previously served in the state House of Representatives from the 92nd district from 2017 to 2021) – 2021

(331) 11: Charles W. Smithgall (R, b. 1945; former pharmacist and businessman; previously served as the Mayor of Lancaster from 1998 to 2004) – 2005

(332) 12: John Eichelberger (R, b. 1958; previously served as a member of the Blair County Board of Commissioners) – 1999

(333) 13: Stephen Bloom (R, b. 1961; previously served in the state House of Representatives from the 199th district from 2011 to 2013) – 2013

(334) 14: Douglas Vincent "Doug" Mastriano (R, b. 1964; previously served in the state House of Representatives from the 33rd district from 2019 to 2021; has been described by some as a "Christian nationalist") – 2021

(335) 15: Marty Nothstein (R, b. 1971; former professional road bicycle racer and track cyclist, winning gold medals at the 1996 and 2000 Olympic Games; former coach, business owner, and moderate-to-conservative political activist) – 2017

(336) 16: Anthony Hardy Williams (D, b. 1957; African-American; previously served in the state House of Representatives from 1989 to 1998) – 1999

(337) 17: Dan Onorato (D, b. 1961; former Certified Public Accountant; previously served as Chief Executive of Allegheny County from 2004 to 2012, as the Controller of Allegheny County from 2000 to 2004, and as a member of the Pittsburgh City Council from the 1st district from 19992 to 2000; considered running for Governor in 2018; may run for Governor in 2022) – 2013

(338) 18: Helen Gym (D, b. circa 1968 in Seattle, WA to parents born in Korea who immigrated to the US in the 1960s; raised in Ohio but went to college in PA; former reporter, teacher, and grassroots organizer, and civil rights activist; previously worked on the Locke'16 Presidential campaign and as a member of the Philadelphia City Council from the At-Large district from 2016 to 2019) – 2019

(339) 19: William Mark "Bill" Peduto (D, b. 1964; known for sporting a very large beard; previously served as the Mayor of Pittsburgh from 2014 to 2020 and as a member of the Pittsburgh City Council from the 8th district from 2002 to 2014) – 2021

Potomac (1; 1D)

(340) At-large: Marie Collins Johns (D, b. 1951; African-American; former businesswoman; previously served as the Deputy Administrator of the Small Business Administration under President Jackson from 2005 to 2006) – 2006

Puerto Rico (6; 4D, 2R)

(341) 1: Antonio J. Colorado (R, b. 1939; former lawyer; previously served as the Resident Commissioner of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico from 1992 to 2000) – 2006

(342) 2: Dr. Miriam J. Ramirez, M.D. (D, b. 1941; former physician and political activist, becoming active in Puerto Rico's statehood movement in the 1970s; served as a medical advisor to Governor Rocky Versace during the SARS Global Pandemic; enjoys high approval ratings at home, winning her current term unopposed) – 2006

(343) 3: Epifanio "Epi" Jimenez (D, b. 1965; retired Lieutenant Colonel of the Army National Guard of Puerto Rico; previously served in the commonwealth Rico House of Representatives from 1994 to 2006 and in the state senate from 2006 to 2016) – 2017

(344) 4: Leonides “Leo” Diaz Urbina (R, b. 1962; former lawyer; previously served in the commonwealth House of Representatives from 1993 to 2001) – 2006

(345) 5: Rafael "Tatito" Hernandez (D, b. 1972; previously served in the state House from 2009 to 2019) – 2019

(346) 6: Maria de Lourdes Santiago (D, b. 1968; was a strong supporter of the statehood movement; former newspaper columnist; previously served in the state senate from 2006 to 2013; currently focused on women's health, mental health, and special education issues, among other issues) – 2013

Rhode Island (2; 2D)

(347) 1: Anastasia P. Williams (D, b. 1957 in Panama; previously served in the state House from the 9th district from 1993 to 2001) – 2001

(348) 2: Gordon Dennis Fox (D, b. 1961; openly BLUTAGO; previously served in the state House from 1993 to 2005; has been accused of corruption numerous times) – 2005

South Carolina (8; 3D, 5R)

(349) 1: Katie Arrington (R, b. 1970; former businesswoman; previously served in the state House from 2017 to 2019) – 2019

(350) 2: Joe Grimaud (R; social conservative; former business owner and political activist) – 2001

(351) 3: Robert Lee Waldrep Jr. (R; conservative; party loyalist; defeated perennial candidate Benjamin "Ben" Frasier Jr. (D, b. 1942) in both the 2018 and 2020 general elections) – 2003

(352) 4: Richard J. “Rich” Cash (R, b. 1960; serves on the House Budget Committee; previously served in the state senate from 2017 to 2021) – 2021

(353) 5: Jaime R. Harrison (D, b. 1976; African-American; liberal; previously served as Chair of the South Carolina Democratic Party from 2013 to 2017) – 2019

(354) 6: Matt Moore (R, b. 1982; conservative; previously served as Chair of the South Carolina Republican Party from 2013 to 2017; noted for getting along well with Harrison, with the strength of their friendship being brought up on occasion when describing inter-party relations in D.C.) – 2019

(355) 7: Elizabeth Colbert Busch (D, b. 1954; former economist; previously served as the Director of Business Development at Clemson University; her brother is actor-comedian Stephen Colbert) – 2013

(356) 8: Bakari T. Sellers (D, b. 1984; African-American; just barely won this seat in 2020, which was a good year for Democrats overall; previously served in the state House from 2006 to 2014 and in the state senate from 2014 to 2020) – 2021

South Dakota (1; 1R)

(357) At-large: Shantel Swedlund Krebs (R, b. 1973; former businesswoman; previously served in the state House of Representatives from the 10th district from 2005 to 2011) – 2011

Tennessee (9; 3D, 6R)

(358) 1: Carl Twofeathers Whitaker (R, b. 1953; Native American (Mohegan); previously served as the Chief of Police of West Mansfield from 1986 to 2001; former political activist and community affairs organizer) – 2017

(359) 2: Shane Reeves (R, b. 1968; former pharmacist and businessman; previously served as a member of the state senate from the 14th district from 2018 to 2021) – 2021

(360) 3: Charles V. Brown (D; former construction worker; previously served as a county road supervisor in the 1980s) – 2007

(361) 4: Todd Gardenhire (R, b. 1948; previously served in the state senate from the 10th district from 2013 to 2015) – 2015

(362) 5: Marquita Bradshaw (D, b. 1974; African-American; environmentalist; activist; political organizer; progressive; is the niece of former moderate-to-conservative US Rep. John J. DeBerry Jr. (D, b. 1951), who held this same seat from 2001 to 2017 (lost re-election to Eddie Mannies (R, b. 1959; openly BLUTAGO), who lost re-election in 2020); previously served as the environmental justice chair of the Tennessee chapter of The Sierra Club) – 2021

(363) 6: Dolores R. Gresham (R, b. 1942; previously served in the state House from district 94 from 2003 to 2007) – 2007

(364) 7: Marsha Blackburn (R, b. 1952; conservative; strongly endorsed and campaigned for Harley Brown in 2012 and 2020; floated as a possible VP nomination candidate in 2012 and 2020; previously served in the state senate from the 23rd district from 1999 to 2003) – 2003

(365) 8: Hoyt "Colonel Mark" White (R, b. 1950; former political activist; party loyalist; previously served as second vice-chairman of the Shelby County Republican Party and in the state House from 2005 to 2007) – 2007

(366) 9: Steve Cohen (D, b. 1949; Jewish; previously served in the state senate from the 30th district from 1983 to 1989; currently works on the Judiciary, Transportation, and Natural Resources Committees) – 1989

Texas (36; 17D, 19R)

(367) 1: Wayne Christian (R, b. 1950; former financial planner; previously served in the state House from 1997 to 2005) – 2005

(368) 2: Thad Heartfield (R, b. 1940; previously served in the state House from 1975 to 1979, as the District Attorney for Jefferson County from 1969 to 1975, and as that county's assistant district attorney from 1965 to 1969) – 1979

(369) 3: Lorie Burch (D; previously founded and managed her own law practice; was known as a perennial candidate for previously running for various public offices in 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012. 2014, and 2016) – 2019

(370) 4: John Kevin Ellzey Sr. (R, b. 1970; KW2 veteran; served in the US Navy as a fighter pilot until retiring at the rank of Commander in 2010; previously served as an aide and advisor to Governor Bill Owens (R-TX) from 2011 to 2013) – 2015

(371) 5: Ken Ashby (R; boasts having an "ultra-libertarian" record and "idolizing" Ron Paul; previously worked in teaching and engineering; first elected in 1996 and first running for Congress in 1992) – 1997

(372) 6: Dr. Laura G. Murillo (R; previously served as an Executive at Memorial Hermann-Texas Medical Center) – 2013

(373) 7: Cristina Tzintzun-Ramirez (D, b. 1982; Mexican-American; former labor organizer) – 2021

(374) 8: William Cameron "Willie" McCool (R, b. 1961; former NASA astronaut, best known for being one of the first Marstronauts to step foot on the planet Mars (2003); will likely run for higher office in 2022 or 2024) – 2017

(375) 9: Royce Barry West (D, b. 1952; African-American; previously served in the state Senate from the 23rd district from 1993 to 1998) – 1999

(376) 10: Brewster McCracken (R; previously served on the Austin City Council and worked as a felony prosecutor in the Harris County District Attorney's Office) – 2007

(377) 11: Edwin Barry “Ed” Young (R, b. 1961; pastor; founder of the Fellowship Church (1989); controversial member of "the religious far-right"; strongly supported Harley Brown in 2020 despite calling him a "fake Christian" in early 2012 for Brown's support of BLUTAGO rights) – 2017

(378) 12: Barbara Elizabeth Cornelius "Betsy" Price (R, b. 1949; former businesswoman; previously served as the Mayor of Fort Worth from 2011 to 2021) – 2021

(379) 13: Calvin DeWeese (R; conservative; former political activist) – 2019

(380) 14: Chris Peden (R; conservative; former political organizer) – 2009

(381) 15: Ivy Ruth Taylor (D, b. 1970; African-American; previously served as the Mayor of San Antonio from 2014 to 2017) – 2017

(382) 16: Carol Alvarado (D, b. 1967; previously served in the state House from 2009 to 2013) – 2013

(383) 17: Peter Churchman (R; conservative; former political activist) – 2017

(384) 18: Enrique Garcia (D; moderate; former community organizer) – 2019

(385) 19: Arlene Wohlgemuth (R, b. 1947; previously served in the state House from 1995 to 2005) – 2005

(386) 20: Sri Preston Kulkarni (D, b. 1978; Indian-American; previously served in the US Foreign Service) – 2019

(387) 21: James Arthur Strohm (R; conservative; former political activist) – 2007

(388) 22: Shelley Sekula-Gibbs (R, b. 1953; previously served on the Houston City Council from 2002 to 2006) – 2006

(389) 23: David Gordon Wallace (R; conservative; former political activist) – 2009

(390) 24: Steve Stockman (R, b. 1956; libertarian; former computer salesman; has been investigated for corruption several times) – 1995

(391) 25: Raul Torres (R, b. 1955; former Certified Public Accountant; previously served in the state House from 2011 to 2013) – 2013

(392) 26: Roque De La Fuente III (D; moderate; serving alongside father, who is currently representing a House seat from California) – 2021

(393) 27: Dr. Marty Perez (R; former political organizer) – 2019

(394) 28: Enrique Roberto "Henry" Cuellar (D, b. 1955; Mexican-American; one of the most conservative Democrats in Congress; previously served in the state House from 1987 to 1999) – 1999

(395) 29: Gina Ortiz Jones (D, b. 1981; openly BLUTAGO; is the daughter of a single mother immigrant from the Philippines (Ilocano); retired US Air Force Captain; former intelligence officer) – 2019

(396) 30: Eddie Bernice Johnson (D, b. 1935; oldest incumbent member of congress, has announced that she will not run for re-election in 2022; African-American; previously served in the state senate from the 23rd district from 1987 to 1993 and in the state House from the 33rd district from 1973 to 1977) – 1993

(397) 31: Scott McClellan (R, b. 1968; former campaign manager and conservative grassroots organizer; previously served as Governor Owens' press secretary from 2007 to 2015; is the youngest son of former US Rep. Carole Keeton (R-TX, 1991-1999 (lost re-election)); become well known for feuding with his former boss ontech in 2019) – 2017

(398) 32: Carlos Quintanilla (D, b. in Illinois; former business owner) – 2019

(399) 33: William Patrick "Will" Wynn (D, b. 1961; former businessman and Mayor) – 2009

(400) 34: Laura Miller (D, b. 1958; previously served as a city councilwoman) – 2007

(401) 35: Jasmine Crockett (D, b. 1981; former attorney and political activist) – 2021

(402) 36: Lloyd Alton Doggett II (D, b. 1946; previously served as a Justice of the Texas Supreme Court from 1989 to 1994) – 1995

Utah (4; 1D, 3R)

(403) 1: Lilia Laura Pace (D, b. 1955; former teacher and labor union leader; previously served as President of the National Education Association from 2014 to 2020) – 2021

(404) 2: Bruce Patton Summerhays (R, b. 1944; former professional golfer and prominent member of the Mormon church) – 2007

(405) 3: Wayne Larry Niederhauser (R, b. 1959; former certified public accountant; previously served as a member of the state Senate from 2006 to 2019 and as President of the state Senate from 2013 to 2018) – 2019

(406) 4: John Dougall (R, b. 1966; has received bipartisan praise for his work on several US House subcommittees; previously served as state Auditor from 2013 to 2021 and in the state House from 2003 to 2013) – 2021

Vermont (1; 1D)

(407) At-large: John O’Brien (D, b. 1962; former filmmaker, Justice of the Peace, and campaign manager; best known for his work with dairy farmer-turned-US Senator Fred Tuttle; previously served on the Town of Tunbridge selectboard from 2015 to 2028 and in the state House from 2019 to 2021) – 2021

Virginia (11; 8D, 3R)

(408) 1: Krystal Marie Ball (D, b. 1981 in King George County, VA; progressive; former business owner, certified public accountant, political commentator and TV/newspaper contributor) – 2011

(409) 2: A. Joseph Canada Jr. (R, b. 1939; previously served in the state senate from the 8th district from 1972 to 1980) – 1981

(410) 3: Jerrauld C. "Jay" Jones (D, b. 1989; African-American; previously served in the state House of Delegates from the 89th district 2018-2021) – 2021

(411) 4: Jody Moses Wagner (D, b. 1955; previously served as the state Secretary of Finance and as the state Treasurer) – 2015

(412) 5: Winsome Earle Sears (R, b. 1964; African-American; former US Marine Corps Commander and former state senator; previously served as the Director of the CIA from 2013 to 2017 and as the Director of the FBI from 2017 to 2019) – 2021

(413) 6: Jennifer Carroll Foy (D, b. 1981; African-American; previously served in the state House of Delegates from 2018 to 2020) – 2021

(414) 7: David L. Bulova (D, b. 1969; previously served in the state House of Delegates from 2006 to 2014; first elected in a special election) – 2014

(415) 8: Charniele LeRhonda Herring (D, b. 1969 in the Dominican Republic to Army parents; African-American; previously served as Chair of the Virginia Democratic Party from 2012 to 2014) – 2015

(416) 9: William Bruce "Bill" Redpath (R, b. 1957; strongly libertarian; former Certified Public Accountant, Chartered Financial Analyst, and Accredited Senior Appraiser; previously served in the state House of Delegates from 1994 to 1998 and in the state Senate from 1998 to 2002; lost US House bid in 2002) – 2007

(417) 10: Linda Q. Smyth (D, b. 1949 in Missouri; former appointee to the Fairfax County Planning Commission; previously served as a member of the Fairfax County Board of Supervisors from the Providence district from 2003 to 2005) – 2005

(418) 11: Katherine Keith "Kate" Hanley (D, b. 1943 in Missouri; previously served in the state senate from 1991 to 1995) – 1995

Washington (10; 8D, 2R)

(419) 1: Laura Ruderman (D, b. 1970; previously served in the state House from 1999 to 2005) – 2004

(420) 2: Mary B. Verner (D, b. 1956; previously served in multiple positions for the Governor's office, and as Executive Director of the Upper Columbia United Tribes) – 2005

(421) 3: Dino John Rossi (R, b. 1959; former businessman; moderate; previously served in the state senate from 1997 to 2003; briefly ran for President in 2004, 2008, and 2012, and has considered running for higher office multiple times; might run for President again in 2024) – 2003

(422) 4: Kshama Sawant (D, b. 1973 in India to a Tamil Brahmin family; moved to the US in the late 1990s; self-declared "outright, morally right, anti-Right, far-left socialist"; former software engineer and economics instructor; previously served as a member of the Seattle City Council) – 2021

(423) 5: Clint Bradley Didier (R, b. 1959; former NFL player) – 2011

(424) 6: Kesha Ram (D, b. 1986 in California, but went to college in WA; Indian-American; is the great-great-granddaughter of Sir Ganga Ram; previously served in the state House from 2011 to 2017; unsuccessfully ran for Lieutenant Governor in 2016) – 2021

(425) 7: Kevin W. Van De Wege (D, b. 1974; previously served in the state senate from 2017 to 2021 and in the state House from 2007 to 2017) – 2021

(426) 8: Christine Rolfes (D, b. 1967; previously served in the state House from 2007 to 2011; currently serves of education, veterans affairs and environment committees) – 2011

(427) 9: Brian S. Sonntag (D, b. 1951; previously served as state Auditor from 1993 to 2013) – 2013

(428) 10: Marko Liias (D, b. 1981; Finnish-American; openly BLUTAGO; previously served in the state senate from 2014 to 2018 and in the state House from 2008 to 2014) – 2019

West Virginia (3; 1D, 2R)

(429) 1: Michael Angelo "Mike" Oliverio II (R, b. 1963; former lobbyist; previously served in the state senate from 1995 to 2011 and in the state House of Delegates from 1993 to 1994; left the Democratic party in 2009 over its national shift to the left) – 2015

(430) 2: Paula Jean Swearengin (D, b. 1974; former activist; progressive; won seat in an upset credited to Pritt's presidential candidacy) – 2021

(431) 3: Robert D. Beach (R, b. 1959; previously served in the state senate from 2011 to 2016; currently serves on the agriculture committee) – 2017

Wisconsin (9; 6D, 3R)

(432) 1: Rob Zerban (D; former entrepreneur; previously served as Kenosha County Supervisor from the 2nd district from 2008 to 2012) – 2013

(433) 2: Peter Theron (R; former businessman) – 2015

(434) 3: Randall John Bryce (D, b. 1964; former ironworker; strongly pro-union; known for his prominent mustache) – 2019

(435) 4: G. Spencer Coggs (D, b. 1949; African-American; previously served in the state assembly from 1983 to 1987) – 1987

(436) 5: LaTonya Johnson (D, b. 1972; African-American; former activist; previously served in the state senate from 2017 to 2019 and in the state assembly from 2013 to 2017) – 2019

(437) 6: S. Biko Barnes (D, b. 1986; African-American; previously served in the state assembly from 2013 to 2017) – 2021

(438) 7: Mary Burke (D, b. 1959; previously served as the state secretary of commerce) – 2007

(439) 8: Peggy A. Rosenzweig (R, b. 1936; second-oldest female member of Congress; may retire next year; previously served in the state senate from 1993 to 1997; almost lost re-election to Marina Dimitrijevic, who is running for the seat again in 2022) – 1997

(440) 9: John G. Gard (R, b. 1963; previously served as Speaker of the Wisconsin Assembly from 2003 to 2007) – 2007

Wyoming (1; 1R)

(441) At-large: Colin Mackenzie Simpson (R, b. 1959; a member of the Simpson political family of Wyoming; previously served in the state House from 1999 to 2003) – 2003
 
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2020-present: Santiago Abascal (PP/Vox Alliance) – incumbent; a “compromise” candidate during the last election now seen as highly controversial and divisive for multiple far-right statements and actions
As a spaniard, I will say something simple.
If right now we received a message that Kim Jong-Un has decided launch all his nuclear missils to Spain... That would be better news that see Vox ruling the country.

Edit: Nah, to be honest, after of think about it for some minutes, I found the conclussion that the only difference between each leader of each party in Spain and Abascal is that he uses more spanish flags. Out of it, everyone is equal.
 
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Index 4 – U.S. Governors and Lieutenant Governors
Index 4 – U.S. Governors and Lieutenant Governors

Governors and Lieutenant Governors (or the state’s equivalent to a Lieutenant Governor) in this timeline, as of July 4, 2021​



Governors of ALABAMA

1947-1951: 42) Jim Folsom Sr. (D) – term-limited
1946: Lyman Ward (R)

1951-1955: 43) Gordon Person (D) – term-limited
1950: John S. Crowder (R)

1955-1959: (42)) Jim Folsom Sr. (D) – term-limited
1954: Tom Abernathy (R)

1959-1963: 44) John Malcolm Patterson (D) – term-limited; served as C. Farris Bryant’s more moderate running mate in 1964
1958: William Longshore (R)

1963-1967: 45) George Wallace (D) – term-limited; ran for President in 1968
1962: Frank P. Walls (I)

1967-1971: 46) Ryan DeGreffenried Sr. (D) – term-limited
1966: John M. Patterson (HIP) and Arthur Glenn Andrews (R)

1971-1971: (45)) George Wallace (D) – died in office in a plane crash before he could officially launch a bid for US President
1970: Bull Connor (I), Asa Carter (HIP) and Bert Nettles (R)

1971-1975: 47) Sam Engelhardt (D, then HIP in 1972) – term-limited; ran for President in 1972

1975-1979: 48) Jeremiah Denton (R) – Cuban War veteran and war hero; term-limited; successfully ran for President in 1980
1974: Richmond Flowers Sr. (D) and J. Taylor Hardin (I)

1979-1981: 49) Elvin McCary (R) – died in office from heart failure
1978: Melba Till Allen (D) and J. Taylor Hardin (I)

1981-1983: 50) Charles Woods (D) – WWII veteran/burn victim known for his iconic eyepatch and deformed hands and face; term-limited

1983-1987: 51) Ann Bedsole (R) – first female Governor; term-limited
1982: Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D)

1987-1991: 52) Bill Baxley (D) – term-limited; considered running for President in 1996 and 2000
1986: John Hall Buchanan Jr. (R)

1991-1995: 53) Shorty Price (R) – term-limited
1990: Joseph Charles McCorquodale Jr. (D) and John Logan Cashin Jr. (Alabama)

1995-1999: 54) Bettye Frink (R) – second female Governor; term-limited
1994: Lambert Mims (D)

1999-2003: 55) Winton Blount (R) – term-limited
1998: Lenora Pate (D)

2003-2006: 56) Ryan DeGraffenried Jr. (D) – died in office suddenly from poor health
2002: Richard Shelby (R)

2006-2007: 57) Lowell Ray Barron (D) – ascended to office as president pro tempore of the state senate after the Lt. Gov., then Gov., each died

2007-2011: 58) Jim Folsom Jr. (D) – ascended to office as Lt. Gov.-Elect, after Lt. Gov./Gov.-Elect Baxley died; son of former Governor Jim Folsom Sr.; term-limited; considered running for President in 2016
2006: Lucy Baxley (D) over Roy Moore (R) and Tony Petelos (Integrity)

2011-2015: 59) David Woods (R) – son of former Governor Charles Woods; term-limited
2010: Beth Killough Chapman (Boulder) and Sadie Moore Stewart (D)

2015-2019: 60) Richmond McDavid Flowers Jr. (D) – term-limited
2014: Adelbert Carl “Del” Marsh (R)

2019-present: 61) Twinkle Andress Cavanaugh (R) – third female Governor but fourth female to be elected Governor; incumbent; may run for President in 2024
2018: Artur G. Davis (D)

Lieutenant Governors of ALABAMA
1947-1951: 16) James C. Inzer (D) – term-limited
1951-1955: 17) James Allen (D) – term-limited
1955-1959: 18) William G. Hardwick (D) – term-limited
1959-1963: 19) Albert Boutwell (D) – term-limited
1963-1967: 20) James Allen (D) – term-limited
1967-1971: 21) Albert Brewer (D) – term-limited
1971-1971: 22) Sam Engelhardt (D) – ascended to the governorship
1971-1975: vacant
1975-1979: 23) Albert Brewer (D) – term-limited
1979-1981: 24) Charles Woods (D) – ascended to the governorship
1981-1983: vacant
1983-1987: 25) Albert Brewer (D) – term-limited
1987-1991: 26) Jim Folsom Jr. (D) – term-limited
1991-1995: 27) George McMillan (D) – term-limited
1995-1999: 28) Don Siegelman (D) – term-limited
1999-2003: 29) Steve Windom (R) – term-limited
2003-2006: 30) Lucy Baxley (D) – first female Lt. Gov.; died in office after being elected Governor but before she could be sworn into the governorship
2006-2007: vacant
2007-2011: 31) Sadie Moore Stewart (D) – first African-American and second female Lt. Gov.; term-limited
2011-2015: 32) Kay Ivey (R) – third female Lt. Gov.; term-limited
2015-2019: 33) Beth Chapman (R) – fourth female Lt. Gov.; term-limited
2019-present: 34) Stan Cooke (R) – incumbent



Governors of ALASKA

1959-1962: 1) William A. Egan (D) – lost re-election
1958: John Butrovich Jr. (R)

1962-1970: 2) Mike Stepovich (R) – term-limited; was the GOP nominee for VP in 1972
1962: William A. Egan (D)
1966: Wendall P. Kay (D) and John Grasse (I)

1970-1978: 3) Jay Hammond (R) – term-limited
1970: W. Eugene Guess (D) and Ralph M. Anderson (I)
1974: Chauncey Croft (D) and Joe Vogler (I)

1978-1986: 4) Bill Clinton (D) – term-limited
1978: Lowell Thomas Jr. (R), Don Wright (I) and Mike Colletta (Alaskan Libertarian Party)
1982: Terry Miller (R) and Richard L. Randolph (Liberty)

1986-1988: 5) Tom Fink (R) – recalled from office over his poor handling of the Chevron Oil Spill
1986: George H. Hohman Jr. (D), Don Wright (Green), Andre Marrou (Liberty), and Bill Hudson (Alaska Independence Party)

1988-1994: 6) Bob Ross (I) – retired to focus on cancer diagnosis
1988 (successful recall special election): Bill Overstreet (I), Bill Sheffield (D), Jay Kerttula (R), Joe Vogler (AIP) and Benjamin F. “Ben” Grussendorf Jr. (D)
1990: Wally Hickel (R), Tony Knowles (D), Joe Vogler (AIP), Rick Halford (Liberty), and Michael O’Callaghan (I)

1994-1998: 7) Nora Dauenhauer (Green) – retired to uphold single-term pledge from 1994 election bid
1994: Robin L. Taylor (Liberty), Red Boucher (D), J. H. Lindauer Jr. (R), and Joe Vogler (AIP)

1998-2002: 8) Kenneth James Fanning (Libertarian-Republican Alliance) – lost re-election
1998: Samuel R. Cotton (D), Jim Sykes (Green) and Joe Vogler (AIP)

2002-2010: 9) Niilo Emil Koponen (Democratic-Green-Union) – term-limited
2002: Kenneth James Fanning (LRA), Don Wright (AIP), W.A.R. Ross (Defense), and Ralph Winterrowd (Patriots’)
2006: Loren Leman (Libertarian-Republican Alliance) and Daniel DeNardo (Independent/AIP)

2010-2014: 10) Willie Hensley (GDU) – lost re-election
2010: Jerry Ward (LRA/Boulder) and Clyde Baxley (AIP)

2014-present: 11) Lesil Lynn “Lizzie” McGuire (LRA) – incumbent; term-limited; may run for President in 2024
2014: Willie Hensley (GDU), Jerry Ward (Boulder) and Mead Treadwell (I)
2018: Anna McKinnon (Democratic), Craig Campbell (I), Jeffrey D. Brown (Green), Della Coburn (Socialist) and Ivan M. Ivan (Progressive Green)

Lieutenant Governors of ALASKA
1969-1970: 1) Robert W. Ward (R) – retired to run for Governor
1970-1978: 2) Hazel P. Heath (R) – retired to successfully run for the US Senate
1978-1982: 3) Katie Hurley (D) – retired to run for Governor
1982-1986: 4) Red Boucher (D) – lost re-election
1986-1990: 5) Terry Miller (R) – lost re-election
1990-1994: 6) Nora Dauenhauer (I until 1994, then Green) – retired to successfully run for Governor
1994-1998: 7) Jim Sykes (Green) – retired to run for Governor
1998-2002: 8) Loren Leman (LRA) – lost re-election
2002-2010: 9) Willie Hensley (GDU) – term-limited
2010-2014: 10) Hollis S. French (GDU) – lost re-election
2014-present: 11) Mike Chenault (LRA) – incumbent



Governors of ARIZONA

1959-1969: 11) Paul Fannin (R) – retired
1958: Robert Morrison (D)
1960: Lee Ackerman (D)
1962: Samuel Goddard (D)
1964: Art Brock (D)
1966: Norman Green (D)

1969-1971: 12) Jack Williams (R) – lost re-election
1968: Samuel Goddard II (D)

1971-1975: 13) Raul Hector Castro (D) – lost re-election
1970: Jack Williams (R) and Evan Mecham (HIP)

1975-1983: 14) Sam Steiger (R) – term-limited
1974: Raul Hector Castro (D) and Jack Ross (I)
1978: Jack Ross (D)

1983-1987: 15) Richard Kleindienst (R) – lost re-election
1982: Bruce Babbitt (D)

1987-1995: 16) Carolyn Warner (D) – term-limited
1986: Richard Kleindienst (R)
1990: Fife Symington III (R) and Max Hawkins (Life)

1995-1999: 17) Samuel Goddard III (D) – lost re-election
1994: Barbara Barrett (R) and John A. Buttrick (Liberty)

1999-2007: 18) David Fraser Nolan (R) – term-limited
1998: Samuel Goddard III (D), Paul Johnson (I) and Scott Malcolmson (I)
2002: Betsey Bayless (D)

2007-2011: 19) Debbie McCune Davis (D) – lost re-election
2006: Brenda Burns (R)

2011-2013: 20) Russell K. Pearce (R) – recalled
2010: Debbie McCune Davis (D)

2013-2015: 21) Don Goldwater (R) – lost re-election
2013 (successful recall special election): Neil Giuliano (D), Russell K. Pearce (R), Jer Lewis (R), Tommy Cattey (I) and Bob Worsley (R)

2015-2019: 22) Tina Flint Smith (D) – retired
2014: Don Goldwater (R)

2019-present: 23) Barry Hess (R) – incumbent
2018: Marco A. Lopez Jr. (D)

Secretaries of State of ARIZONA
1949-1978: 11) Wesley Brolin (D)
1978-1983: 12) Bart Fleming (R)
1983-1991: 13) Rose Mofford (D)
1991-1999: 14) Ray Rottas (R)
1999-2003: 15) Tony West (R)
2003-2011: 16) Chris Deschene (D)
2011-2019: 17) Barry Hess (R)
2019-present: 18) Michele Reagan (R)



Governors of ARKANSAS

1955-1965: 36) Orval Faubus (D) – lost re-election
1954: Pratt C. Remmel (R)
1956: Roy Mitchell (R)
1958: George W. Johnson (R)
1960: Henry M. Britt (R)
1962: Willis Ricketts (R)

1965-1972: 37) Winthrop Rockefeller (R) – withdrew from re-election and resigned from office due to worsening cancer
1964: Orval Faubus (D)
1966: James Douglas Johnson (D)
1970: Virginia Johnson (D)

1972-1973: 38) Footsie Britt (R) – lost election

1973-1975: 39) Dale Bumpers (D) – retired
1972: Footsie Britt (R)

1975-1979: 40) David Pryor (D) – retired
1974: Frank D. White (R)
1976: Leon Griffith (R)

1979-1987: 41) Orval Faubus (D) – lost re-election
1978: Lynn Lowe (R) and Nancy Pearl Johnson Hall (Independent)
1980: Frank D. White (R)
1982: Marshall Chrisman (R)

1987-1991: 42) Lynn Lowe (R) – lost re-election
1986: Orval Faubus (D)

1991-1999: 43) Mike Beebe (D) – term-limited
1990: Lynn Lowe (R)
1994: James Douglas Johnson (R)

1999-2003: 44) Nicky Daniel “Nick” Bacon (D) – lost re-election
1998: E. Sheffield Nelson (R)

2003-2009: 45) Winthrop Paul Rockefeller (R) – died
2002: Nick Bacon (D)
2006: Mike Ross (D)

2009-2015: 46) Mark Darr (R) – lost re-election
2010: Jim Lendall (D) and Elvis D. Presley (I)

2015-present: 47) Conner Eldridge (D) – incumbent
2014: Mark Darr (R)
2018: John Timothy “Tim” Griffin (R) and Mar Stodola (Independent)

Lieutenant Governors of ARKANSAS
1947-1967: 10) Nathan Green Gordon (D)
1967-1972: 11) Footsie Britt (R)
1972-1973: vacant
1973-1981: 12) Joe Purcell (D)
1981-1991: 13) Winston Bryant (D)
1991-1999: 14) Nick Bacon (D)
1999-2003: 15) Winthrop Paul Rockefeller (R)
2003-2009: 16) Mark Darr (R)
2009-2011: vacant
2011-present: 17) Debra Hobbs (R)



Governors of CALIFORNIA

1959-1971: 32) Pat Brown (D) – retired
1958: William F. Knowland (R)
1962: Joe Shell (R)
1966: Ray Kroc (R), Tim Leary (NM)

1971-1979: 33) Ronald Reagan (R) – lost re-election
1970: Jesse Unruh (D), Tim Leary (NM) and Max Rafferty (HIP)
1974: Robert Moretti (D) and Elizabeth Keathley (NM)

1979-1983: 34) Phillip Burton (D) – died
1978: Ronald Reagan (R)
1982: Edward M. Davis (R)

1983-1987: 35) George Christopher (R) – retired

1987-1995: 36) Donald Kennedy (D)
– retired
1986: Anthony Kennedy (R)
1990: Mary K. Shell (R), Peter Camejo (Green) and Maria Elizabeth Munoz (La Raza Unida)

1995-2003: 37) Kathleen Brown (D) – lost re-election
1994: Carol Boyd Hallett (R)
1998: Dennis R. Peron (R)

2003-2003: 38) Dana Rohrabacher (R) – fled; removed from office in absentia
2002: Kathleen Brown (D), Peter Camejo (Green) and Van Vo (Liberty)

2003-2005: 39) John L. Burton (D) – resigned

2005-2007: 40) Debbie Cook (D until 2005, then G) – lost election

2007-2012: 41) Kelsey Grammer (R) – resigned
2006: Debbie Cook (Green), Laura Wells (D) and Leonard Padilla (Liberty)
2010: Steve Peace (D) and Tommy Chong (Green)

2012-present: 42) Cruz Bustamante (D) – incumbent
2014 blanket primary: Cruz Bustamante (D) and Steve Westley (D) over George Radanovich (R), Tom Campbell (Liberty) and Judy May Eng (Green)
2014 runoff: Steve Westley (D)
2018 blanket primary: Cruz Bustamante (D) and Steve Knight (R) over Malia Cohen (Green), Oliver Stone (Bigfoot) and Mary “The Fringe Centerfold Candidate” Carey (Natural Mind)
2018 runoff: Steve Knight (R)

Lieutenant Governors of CALIFORNIA
1959-1967: 37) Glenn M. Anderson (D)
1967-1971: 38) Rob Finch (R)
1971-1975: 39) Ed Reinecke (R)
1975-1979: 40) Mervyn M. Dymally (D)
1979-1983: 41) Mike Curb (R)
1983-1983: 42) George Christopher (R)
1983-1987: 43) Cathie Wright (R)
1987-2003: 44) Leo T. McCarthy (D)
2003-2003: 45) John L. Burton (D)
2003-2005: 46) Debbie Cook (D)
2005-2007: 47) Audie Bock (Green)
2007-2011: 48) Liz Figueroa (D)
2011-2012: 49) Cruz Bustamante (D)
2012-2019: 50) Delaine Eastin (D)
2019-present: 51) Mark Leno (D)



Governors of COLORADO

1957-1963: Stephen McNichols (D) – lost re-election
1956: Donald G. Brotzman (R)
1958: Palmer L. Burch (R)

1963-1975: John Arthur Love (R) – retired
1962: Stephen McNichols (D)
1966: Robert Lee Knous (D) and Walter R. Plankinton (HIP)
1970: Mark Hogan (D) and Albert Gurule (La Raza Unida)

1975-1979: Dick Lamm (D) – lost re-election
1974: John David Vanderhoof (R) and Earl Dodge (Prohibition)

1979-1987: Bill Daniels (R) – retired
1978: Dick Lamm (D), Roy Peister (Tea) and Earl Dodge (Prohibition)
1982: Raymond Kogovsek (D), Paul K. Grant (Libertarian), John D. Fuhr (Country), Earl Dodge (Prohibition)

1987-1991: Byron L. Johnson (D) – lost re-election
1986: Bob Leon Kirscht (R)

1991-1995: John Andrews (R) – lost re-election
1990: Byron L. Johnson (D)

1995-2007: Wellington Webb (D) – retired
1994: John Andrews (R)
1998: Gene Nichol (R)
2002: Bo Callaway (R)

2007-2011: Jane E. Norton (R) – lost re-nomination
2006: Gail Schoettler (D) and Mary Lou Makepeace (I)

2011-2019: William “Bill” Thiebaut Jr. (D) – retired
2010: Sandra D. Johnson (R)
2014: Patricia Elaine Miller (R)

2019-present: Mark Allen Callahan (R) – incumbent
2018: Bernie Buescher (D), A. Harlan Romanoff (G) and Joseph A. Garcia (La Raza Unida)

Lieutenant Governors of COLORADO
1959-1967: 36) Robert Lee Knous (D)
1967-1971: 37) Mark Anthony Hogan (D)
1971-1975: 38) John D. Vanderhoof (R)
1975-1979: 39) George L. Brown (D)
1979-1987: 40) Ted L. Strickland (R)
1987-1991: 41) Mike Callihan (D)
1991-1995: 42) Lillian Bickel (R)
1995-2007: 43) Gail Schoettler (D)
2007-2011: 44) Clyde Harkins (R)
2011-2019: 45) A. Harlan Romanoff (D until 2018, then G)
2019-present: 46) Cynthia Coffman (R)



Governors of CONNECTICUT

1955-1963: 80) Abraham Ribicoff (D) – retired
1954: John Davis Lodge (R)
1958: Fred R. Zeller (R)

1963-1971: 81) John N. Dempsey (D) – retired
1962: John deKoven Alsop (R)
1966: E. Clayton Gengras (R)

1971-1975: 82) Fiske Holcomb Ventres (R) – lost re-election
1970: Attilio R. Frassinelli (D)

1975-1980: 83) Ella T. Grasso (D) – resigned from office due to poor health, died soon after from ovarian cancer
1974: Fiske Holcomb Ventres (R)
1978: Ronald Sarasin (R)

1980-1981: 84) William Ross Cotter (D) – died

1981-1991: 85) Robert K. Killian (D) – lost re-nomination
1982: Julie Belaga (R)
1986: Lowell Weicker (R)

1991-1995: 86) Eunice Groark (R) – established term-limits; retired
1990: Bill O’Neill (D)

1995-2003: 87) Bruce Morrison (D) – term-limited
1994: Jodi Rell (R)
1998: Jodi Rell (R) and Sandra Bender (Independent Democratic)

2003-2009: 88) Phyllis Busansky (D) – died
2002: John Rowland (R)
2006: Michael Fedele (R) and Roberta Scaglione (I)

2009-2011: 89) Nancy S. Wyman (D) – lost election

2011-2019: 90) Nancy Lee Johnson (R)
– term-limited
2010: Nancy S. Wyman (D)
2014: Susan Bysiewicz (D) and Nancy S. Wyman (Independent Democratic)

2019-present: 91) Ted Kennedy Jr. (D) – incumbent
2018: Prasad Srinivasan (R)

Lieutenant Governors of CONNECTICUT
1959-1963: 94) John N. Dempsey (D)
1963-1967: 95) Anthony J. Armentano (D)
1967-1971: 96) Attilio R. Frassinelli (D)
1971-1975: 97) Ronald Sarasin (R)
1975-1980: 98) William Ross Cotter (D)
1980-1981: 99) Robert K. Killian (D)
1981-1991: 100) Joseph J. Fauliso (D)
1991-1995: 101) Robert Jaekle (R)
1995-1999: 102) Joe Ganim (D)
1999-2003: 103) Joe Courtney (D)
2003-2007: 104) George Jepsen (D)
2007-2009: 105) Nancy S. Wyman (D)
2009-2011: 106) Dannel Malloy (D)
2011-2015: 107) Mark Boughton (R)
2015-2019: 108) Richard Nelson “Oz” Griebel (R)
2019-present: 109) Juan Figueroa (D)



Governors of DELAWARE

1961-1965: 64) Elbert N. Carvel (D) – term-limited
1960: John W. Rollins (R)

1965-1969: 65) David P. Buckson (R) – adjusted term limits; retired
1964: Charles L. Terry Jr. (D)

1969-1977: 66) Russell W. Peterson (R) – term-limited
1968: Charles L. Terry Jr. (D)
1972: Sherman W. Tribbitt (D) and Virginia M. Lyndall (HIP)

1977-1985: 67) Joseph R. “Joe” Biden Jr. (D) – term-limited
1976: Pete du Pont (R)
1980: Andrew Foltz (R) and George Cripps (Conservative)

1985-1992: 68) Michael Castle (R) – resigned
1984: William J. Quillen (D)
1988: Jacob Kreshtool (D)

1992-1993: 69) Shien Bau Woo (D) – completed predecessor’s term

1993-2001: 70) Janet Rzewnicki (R) – term-limited
1992: John Carney (D)
1996: Midge Osterlund (D)

2001-2009: 71) Ruth Ann Minner (D) – term-limited
2000: John Burris (R)
2004: William Swain Lee (R)

2009-2017: 72) John C. Carney Jr. (D) – term-limited
2008: William Swain Lee (R) and Robert Venables Sr. (Independent Democrat)
2012: Jeff Cragg (R)

2017-present: 73) Stephanie Hansen (D) – incumbent
2016: Kevin Wade (R)
2020: John Machurek (R)

Lieutenant Governors of DELAWARE
1961-1965: 16) Eugene Lammot (D)
1965-1969: 17) Russell W. Peterson (R)
1969-1977: 18) Eugene Bookhammer (R)
1977-1985: 19) William J. Quillen (D)
1985-1992: 20) Shien Bau Woo (D)
1992-1993: vacant
1993-2001: 21) John Burris (R)
2001-2009: 22) John C. Carney Jr. (D)
2009-2017: 23) Stephanie Hansen (D)
2017-present: 24) Matthew Denn (D)



Governors of FLORIDA

1961-1965: 34) C. Farris Bryant (D before mid-1964, HIP after mid-1964) – retired
1960: George C. Peterson (R)

1965-1967: 35) LeRoy Collins Sr. (D) – lost re-nomination
1964: Charles R. Holley (R)

1967: 36) Robert King High (D) – died
1966: Claude Kirk (R)

1967-1971: 37) Verle Allyn Pope (D) – lost re-election

1971-1979: 38) Louis Bafalis (R) – term-limited
1970: Verle Allyn Pope (D)
1974: Wayne Mixson (D)

1979-1987: 39) Jack Eckerd (R) – term-limited
1978: Buddy McKay (D)
1982: Earl Hutto (D)

1987-1995: 40) Bruce A. Smathers (D) – term-limited
1986: Louis Frey (R)
1990: Bill McCollum (R)

1995-2003: 41) LeRoy Collins Jr. (D) – term-limited
1994: Tillie K. Fowler (R)
1998: Joe Scarborough (R)

2003-2011: 42) Antoinette “Toni” Jennings (R) – term-limited
2002: Gary Pajcic (D)
2006: Bill McBride (D)

2011-2015: 43) Bob Smith (R) – lost re-election
2010: Katherine Castor (D) and Nancy Argenziano (I)

2015-2019: 44) Alex Sink (D) – lost re-election
2014: Bob Smith (R) and Pam Iorio (Independent Democratic)

2019-present: 45) Jennifer Sandra Johnson (R) – incumbent
2018: Alex Sink (D), Danny Whitney (Country) and Lewis Black (Liberty Union)

Lieutenant Governors of FLORIDA
1969-1971: 9) Thomas Burton “Tom” Adams Jr. (D)
1971-1979: 10) Ray C. Osborne (R)
1979-1981: 11) Paula Hawkins (R)
1981-1987: 12) Leo Callahan (R)
1987-1995: 13) Franklin B. Mann (D)
1995-2003: 14) Gary Pajcic (D)
2003-2011: 15) Frank Brogan (R)
2011-2015: 16) John E. Thrasher (R)
2015-2019: 17) Daniel Saul Gelber (D)
2019-present: 18) Steve Southerland (R)



Governors of GEORGIA

1959-1963: 73) Ernest Vandiver (D) – term-limited
1958: unopposed

1963-1967: 74) Carl Sanders (D) – term-limited
1962: unopposed

1967-1971: 75) Bo Callaway (R) – term-limited
1966: Jimmy Carter (D) and Lester Maddox (HIP)

1971-1975: 76) Lester Maddox (D) – term-limited
1970: James Bentley (R) and Udolpho Sikes Underwood (I)

1975-1977: 77) Bert Lance (D) – resigned
1974: Ronny Thompson (R)

1977-1979: 78) Benjamin W. Fortson Jr. (D) – term-limited

1979-1983: 79) John Skandalakis (D) – term-limited
1978: Rodney M. Cook (R) and J. B. Stoner (I)

1983-1987: 80) Hal Suit (R) – term-limited
1982: Larry McDonald (D)

1987-1988: 81) Billy Carter (D) – adjusted term limits; died
1986: Guy Davis (R)

1988-1995: 82) Jimmy Lee Jackson (D) – term-limited
1990: Guy Millner (R)

1995-2003: 83) Eston Wycliffe “Wyc” Orr Sr. (D) – term-limited
1994: Sonny Perdue (R)
1998: Mike Bowers (R)

2003-2011: 84) Karen Christine Walker (R) – term-limited
2002: Roy Barnes (D)
2006: Connie Stokes (D)

2011-2019: 85) Shirley Franklin (D) – term-limited
2010: Alveda King (R)
2014: John Barge (R)

2019-present: 86) Ben Lewis Jones (D) – incumbent
2018: Newton Leroy “Newt” Gingrich (R) and Kasim Reed (Justice)

Lieutenant Governors of GEORGIA
1959-1963: 4) Garland T. Byrd (D)
1963-1967: 5) Peter Zack Geer (D)
1967-1971: 6) George T. Smith (D)
1971-1975: 7) Peter Zack Geer (D)
1975-1979: 8) Zell Miller (D)
1979-1983: 9) Peter Zack Geer (D)
1983-1987: 10) Zell Miller (D)
1987-1988: 11) Jimmy Lee Jackson (D)
1988-1999: 12) Zell Miller (D)
1999-2003: 13) Connie Stokes (D)
2003-2011: 14) Susan Holmes (R)
2011-2017: 15) Bubber Epps (R)
2017-2019: 16) Matt Dollar (R)
2019-present: 17) Clay Cox (R)



Governors of HAWAII

1959-1962: 1) William F. Quinn (R) – lost re-election
1959: John A. Burns (D)

1962-1970: 2) John A. Burns (D) – term-limited
1962: William F. Quinn (R)
1966: Randolph Crossley (R)

1970-1978: 3) Thomas Ponce Gill (D) – term-limited
1970: Samuel Pailthorpe King (R)
1974: Randolph Crossley (R)

1978-1981: 4) Alema Leota (Independent) – impeached
1978: Frank Fasi (D) and John R. Leopold (R)

1981-1982: 5) Tokio Ige (I) – lost election

1982-1990: 6) Jean S. M. King (D) – term-limited
1982: David M. Akui (R) and incumbent Tokio Ige (I)
1986: Dominis Garrida “D. G.” Anderson (R)

1990-1997: 7) Fred Hemmings (R) – resigned
1990: John D. Waihee III (D), John P. Craven (I) and Peggy Ross (Natural Mind)
1994: Malama Solomon (D) and Frank Fasi (I)

1997-2002: 8) Pat Saiki (R) – retired
1998: Jackie King (D)

2002-2004: 9) Mike Gabbard (R) – resigned
2002: Roseanne Barr (D)

2004-2006: 10) John Carroll (R) – lost election

2006-2014: 11) Frank Hannemann (D)
– term-limited
2006: John Carroll (R)
2010: George G. Peabody (R)

2014-present: 12) Douglas “Doug” Chin (D) – incumbent
2014: Jeff Davis (R)
2018: Ray L’Heureux (R)

Lieutenant Governors of HAWAII
1959-1962: 1) James Kealoha (R)
1962-1966: 2) William S. Richardson (D)
1966-1970: 3) Thomas Ponce Gill (D)
1970-1978: 4) George Ariyoshi (D)
1978-1981: 5) Tokio Ige (I)
1981-1982: 6) Frank Pore (I)
1982-1986: 7) Nelson Doi (D)
1986-1990: 8) Ben Cayetano (D)
1990-1994: 9) Billie Beamer (R)
1994-1997: 10) Pat Saiki (R)
1997-1998: 11) Stan Koki (R)
1998-2002: 12) Linda Lingle (R)
2002-2004: 13) John Carroll (R)
2004-2006: 14) Duke Aiona (R)
2006-2014: 15) Douglas “Doug” Chin (D)
2014-present: 16) David Ige (D)



Governors of IDAHO

1955-1963: 24) Robert E. Smylie (R) – lost re-election
1954: Clark Hamilton (D)
1958: Alfred M. Derr (D)

1963-1966: 25) Vernon K. Smith (D) – died
1962: Robert E. Smylie (R)

1966-1967: 26) William Edward Drevlow (D) – retired

1967-1975: 27) Charles Herndon (D)
– set term limits; retired
1966: Don Samuelson (R), Perry Swisher (I) and Philip Jungert (I)
1970: Jack M. Murphy (R)

1975-1983: 28) Jay S. Amyx (R) – term-limited
1974: Vernon Ravenscroft (D)
1978: John V. Evans (D)

1983-1991: 29) Larry Jackson (R) – term-limited
1982: Compton Ignatius White Jr. (D)
1986: Marjorie Ruth Moon (D)

1991-1995: 30) Larry LaRocco (D) – lost re-election
1990: Roger Fairchild (R)

1995-1999: 31) Butch Otter (R) – lost re-nomination
1994: Larry LaRocco (D)

1999-2007: 32) Larry J. Echo Hawk (D) – term-limited
1998: Dirk Kempthorne (R) and Peter Rickards (I)
2002: Daniel Adams (R)

2007-2012: 33) Harley D. Brown (R) – resigned
2006: Jerry Brady (D)
2010: Robert C. Huntley (D)

2012-2015: 34) Sharon L. Block (R) – retired

2015-present: 35) Butch Otter (R) – incumbent
2014: Brian C. Cronin (D)
2018: Michelle Stennett (D)

Lieutenant Governors of IDAHO
1959-1966: 31) William Edward Drevlow (D)
1966-1967: 32) Charles Herndon (D)
1967-1975: 33) Vernon Ravenscroft (D)
1975-1983: 34) Larry Jackson (R)
1983-1987: 35) David Leroy (R)
1987-1995: 36) Butch Otter (R)
1995-2003: 37) Jack Riggs (R)
2003-2007: 38) Jim Risch (R)
2007-2012: 39) Sharon L. Block (R)
2012-present: 40) Brad Little (R)



Governors of ILLINOIS

1961-1965: 33) Otto Kerner Jr. (D) – lost re-election
1960: William Stratton (R)

1965-1973: 34) Charles Percy (R) – retired
1964: Otto Kerner Jr. (D)
1968: Samuel H. Shapiro (D)

1973-1981: 35) Paul Simon (D) – retired
1972: Richard B. Ogilvie (R)
1976: J. R. Thompson (R)

1981-1991: 36) John B. Anderson (R) – established term limits; retired
1980: Neil F. Hartigan (D)
1982: Adlai Stevenson III (D)
1986: Adlai Stevenson III (D)

1991-1999: 37) Jim Edgar (R) – term-limited
1990: Frank Annunzio (D)
1994: Dawn Netsch (D)

1999-2003: 38) Darrell Issa (R) – retired
1998: Glenn Poshard (D)

2003-2004: 39) Jim Cantalupo (R) – died in office from a sudden heart attack
2002: Pat Quinn (D)

2004-2008: 40) Corrine J. Wood (R) – resigned for a position in the Wellstone administration
2006: Edwin Eisendrath (D)

2008-2015: 41) Roland Burris (D) – retired
2010: Kirk W. Dillard (R)

2015-present: 42) Al Giannoulias (D) – Greek-American; incumbent
2014: Christine Radogno (R)
2018: Jeanne Ives (R) and Chris Fleming (Bigfoot)

Lieutenant Governors of ILLINOIS
1961-1969: 38) Samuel H. Shapiro (D)
1969-1973: 39) Paul Simon (D)
1973-1981: 40) Neil Haritgan (D)
1981-1999: 41) George H. Ryan (R)
1999-2004: 42) Corrine J. Wood (R)
2004-2007: vacant
2007-2008: 43) Roland Burris (D)
2008-2011: vacant
2011-2015: 44) Daniel W. Hynes (D)
2015-present: 45) Litesa Wallace (D)



Governors of INDIANA

1957-1961: 40) Harold W. Handley (R) – term-limited
1956: Ralph Tucker (D)

1961-1965: 41) Crawford Fairbanks Parker (R) – term-limited
1960: Matthew E. Welsh (D)

1965-1969: 42) Richard O. Ristine (R) – term-limited
1964: Roger D. Branigin (D)

1969-1973: 43) J. Irwin Miller (R) – term limits adjusted in 1972; retired
1968: Robert L. Rock (D) and Melvin E. Hawk (Prohibition)

1973-1977: 44) Robert L. Rock (D) – lost re-election
1972: Otis Bowen (R), Berryman S. Hurley (HIP) and Finley N. Campbell (NM)

1977-1981: 45) Danny Lee Burton (R) – retired
1976: Robert L. Rock (D)

1981-1989: 46) Dan Quayle (R) – term-limited
1980: John A. Hillenbrand (D)
1984: Richard Gordon Hatcher (D)

1989-1997: 47) Evan Bayh (D) – term-limited
1988: John Mutz (R)
1992: Lindley Pearson (R)

1997-2005: 48) Steve Goldsmith (R) – term-limited
1996: Frank O’Bannon (D)
2000: Joe Kernan (D)

2005-2009: 49) Jill Long Thompson (D) – lost re-election
2004: David Martin McIntosh (R (official write-in)), Ken Gividen (Liberty) and Jonathon Sharkey (R/VWP)

2009-2013: 50) Rupert Boneham (R) – lost re-election
2008: Jill Long Thompson (D)

2013-2021: 51) John R. Gregg (D) – term-limited
2012: Rupert Boneham (R)
2016: Allen Lucas Messer (R) and Thomas McDermott Jr. (Rent Regulation, endorsed by Jimmy McMillan/NY Working Families)

2021-present: 52) Ben Quayle (R) – incumbent
2020: Jonathan Weinzapfel (D) and Karen Freeman-Wilson (Green)

Lieutenant Governors of INDIANA
1961-1965: 41) Richard O. Ristine (D)
1965-1969: 42) Robert L. Rock (D)
1969-1973: 43) Richard C. Bodine (D)
1973-1981: 44) Robert D. Orr (R)
1981-1989: 45) John Mutz (R)
1989-1997: 46) Frank O’Bannon (D)
1997-2005: 47) Linley E. Pearson (R)
2005-2013: 48) David McIntosh (R)
2013-2021: 49) Mitch Daniels (R)
2021-present: 50) Jennifer McCormick (R)



Governors of IOWA

1961-1963: 35) Norman A. Erbe (R) – lost re-election
1960: Edward J. McManus (D)

1963-1967: 36) Harold Hughes (D) – resigned
1962: Norman A. Erbe (R)
1964: Evan L. “Curly” Hultman (R) and Robert Dilley (HIP)

1967-1967: 37) Robert D. Fulton (D) – finished predecessor’s term

1967-1971: 38) Robert D. Ray (R) – lost re-election
1966: Robert D. Fulton (D) and David B. Quiner (HIP)
1968: Paul Franzenburg (D)

1971-1979: 39) Armour Boot (D) – retired
1970: Robert D. Ray (R)
1974: Arthur Alan Neu (R)

1979-1983: 40) Chuck Grassley (R) – lost re-election
1978: Jerome D. Fitzgerald (D)

1983-1991: 41) Jo Ann McIntosh Zimmerman (D) – term-limited
1982: Chuck Grassley (R)
1986: Roxanne Conlin (R)

1991-1999: 42) Joy Coming (R) – term-limited
1990: Donald Avenson (D)
1994: Bonnie Campbell (D)

1999-2007: 43) Sally Pederson (D) – term-limited
1998: Tom Tauke (R)
2002: Kim Reynolds (R)

2007-2015: 44) Fred Grandy (R) – former actor; term-limited
2006: Mike Blouin (D)
2010: Pam Jochum (D)

2015-present: 45) Kimberly Ann McFadden (R) – incumbent
2014: Jack Hatch (D) and Chris Reed (Independent R)
2018: Cathy Glasson (D)

Lieutenant Governors of IOWA
1961-1965: 36) William Lewis Mooty (R)
1965-1967: 37) Robert D. Fulton (D)
1967-1975: 38) Roger Jepsen (R)
1975-1983: 39) Roxanne Conlin (R)
1983-1991: 40) Terry Branstad (R)
1991-1995: 41) Bonnie Campbell (D)
1995-2003: 42) Ann Dearing Holtgren Pellegreno (R)
2003-2011: 43) Pam Jochum (D)
2011-2019: 44) Cathy Glasson (D)
2019-present: 45) Rita Hart (D)



Governors of KANSAS

1961-1965: 36) John Anderson Jr. (R) – retired
1960: George Docking (D)
1962: Dale Saffels (D)

1965-1967: 37) William H. Avery (R) – lost re-election
1964: Harry G. Wiles (D) and Kenneth L. Myers (HIP)

1967-1975: 38) Robert B. Docking (D) – retired
1966: William H. Avery (R) and Rolland Ernest Fisher (Prohibition)
1968: Rick Harman (R)
1970: Kent Frizzell (R)
1972: Morris Kay (R)

1975-1987: 39) Robert Frederick Bennett (R) – lost re-election
1974: Vern Miller (D) and Marshall Uncapher (Prohibition)
1978: John W. Carlin (D) and Frank W. Shelton Jr. (American)
1982: John W. Carlin (D)

1987-1995: 40) Jim Slattery (D) – retired
1986: Robert Frederick Bennett (R)
1990: Mike Hayden (R) and Christina Campbell-Cline (I)

1995-2003: 41) Martha Keys (D) – term-limited
1994: Jan Meyers (R)
1998: Bill Graves (R)

2003-2007: 42) Nancy Boyda (D) – term-limited
2002: Tim Shallenburger (R)

2007-2015: 43) Lynn Jenkins (R) – term-limited
2006: Nancy Boyda (D)
2010: Jill Docking (D)

2015-present: 44) Susan Wagle (R) – incumbent
2014: Carl Brewer (D)
2018: Pam Horton Curtis (D)

Lieutenant Governors of KANSAS
1961-1965: 34) Harold H. Chase (R)
1965-1973: 35) John Crutcher (R)
1973-1975: 36) James H. DeCoursey Jr. (D)
1975-1976: 37) Harold H. Chase (R)
1976-1979: 38) Shelby Smith (R)
1979-1987: 39) Paul Dugan (D)
1987-1995: 40) Jack D. Walker (R)
1995-2003: 41) Sheila Frahm (R)
2003-2011: 42) Gary Sherrer (R)
2011-2015: 43) Susan Wagle (R)
2015-present: 44) Jeff Colyer (R)



Governors of KENTUCKY

1947-1950: 47) Earle Clements (D) – resigned
1947: Eldon S. Dummit (R)

1950-1955: 48) Lawrence Wetherby (D) – term-limited
1951: Eugene Siler (R)

1955-1959: 49) Harland David “(The) Colonel” Sanders Sr. (R) – retired as part of bipartisan deal to extend term limits
1955: Albert B. “Happy” Chandler (D)

1959-1967: 50) Bert T. Combs (D) – term-limited
1959: Edwin Denney (R)
1963: Louie Nunn (R)

1967-1975: 51) John M. Robsion Jr. (R) – term-limited
1967: Ed Breadthitt (D) and Christian Glanz (HIP)
1971: Happy Chandler (D) and Louie Nunn (HIP)

1975-1979: 52) Mary Louise Foust (R) – first female Governor; lost re-election
1975: Wendell H. Ford (D) and Louie Nunn (HIP)

1979-1980: 53) John B. Breckinridge (D) – died in office suddenly from a heart ailment
1979: Mary Louise Foust (R)

1980-1987: 54) Martha Layne Osborne (nee Hall) (D) – term-limited
1981 (sp): Thurman Jerome Hamlin (R)
1983: Jim Bunning (R)

1987-1995: 55) Bucky Ray Jarrell (D) – term-limited
1987: John Harper (R)
1991: Larry Forgy (R)

1995-1999: 56) Sonny Landham (R) – former actor; lost re-election
1995: Bob Babbage (D)

1999-2007: 57) Gatewood Galbraith (D) – term-limited
1999: Sonny Landham (R) and Louie Nunn (I)
2003: Rebecca Jackson (R)

2007-2015: 58) Darryl Owens (D) – first African-American Governor of Kentucky; term-limited
2007: Donna Walker Mancini (R) and Jackson W. Andrews (Independent Democrat)
2011: Thomas Massie (R)

2015-present: 59) Hal Heiner (R) – incumbent
2015: Geoff Young (D)
2019: Adam Edelen (D)

Lieutenant Governors of KENTUCKY
1947-1950: 40) Lawrence W. Wetherby (D)
1950-1951: vacant
1951-1955: 41) Doc Beauchamp (D)
1955-1959: 42) Ed Denney (R)
1959-1963: 43) Wilson W. Wyatt (D)
1963-1967: 44) H. Bernie Lawrence (R)
1967-1975: 45) Mary Louise Faust (R)
1975-1979: 46) Thurman Jerome Hamlin (R)
1979-1980: 47) Martha Layne Hall Osborne (D)
1980-1980: vacant
1980-1983: 48) Steve Beshear (D)
1983-1987: 49) Brereton C. Jones (D)
1987-1995: 50) Bob Babbage (D)
1995-1999: 51) Rebecca Jackson (R)
1999-2007: 52) Darryl Owens (D)
2007-2015: 53) Geoff Young (D)
2015-present: 54) Julie Denton (R)



Governors of LOUISIANA

1960-1964: (47)) Jimmie Davis (D) – term-limited
1959: Francis Grevemberg (R)

1964-1968: 49) Gillis Long (D) – term-limited
1963: Charlton Lyons (R)

1968-1972: 50) John J. McKeithen (D) – term-limited
1967: Charlton Lyons (R) and John Rarick (HIP)

1972-1976: (47)) Jimmie Davis (D) – term-limited
1971: Robert Max Ross (R)

1976-1980: 51) Edwin Edwards (D) – term-limited
1975: Robert G. Jones (D) and Wade O. Martin Jr. (D)

1980-1984: 52) James Edward “Jimmy” Fitzmorris Jr. (D) – term-limited
1979: Edgar Gonzague “Sonny” Mouton Jr. (D)

1984-1985: (49)) Gillis W. Long (D) – died in office suddenly from a heart attack
1983: Henson Moore (R)

1985-1988: 53) Robert Louis Freeman Sr. (D) – term-limited

1988-1992: 54) Edith Kirkpatrick (D) – first female Governor of Louisiana; term-limited
1987: Billy Tauzin (D), Speedy Oteria Long (D), James H. Brown (D), and Bob Livingston (R)

1992-1996: 55) W. Fox McKeithen (R) – term-limited
1991: Kathleen “Kat” Blanco (D)

1996-2000: 56) Cleo Fields (D) – first African-American Governor of Louisiana; term-limited
1995: T. Lee Horne III (R)

2000-2004: (55)) W. Fox McKeithen (R) – term-limited
1999: Melinda Schwegmann (D)

2004-2008: 57) Harry Shearer (D) – term-limited and returned to acting
2003: Huntington Downer (R)

2008-2012: 58) Steve Scalise (R) – term-limited
2007: Foster Campbell (D), Walt Boasso (D) and C. E. “Peppi” Bruneau Jr. (R)

2012-2016: 59) Sharon Woodall Hewitt (R) – term-limited
2011: Dorothy A. Brown

2016-2020: 60) Joseph M. Nixon (R) – term-limited
2015: John N. Kennedy (D)

2020-present: 61) Caroline Fayard (D) – incumbent
2019: Clay John Schexnayder (R)

Lieutenant Governors of LOUISIANA
1960-1972: 45) Clarence C. “Taddy” Aycock (D)
1972-1980: 46) James Edward “Jimmy” Fitzmorris Jr. (D)
1980-1985: 47) Robert Louis Freeman Sr. (D)
1985-1985: vacant
1985-1988: 48) James H. “Jim” Brown (D)
1988-1992: 49) Paul Hardy (R)
1992-1996: 50) Melinda Schwegmann (D)
1996-2011: 51) Kathleen “Kat” Blanco (D)
2011-2011: vacant
2011-2012: 52) Sharon Woodall Hewitt (R)
2012-2016: 53) Benedict G. “Benny” Rouselle (I)
2016-present: 54) Elbert Guillory (R)



Governors of MAINE

1959-1959: 66) Clinton A. Clauson (D) – died in office
1958: Horace A. Hildreth (R)

1959-1971: 67) John H. Reed (R) – term-limited
1962: Maynard Dolloff (D)
1966: Kenneth M. Curtis (D)

1971-1979: 68) Pete Kyros (D) – term-limited
1970: James S. Erwin (R)
1974: James B. Longley (I) and James Erwin (R)

1979-1983: 69) Linwood E. Palmer Jr. (R) – lost re-election
1978: Joseph Brennan (D)

1983-1987: 70) Helen Longley (Progressive) – retired
1982: Linwood E. Palmer Jr. (R) and Joseph Brennan (D)

1987-1995: 71) Libby Mitchell (D) – term-limited
1986: John McKernan (R) and Sherry Huber (Progressive)
1990: Andrew Adam (R) and John Menario (Progressive)

1995-2003: 72) James B. Longley Jr. (I) – term-limited
1994: Andrew Adam (D) and Richard David Hewes (R)
1998: Tom Connolly (D) and William Clarke (R)

2003-2007: 73) Matthew Dunlap (D/DSA) – lost re-election
2002: Tom Connolly (R), Jonathan Carter (G) and John Michael (I)

2007-2015: 74) Peter E. Cianchette (R) – term-limited
2006: incumbent Matthew Dunlap (D/DSA) and Jonathan Carter (G)
2010: Barbara Merrill (D) and Lynne Williams (I)

2015-2019: 75) Patricia LaMarche (Green) – lost re-election
2014: Kimberley Clark Rosen (R) and Hannah Pingree (D)

2019-present: 76) Cynthia Dill (D) – incumbent
2018 (first round of RCV): Marianne Moore (R), Patricia LaMarche (Green) and Justin Alfond (Independent)
2018 (final round of RCV): Marianne Moore (R)

Presidents of the Senate of MAINE
1958-1959: John H. Reed (R)
1959-1962: Earle M. Hillman (R)
1962-1964: Robert A. Marden (R)
1964-1968: Carlton Day Reed Jr. (D)
1968-1974: Kenneth P. MacLeod (R)
1974-1982: Joseph Sewall (R)
1982-1984: Gerard Conley (D)
1984-1992: Charles P. Pray (D)
1992-1996: Dennis L. Dutremble (D)
1996-2000: Jeffrey Butland (R)
2000-2001: Mike Michaud (D)
2001-2002: Richard A. Bennett (R)
2002-2008: Beverly Daggett (D)
2008-2012: Beth Edmonds (D)
2012-2016: Eloise Vitelli (D)
2016-2020: Catherine Breen (D)
2020-present: Matthea Elisabeth Larsen-Daughtry (D)



Governors of MARYLAND

1959-1967: 54) J. Millard Tawes (D) – term-limited
1958: James P. S. Devereux (R)
1962: Frank Small Jr. (R)

1967-1971: 55) Spiro Agnew (R) – Greek-American; lost re-election
1966: Hyman Pressman (D) and George Mahoney (HIP)

1971-1977: 56) Marvin Mandel (D) – resigned
1970: Spiro Agnew (R) and Robert Woods Merkle Sr. (HIP)
1974: Louise Gore (R)

1977-1987: 57) Blair Lee III (D) – term-limited
1978: John Glenn Beall Jr. (R)
1982: Robert A. Pascal (R)

1987-1990: 58) William O. Mills (R) – committed suicide amid numerous scandals
1986: Stephen H. Sachs (D)

1990-1991: 59) Melvin A. Bilal (R) – lost election

1991-1999: 60) Decatur “Bucky” Trotter (D)
– term-limited
1990: Melvin A. Bilal (R)
1994: Ellen Sauerbrey (R)

1999-2007: 61) Eileen Rehrmann (D) – lost re-election
1998: Helen Delich Bentley (R)
2002: Spear Lancaster (R)

2007-2015: 62) John P. Sarbanes (D) – term-limited
2006: Bob Ehrlich (R)
2010: Dean Ahmad (R/L) and Dan Bongino (I)

2015-present: 63) Kumar P. Barve (D) – incumbent
2014: Daniel Bongino (R)
2018: Jonathan Bartlett Jennings (R)

Lieutenant Governors of MARYLAND
1971-1977: 2) Blair Lee III (D)
1977-1983: 3) Samuel W. Bogley (D)
1983-1987: 4) J. Joseph Curran Jr. (D)
1987-1990: 5) Melvin A. Bilal (R)
1990-1991: 6) Ellen Sauerbrey (R)
1991-1999: 7) Eileen M. Rehrmann (D)
1999-2007: 8) Parris Glendening (D)
2007-2015: 9) Kumar P. Barve (D)
2015-present: 10) Kenneth Ulman (D)



Governors of MASSACHUSETTS

1961-1963: 61) John Volpe (R) – lost re-election
1960: Joseph D. Ward (D)

1963-1965: 62) Endicott Peabody (D) – lost re-election
1962: John Volpe (R)

1965-1971: 63) John Volpe (R) – retired
1964: Endicott Peabody (D)
1966: Edward J. McCormack Jr. (D)

1971-1977: 64) Pierre Salinger (D) – resigned
1970: Francis W. Sargent (R)
1974: John Frederick Collins (R)

1977-1991: 65) Michael Dukakis (D) – retired
1978: Lou Nickinello (R)
1982: Christopher A. Iannella (R) and Paul Tsongas (Liberty)
1986: George Kariotis (R), John Cassavetes (Liberty), Christy Mihos (I) and Nick Paleologos (I)

1991-1999: 66) Evelyn Murphy (D) – lost re-nomination
1990: Steven Pierce (R)
1994: Paul Tsongas (Liberty) and Argeo Paul Cellucci (R)

1999-2015: 67) Michael Dukakis (D) – retired
1998: George Bachrach (R) and Paul Loscocco (I)
2002: Daniel Grabauskas (R)
2006: Christy Mihos (R)
2010: Patrick Guerriero (R)

2015-present: 68) Maura Healey (D) – incumbent
2014: Gabriel Eduardo Gomez (R) and Scott Lively (Boulder)
2018 (RCV): Kerry Healey (R), Bruce Tarr (R), Steven Xiarhos (R)

Lieutenant Governors of MASSACHUSETTS
1961-1963: 60) Edward F. McLaughlin Jr. (D)
1963-1965: 61) Francis X. Bellotti (D)
1965-1967: 62) Elliot Richardson (R)
1967-1971: 63) Francis Sargent (R)
1971-1977: 64) Michael Dukakis (D)
1977-1979: vacant
1979-1987: 65) Thomas P. O’Neill III (D)
1987-1991: 66) Joyce Spiliotis (D)
1991-1999: 67) Ted Speliotis (D)
1999-2007: 68) Sally Kerans (D)
2007-2011: 69) Gale Candaras (D)
2011-2015: 70) Demetrius Atsalis (D)
2015-2019: 71) Leland Cheung (D)
2019-present: 72) Jay Gonzalez (D)



Governors of MICHIGAN

1961-1963: 42) John Swainson (D) – lost re-election
1960: Paul D. Bagwell (R)

1963-1971: 43) George W. Romney (R) – retired
1962: John Swainson (D)
1964: Neil O. Staebler (D)
1966: Zolton Ferency (D)

1971-1979: 44) Martha Griffiths (D) – retired
1970: William Milliken (R)
1974: Marvin Leonel Esch (R)

1979-1983: 45) Soapy Williams (D) – retired
1978: William Milliken (R)

1983-1989: 46) Elly M. Peterson (R) – resigned
1982: Soapy Williams (D), Don Riegle (Progressive) and Jimmy Hoffa (Workers’)
1986: William B. Fitzgerald Jr. (D)

1989-1991: 47) James H. Brickley (R) – lost election

1991-2003: 48) James J. Blanchard (D)
– lost re-election
1990: James H. Brickley (R)
1994: Connie Binsfeld (R)
1998: Allen Alley (R)

2003-2011: 49) Ronna Romney (R) – retired
2002: James J. Blanchard (D)
2006: David Bonior (D)

2011-2019: 50) Michael Moore (D) – retired
2010: Cornelius Pieter “Pete” Hoekstra (R)
2014: John Hoogendyk (R)

2019-present: 51) Brian Calley (R) – incumbent
2018: Abdul El-Sayed (D)

Lieutenant Governors of MICHIGAN
1959-1961: 52) John Swainson (D)
1961-1965: 53) T. John Lesinski (D)
1965-1971: 54) William G. Milliken (R)
1971-1975: 55) Carl Levin (D)
1975-1983: 56) James Damman (R)
1983-1989: 57) James H. Brickley (R)
1989-1989: vacant
1989-1991: 58) Connie Binsfeld (R)
1991-2003: 59) Olivia Maynard (D)
2003-2011: 60) Dick Posthumus (R)
2011-2019: 61) Lisa Brown (D)
2019-present: 62) Patrick J. Colbeck (R)



Governors of MINNESOTA

1955-1963: 29) Orville Freeman (DFL) – lost re-election
1954: C. Elmer Anderson (R)
1956: Ancher Nelson (R)
1958: George MacKinnon (R)
1960: Elmer L. Andersen (R)

1963-1967: 30) Donald Orr Wright Sr. (R) – lost re-nomination
1962: Orville Freeman (DFL)

1967-1975: 31) Coya Knutson (DFL) – first female Governor of Minnesota; retired
1966: Harold LeVander (R)
1970: Douglas M. Head (R)

1975-1976: 32) Odin Langen (R) – resigned
1974: Edward J. Gearty (DFL)

1976-1979: 33) Clark MacGregor (R) – lost election

1979-1991: 34) Coya Knutson (DFL) – retired
1978: Clark MacGregor (R) and Richard Pedersen (American)
1982: Wheelock “Whee” Whitney Jr. (Independent-Republican-Liberty)
1986: Jon Grunseth (Independent-Republican-Liberty) and Florian Chmielewski (I)

1991-1995: 35) Rudy Perpich (DFL) – died in office from cancer
1990: Bill Frenzel (R), Jerome M. Hughes (Independent), and Arlan Stangeland (Liberty)
1994: Harveydale Maruska (IRL (Independence-Republican-Liberty))

1995-2000: 36) Paul David Wellstone (DFL) – resigned to become Vice President of the United States
1998: Frank Germann (IRL) and Warren Limmer (Sanctity)

2000-2011: 37) Nancy Elizabeth Lee Johnson (DFL) – retired
2002: Steven Sviggum (IRL)
2006: Tom Emmer (IRL)

2011-2016: 38) Alex Kozinski (IRL) – impeached
2010: Rick Nolan (DFL), David Tomassoni (Green) and Rick Staneck (Boulder)
2014: Margaret Kelliher (DFL) and Sandy Pappas (Green)

2016-2019: 39) Michelle Bachmann (IRL) – lost re-election

2019-present: 40) Melvin Carter (DFL) – first African-American Governor of Minnesota; incumbent
2018: Michelle Bachmann (IRL) and Maureen Reed (Green)

Lieutenant Governors of MINNESOTA
1955-1963: 36) Karl Rolvaag (DFL)
1963-1967: 37) Alex Keith (DFL)
1967-1975: 38) Ed Gearty (DFL)
1975-1976: 39) Clark MacGregor (R)
1976-1976: vacant
1976-1979: 40) Wheelock “Whee” Whitney Jr. (R)
1979-1983: 41) Warren Spannaus (DFL)
1983-1989: 42) Rudy Perpich (DFL)
1989-1989: vacant
1989-1991: 43) Marlene Johnson (DFL)
1991-1995: 44) Paul Wellstone (DFL)
1995-1995: vacant
1995-2000: 45) Nancy Johnson (DFL)
2000-2001: vacant
2001-2011: 46) Judy Dutcher (DFL)
2011-2016: 47) Michelle Bachmann (IRL)
2016-2016: vacant
2016-2019: 48) Patti Anderson (IRL)
2019-present: 49) Rebecca Otto (DFL)



Governors of MISSISSIPPI

1960-1964: 53) Ross Barnett (D) – term-limited
1959: unopposed

1964-1968: 54) Paul B. Johnson Jr. (D) – term-limited
1963: Ruben Phillips (R)

1968-1972: 55) Ruben Phillips (R) – term-limited
1967: William Winter (D)

1972-1976: 56) Walter Nixon (D) – term-limited
1971: Gil Carmichael (R) and Charles Evers (I)

1976-1980: 57) William Winter (D) – term-limited
1975: Gil Carmichael (R)

1980-1984: 58) Evelyn Gandy (D) – term-limited
1979: Charles Evers (R) and Arthur Eaves Sr. (I)

1984-1986: 59) Cliff Finch (D) – died in office from a sudden heart attack
1983: Wayne Dowdy (R)

1986-1988: 60) Evelyn Gandy (D) – retired

1988-1996: 61) Ray Mabus (D) – term-limited
1987: Rex Armistead (R)
1991: Pete Johnson (R)

1996-2000: 62) Rev. Estus Pirkle (R) – lost re-election
1995: Dick Molpus (D)

2000-2004: 63) Unita Zelma Blackwell (D) – first female African-American Governor of Mississippi; retired
1999: Estus Pirkle (R) and Ed Briggs (M)

2004-2008: 64) James Earl Chaney (D) – lost re-election
2003: Cecil Ray Price (R)

2008-2012: 65) Hudson Holliday (R) – retired
2007: James Earl Chaney (D) and Louis Fondren (Reform)

2012-2016: 66) Martha Rainville (R) – lost re-nomination
2011: Jim Hood (D)

2016-present: 67) Robert Gray (D) – incumbent
2015: Michael Watson (R)
2019: Phil Gunn (R)

Lieutenant Governors of MISSISSIPPI
1960-1964: 23) Paul B. Johnson Jr. (D)
1964-1966: (22)) Carroll Gartin (D)
1966-1968: vacant
1968-1972: 24) Charles L. Sullivan (D)
1972-1976: 25) Cliff Finch (D)
1976-1980: 26) Evelyn Gandy (D)
1980-1984: (25)) Cliff Finch (D)
1984-1986: (26)) Evelyn Gandy (D)
1986-1988: vacant
1988-1996: 27) Brad Dye (D)
1996-2004: 28) Eddie Briggs (R)
2004-2012: 29) Michael Watson (R)
2012-2020: (28)) Eddie Briggs (R)
2020-present: 30) Jason M. White (R)



Governors of MISSOURI

1957-1965: 44) James T. Blair Jr. (D) – term-limited
1956: Lon Hocker (R)
1960: Edward G. Farmer (R)

1965-1973: 45) Ethan A. H. Shepley (R) – term-limited
1964: Warren E. Hearnes (D)
1968: Thomas F. Eagleton (D), Lawrence K. Roos (Missourian) and Bill Beeny (HIP)

1973-1977: 46) James W. Symington (D) – lost re-nomination
1972: Christopher S. “Kit” Bond (R)

1977-1985: 47) Bill Bradley (D) – term-limited
1976: Harvey F. Euge (R) and Helen Savio (I)
1980: Bill Phelps (R)

1985-1993: 48) Betty Cooper Hearnes (D) – term-limited
1984: Gene McNary (R) and Ken Rothman (I)
1988: Mike Roberts (R) and John Ashcroft (Country)

1993-2001: 49) Mel Carnahan (D) – term-limited
1992: William L. Webster (R)
1996: Margaret Blake Kelly (R)

2001-2009: 50) Cynthia Bowers (D) – term-limited
2000: Jim Talent (R) and Bob Holden (I)
2004: John Swenson (R)

2009-2017: 51) Perry B. Clark (D) – term-limited
2008: Kenny Hulshof (R)
2012: Dave Spence (R)

2017-2018: 52) Tom Schweich (R) – resigned to seek mental health assistance after experiencing serious thoughts of suicide
2016: Chris Koster (D)

2018-present: 53) Catherine Hanaway (R) – incumbent
2020: Sylvester “Sly” James Jr. (D)

Lieutenant Governors of MISSOURI
1961-1965: 37) Hilary A. Bush (D)
1965-1969: 38) Thomas Eagleton (D)
1969-1977: 39) William S. Morris (D)
1977-1981: 40) William C. Phelps (R)
1981-1989: 41) William L. Webster (R)
1989-1993: 42) N. William Emerson (R)
1993-1996: 43) Vincent C. Schoemehl (D)
1996-2001: 44) R. Wendell “Will” Bailey (R)
2001-2009: 45) William White (R)
2009-2017: 46) William Campbell (D)
2017-2018: 47) Catherine Hanaway (R)
2018-present: 48) William Randles (R)



Governors of MONTANA

1961-1969: 15) Donald G. Nutter (R) – retired
1960: Paul Cannon (D)
1964: Roland Renne (D)

1969-1973: 16) Tim Babcock (R) – lost re-election
1968: Forrest H. Anderson (D) and Wayne Montgomery (New Reform)

1973-1981: 17) Thomas Lee Judge (D) – retired
1972: Tim Babcock (R) and Ed Smith (New Reform)
1976: Stanley G. Stephens (R)

1981-1985: 18) Martin J. “Red” Beckman (D, I after losing re-nomination) – lost re-election
1980: Jack Ramirez (R)

1985-1993: 19) Dorothy Bradley (D) – first female Governor; retired
1984: Pat Goodover (R) and Red Beckman (I)
1988: Stan Stephens (R)

1993-1997: 20) Gordon McOmber (D) – lost re-election
1992: Marc Racicot (R)

1997-2005: 21) Denny Rehberg (R) – retired
1996: Gordon McOmber (D)
2000: Mark O’Keefe (D)

2005-2006: 22) Thomas Lee Judge (D) – died
2004: Bob Brown (R)

2006-2013: 23) Michael R. Cooney (D) – retired
2008: Rick Hill (R) and Ben Garrison (Boulder)

2013-2021: 24) Rocky McCain (R) – retired
2012: Brian Schweitzer (D), Ben Garrison (Boulder) and Lloyd Havaw Reese (I)
2016: Bill McChesney (D)

2021-present: 25) Bob Quist (D) – incumbent
2020: Albert Olszewski (R)

Lieutenant Governors of MONTANA
1961-1969: 21) Tim Babcock (R)
1969-1973: 22) Thomas Lee Judge (D)
1973-1981: 23) Martin J. “Red” Beckman (D)
1981-1989: 24) Stan Stephens (R)
1989-1993: 25) Gordon McOmber (D)
1993-1997: 26) Denny Rehberg (R)
1997-2005: 27) Judy Martz (R)
2005-2006: 28) Michael Cooney (D)
2006-2009: 29) Carol Williams (D)
2009-2013: 30) Amanda Curtis (D)
2013-2021: 31) Jon Sonju (R)
2021-present: 32) Linda McCulloch (D)



Governors of NEBRASKA

1959-1960: 29) Ralph G. Brooks (D) – died
1958: Victor Anderson (R)

1960-1961: 30) Dwight W. Burney (R) – retired

1961-1971: 31) Frank B. Morrison (D)
– retired
1960: John R. Cooper (R)
1962: Fred Seaton (R)
1964: Dwight W. Burney (R)
1966: Philip Hart Weaver (R) and Philip C. Sorensen (Liberal)

1971-1979: 32) J. James Exon (D) – term-limited
1970: Albert C. Walsh (R)
1974: Richard Marvel (R) and Ernie Chambers (I)

1979-1987: 33) Charles Thone (R) – term-limited
1978: Gerald T. Whelan (D)
1982: J. Robert “Bob” Kerrey (D)

1987-1995: 34) Helen Boosalis (D) – term-limited
1986: Kay A. Orr (R)
1990: David Domina (R)

1995-2003: 35) Kay A. Orr (R) – term-limited
1994: Maxine B. Moul (D)
1998: Kim Robak (D)

2003-2011: 36) Lowen Kruse (D) – term-limited
2002: Mike Johanns (R) and Stormy Dean (I)
2006: Dave Nabity (R)

2011-2015: 37) Ernie Chambers (I) – lost re-election
2010: John W. DeCamp (R) and Brenda J. Council (D)

2015-2020: 38) David K. Karnes (R) – resigned due to worsening cancer and died soon afterwards
2014: Kim Robak (D) and Ernie Chambers (I)
2018: Steve Lathrop (D)

2020-present: 39) Beau McCoy (R) – incumbent

Lieutenant Governors of NEBRASKA
1957-1960: 26) Dwight W. Burney (R)
1960-1965: 27) John E. Everroad (R)
1965-1967: 28) Philip C. Sorensen (D)
1967-1975: 29) Frank Marsh (R)
1975-1979: 30) Gerald T. Whelan (D)
1979-1987: 31) Roland A. Luedtke (R)
1987-1995: 32) Donald F. McGinley (D)
1995-2003: 33) Mike Johanns (R)
2003-2011: 34) Brenda J. Council (D)
2011-2019: 35) John E. Nelson (R)
2019-2020: 36) Beau McCoy (R)
2020-present: 37) Charlie Janssen (R)



Governors of NEVADA

1959-1971: 21) F. Grant Sawyer (D) – retired
1958: Charles H. Russell (R)
1962: Oran K. Grayson (R)
1966: Wilford Owen Woodruff (R) and Lloyd Gilbert (HIP)

1971-1983: 22) Rex Bell Jr. (R) – retired
1970: Mike O’Callaghan (D) and Charles Springer (I)
1974: Henry W. “Hank” Thornley (D)
1978: Robert E. Rose (D)

1983-1995: 23) Joseph Yale Resnick (D) – retired
1982: Clarence Clifton Young (R)
1986: Ed Fike (R)
1990: Charles Woods (R)

1995-2007: 24) Doug Swanson (R) – retired
1994: Sue Wagner (D)
1998: Jan Laverty Jones (D)
2002: Joe Neal (D)

2007-2011: 25) Dennis Hof (R) – lost re-election
2006: James B. Gibson (D)

2011-2015: 26) Oscar Goodman (D) – lost re-election
2010: Dennis Hof (R)

2015-2019: 27) Randy Quaid (R) – lost re-election
2014: Oscar Goodman (D)

2019-present: 28) Lucy Flores (D) – incumbent
2018: Randy Quaid (R) and Rory Reid (Compromise)

Lieutenant Governors of NEVADA
1955-1962: 21) Rex Bell (D)
1962-1962: vacant
1962-1963: 22) Maude Frazier (D)
1963-1964: 23) Paul Laxalt (R)
1964-1965: vacant
1965-1967: 24) Cameron McVicar Batjer (I)
1967-1971: 25) Ed Fike (R)
1971-1975: 26) Harry M. Reid (D)
1975-1979: 27) Robert E. Rose (D)
1979-1987: 28) Ed Fike (R)
1987-1995: 29) Sue Wagner (D)
1995-2003: 30) Dawn Gibbons (R)
2003-2011: 31) Nancy Saitta (R)
2011-2019: 32) Frankie Sue Del Papa (D)
2019-present: 33) George James Chanos (R)



Governors of NEW HAMPSHIRE

1959-1963: 70) Wesley Powell (R) – retired
1958: Bernard L. Boutin (D)
1960: Bernard L. Boutin (D

1963-1967: 71) John W. King (D) – lost re-election
1962: John Pillsbury (R)
1964: John Pillsbury (R)

1967-1973: 72) Harrison Reed Thyng (R) – retired
1966: John W. King (D)
1968: Emile R. Bussiere (D)
1970: Meldrim Thomson Jr. (HIP) and Roger Crowley (D)

1973-1981: 73) Malcolm McLane (D) – retired
1972: Chester Earl Merrow (R)
1974: David L. Nixon (R)
1976: Walter R. Peterson Jr. (R)
1978: Mabel Everett (R)

1981-1985: 74) Walter R. Peterson Jr. (R) – retired
1980: Thomas B. Wingate (D)
1982: John W, King (D)

1985-1991: 75) Calvin Warburton (R) – retired
1984: Chris Spirou (D)
1986: Paul McEachern (D) and Paul N. Gagnon (Independent)
1988: Paul N. Gagnon (D)

1991-1993: 76) Bob Smith (R) – lost re-election
1990: Joe Grandmaison (D) and Miriam Luce (Liberty)

1993-1997: 77) Chris Spirou (D) – lost re-election
1992: Bob Smith (R) and Miriam Luce (Liberty)
1994: Steve Winter (R)

1997-1999: 78) Ovide Lamontagne (R) – lost re-election
1996: Chris Spirou (D)

1999-2005: 79) George Condodemetraky (D) – retired
1998: Ovide Lamontage (R)
2000: John Babiarz (R)
2002: Craig Benson (R)

2005-2009: 80) Kelley Ashby (R) – retired to run for a US Senate seat
2004: John Lynch (D)
2006: John Lynch (D)

2009-2011: 81) Sherman Packard (R) – lost re-election
2008: Mark Fernald (D)

2011-2017: 82) Rushern L. Baker III (D) – retired
2010: Sherman Packard (R)
2012: John Henry Sununu (R) and William Byrk (I)
2014: Walt Havenstein (R)

2017-2021: 83) Darryl W. Perry (R) – lost re-election
2016: Andrew Hosmer (D)
2018: Andru H. Volinsky (D)

2021-present: 84) Martha S. Hennessey (D) – incumbent
2020: Darryl W. Perry (R)

Presidents of the Senate of NEW HAMPSHIRE
1959-1961: Norman A. Packard (R)
1961-1963: Samuel Green (R)
1963-1965: Phillip S. Dunlap ( R)
1965-1968: Stewart Lamprey (R)
1968-1970: Arthur Tufts (R)
1970-1972: John R. Bradshaw (R)
1972-1974: David L. Nixon (R)
1974-1976: Alf E. Jacobson (R)
1976-1978: Mabel Everett (R)
1978-1980: Robert B. Monier (R)
1980-1982: Vesta M. Roy (R)
1982-1984: William S. Bartlett, Jr. (R)
1984-1986: Edward C. Dupont, Jr. (R)
1986-1988: Ralph D. Hough (R)
1988-1990: Joseph L. Delahunty (R)
1990-1992: David W. Hess (R)
1992-1994: Sherman Packard (R)
1994-1996: Clesson J. Blaisdell (D)
1996-1998: Arthur P. Klemm, Jr. (R)
1998-2000: Gary Lambert (R)
2000-2002: Debora Pignatelli (D)
2002-2004: Joseph E. “Jeb” Bradley (R)
2004-2006: Bette R. Lasky (D)
2006-2008: Michael D. Whalley (R)
2008-2010: Lucinda “Cindy” Rosenwald (D)
2010-2012: Gordon J. MacDonald (R)
2012-2014: David Boutin (D)
2014-2016: Joyce Craig (D)
2016-2018: Kevin Cavanaugh (D)
2018-2020: Dan Feltey (D)
2020-present: Scott McGilvray (D)



Governors of NEW JERSEY

1954-1962: 44) Robert B. Meyner (D) – term-limited
1953: Paul L. Troast (R)
1957: Malcolm Forbes (R)

1962-1970: 45) Richard J. Hughes (D) – term-limited
1961: James P. Mitchell (R)
1965: Wayne Dumont (R)

1970-1978: 46) Francis X. McDermott (R) – term-limited
1969: Alexander Buel “Sandy” Trowbridge III (D)
1973: Ann Klein (D)

1978-1986: 47) James J. Florio (D) – term-limited
1977: Raymond Bateman (R)
1981: Walter H. Jones (R)

1986-1993: 48) Gloria A. Decker (D) – resigned
1985: Barbara A. Curran (R)
1989: W. Cary Edwards (R)

1993-1994: Acting) Richard J. Codey (D) – retired

1994-1997: 49) Maryanne Trump Giuliani (R) – resigned
1993: Peter Shapiro (D)

1997-1998: Acting) Richard J. Codey (D) – retired

1998-1999: 50) Richard Pucci (D) – resigned
1997: José F. Sosa (R)

1999-2002: Acting) Richard J. Codey (D) – retired

2002-2003: 51) John P. O’Neill (R) – resigned
2001: Wilbur Ross (D)

2003-2008: 52) Richard J. Codey (D) – resigned
2005: Bret D. Schundler (R) and Joan Little (G)

2008-2018: 53) Joe Louis Clark (D) – term-limited
2009: Steve Lonegan (R)
2013: Joe Kyrillos (R)

2018-present: 54) Glenn K. Rieth (R) – incumbent
2017: Stephen M. Sweeney (D)

Lieutenant Governors of NEW JERSEY
2006-2008: 1) Joe Louis Clark (D)
2008-2018: 2) Peter Benson Carlisle (D)
2018-present: 3) Anna Campbell Little (R)



Governors of NEW MEXICO

1961-1962: 19) Edwin L. Mechem (R) – resigned
1960: John Burroughs (D)

1962-1963: 20) Tom Bolack (R) – retired

1963-1967: 21) Jack M. Campbell (D)
– lost re-election
1962: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1964: Merle H. Tucker (R)

1967-1971: 22) David F. Cargo (R) – lost re-election
1966: Jack M. Campbell (D)
1968: Mack Easley (D)

1971-1975: 23) Bruce King (D) – term-limited
1970: David F. Cargo (R)

1975-1979: 24) Jerry Apodaca (D) – term-limited
1974: Pete Domenici (R) and Gene Gonzales (La Raza Unida)

1979-1983: 25) Joe Skeen (R) – term-limited
1978: Bruce King (D)

1983-1987: 26) Toney Anaya (D) – term-limited
1982: John B. Irick (R)

1987-1991: 27) Fabian Chavez Jr. (D) – term-limited
1986: Joseph H. Mercer (R)

1991-1995: 28) Ben Lujan Sr. (D) – term-limited
1990: Frank M. Bond (R)

1995-1999: 29) Richard P. “Rick” Cheney (R) – term-limited
1994: Paul G. Bardacke (D) and Bill Richardson (LRU)

1999-2003: 30) Richard “Cheech” Marin (D/LRU) – term-limited
1998: John Dendahl (R)

2003-2007: 31) Gary Earl Johnson (R/Liberty) – term-limited
2002: Martin David Bacon (D/Green/DSA/LRU)

2007-2011: 32) Martin Chavez (D/LRU) – term-limited
2006: John A. Sanchez (R)

2011-2015: 33) Gary Earl Johnson (R/Liberty) – term-limited
2010: Jim Baca (D/La Raza Unida)

2015-2019: 34) Allen Edward Weh (R) – term-limited
2014: Gary King (D)

2019-present: 35) Javier Gonzales (D) – incumbent
2018: Aubrey Dunn Jr. (R) and Hector Hugo Balderas Jr. (Independent Democratic)

Lieutenant Governors of NEW MEXICO
1961-1962: 18) Tom Bolack (R)
1962-1963: vacant
1963-1967: 19) Mack Easley (D)
1967-1971: 20) Lee Francis (R)
1971-1972: 21) Roberto Mondragon (D)
1972-1975: vacant
1975-1979: 22) Robert E. Ferguson (D)
1979-1983: 23) Lee Francis (R)
1983-1987: 24) Fabian Chavez Jr. (D)
1987-1991: 25) Paul G. Bardacke (D)
1991-1995: 26) Casey Luna (D)
1995-1999: 27) John Dendahl (R)
1999-2003: 28) Martin David Bacon (D)
2003-2007: 29) John A. Sanchez (R)
2007-2011: 30) Jim Baca (D)
2011-2015: 31) John A. Sanchez (R)
2015-2019: 32) Aubrey Dunn Jr. (R)
2019-present: 33) Howie Morales (D)



Governors of NEW YORK

1/1/1959-1/23/1965: 49) Nelson Rockefeller (R) – resigned to take a Cabinet position in the Sanders Administration
1958: W. Averell Harriman (D)
1962: Robert Morgenthau (D)

1/23/1965-12/31/1966: 50) Malcolm Wilson (R) – lost election

1/1/1967-1/3/1981: 51) Mario Biaggi (D until 1978, Conservative 1978-1979, D after 1979) – resigned to take US Senate seat
1966: Malcolm Wilson (R) and Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. (Liberal)
1970: Steven Boghos Derounian (R), Arthur J. Goldberg (Liberal) and Norman Mailer (Natural Mind)
1974: Peter A. Peyser (R/Liberal)
1978: Hugh Carey (D), Nelson Rockefeller (R/Liberal) and Mary Jane Tobin (Independence)

1/3/1981-12/31/1998: 52) Mario Cuomo (D) – retired
1982: Lewis Lehrman (R/Conservative)
1986: Paul J. Curran (R/Conservative), Denis Dillon (Life) and Lenora Fulani (Green)
1990: Pierre Andrew Rinfret (R), Herbert London (Conservative), and Louis P. Wein (Life)
1994: Tom Golisano (Conservative) and Herbert London (R)

1/1/1999-12/31/2002: 53) Bernadette Castro (R) – lost re-election
1998: Mary Anne Krupsak (D), Tom Golisano (I), Roy Innis (WF), Rudy Giuliani (C), Al Lewis (G), Evan Galbraith (L), and Lenora Fulani (NM)

1/1/2003-2/21/2009: Andrew Cuomo (D) – resigned to become a US Ambassador under President Wellstone
2002: Bernadette Castro (R)
2006: James Bacalles (R)

2/21/2009-12/31/2010: Matthew Driscoll (D) – lost election

1/1/2011-12/31/2014: Blase Thomas “Tom” Golisano (I) – billionaire; retired; declined running for President in 2012, 2016 and 2020
2010: Matthew Driscoll (D/Liberal), Andrea Stewart-Cousins (Working Families/Green), William Christie Samuels (Progressive), John Edward Sweeney (R/Conservative), and Robert “Naked Cowboy” Burck (Independence/Natural Mind)

1/1/2015-present: Michael Gianaris (D) – first Greek-American Governor of New York; incumbent
2014: John M. Kennedy Jr. (R)
2018: Michael H. Ranzenhofer (R)

Lieutenant Governors of NEW YORK
1959-1965: Malcolm Wilson (R)
1965-1965: Acting) Joseph Zaretski (D)
1965-1966: Acting) Earl W. Brydges (R)
1967-1978: Howard J. Samuels (D)
1979-1981: Mario Cuomo (D)
1981-1982: Acting) Warren M. Anderson (R)
1983-1984: Howard J. Samuels (D)
1984-1986: Acting) Warren M. Anderson (R)
1987-1998: Basil Alexander Paterson (D)
1999-2001: Ralph J. Marino (R)
2001-2002: Acting) William Christie Samuels (D)
2003-2006: Ken Auletta (D)
2007-2009: Matthew Driscoll (D)
2009-2010: Acting) Andrea Stewart-Cousins (D)
2011-2014: Tom Ognibene (I)
2015-present: RoAnn Maggiolino Destito (D)



Governors of NORTH CAROLINA

1961-1965: 65) Terry Sanford (D) – term-limited
1960: Robert L. Gavin (R)

1965-1969: 66) Daniel K. Moore (D) – term-limited
1964: Robert L. Gavin (R)

1969-1973: 67) James Carson Gardner (R) – term-limited
1968: Robert W. Scott (D)

1973-1977: 68) Walter B. Jones Sr. (D) – term-limited
1972: James Holshouser (R), Hargrove “Skipper” Bowles (Independent Democrat), and Arlis F. Pettyjohn (HIP)

1977-1985: 69) Jim Hunt (D) – term-limited
1976: David Flaherty (R) and Herbert F. “Chub” Seawall Jr. (Country)
1980: Jesse Helms (R)

1985-1989: 70) Elizabeth Hanford “Liddy” Gardner (R) – lost re-election
1984: Rufus L. Edmisten (D)

1989-1997: 71) Harvey Gantt (D) – term-limited
1988: Liddy Gardner (R), Ruby T. Hooper (Independent) and Jesse Helms (Exposure)
1992: Scott McLaughlin (R)

1997-2001: 72) James Carson Gardner (R) – lost re-election
1996: Lacy Thornburg (D)

2001-2009: 73) Jim Hunt (D) – term-limited
2000: James Carson Gardner (R)
2004: Patrick Ballantine (R)

2009-2013: 74) Fern Shubert (D until mid-2009, then R) – lost re-election
2008: Fred Smith (R)

2013-2018: 75) Helen Elizabeth “Beth” Garrett (D) – died
2012: Fern Shubert (R)
2016: Clyde Robert Brawley (R)

2018-2021: 76) Cherie K. Berry (R) – lost election

2021-present: 77) Rachel Hunt (D)
– incumbent
2020: Cherie K. Berry (R)

Lieutenant Governors of NORTH CAROLINA
1961-1961: 24) Harvey Cloyd Philpott (D)
1961-1965: vacant
1965-1969: 25) Robert W. Scott (D)
1969-1973: 26) Walter B. Jones Sr. (D)
1973-1977: 27) Jim Hunt (D)
1977-1985: 28) Rufus L. Edmisten (D)
1985-1993: 29) Robert B. Jordan (D)
1993-2001: 30) Dennis Wicker (D)
2001-2009: 31) Bev Perdue (D)
2009-2013: 32) Robert Pittenger (R)
2013-2017: 33) Linda Coleman (D)
2017-2018: 34) Cherie K. Berry (R)
2018-2021: vacant
2021-present: 35) Chaz Beasley (D)



Governors of NORTH DAKOTA

1961-1973: 26) William L. Guy (D) – retired
1960: Clarence P. Dahl (R) and Herschel Lashkowitz (Independent)
1962: Mark Andrews (R)
1964: Donald M. Halcrow (R)
1968: Robert P. McCarney (R)

1973-1981: 27) Aloha Pearl Taylor Brown Eagles (R) – retired; ran for President in 1980
1972: Charles Tighe (D)
1976: Sophus Vernon Trom (D)

1981-1987: 28) Ruth Meiers (D) – died in office from cancer
1980: Ernest Sands (R)
1984: Anna Bourgois (R)

1987-1993: 29) George A. Sinner (D) – retired
1988: Rosemarie Myrdal (R)

1993-2001: 30) Edward Thomas Schafer (R) – retired
1992: Nicholas Spaeth (D)
1996: Eliot Glassheim (D)

2001-2009: 31) Tracy Potter (D) – retired
2000: John Hoeven (R)
2004: Roland Riemers (R)

2009-2017: 32) Heidi Heitkamp (D) – retired
2008: Tim Mathem (R)
2012: Rick Berg (R)

2017-present: 33) Jasper Schneider (R) – incumbent
2016: Ryan Taylor (D)
2020: Anthony Weiner (D)

Lieutenant Governors of NORTH DAKOTA
1961-1963: 27) Orville W. Hagen (R)
1963-1965: 28) Frank A. Wenstrom (R)
1965-1973: 29) Charles Tighe (R)
1973-1981: 30) Wayne G. Sanstead (D)
1981-1987: 31) George A. Sinner (D)
1987-1989: 32) Lloyd Omdahl (D)
1989-1997: 33) Ernest Sands (R)
1997-2005: 34) Roland Riemers (R)
2005-2013: 35) Rick Berg (R)
2013-2017: 36) Ryan Taylor (D)
2017-present: 37) Drew Wrigley (R)



Governors of OHIO

1959-1963: 60) Michael V. DiSalle (D) – lost re-election
1958: C. William O’Neill (D)

1963-1971: 61) Jim Rhodes (R) – term-limited
1962: Michael DiSalle (D)
1966: Frazier Reams Jr. (D)

1971-1979: 62) Buz Lukens (R) – term-limited
1970: Robert E. Sweeney (D), Roger Cloud (IR) and Edward T. Lawton (HIP)
1974: Robert E. Sweeney (D)

1979-1987: 63) Jim Rhodes (R) – term-limited
1978: J. J. Gilligan (D)
1982: Dick Celeste (D)

1987-1995: 64) Jerry Springer (D) – term-limited
1986: Paul E. Gillmor (R)
1990: George Voinovich (R) and Ron Daniels (I)

1995-1999: 65) William J. Brown (D) – died from heart issue
1994: Bob Taft (R)
1998: Greg Lashutka (R)

1999-2003: 66) Douglas DeGood (D) – died in plane crash
2002: Paul Eugene Gillmor (R)

2003-2007: 67) Sherrod Brown (D) – retired to successfully run for the US Senate

2007-2015: 68) Maureen O’Connor (R) – term-limited
2006: Michael B. Coleman (D)
2010: Robert L. Burch Jr. (D)

2015-2019: 69) James M. “Jim” Petro (R) – lost re-election
2014: Robert “Bob” Fitrakis (D)

2019-present: 70) Yvette McGee Brown (D) – incumbent
2018: James M. “Jim” Petro (R)

Lieutenant Governors of OHIO
1959-1963: 53) John W. Donahey (D)
1963-1979: 54) John W. Brown (R)
1979-1984: 55) George Voinovich (R)
1987-1999: 56) Paul R. Leonard (D)
1999-1999: 57) William J. Brown (D)
2003-2003: 58) Sherrod Brown (D)
2004-2007: 59) Robert L. Burch Jr. (D)
2007-2015: 60) Jim Renacci (R)
2015-2019: 61) Mary Taylor (R)
2019-present: 62) Joseph Schiavoni (D)



Governors of OKLAHOMA

1955-1959: 15) Raymond D. Gary (D) – retired
1954: Reuben K. Sparks (R)

1959-1963: 16) J. Howard Edmondson (D) – resigned
1958: Phil Ferguson (R) and D. A. Jelly Bryce (I)

1963: 17) George Patterson Nigh (D) – finished Edmondson’s term

1963-1971: 18) Henry Bellmon (R) – term-limited
1962: W. P. Bill Atkinson (D)
1966: Preston J. Moore (D)

1971-1979: 19) David Hall (D) – term-limited
1970: Dewey F. Bartlett (R) and Reel Little (HIP)
1974: Jim Inhofe (R)

1979-1983: 20) George Patterson Nigh (D) – lost re-election
1978: Ron Shotts (R)

1983-1987: 21) Neal McCaleb (R) – retired
1982: George Patterson Nigh (D) and Howard Bell (Progressive)

1987-1991: 22) Mike Turpen (D) – lost re-election
1986: Robert N. Goodhead (R) and Mike Fair (I)

1991-1995: 23) Bill Price (R) – lost re-election
1990: Mike Turpen (D) and Thomas Ledgerwood II (I)

1995-2003: 24) Robert S. Kerr III (D) – term-limited
1994: Wes Watkins (I) and incumbent Bill Price (R)
1998: Hoppy Heidelberg (R)

2003-2011: 25) J. C. Watts Jr. (R) – term-limited
2002: Brad Henry (D)
2006: Constance Johnson (D)

2011-2019: 26) Rebecca Hamilton (R) – term-limited
2010: Randy William Bass (Boulder) and Susan Savage (D)
2014: Elizabeth Herring (D) and R. J. Harris (Liberty)

2019-present: 27) T. W. Shannon (R) – incumbent
2018: Anastasia A. Pittman (D)

Lieutenant Governors of OKLAHOMA
1955-1959: 7) Cowboy Pink Williams (D)
1959-1963: 8) George Nigh (D)
1963-1967: 9) Leo Winters (D)
1967-1979: 10) George Nigh (D)
1979-1987: 11) Spencer Bernard (D)
1987-1995: 12) Robert S. Kerr III (D)
1995-2003: 13) Mary Fallin (R)
2003-2011: 14) Rebecca Hamilton (R)
2011-2015: 15) R. J. Harris (R until 2014, then Liberty)
2015-2019: 16) T. W. Shannon (R)
2019-present: 17) Dana Murphy (R)



Governors of OREGON

1959-1967: 29) Mark Hatfield (R) – term-limited
1958: Robert D. Holmes (D)
1962: Robert Y. Thornton (D)

1967-1975: 30) Tom McCall (R) – term-limited
1966: Robert Straub (D)
1970: Robert Straub (D)

1975-1979: 31) Edith Green (D) – lost re-election
1974: Wendell Wyatt (R)

1979-1987: 32) Victor Atiyeh (R) – term-limited
1978: Edith Green (D)
1982: Ted Kulongoski (D)

1987-1995: 33) Norma Paulus (R) – term-limited
1986: Edward Fadeley (D)
1990: Barbara Roberts (D), David B. Frohnmayer (Independent R) and Al Mobley (Independent)

1995-1999: 34) John Lim (R) – first Korean-American Governor of Oregon; retired
1994: Rod Monroe (D) and Ed Hickam (Country)

1999-2007: 35) John Elwood “Bud” Clark (I before 6/5/2004, D after 6/5/2004) – term-limited
1998: John Kitzhaber (D) and Bill Sizemore (R)
2002: Ted Kulongoski (D) and Kevin Mannix (R)

2007-2013: 36) Mary Starrett (R) – resigned
2006: Harry Lonsdale (D)
2010: John Kitzhaber (D)

2013-present: 37) Tina Kotek (D) – incumbent
2014: Suzanne Bonamici (R) and Frances Lappe (I)
2018: Vicki Berger (R)

Secretaries of State of OREGON
1959-1965: 17) Howell Appling (R)
1965-1967: 18) Tom McCall (R)
1967-1977: 19) Clay Myers (R)
1977-1985: 20) Norma Paulus (R)
1985-1991: 21) Barbara Roberts (D)
1991-1999: 22) Phil Keisling (D)
1999-2009: 23) Bill Bradbury (D)
2009-2013: 24) Tina Kotek (D)
2013-2019: 25) Jeanne Atkins (D)
2019-present: 26) Jennifer Williamson (D)



Governors of PENNSYLVANIA

1959-1963: 37) David Leo Lawrence (D) – term-limited
1958: Art McGonigle (R)

1963-1965: 38) William W. Scranton II (R)
1962: Richardson Dilworth (D)

1965-1967: 39) Raymond P. Shafer (R)

1967-1971: 40) Robert Casey Sr. (D)
– term-limited
1966: Harold Stassen (R)

1971-1975: 41) Milton Shapp (D) – term-limited
1970: Raymond Shafer (R) and Andrew J. Watson (Constitution)

1975-1979: 42) Martin P. Mullen (D) – term-limited
1974: Drew Lewis (R)

1979-1983: (41)) Milton Shapp (D) – term-limited
1978: Dick Thornburgh (R)

1983-1987: 43) Stewart Greenleaf (D) – lost re-election
1982: Bobby Butera (R)

1987-1995: 44) William Scranton III (R) – term-limited
1986: Stewart Greenleaf (D)
1990: Ed Rendell (R)

1995-2003: 45) Lynn Yeakel (D) – term-limited
1994: Peg Luksik (R)
1998: Ernie Preate (R)

2003-2011: 46) Lynn Swann (R) – term-limited
2002: Catherine Baker Knoll (D)
2006: Marjorie Margolies (D)

2011-2019: 47) Dr. Barry Goldberg (D) – term-limited
2010: Jane M. Earll (R)
2014: Everett A. Stern (R) and Lynne Abraham (Boulder)

2019-present: 48) Paul Mango (R) – incumbent
2018: Jo Ellen Litz (D)

Lieutenant Governors of PENNSYLVANIA
1959-1963: 22) John Morgan Davis (D)
1963-1965: 23) Raymond P. Shafer (R)
1965-1967: 24) Raymond J. Broderick (R)
1967-1971: 25) John Morgan Davis (D)
1971-1975: 26) Martin P. Mullen (D)
1975-1979: 27) Ernie Kline (D)
1979-1983: 28) Stewart Greenleaf (D)
1983-1987: 29) James Lloyd (D)
1987-1995: 30) Mike Fisher (R)
1995-2003: 31) Tom Foley (D)
2003-2011: 32) Jane M. Earll (R)
2011-2019: 33) Jo Ellen Litz (D)
2019-present: 34) Kristin Phillips-Hill (R)



Governors of POTOMAC (since statehood, 7/4/2006)

2006-2007: 1) Charlene Drew Jarvis (D) – finished term elected to while Potomac was the city of Washington, D.C.

2007-2015: 2) Vincent Bernard Orange Sr. (D) – term-limited
2006: Michael Kevin Powell (R)
2010: David William Kranich (R)

2015-present: 3) Linda Washington Cropp (D) – incumbent
2014: Kris Hammond (R)
2018: Martin Moulton (R)

Lieutenant Governors of POTOMAC

2006-2007: 1) Vincent Bernard Orange Sr. (D)
2007-2015: 2) Linda Washington Cropp (D)
2015-present: 3) Anas “Andy” Shallal (D)



Governors of PUERTO RICO (since statehood, 7/4/2005)

2006-2009: 1) Rocky Versace (R/NP) – finished term elected to while Puerto Rico was a US Commonwealth

2009-2017: 2) Hector Luis Acevedo (D/PD) – incumbent
2008: Kenneth McClintock-Hernández (D/NP)
2012: Dr. Ivan F. Gonzalez Cancel (D/NP)

2017-2021: 3) Raul Labrador (R/NP) – lost re-election
2016: David Bernier (D/PD) and Manuel Cidre (I)

2021-present: 4) Eduardo Bhatia (D/Progressive) – incumbent
2020: Raul Labrador (R/NP) José Jaime Pierluisi (I/PD)

Lieutenant Governors of PUERTO RICO
2006-2009: 1) Fernando J. Bonilla (R/NP)
2009-2017: 2) David Bernier (D/PD)
2017-2021: 3) Victor Suarez Melendez (R/NP)
2021-present: 4) Maria A. Marcano-De Leon (D/Progressive)



Governors of RHODE ISLAND

1961-1965: 65) John A. Notte Jr. (D) – lost re-election
1960: Christopher Del Sesto (R)
1962: John Chafee (R)

1965-1971: 66) John Chafee (R) – lost re-election
1964: John A. Nolte Jr. (D)
1966: Horace E. Hobbs (D)
1968: Frank Licht (D)

1971-1979: 67) J. Joseph Garrahy (D) – term-limited
1970: John Chafee (R)
1974: James Nugent (R)

1979-1987: 68) Lincoln Almond (R) – term-limited
1978: Tom DiLuglio (D) and Joe Doorley (I)
1982: Hilary R. Salk (D) and Peter Van Daam (Progressive)

1987-1994: 69) Buddy Cianci (R) – impeached, convicted and removed from office for corruption
1986: Anthony Solomon (D), Bob Healey (I) and Tony Affigne (I)
1990: Francis X. Flaherty (D) and Joe Trillo (I)

1994-1999: 70) Bob Weygand (D) – retired
1994: Bob Healey (Cool Moose) and Lincoln Almond (R)

1999-2003: 71) Bob Healey (Independent) – retired
1998: Jack Dennison Potter (D) and Lincoln Almond (R)

2003-2007: 72) Sheldon Whitehouse (D) – lost re-election
2002: Ken Block (R)

2007-2015: 73) Lincoln Davenport Chafee (R) – term-limited
2006: Sheldon Whitehouse (D)
2010: Frank Caprio (D)

2015-2016: 74) Bob Healey (I) – died
2014: Angel Taveras (D) and Brendan Doherty (R)

2016-2019: 75) Marilyn Ann Briggs (I) – lost election

2019-present: 76) Henrique Radonski Capriles (R) – incumbent
2018: Marilyn Ann Briggs (I) and Matt Brown (D)

Lieutenant Governors of RHODE ISLAND
1961-1965: 58) Edward P. Gallogly (D)
1965-1971: 59) Joseph O’Donnell Jr. (R)
1971-1979: 60) Giovanni Folcarelli (D)
1979-1987: 61) James L. Taft Jr. (R)
1987-1993: 62) Edward D. DiPrete (R)
1993-1994: 63) Robert Weygand (D)
1994-1995: 64) Louise Durfee (D)
1995-1999: 65) Joseph Aloysius Doorley Jr. (D)
1999-2003: 66) Joseph F. Devine (I)
2003-2007: 67) Antonio J. Pires (D)
2007-2015: 68) Donald Carcieri (R)
2015-2016: 69) Marilyn Ann Briggs (I)
2016-2019: 70) Joe Trillo (I)
2019-present: 71) Patricia Morgan (R)



Governors of SOUTH CAROLINA

1959-1963: 106) Fritz Hollings (D) – term-limited
1958: unopposed

1963-1965: 107) Donald Stuart Russell (D) – resigned
1962: unopposed

1965-1967: 108) Robert McNair (D) – lost election

1967-1971: 109) Joseph O. Rogers Jr. (R) – term-limited
1966: Robert McNair (D) and Alfred William “Red” Bethea (HIP)

1971-1975: 110) John C. West (D) – term-limited
1970: Albert Watson (R)

1975-1979: 111) William Westmoreland (R) – term-limited
1974: William Jennings Bryan Dorn (D)

1979-1983: 112) Richard Riley (D) – term-limited
1978: Edward Lunn Young (R)

1983-1987: 113) Nancy Stevenson (D) – first female Governor of South Carolina; term-limited
1982: W. D. Workman Jr. (R)

1987-1991: 114) Jesse L. Jackson Sr. (D) – African-American; term-limited
1986: Floyd Spence (R)

1991-1995: 115) Nick Theodore (D) – Greek-American; term-limited
1990: David Beasley (R)

1995-1999: 116) Robert Inglis Sr. (R) – term-limited
1994: Theo Mitchell (D)

1999-2001: (114)) Jesse L. Jackson Sr. (D) – resigned to become President of the United States
1998: Carroll Campbell (R) and Jim Hodges (I)

2001-2003: 117) Elizabeth J. “Liz” Patterson (D) – lost nomination

2003-2011: 118) Lindsey Graham (R) – term-limited
2002: Jim Hodges (D)
2006: Tommy Moore (D)

2011-2019: 119) Andre Bauer (R) – term-limited
2010: Jim Rex (D)
2014: Tony Krajewski Thurmond (D)

2019-present: 120) Gresham Barrett (R) – incumbent
2018: Keisha Waites (D)

Lieutenant Governors of SOUTH CAROLINA
1959-1963: 78) Burnet R. Maybank Jr. (D)
1963-1965: 79) Robert Evander McNair (D)
1967-1971: 80) John C. West (D)
1971-1975: 81) William Jennings Bryan Dorn (D)
1975-1979: 82) Richard Riley (D)
1979-1983: 83) Nancy Stevenson (D)
1983-1987: 84) William Jennings Bryan Dorn (D)
1987-1991: 85) Nick Theodore (D)
1991-1995: 86) Michael R. Daniel (D)
1995-1999: 87) Theo Mitchell (D)
1999-2001: 88) Elizabeth J. “Liz” Patterson (D)
2003-2011: 89) Andre Bauer (R)
2011-2019: 90) Bob Peeler (R)
2019-present: 91) Catherine Templeton (R)



Governors of SOUTH DAKOTA

1961-1963: 22) Archie Gubbrud (R) – lost re-election
1960: Ralph Herseth (D)

1963-1967: 23) Ralph Herseth (D) – lost re-election
1962: Archie M. Gubbrud (R)
1964: Nils Boe (R) and John F. Lindley (I)

1967-1971: 24) Frank Farrar (R) – lost re-election
1966: Ralph Herseth (D)
1968: Leath Carroll Fullerton (D)

1971-1975: 25) George S. McGovern (D) – retired
1970: Frank Farrar (R)
1972: Carveth Thompson (R)

1975-1983: 26) Benjamin “Ben” (Lone Feather) Reifel (R) – Native-American; term-limited
1974: Richard F. Kneip (D) and John E. Olson (Country)
1978: Roger D. McKellips (D)

1983-1987: 27) Clint Roberts (R) – lost re-election
1982: Harvey L. Wollman (D)

1987-1991: 28) Lars Herseth (D) – lost re-election
1986: Clint Roberts (R)

1991-1999: 29) Gus Hercules (R) – term-limited
1990: Lars Herseth (D)
1994: Jim Beddow (D) and Nathan Barton (Liberty)

1999-2003: 30) Susan Wismer (D) – lost re-election
1998: Jack Billion (R)

2003-2011: 31) George Speaker Mickelson (R) – term-limited
2002: Susan Wismer (D) and Nathan Barton (Liberty)
2006: Scott Heidepriem (D)

2011-2016: 32) Stephanie Herseth (D) – withdrew from Presidential race and resigned over a scandal
2010: Mike Rounds (R)
2014: Lora L. Hubbel (R)

2016-2017: 33) Shawn Bordeaux (D) – resigned over a different scandal

2017-2019: 34) Brock L. Greenfield (R) – lost election

2019-present: 35) Brendan Johnson (D) – incumbent
2018: Brock L. Greenfield (R)

Lieutenant Governors of SOUTH DAKOTA
1961-1963: 27) Joseph H. Bottum (R)
1963-1967: 28) Leath Carroll Fullerton (D)
1967-1971: 29) Lem Overpeck (R)
1971-1975: 30) Richard F. Kneip (D)
1975-1983: 31) Clint Roberts (R)
1983-1987: 32) Gus Hercules (R)
1987-1991: 33) Jim Beddow (D)
1991-1999: 34) Carole Hillard (R)
1999-2003: 35) Scott Heidepriem (D)
2003-2011: 36) Dennis Daugaard (R)
2011-2016: 37) Shawn Bordeaux (D)
2016-2017: vacant
2017-2019: 38) Rocky Blare (R)
2019-present: 39) Julie A. Bartling (D)



Governors of TENNESSEE

1953-1959: 41) Frank G. Clement (D) – term-limited
1952: R. Beecher Witt (R)
1954: John Randolph Neal Jr. (I)

1959-1963: 42) Buford Ellington (D) – term-limited
1958: Jim Nance McCord (I) and Tom Wall (R)

1963-1967: (41)) Frank G. Clement (D) – term-limited
1962: William Anderson (I) and Hubert David Patty (R)

1967-1971: (42)) Buford Ellington (D) – term-limited
1966: H. L. Crowder (HIP), Charlie Moffett (I) and Charles Gordon Vick (I)

1971-1975: (41)) Frank G. Clement (D) – term-limited
1970: Winfield Dunn (R)

1975-1979: 43) Lamar Alexander (R) – term-limited
1974: Ray Blanton (D)

1979-1983: 44) Jake Butcher (D) – term-limited
1978: Hubert David Patty (R)

1983-1987: 45) Buford Pusser (R) – term-limited
1982: Ned McWherter (D)

1987-1991: (41)) Frank G. Clement (D) – term-limited
1986: Hubert David Patty (R), Charles G. Vick (Country) and Gentry Crowell (Green)

1991-1995: 46) Hillary Rodham-Clinton (R) – term-limited
1990: Phil Bredesen (D) and Charles Vick (Liberty)

1995-1999: (41)) Frank G. Clement (D) – term-limited; served as Governor for a total of 22 non-consecutive years
1994: Don Sundquist (R) and Dick Fulton (Independent D)

1999-2003: 47) Bill Haslam (R) – term-limited
1998: John Jay Hooker Jr. (D)

2003-2007: 48) Bart Gordon (D) – term-limited
2002: Ron Ramsey (R)

2007-2011: 49) Jim Bryson (R) – term-limited
2006: Mike McWherter (D) and Carl Two Feathers Whitaker (I)

2011-2015: 50) David Lawrence “Dave” Ramsey III (R) – term-limited
2010: Jim Henry (Independent), Mark E. Clayton (D) and Daniel T. Lewis (Liberty)

2015-2016: 51) Monica Wehby (R) – resigned
2014: Sara Kyle (D)

2016-present: 53) Rand McNally (R) – incumbent
2018: Ron Littlefield (D)

Lieutenant Governors of TENNESSEE
1953-1959: 43) Jared Maddux (D)
1959-1963: 44) William D. Baird (D)
1963-1967: 45) Jared Maddux (D)
1967-1971: 46) Frank Gorrell (D)
1971-2014: 47) John Shelton Wilder (D)
2014-2015: vacant
2015-2016: 48) Rand McNally (R)
2016-2016: vacant
2016-present: 49) Stephen Fincher (R)



Governors of TEXAS

1957-1967: 38) Price Daniel (D) – lost re-nomination
1956: Bill Bryant (R) and W. Lee O’Daniel (I)
1958: Edwin S. Mayer (R)
1960: William Steger (R)
1962: Jack Cox (R)
1964: Jack Crichton (R) and John C. Williams (HIP)

1967-1971: 39) John Connally (D before 1969, R after 1969, I in 1970, R after 1971) – lost nomination and lost re-election as an independent
1966: T. E. Kennerly (R) and Ed Walker (HIP)
1968: Paul Eggers (R) and John Trice (HIP)

1971-1974: 40) Waggoner Carr (D) – resigned
1970: Roger Martin (R) and John Connally (I)
1972: Henry Grover (R) and Ramsey Muniz (La Raza Unida)

1974-1979: 41) Frances Farenthold (D) – first female Governor; lost re-election
1974: Jim Granberry (R) and Ramsey Muniz (LRU)

1979-1983: 42) Bill Clements (R) – lost re-election
1978: Frances Farenthold (D) and Mario Compean (LRU)

1983-1987: 43) Ross Perot (I) – lost re-election
1982: Bill Clements (R), Ray Allen Mayo II (D) and Mario Compean (La Raza Unida)

1987-1995: 44) Rick Perry (D) – withdrew re-election bid
1986: Ross Perot (I), Ray Hutchison (R (write-in)), Mike Martin (R) and Maria “Rosie” Castro (La Raza Unida)
1990: Warren G. Harding (R), Jack Rains (Country) and Ramsey Muniz (La Raza Unida)

1995-2003: 45) Henry Cisneros (D) – Hispanic; retired
1994: Henry Cisneros (D/La Raza Unida) over Keary Ehlers (Liberty), Clayton Williams (R) and Ramsey Muniz (Natural Mind)
1998: Ray Hollis (R)

2003-2007: 46) Kinky Friedman (D) – lost re-election
2002: Tom Loeffler (R)

2007-2019: 47) Bill Owens (R) – retired
2006: Kinky Friedman (D), Jim Hightower (Green), Guadalupe Valdez (LRU) and Larry Kilgore (Liberty
2010: Felix Alvarado (D/LRU)
2014: Price Daniel Jr. (D), Debra Medina (LRU)

2019-present: 48) Rick Perry (R) – incumbent
2018: Annise Parker (D/LRU)

Lieutenant Governors of TEXAS
1951-1961: 34) Ben Ramsey (D)
1961-1963: vacant
1963-1969: 35) Preston Earnest Smith (D)
1969-1973: 36) Ben Barnes (D)
1973-1974: 37) Frances Farenthold (D)
1974-1975: vacant
1975-1991: 38) William Hobby Jr. (D)
1991-1995: 39) Henry Cisneros (D)
1995-2007: 40) William Hobby Jr. (D)
2007-2015: 41) David Dewhurst (R)
2015-present: 42) Susan Combs (R)



Governors of UTAH

1957-1965: 10) George Clyde (R) – retired
1956: L. C. “Rennie” Romney (D) and J. Bracken “Brack” Lee (Independent)
1960: William Arthur Barlocker (D)

1965-1973: 11) Mitchell Melich (R) – retired
1964: Calvin L. Rampton (D)
1968: Nicholas L. Strike (D)

1973-1977: 12) K. Gunn McKay (D) – lost re-election
1972: Nicholas L. Strike (R)

1977-1985: 13) Vernon Romney (R) – lost re-election
1976: K. Gunn McKay (D)
1980: David S. King (D)

1985-1989: 14) Wayne Owens (D) – lost re-election
1984: Vernon Bradford Romney (R)

1989-2001: 15) Jon Huntsman Sr. (R) – retired
1988: Wayne Owens (D)
1992: Stewart Hanson (D) and Rita Gum (Populist)
1996: James Bradley (D)

2001-2009: 16) Enid Greene (R) – lost re-nomination
2000: Bill Orton (D)
2004: Scott Matheson (D)

2009-2013: 17) Karl Christian Rove (R) – retired
2008: Bob Springmeyer (D)

2013-present: 18) Robert Wood Young (R) – incumbent
2012: Jim Matheson (D)
2016: James “Jimmy The Greek” Dabakis (D)
2020: Jani Iwamoto (D)

Lieutenant Governors of UTAH (position established in 1975)
1975-1977: 1) Clyde Miller (D)
1985-1993: 2) Wilford V. Oveson (R)
1993-2005: 3) Olene Walker (R)
2005-2013: 4) Christopher Black Cannon (R)
2013-2017: 5) Lew Billings (R)
2017-present: 6) Rob Bishop (R)



Governors of VERMONT

1961-1963: 72) F. Ray Keyser Jr. (R) – lost re-election
1960: Russell Niquette (D)

1963-1973: 73) Phil Hoff (D) – retired
1962: F. Ray Keyser Jr. (R)
1964: Ralph A. Foote (R)
1966: Richard Snelling (R)
1968: Deane C. Davis (R)
1970: John S. Burgess (R)

1973-1975: 74) Consuelo Bailey (R) – retired
1972: Randolph T. Major (D) and Pete Diamondstone (Liberty Union)

1975-1977: 75) Harry H. Cooley (D) – retired
1974: Walter L. Kennedy (R)

1977-1981: 76) Stella Hackel (D) – retired
1976: William G. Craig (R)
1978: Walter L. Kennedy (R) and Earl S. Gardner (LU)

1981-1989: 77) Richard A. Snelling (R) – retired
1980: M. Jerome Diamond (D), Daniel E. Woodward (I) and Bruce Cullen (I)
1982: Madeleine Kunin (D) and Richard Gottlieb (Progressive/Liberty Union)
1984: Madeleine Kunin (D), and Peter Diamondstone (Liberty Union)
1986: Ralph Wright (D) and Richard Gottlieb (LU)

1989-1993: 78) Jan Backus (D) – lost re-election
1988: David Gates (R) and Richard Gottlieb (LU)
1990: David Atkinson (R) and Richard Gottlieb (LU)

1993-1995: 79) John McClaughry (R) – lost re-election
1992: Jan Backus (D) and August Jaccaci (LU)

1995-2005: 80) Howard Dean (D) – retired
1994: John McClaughry (R) and Dennis Lane (LU)
1996: John Gropper (R) and Mary Alice “Mal” Herbert (LU)
1998: Ruth Dwyer (R) and Richard Gottlieb (LU)
2000: Richard Gottlieb (LU), Ruth Dwyer (R), and Anthony Pollina (Progressive)
2002: Jim Douglas (R) and Cornelius Hogan (I)

2005-2013: 81) Deborah L. “Deb” Markowitz (D) – retired
2004: Peter Plympton Smith (R)
2006: Benjamin Clarke (R) and Robert Skold (LU)
2008: Brian Dubie (R) and Ben Mitchell (LU)
2010: Mark Snelling (R) and Mike Parenti (LU)

2013-2015: 82) Bernard Peters (R) – lost re-election
2012: Charles Dean (D) and Mike Parenti (LU)

2015-2021: 83) Jeffrey “Jeff” Weaver (D) – retired
2014: Bernard Peters (R), Dan Feliciano (Liberty) and Cris Ericson (Independent)
2016 (first round): Bruce Lisman (R) and Bill “Spaceman” Lee (LU)
2016 (final round): Bruce Lisman (R)
2018 (first round): Ethan Sonneborn (Independent), Keith Stern (R) and Brenda Siegel (Humanitarian)
2018 (final round): Keith Stern (R)

2021-present: 84) Faisal Mahmood Gill (D) – incumbent
2020 (first round): Emily Payton (R) and Cris Ericson (Independent)
2020 (final round): Emily Payton (R)

Lieutenant Governors of VERMONT
1961-1965: 69) Ralph Foote (R)
1965-1971: 70) John Burgess (R)
1971-1977: 71) Kelton Miller (D)
1977-1981: 72) John Alden (D)
1981-1989: 73) Peg Garland (R)
1989-1991: 74) Pan B. Zolotas (R)
1991-1995: 75) Howard Dean III (D)
1995-1999: 76) David Wolk (D)
1999-2003: 77) Deb Markowitz (D)
2003-2009: 78) Peter Shumlin (D)
2009-2011: 79) Charles Dean (D)
2011-2015: 80) Jeff Weaver (D)
2015-2017: 81) Cheryl Rivers (D)
2017-present: 82) Cassandra Gekas (Progressive)



Governors of VIRGINIA

1958-1962: James Lindsay Almond Jr. (D) – term-limited
1957: Ted Dalton (R)

1962-1966: Albertis S. Harrison Jr. (D) – term-limited
1961: H. Clyde Pearson (R)

1966-1970: Linwood Holton (R) – term-limited
1965: Mills Godwin (D) and William Story Jr. (HIP)

1970-1974: Vince Callahan (R) – term-limited
1969: Henry Howell (D) and William Story Jr. (HIP)

1974-1978: Elmo Zumwalt (D) – term-limited
1973: Mills Godwin (R)

1978-1982: John N. Dalton (R) – term-limited
1977: William Battle (D)

1982-1986: Harrison Wilson Jr. (D) – term-limited
1981: Marshall Coleman (R)

1986-1990: Lyon Gardiner Tyler Jr. (D) – term-limited
1985: Stanford Elmer “Stan” Parris (R)

1990-1994: Stanford Elmer “Stan” Parris (R) – term-limited
1989: Mary Sue Terry (D)

1994-1998: George Allen (R) – term-limited
1993: Owen Pickett (D)

1998-2002: Jim Gilmore (R) – term-limited
1997: Don Beyer (D)

2002-2006: Meyera Oberndorf (D) – term-limited
2001: J. K. Katzen (R)

2006-2010: E. W. Jackson (R) – term-limited
2005: Terry McAuliffe (D)

2010-2014: Les Steckel (D) – term-limited
2009: Virgil Goode Jr. (R)

2014-2018: Jeremiah Heaton (R) – term-limited
2013: Dwight Clinton Jones (D)

2018-present: Anne Bright Holton (D) – incumbent
2017: Jill Vogel (R)

Lieutenant Governors of VIRGINIA
1952-1962: 27) Al Stephens (D)
1962-1966: 28) Mills Godwin (D)
1966-1970: 29) Henry Howell (D)
1970-1974: 30) William Battle (D)
1974-1978: 31) John N. Dalton (R)
1978-1982: 32) Marshall Coleman (R)
1982-1986: 33) Stan Parris (R)
1986-1990: 34) Rick Boucher (D)
1990-1994: 35) Thomas Davis III (R)
1994-1998: 36) J. K. Katzen (R)
1998-2002: 37) Russ Potts (R)
2002-2006: 38) Jeannemarie Devolites Davis (R)
2006-2010: 39) Virgil Goode Jr. (R)
2010-2014: 40) Jeremiah Heaton (R)
2014-2018: 41) Eileen Filler-Corn (D)
2018-present: 42) Kenny Alexander (D)



Governors of WASHINGTON

1957-1965: 15) Al Rossellini (D) – lost re-election
1956: Emmett T. Anderson (R)
1960: Lloyd J. Andrew (R)

1965-1975: 16) Daniel J. Evans (R) – resigned
1964: Al Rossellini (D)
1968: John J. O’Connell (D) and Ken Chriswell (HIP)
1972: Al Rossellini (D) and Vick Gould (Taxpayers)

1975-1977: 17) Arthur Fletcher (R) – lost election

1977-1981: 18) Julia Butler Hansen (D) – lost re-election
1976: Arthur Fletcher (R)

1981-1989: 19) Daniel J. Evans (R) – retired
1980: Julia Butler Hansen (D)
1984: Booth Gardner (D)

1989-2001: 20) Ellen Craswell (R) – retired
1988: John Jovanovich (D)
1992: Booth Gardner (D)
1996: Mike Lowry (D)

2001-2007: 21) Norm Rice (D) – resigned
2000: John Carlson (R)
2004: Michael Patrick Shanks (R) and Ruth Bennett (Liberty)

2007-2017: 22) Lisa J. Simpson (D) – retired
2008: Michael George Nelson (R)
2012: Rob McKenna (R)

2017-2021: 23) Krist Novoselic (D) – retired
2016: Susan Hutchison (R)

2021-present: 24) Ron Sims (D) – incumbent
2020: Drew C. MacEwen (R)

Lieutenant Governors of WASHINGTON
1957-1969: 13) John Andrew Cherberg (D)
1969-1975: 14) Arthur Fletcher (R)
1977-1997: 15) Joel Pritchard (R)
1998-2005: 16) Paull H. Shin (D)
2005-2007: 17) Lisa J. Brown (D)
2007-present: 18) Karen R. Fraser (D)



Governors of WEST VIRGINIA
1957-1961: 25) Cecil Underwood (R) – term-limited
1956: Bob Mollohan (D)

1961-1965: 26) Wally Barron (D) – term-limited
1960: Harold E. Neely (R)

1965-1969: 27) Cecil Underwood (R) – term-limited
1964: Hulett C. Smith (D)

1969-1977: 28) Arch A. Moore Jr. (R) – term-limited
1968: James Marshall Sprouse (D)
1972: Jay Rockefeller (D)

1977-1985: 29) Jay Rockefeller (D) – term-limited
1976: Cecil H. Underwood (R)
1980: Arch A. Moore Jr. (R) and Jack Kelley (I)

1985-1989: 30) Cecil Underwood (R) – lost re-election
1984: Clyde M. See Jr. (D)

1989-1997: 31) Gaston Caperton (D) – term-limited
1988: Cecil Underwood (R) and Jack Fellure (Exposure)
1992: Jack Fellure (R) and Charlotte Pritt (Green)

1997-2005: 32) Cecil Underwood (R) – term-limited
1996: Joe Manchin (D) and Wallace Johnson (Liberty)
2000: Denise Giardina (D)

2005-2009: 33) Bob Wise (D) – retired
2004: Monty Warner (R)

2009-2013: 34) David McKinley (R) – lost re-election
2008: Lloyd M. Jackson II (D)

2013-2021: 35) Charlotte Pritt (D) – term-limited
2012: David McKinley (R)
2016: Erikka Lynn Storch (R)

2021-present: 36) Craig Blair (R) – incumbent
2020: Ron Stollings (D) and Paul T. Farrell Jr. (Independent Democrat)

Presidents of the Senate of WEST VIRGINIA
1961-1969: Howard W. Carson (D)
1969-1971: Lloyd G. Jackson (D)
1971-1973: E. Hansford McCourt (D)
1973-1981: William Brotherton (D)
1981-1985: Warren McGraw (D)
1985-1989: Dan Tonkovich (D)
1989-1989: Larry A. Tucker (D)
1989-1995: Keith Burdette (D)
1995-2011: Earl Ray Tomblin (D)
2011-2019: Jeffrey V. Kessler (D)
2019-2021: Craig Blair (R)
2021-present: Donna Boley (R)



Governors of WISCONSIN

1959-1963: 35) Gaylord A. Nelson (D) – retired
1958: Vernon Wallace Thomson (R)
1960: Philip G. Kuehn (R)

1963-1965: 36) John W. Reynolds (D) – lost re-election
1962: Philip G. Kuehn (R)

1965-1967: 37) Warren P. Knowles (R) – lost re-election
1964: John W. Reynolds (D)

1967-1975: 38) Patrick Lucey (D) – retired
1966: Warren P. Knowles (R)
1968: William Kaiser Van Pelt (R)
1970: Jack B. Olson (R) and Georgia Cozzini (Natural Mind)

1975-1983: 39) Bronson La Follette (D) – retired
1974: Bill Dyke (R)
1978: Lee S. Dreyfus (R)

1983-1995: 40) Paul R. Soglin (D) – retired
1982: Terry Kohler (R)
1986: Robert Walter Kasten Jr. (R)
1990: Steve Gunderson (R)

1995-1999: 41) Margaret Farrow (R) – lost re-election
1994: Martin J. Schreiber (D)

1999-2011: 42) Kathleen Falk (D) – retired
1998: Margaret Farrow (R)
2002: Mary E. Panzer (R)
2006: Mark Green (R)

2011-2019: 43) Mark Green (R) – retired
2010: Barbara Lawton (D)
2014: Ed Garvey (D) and David A. Clarke Jr. (Boulder)

2019-present: 44) Cory Mason (D) – incumbent
2018: Mark Neumann (R) and Wendell J. Harris (DSA/Socialist)

Lieutenant Governors of WISCONSIN
1959-1961: 33) Philleo Nash (D)
1961-1963: 34) Warren P. Knowles (R)
1963-1965: 35) Jack B. Olson (R)
1965-1967: 36) Patrick J. Lucey (D)
1967-1969: 37) William Kaiser Van Pelt (R)
1969-1971: 38) Jack B. Olson (R)
1971-1975: 39) Martin J. Schreiber (D)
1975-1979: 40) Terry Kohler (R)
1979-1983: 41) Robert Walter Kasten Jr. (R)
1983-1987: 42) Mark G. Lipscomb Jr. (D)
1987-1991: 43) Steve Gunderson (R)
1991-1995: 44) Margaret Farrow (R)
1995-1999: 45) Kathleen Falk (D)
1999-2003: 46) Johnnie E. Morris-Tatum (D)
2003-2007: 47) Mark Green (R)
2007-2011: 48) Louis Fortis (D)
2011-2015: 49) Brett Davis (R)
2015-2019: 50) Mark Neumann (R)
2019-present: 51) Jason M. Fields (D)



Governors of WYOMING

1961-1967: 25) Jack Robert Gage (D) – lost re-nomination
1962: Clifford P. Hansen (R)

1967-1975: 26) Teno Roncalio (D) – retired
1966: Stanley K. Hathaway (R)
1970: William H. Harrison (R)

1975-1983: 27) Thyra Thomson (R) – retired
1974: Edgar Herschler (D)
1978: Edgar Herschler (D)

1983-1987: 28) Dick Casull (R) – lost re-nomination
1982: Harry Leimback (D)

1987-1995: 29) Thyra Thomson (R) – retired
1986: Al Hamberg (D)
1990: Mike Sullivan (D)

1995-2003: 30) Harriet Elizabeth Byrd (D) – retired
1994: Richard Bruce Cheney (R) and Mary Mead (Conservative)
1998: Bill Taliaferro (R)

2003-2007: 31) Mary Mead (R) – retired
2002: Paul Hickey (D)

2007-2015: 32) W. Richard West (D) – retired
2006: Mary Mead (R)
2010: Matthew Hansen Mead (R)

2015-present: 33) Cynthia Jo “Cindy” Hill (R) – incumbent
2014: Michael Allen Green (D)
2018: James W. Byrd (D)

Secretaries of State of WYOMING
1959-1961: 15) Jack R. Gage (D)
1961-1975: 16) Thyra Thomson (R)
1975-1991: 17) Kathy Karpan (D)
1991-2003: 18) Diana J. Ohman (R)
2003-2015: 19) Cynthia Jo “Cindy” Hill (R)
2015-present: 20) Leland Christensen (R)



Incumbent Governors in July 2021:

Democrats (28) – AR: Conner Eldridge, CA: Cruz Bustamante, CT: Ted Kennedy Jr., DE: Stephanie Hansen, GA: Ben Lewis Jones, HI: Doug Chin, IL: Al Giannoulias, LA: Caroline Fayard, ME: Cynthia Dill, MD: Kumar P. Barve, MA: Maura Healey, MN: Melvin Carter, MS: Robert Gray, MT: Bob Quist, NV: Lucy Flores, NH: Martha Hennessey, NM: Javier Gonzales, NY: Michael Gianaris, NC: Rachel Hunt, OH: Yvette McGee Brown, OR: Tina Kotek, PO: Lisa Washington Cropp, PR: Eduardo Bhatia, SD: Brendan V. Johnson, VT: Faisal Mahmood Gill, VA: Anne Bright Holton, WA: Ron Sims, and WI: Cory Mason.

Republicans (24) – AL: Twinkle Cavanaugh, AK: Lizzie McGuire, AZ: Barry Hess, CO: Mark Allen Callahan, FL: Jennifer Sandra Johnson, ID: Butch Otter, IN: Ben Quayle, IA: Kimberly Ann McFadden, KS: Susan Wagle, KY: Hal Heiner, MI: Brian Calley, MO: Catherine Hanaway, NE: Beau McCoy, NJ: Glenn Rieth, ND: Jasper Schneider, OK: T. W. Shannon, PA: Paul Mango, RI: Henrique Radonski-Capriles, SC: Gresham Barrett, TN: Rand McNally, TX: Rick Perry, UT: Robert Wood Young, WV: Craig Blair, WY: Cynthia Jo “Cindy” Hill.

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