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And so it begins:


Part I: America Eterna: Ad astra et ad infinitum

(From The American Pageant: A History of the Federal Kingdom of America by Dr. Sir Henry Adams IV and Dr. Susan Juarez, Royal Harvard Press, Cambridge, MA 2010)

Chapter III: Revolution.


It is amazing to think that that just two hundred and thirty four years ago what is now the Federal Kingdom of America was just sixteen separate colonies, stretching from Georgia to what was then called St. John’s Island, now known as Prince Phillip Island in the north [1]. Now America stretches from the Arctic to Panama, from the Philippines to the Moon. But how did America go from a divided coastal nation to the greatest nation ever seen in all of history?

At no time during the Revolution and the days after did this seem the likely or even a possible course. Many of the colonies had little in common. Quebec was a Catholic French speaking colony with a minority of Protestant and Catholic Anglophones, many fleeing oppression in Ireland [2]. In Pennsylvania the colony was populated by Germans and Quakers and so on.

Contrary to myth many of the Founding Fathers were not all rabid supporters of Independence from Great Britain. Many of them had served Britain during the French and Indian War and some including Guy Carleton, his brother Thomas, and their nephew Christopher were members of the British Army! Some like Joseph Brandt were Natives [3].

And for this group of men, a group as diverse as the Colonies themselves, to come together, don the Phrygian cap and defeat the world’s most powerful nation is astonishing even to this day. Benjamin Franklin perhaps said it the best when upon signing the Declaration of Independence he quipped, “We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.” Once the Declaration of Independence had been signed these men had crossed the Rubicon, there was no turning back now. Yet seemingly these men all accepted their fates with grace and dignity and without a second thought.

And not only did the War of Independence give the Founding Fathers the determination they needed during that hot summer of 1787 in Philadelphia when our Federal Kingdom came into being it also led to the rise of the second generation of men who would help guide and lead the Federal Kingdom to greatness. Much of our Federal Kingdom’s lore comes from the Revolutionary War. What schoolchild today does not know of Paul Revere’s Midnight Ride or the actions of the young Andrew Jackson and the young Tecumseh in the woods of Ohio and Pennsylvania, over thirty years before they would lead the Royal Armies to victory over the forces of Napoleon on the Iberian Peninsula and in France itself?

Perhaps most what is most important is the beginnings of a common and shared identity during the Revolution when the Virginian and the Quebecois, the Georgian and the Nova Scotian, the New Hampshirite and the Pennsylvanian, European and Native, Catholic and Protestant became American. While this does not underscore the problems that would face the Federal Kingdom over its long history; the roots of our common identity as Americans hearken back to the days of Valley Forge and the Second Battle Trois Rivieres.

On that hallowed day, July 4, 1776, great men from Virginia, Quebec, New York, Rhode Island, Georgia, South Carolina, Nova Scotia, Prince Phillip Island, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts laid forth the foundation of what was to become the greatest nation the world has ever seen.

Our history of the Revolution begins...

[1] Renamed in honour of the Prince of Columbia, Prince Phillip Hamilton in 1800.
[2] More on this later.
[3] The author's (and of the general populace) distinction between so-called "civilised" tribes of the East, ie, the Iroquois Confederacy, the Shawnees, and the Five Civilised Tribes of Natives compared to the uncivilised tribes of Indians in the West. More on this later as well.


A note on spellings. From writing's within the TL I shall be using the English spellings as thats what the citizens of America use ITTL.
 
And so it begins:


Part I: America Eterna: Ad astra et ad infinitum

(From The American Pageant: A History of the Federal Kingdom of America by Dr. Sir Henry Adams IV and Dr. Susan Juarez, Royal Harvard Press, Cambridge, MA 2010)

Chapter III: Revolution.


It is amazing to think that that just two hundred and thirty four years ago what is now the Federal Kingdom of America was just sixteen separate colonies, stretching from Georgia to what was then called St. John’s Island, now known as Prince Phillip Island in the north [1]. Now America stretches from the Arctic to Panama, from the Philippines to the Moon. But how did America go from a divided coastal nation to the greatest nation ever seen in all of history?

At no time during the Revolution and the days after did this seem the likely or even a possible course. Many of the colonies had little in common. Quebec was a Catholic French speaking colony with a minority of Protestant and Catholic Anglophones, many fleeing oppression in Ireland [2]. In Pennsylvania the colony was populated by Germans and Quakers and so on.

Contrary to myth many of the Founding Fathers were not all rabid supporters of Independence from Great Britain. Many of them had served Britain during the French and Indian War and some including Guy Carleton, his brother Thomas, and their nephew Christopher were members of the British Army! Some like Joseph Brandt were Natives [3].

And for this group of men, a group as diverse as the Colonies themselves, to come together, don the Phrygian cap and defeat the world’s most powerful nation is astonishing even to this day. Benjamin Franklin perhaps said it the best when upon signing the Declaration of Independence he quipped, “We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.” Once the Declaration of Independence had been signed these men had crossed the Rubicon, there was no turning back now. Yet seemingly these men all accepted their fates with grace and dignity and without a second thought.

And not only did the War of Independence give the Founding Fathers the determination they needed during that hot summer of 1787 in Philadelphia when our Federal Kingdom came into being it also led to the rise of the second generation of men who would help guide and lead the Federal Kingdom to greatness. Much of our Federal Kingdom’s lore comes from the Revolutionary War. What schoolchild today does not know of Paul Revere’s Midnight Ride or the actions of the young Andrew Jackson and the young Tecumseh in the woods of Ohio and Pennsylvania, over thirty years before they would lead the Royal Armies to victory over the forces of Napoleon on the Iberian Peninsula and in France itself?

Perhaps most what is most important is the beginnings of a common and shared identity during the Revolution when the Virginian and the Quebecois, the Georgian and the Nova Scotian, the New Hampshirite and the Pennsylvanian, European and Native, Catholic and Protestant became American. While this does not underscore the problems that would face the Federal Kingdom over its long history; the roots of our common identity as Americans hearken back to the days of Valley Forge and the Second Battle Trois Rivieres.

On that hallowed day, July 4, 1776, great men from Virginia, Quebec, New York, Rhode Island, Georgia, South Carolina, Nova Scotia, Prince Phillip Island, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts laid forth the foundation of what was to become the greatest nation the world has ever seen.

Our history of the Revolution begins...

[1] Renamed in honour of the Prince of Columbia, Prince Phillip Hamilton in 1800.
[2] More on this later.
[3] The author's (and of the general populace) distinction between so-called "civilised" tribes of the East, ie, the Iroquois Confederacy, the Shawnees, and the Five Civilised Tribes of Natives compared to the uncivilised tribes of Indians in the West. More on this later as well.


A note on spellings. From writing's within the TL I shall be using the English spellings as thats what the citizens of America use ITTL.
 
(From The Carleton’s: Service to King and Nation by Sir Jean-Pierre Bureau, University of Québec Press, Trois Rivieres 2007)



Not many families have had such an impact on the course of our great Federal Kingdom as the Carleton’s of Strabane-on-St. Lawrence. From the early days of the Revolution the Carleton’s have been integral to the destiny of America and at times have even changed the course of history itself. Perhaps out of all the individuals that have come from this great family none have had more of an impact than Guy Carleton, the 1st Baron Carleton.



From a perspective of a historian Guy Carleton is an interesting and at times a confusing figure. In the course of his life he was an officer in the British Army, the Governor-General of British North America, and a general in the Continental Army, a Peer of the Realm, and the first Proconsul.



Born to an Irish Protestant military family in Strabane in the County of Tyrone, in Ireland on September 3, 1724, from an early age he knew he was destined to serve King and Country. In 1742 at the age of seventeen he was commissioned as an ensign in the 25th Regiment of Foot, being promoted to lieutenant three years later.



During the War of Austrian Succession, known as King George’s War here in North America, he became a friend of James Wolfe, the future hero of the Plains of Abraham. It has often been thought that he had fought at the Battle of Culloden, which brought the end to the Jacobites once and for all. Three years after the War ended he joined the 1st Foot Guards as a Captain, where he was made a Lieutenant Colonel in 1757. The next year he was given the honour being made the lieutenant colonel of the newly formed 72nd Regiment of Foot.



His next military service came during the Seven Years War, referred to as the French and Indian War in North America. In 1758 when Wolfe, whilst commanding troops under Major General Amherst, in the assault on the French fort of Louisburg, in present day Nova Scotia had asked for Carleton to be his aide but King George II declined to make this appointment due to negative comments Carleton had made about Hanoverian soldiers during his service on the Continent during the War of Austrian Succession. When Wolfe was given the command of the campaign against Quebec, Carleton was made quartermaster-general but once again King George II refused to make the appointment until the intervention of Lord Ligonier and William Pitt the Elder.



Upon his arrival in the city of Halifax he assumed command of six hundred grenadiers. When British forces arrived in Quebec in the June of 1759 he was in charge of provisioning them with supplies as well as acting as an engineer supervising the placement of cannon. During the decisive Battle of the Plains of Abraham on 13 September 1759, in which both Major General James Wolfe and French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, the Marquees de Saint-Veran were killed, Carleton received a wound and returned to England in the October of 1759.[1]



On 29 March 1761 as the Lieutenant Colonel of the 72nd Regiment of Foot he took part in the assault on Port-Andro on the Belle-Île-en-Mer, off of the northwest coast of France. During the attack he was seriously wounded and prevented from further participation in the fighting. The next year he was subsequently wounded during the siege of Havana as he was acting as the quartermaster-general to British forces in Cuba under the command of George Keppel, third Earl of Albemarle. During his time in Cuba he would meet Richard Montgomery who would command his left flank during the Second Battle of Trois Rivieres in 1777.




In 1766 he was named acting Lieutenant Governor and Administrator of Quebec, with James Murray still officially in charge arriving in Quebec on the 22nd of September, 1766. His appointment is still difficult to explain by historians as he was a military man and had no experience in public affairs. [2] But at the same time it is quite simple. In 1766 the Duke of Richmond, who had been tutored in the military arts by Carleton in his youth and had commanded the 72nd Regiment of Foot when Carleton had been the Regiment’s lieutenant colonel, had been made Southern Secretary by the Marquees of Rockingham. At the same time Carleton was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all troops stationed in Quebec.



At the time the government of Quebec consisted of an assembly, a Governor, and a council. The Governor had the right of veto but London instructed him that all of the actions required the approval of the council. At the time most of the province’s civil servants did not receive a salary but charged fees for their services. Carleton tried to institute a salary system but London refused. In turn Carleton renounced his own fees which infuriated Murray.



Murray resigned and on 12 April 1768 Carleton was appointed Captain General. The next year he sailed to England for what he thought was going to be short time but wound up taking years. While in England he married the daughter of the second Earl of Effingham, Maria Howard, who would give birth to four children. [3]



His time in England would change the course of history forever. Carleton had long been a supporter of French-Canadian interests and looked to advocate for them during his stay in England. He found an ally in William Legge, who was the second Earl of Dartmouth, and Secretary of State for the Colonies starting 1772.



After events in the colonies such as the Boston Tea Party the government led by Lord North began to move towards adopting legislation that would placate Quebec, but their efforts were to fail. Besides Guy Carleton, the Earl of Dartmouth was one of the bigger proponents of passing such an act and had he lived perhaps such an act would have passed and Quebec might not have joined in the War for Independence. But this was not to be. On a rainy evening in early March 1774 while on a walk around his the outside home, the Earl of Dartmouth slipped on a wet stone and hit his head. He died three days later of what would now be termed by a coroner as an aneurysm. With the death of the Earl of Dartmouth and his replacement in the post of Secretary of State for the Colonies by Lord George Germain, support for French-Canadians dissipated. [4] Lord Germain believed that there was no need to placate what he called “the Papists”, and became involved in several heated discussions with Carleton.



Many historians today blame the loss of the British Empire in North America on Lord Germain and this is not an entirely unfair accusation on their part. While Lord Germain’s actions during the War for Independence are beyond the scope of this text it is safe to say that Lord Germain did not understand the sheer determination of the colonists.



Giving up on having any progress made on the Quebec issue, Carleton sailed for Quebec, in June 1774 with his wife and son frustrated with the government of Lord North and the political situation in London. He arrived back in Quebec and did his best to govern the province despite resistance from London and more specifically Lord Germain.



At the same time across the Atlantic more events transpired that would change both the course of American history and the Carleton family. This year was to be another bad year for Irish harvests and this time the Irish, both Protestant and Catholic would become very vocal about their grievances both real and imagined. And there would be consequences for Britain, Ireland, and America.



And with the New Year’s Rebellion of 1775 yet another member of the Carleton family would come into play...[5].


[1] Per OTL. Carleton seemed unlucky with wounds during the Seven Years War.

[2] Once again as per OTL.

[3] IOTL she would give birth to more but the butterfly effect would change this.

[4] The POD. IOTL the Earl of Dartmouth, for whom the college is named, was very influential in passing the Quebec Act and in some ways was one of the better members of Lord North's cabinet.

[5] More on this later.
 
(From The Carleton’s: Service to King and Nation by Sir Jean-Pierre Bureau, University of Québec Press, Trois Rivieres 2007)



Not many families have had such an impact on the course of our great Federal Kingdom as the Carleton’s of Strabane-on-St. Lawrence. From the early days of the Revolution the Carleton’s have been integral to the destiny of America and at times have even changed the course of history itself. Perhaps out of all the individuals that have come from this great family none have had more of an impact than Guy Carleton, the 1st Baron Carleton.



From a perspective of a historian Guy Carleton is an interesting and at times a confusing figure. In the course of his life he was an officer in the British Army, the Governor-General of British North America, and a general in the Continental Army, a Peer of the Realm, and the first Proconsul.



Born to an Irish Protestant military family in Strabane in the County of Tyrone, in Ireland on September 3, 1724, from an early age he knew he was destined to serve King and Country. In 1742 at the age of seventeen he was commissioned as an ensign in the 25th Regiment of Foot, being promoted to lieutenant three years later.



During the War of Austrian Succession, known as King George’s War here in North America, he became a friend of James Wolfe, the future hero of the Plains of Abraham. It has often been thought that he had fought at the Battle of Culloden, which brought the end to the Jacobites once and for all. Three years after the War ended he joined the 1st Foot Guards as a Captain, where he was made a Lieutenant Colonel in 1757. The next year he was given the honour being made the lieutenant colonel of the newly formed 72nd Regiment of Foot.



His next military service came during the Seven Years War, referred to as the French and Indian War in North America. In 1758 when Wolfe, whilst commanding troops under Major General Amherst, in the assault on the French fort of Louisburg, in present day Nova Scotia had asked for Carleton to be his aide but King George II declined to make this appointment due to negative comments Carleton had made about Hanoverian soldiers during his service on the Continent during the War of Austrian Succession. When Wolfe was given the command of the campaign against Quebec, Carleton was made quartermaster-general but once again King George II refused to make the appointment until the intervention of Lord Ligonier and William Pitt the Elder.



Upon his arrival in the city of Halifax he assumed command of six hundred grenadiers. When British forces arrived in Quebec in the June of 1759 he was in charge of provisioning them with supplies as well as acting as an engineer supervising the placement of cannon. During the decisive Battle of the Plains of Abraham on 13 September 1759, in which both Major General James Wolfe and French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, the Marquees de Saint-Veran were killed, Carleton received a wound and returned to England in the October of 1759.[1]



On 29 March 1761 as the Lieutenant Colonel of the 72nd Regiment of Foot he took part in the assault on Port-Andro on the Belle-Île-en-Mer, off of the northwest coast of France. During the attack he was seriously wounded and prevented from further participation in the fighting. The next year he was subsequently wounded during the siege of Havana as he was acting as the quartermaster-general to British forces in Cuba under the command of George Keppel, third Earl of Albemarle. During his time in Cuba he would meet Richard Montgomery who would command his left flank during the Second Battle of Trois Rivieres in 1777.




In 1766 he was named acting Lieutenant Governor and Administrator of Quebec, with James Murray still officially in charge arriving in Quebec on the 22nd of September, 1766. His appointment is still difficult to explain by historians as he was a military man and had no experience in public affairs. [2] But at the same time it is quite simple. In 1766 the Duke of Richmond, who had been tutored in the military arts by Carleton in his youth and had commanded the 72nd Regiment of Foot when Carleton had been the Regiment’s lieutenant colonel, had been made Southern Secretary by the Marquees of Rockingham. At the same time Carleton was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all troops stationed in Quebec.



At the time the government of Quebec consisted of an assembly, a Governor, and a council. The Governor had the right of veto but London instructed him that all of the actions required the approval of the council. At the time most of the province’s civil servants did not receive a salary but charged fees for their services. Carleton tried to institute a salary system but London refused. In turn Carleton renounced his own fees which infuriated Murray.



Murray resigned and on 12 April 1768 Carleton was appointed Captain General. The next year he sailed to England for what he thought was going to be short time but wound up taking years. While in England he married the daughter of the second Earl of Effingham, Maria Howard, who would give birth to four children. [3]



His time in England would change the course of history forever. Carleton had long been a supporter of French-Canadian interests and looked to advocate for them during his stay in England. He found an ally in William Legge, who was the second Earl of Dartmouth, and Secretary of State for the Colonies starting 1772.



After events in the colonies such as the Boston Tea Party the government led by Lord North began to move towards adopting legislation that would placate Quebec, but their efforts were to fail. Besides Guy Carleton, the Earl of Dartmouth was one of the bigger proponents of passing such an act and had he lived perhaps such an act would have passed and Quebec might not have joined in the War for Independence. But this was not to be. On a rainy evening in early March 1774 while on a walk around his the outside home, the Earl of Dartmouth slipped on a wet stone and hit his head. He died three days later of what would now be termed by a coroner as an aneurysm. With the death of the Earl of Dartmouth and his replacement in the post of Secretary of State for the Colonies by Lord George Germain, support for French-Canadians dissipated. [4] Lord Germain believed that there was no need to placate what he called “the Papists”, and became involved in several heated discussions with Carleton.



Many historians today blame the loss of the British Empire in North America on Lord Germain and this is not an entirely unfair accusation on their part. While Lord Germain’s actions during the War for Independence are beyond the scope of this text it is safe to say that Lord Germain did not understand the sheer determination of the colonists.



Giving up on having any progress made on the Quebec issue, Carleton sailed for Quebec, in June 1774 with his wife and son frustrated with the government of Lord North and the political situation in London. He arrived back in Quebec and did his best to govern the province despite resistance from London and more specifically Lord Germain.



At the same time across the Atlantic more events transpired that would change both the course of American history and the Carleton family. This year was to be another bad year for Irish harvests and this time the Irish, both Protestant and Catholic would become very vocal about their grievances both real and imagined. And there would be consequences for Britain, Ireland, and America.



And with the New Year’s Rebellion of 1775 yet another member of the Carleton family would come into play...[5].


[1] Per OTL. Carleton seemed unlucky with wounds during the Seven Years War.

[2] Once again as per OTL.

[3] IOTL she would give birth to more but the butterfly effect would change this.

[4] The POD. IOTL the Earl of Dartmouth, for whom the college is named, was very influential in passing the Quebec Act and in some ways was one of the better members of Lord North's cabinet.

[5] More on this later.
 
Here is a psuedo-update to end my long drought. It is a preview of things to come.... (note it is not necessarily canon.)

(From The Dark Decades 1915-1947: A Complete History of the Wars of Supremacy and the Rise of Volkovism by Jose K. Paiz 3rd Baron Paiz Imperial University of Mexico Press, Mexico City Anahuac, FKA 1969)



One of the major consequences of the First War of Supremacy was the rise of Volkovism in the defeated Continental Powers, namely France, Russia, Austria and Spain. The Volokovists are the most well known in France and Russia, but there were even minor movements in Great Britain, the Federal Kingdom, and in Gran Columbia while the Union of Kalmar was the metaphorical joker in the deck...




...Before the First War of Supremacy, the Union of Kalmar was a nominal member of the Continental Alliance along with France, Spain, Austria, Bavaria, Sardinia, the Papal States, Poland, Russia, Chile, and Argentina. When the War broke out in the summer of 1915 the Union surprised many around the world by staying neutral and thereby allowing the Prussian and the Royal British and American navies to compete against both the Russians and the Poles in the Baltic Sea and prevented the Russian Baltic Fleet from joining the Royal French Navy in the North Sea and the Channel thereby ultimately sealing the fate of the Continental Alliance.






By failing to close the Atlantic, the French, and to a lesser degree the Spanish, failed to prevent American and Gran Columbian soldiers from arriving on the Continent and saving both Portugal and Catalonia from defeat. And at the same time the European members of the Continental Alliance (France, Austria, Russia, Poland, Bavaria, Sardinia, and the Papal States) were not able to resupply and aid their Argentine and Chilean allies, who fought Brazil, Gran Columbia, and the Dominion of Patagonia.





The failure to enter the war on the part of the Union of Kalmar caused post war relations between the defeated Continental Alliance and the Union. But this would change as Kalmar businesses would help re-arm the Continental powers in secret as well as provide universities in which to do research. Research into the atomics led by Aksel Bohr [1] of the University of Stockholm would also become a major boost up for the Alliance in the Second War of Supremacy, a war that would change the very fabric of society across every continent. And of course the Union of Kalmar would fall into better graces with its estranged allies when it launched a surprise attack against the Prussian cities of Hamburg, Kiel, and Gdansk in the opening stages of the war, along with the Union’s main stroke of tactical genius.





Imitating their Viking ancestors, the United Kalmar Navy would launch the world’s first ever aeroplane carrier raid, sinking a large portion of the British Grand Fleet, docked in Scapa Flow, in a surprise attack while only taking minimal casualties. While the discussion of tactics is beyond the scope of this chapter, the tactics developed by the Continental Powers in the Interwar Era allowed them to achieve overwhelming superiority in the early stages of the war, a superiority that was only broken by the sheer combined industrial might of the Federal Kingdom of America and the Empire of Japan.





Perhaps the most crucial development in the Interwar Era that caused us to have a Second War of Supremacy was the rise of Volkovism . There are many conflicting theories on where Volkolvism arose or at least the principles of Volkovism. With many scholars divided on France and Russia. Increasingly many scholars believe that Volkovism started in Russia in the days after the failed Communist coup d’état of 1919.




For decades the peasants of Russia were serfs, as if the world was still in the Middle Ages and indeed the Russians still had serfs even after the FKA abolished slavery in 1865 at the conclusion of the War of Rebellion and the defeat of the Confederated Kingdom of America at the Battle of Augusta by Earl Robert E. Lee, Second Earl Lee, Earl of Stratford Hall and Marquees Charles Francis Adams, Third Marquees Adams, Marquees of Braintree. The abolishment of serfdom in Russia did come about until 1871 and the rise of Tsar Nicholas II [2] who formally abolished serfdom.





While officially serfdom was abolished in Russia the lives of the former serfs had not improved and in some cases became worse. The poor economic conditions and setbacks in wars against Japan and the 7th Coalition [3] combined to form a powder keg that was waiting to explode at the first match. And in the winter of 1918 that match was to be lit by a revolutionary named Petya Vasilyev.





Vasilyev, born in 1881 in the city of Tsaritsyn to a professor and a house wife was exposed to revolutionary ideology early in life. His father a professor at a local university had become very interested in the writings of Karl Marx and when Petya entered his teens, he too read the works and Marx and become an advocate for reform.




Many historians believe if his father and brothers had not been arrested by the Tsarist government he would have remained a moderate reformer but this was not to be so. In 1896 both his father and his older brother were arrested for participating in revolutionary protests in Tasritsyn. After the loss of his father’s income the situation of the Vasilyev family became desperate and Petya himself grew angrier by the year. Eventually in 1907 after being arrested for the fourth time he was exiled to Switzerland by the Russian government. While in exile in Geneva he met several other revolutionaries and they agreed that something had to be done and with start of the First War of Supremacy and the catastrophic failure after catastrophic failure that the Russian military was to face presented an unprecedented opportunity to Vasilyev and his fellow revolutionaries.




Vasilyev and Dimitri Rolinkov approached the Prussian ambassador to Switzerland with an opportunity the members of the 7th Coalition could not refuse. If the Coalition was to provide transportation into Russia for Vasilyev, Rolinkov, and their fellow revolutionaries they would in turn whip up dissent against the Tsarist government and overthrow the government and remove Russia from the Continental Alliance.





In 1919 as the war raged on across Europe, Asia, and Africa, the revolutionaries made their moves. Arriving in the city of Petrograd, formerly St. Petersburg the name having been changed as it was feared that the name sounded too Prussian, they immediately begin to stir up dissent with many of few remaining military units mutinying against their officers. With a small army under the command of Sergei Alkaev, the military genius of the revolutionaries defeated several attempts my Tsarist forces to remove the People’s Revolutionary Army from the city but their efforts were to be futile, for on a particularly cold December 1, 1919, the Leib Guard, the personal guard of the Tsars mutinied against their officers and joined the PRA. Later that morning at about eleven o’clock the Winter Palace was overrun and the Imperial Family, sans Prince Peter, who was at the front were executed.





Three and a half days later Rolinkov, Vasilyev, and Alkaev formed the People’s Revolutionary Council and declared that the military units in the field should declare their loyalty to the Council, but for one man this might have happened and the world could have seen a Communist state. This one man is one of the most well known in history. His name is Ivan Volkov, who would lend his name to Volkovism.




Once the orders from the Council were received by the 2nd Army Group which was currently fighting outside of the Prussian city of Gdansk, the 2nd Army Group had mutinied and captured the last of the Romanov’s who they kept awaiting trial for “crimes against the people”. A young charismatic sergeant from the city of Pskov, Volkov spoke before the men of the 2nd Army Group and declared that the People’s Revolutionary Council was merely a puppet of the Prussian state which sought to subjugate. And in some ways this accusation was true, other than the fact that Prussia had arranged for the transportation of the PRC from Switzerland to Russia. Rolinkov’s mother’s family were Volga Germans as was one of Vasilyev’s grandfather’s. Using his place of birth as a rallying point Volkov made the analogy that the People’s Revolutionary Council was merely the Teutonic Knights come again to ravage the Motherland and that all Russians must unite to fight against the Teutonic peril. And left unnoticed was Volkov's self-comparison to Saint Alexander Nevsky, or at least officially.




And with his speech to the soldiers of the 2nd Army Group the days of the People’s Revolutionary Council were coming to an end. Instead of executing the young Tsar as they had done with the majority of their officers the 2nd Army Group instead, led my Volkov crowned their young commander Tsar Peter IV, who at the age of 24 just took over one of the world’s largest states. Volkov also personally executed the representatives the People’s Revolutionary Council had sent to monitor the 2nd Army Group.




The young Tsar led the 2nd Army Group, more or less commanded by Volkov towards St. Petersburg [4]. During the trip to St. Petersburg several other units of the Imperial Army inspired by Volkov and Tsar Peter IV, who was being viewed as the Second Coming of Peter the Great, joined forces and under the command of Volkov, who was still nominally a sergeant smashed the People’s Revolutionary Army outside of St. Petersburg and proceeded to recapture the Winter Palace, which was temporarily being used as the Council’s seat until their planned move to Moscow the following year. By St. Valentine’s Day 1920 the Communist experiment was over. Marx and Engles were discredited and never to be seriously revived again.



The young Tsar and his newfound lieutenant, Volkov were faced with a difficult decision either to continue to fight and face an eventual slow defeat or to ask the Coalition for armistice. They chose the latter. Together both France and Russia formally sued for peace on February 19, 1920, a day which would become Veteran’s Day here in the Federal Kingdom.



[1] ATL brother of Niels Bohr.
[2] ATL analogue of Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov. Who in OTL was a son of Tsar Alexander II who was outlived by his father.
[3] The Federal Kingdom, United Kingdom, Prussia, The Dual Monarchy of Portugal and Brazil, the United Federal Kingdom of Gran Columbia, the Dominion of Patagonia, the Kingdom of the Two Sicily's, Hanover, the Netherlands, Saxony, Greece, Japan, and nominally the Ottoman Empire.
[4] Due to anti-Russian feelings in the FKA the German spelling is used.
 
Here is a psuedo-update to end my long drought. It is a preview of things to come.... (note it is not necessarily canon.)

(From The Dark Decades 1915-1947: A Complete History of the Wars of Supremacy and the Rise of Volkovism by Jose K. Paiz 3rd Baron Paiz Imperial University of Mexico Press, Mexico City Anahuac, FKA 1969)



One of the major consequences of the First War of Supremacy was the rise of Volkovism in the defeated Continental Powers, namely France, Russia, Austria and Spain. The Volokovists are the most well known in France and Russia, but there were even minor movements in Great Britain, the Federal Kingdom, and in Gran Columbia while the Union of Kalmar was the metaphorical joker in the deck...




...Before the First War of Supremacy, the Union of Kalmar was a nominal member of the Continental Alliance along with France, Spain, Austria, Bavaria, Sardinia, the Papal States, Poland, Russia, Chile, and Argentina. When the War broke out in the summer of 1915 the Union surprised many around the world by staying neutral and thereby allowing the Prussian and the Royal British and American navies to compete against both the Russians and the Poles in the Baltic Sea and prevented the Russian Baltic Fleet from joining the Royal French Navy in the North Sea and the Channel thereby ultimately sealing the fate of the Continental Alliance.






By failing to close the Atlantic, the French, and to a lesser degree the Spanish, failed to prevent American and Gran Columbian soldiers from arriving on the Continent and saving both Portugal and Catalonia from defeat. And at the same time the European members of the Continental Alliance (France, Austria, Russia, Poland, Bavaria, Sardinia, and the Papal States) were not able to resupply and aid their Argentine and Chilean allies, who fought Brazil, Gran Columbia, and the Dominion of Patagonia.





The failure to enter the war on the part of the Union of Kalmar caused post war relations between the defeated Continental Alliance and the Union. But this would change as Kalmar businesses would help re-arm the Continental powers in secret as well as provide universities in which to do research. Research into the atomics led by Aksel Bohr [1] of the University of Stockholm would also become a major boost up for the Alliance in the Second War of Supremacy, a war that would change the very fabric of society across every continent. And of course the Union of Kalmar would fall into better graces with its estranged allies when it launched a surprise attack against the Prussian cities of Hamburg, Kiel, and Gdansk in the opening stages of the war, along with the Union’s main stroke of tactical genius.





Imitating their Viking ancestors, the United Kalmar Navy would launch the world’s first ever aeroplane carrier raid, sinking a large portion of the British Grand Fleet, docked in Scapa Flow, in a surprise attack while only taking minimal casualties. While the discussion of tactics is beyond the scope of this chapter, the tactics developed by the Continental Powers in the Interwar Era allowed them to achieve overwhelming superiority in the early stages of the war, a superiority that was only broken by the sheer combined industrial might of the Federal Kingdom of America and the Empire of Japan.





Perhaps the most crucial development in the Interwar Era that caused us to have a Second War of Supremacy was the rise of Volkovism . There are many conflicting theories on where Volkolvism arose or at least the principles of Volkovism. With many scholars divided on France and Russia. Increasingly many scholars believe that Volkovism started in Russia in the days after the failed Communist coup d’état of 1919.




For decades the peasants of Russia were serfs, as if the world was still in the Middle Ages and indeed the Russians still had serfs even after the FKA abolished slavery in 1865 at the conclusion of the War of Rebellion and the defeat of the Confederated Kingdom of America at the Battle of Augusta by Earl Robert E. Lee, Second Earl Lee, Earl of Stratford Hall and Marquees Charles Francis Adams, Third Marquees Adams, Marquees of Braintree. The abolishment of serfdom in Russia did come about until 1871 and the rise of Tsar Nicholas II [2] who formally abolished serfdom.





While officially serfdom was abolished in Russia the lives of the former serfs had not improved and in some cases became worse. The poor economic conditions and setbacks in wars against Japan and the 7th Coalition [3] combined to form a powder keg that was waiting to explode at the first match. And in the winter of 1918 that match was to be lit by a revolutionary named Petya Vasilyev.





Vasilyev, born in 1881 in the city of Tsaritsyn to a professor and a house wife was exposed to revolutionary ideology early in life. His father a professor at a local university had become very interested in the writings of Karl Marx and when Petya entered his teens, he too read the works and Marx and become an advocate for reform.




Many historians believe if his father and brothers had not been arrested by the Tsarist government he would have remained a moderate reformer but this was not to be so. In 1896 both his father and his older brother were arrested for participating in revolutionary protests in Tasritsyn. After the loss of his father’s income the situation of the Vasilyev family became desperate and Petya himself grew angrier by the year. Eventually in 1907 after being arrested for the fourth time he was exiled to Switzerland by the Russian government. While in exile in Geneva he met several other revolutionaries and they agreed that something had to be done and with start of the First War of Supremacy and the catastrophic failure after catastrophic failure that the Russian military was to face presented an unprecedented opportunity to Vasilyev and his fellow revolutionaries.




Vasilyev and Dimitri Rolinkov approached the Prussian ambassador to Switzerland with an opportunity the members of the 7th Coalition could not refuse. If the Coalition was to provide transportation into Russia for Vasilyev, Rolinkov, and their fellow revolutionaries they would in turn whip up dissent against the Tsarist government and overthrow the government and remove Russia from the Continental Alliance.





In 1919 as the war raged on across Europe, Asia, and Africa, the revolutionaries made their moves. Arriving in the city of Petrograd, formerly St. Petersburg the name having been changed as it was feared that the name sounded too Prussian, they immediately begin to stir up dissent with many of few remaining military units mutinying against their officers. With a small army under the command of Sergei Alkaev, the military genius of the revolutionaries defeated several attempts my Tsarist forces to remove the People’s Revolutionary Army from the city but their efforts were to be futile, for on a particularly cold December 1, 1919, the Leib Guard, the personal guard of the Tsars mutinied against their officers and joined the PRA. Later that morning at about eleven o’clock the Winter Palace was overrun and the Imperial Family, sans Prince Peter, who was at the front were executed.





Three and a half days later Rolinkov, Vasilyev, and Alkaev formed the People’s Revolutionary Council and declared that the military units in the field should declare their loyalty to the Council, but for one man this might have happened and the world could have seen a Communist state. This one man is one of the most well known in history. His name is Ivan Volkov, who would lend his name to Volkovism.




Once the orders from the Council were received by the 2nd Army Group which was currently fighting outside of the Prussian city of Gdansk, the 2nd Army Group had mutinied and captured the last of the Romanov’s who they kept awaiting trial for “crimes against the people”. A young charismatic sergeant from the city of Pskov, Volkov spoke before the men of the 2nd Army Group and declared that the People’s Revolutionary Council was merely a puppet of the Prussian state which sought to subjugate. And in some ways this accusation was true, other than the fact that Prussia had arranged for the transportation of the PRC from Switzerland to Russia. Rolinkov’s mother’s family were Volga Germans as was one of Vasilyev’s grandfather’s. Using his place of birth as a rallying point Volkov made the analogy that the People’s Revolutionary Council was merely the Teutonic Knights come again to ravage the Motherland and that all Russians must unite to fight against the Teutonic peril. And left unnoticed was Volkov's self-comparison to Saint Alexander Nevsky, or at least officially.




And with his speech to the soldiers of the 2nd Army Group the days of the People’s Revolutionary Council were coming to an end. Instead of executing the young Tsar as they had done with the majority of their officers the 2nd Army Group instead, led my Volkov crowned their young commander Tsar Peter IV, who at the age of 24 just took over one of the world’s largest states. Volkov also personally executed the representatives the People’s Revolutionary Council had sent to monitor the 2nd Army Group.




The young Tsar led the 2nd Army Group, more or less commanded by Volkov towards St. Petersburg [4]. During the trip to St. Petersburg several other units of the Imperial Army inspired by Volkov and Tsar Peter IV, who was being viewed as the Second Coming of Peter the Great, joined forces and under the command of Volkov, who was still nominally a sergeant smashed the People’s Revolutionary Army outside of St. Petersburg and proceeded to recapture the Winter Palace, which was temporarily being used as the Council’s seat until their planned move to Moscow the following year. By St. Valentine’s Day 1920 the Communist experiment was over. Marx and Engles were discredited and never to be seriously revived again.



The young Tsar and his newfound lieutenant, Volkov were faced with a difficult decision either to continue to fight and face an eventual slow defeat or to ask the Coalition for armistice. They chose the latter. Together both France and Russia formally sued for peace on February 19, 1920, a day which would become Veteran’s Day here in the Federal Kingdom.



[1] ATL brother of Niels Bohr.
[2] ATL analogue of Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov. Who in OTL was a son of Tsar Alexander II who was outlived by his father.
[3] The Federal Kingdom, United Kingdom, Prussia, The Dual Monarchy of Portugal and Brazil, the United Federal Kingdom of Gran Columbia, the Dominion of Patagonia, the Kingdom of the Two Sicily's, Hanover, the Netherlands, Saxony, Greece, Japan, and nominally the Ottoman Empire.
[4] Due to anti-Russian feelings in the FKA the German spelling is used.
 
Suggestions for a timeline

Hi! I'm new around here and i've got a suggestions for 3 timelines


What if the Invasion of Grenada Turns Worse

What if John II of Portugal accepts Christopher Columbus proposal to a expedition to the Americas

What if Alfred the Great died in Chippenham ?

SOrry for the bad Inglish
 

Sachyriel

Banned
A Quick Canada Wank

After the United States "metacivil" war between two camps equally divided on the issue of intervening in the Chinese Civil War (not the real reason, but the boiling point for internal divides), Russia jumped at the chance to take on one of it's old rival: Canada. Thinking Canada had no nuclear weaponry and the United States distracted with this odd internal issue, Russia didn't bother to use their own at first, sending conventionally armed boat loads over to Newfoundland, BC and the Arctic Territories. Because they had misjudged the Canadian ability, they soon found themselves under fire with Canadians of all ages and creeds going to fight to defend their homeland. The European Union cried out and sent armed forces to the Russian border as they shipped divisions over seas. The Australians, Indians, South Africans, Mexicans, and other Commonwealth members (I know Mexico isn't Commonwealth, but they sent a lot of troops) were sending forces as quickly as they could. American volunteers poured over the border and Alaskan military units would chip in even without authorization from anyone higher than the state governor.

Russia, now outnumbered, and having no plan for this, began to use nuclear weaponry on the troop concentrations in the EU. This gave them the rage they needed to bring the fight to Russia and it's satellites, bringing their own nuclear weapons to bear on the Bear soon enough it was over. The Allied Occupation Force took over a million troops to keep Russia pacified while the huge nation was broken up into smaller states, disarmed of nuclear weaponry and the satellites became annexed by a resolved European Union. However, Canadian troops were needed back home, and while other nations kept the occupation going, Canada rebuilt. American volunteers stayed in Canada as a majority (not all stayed, some still had families, but the majority were people with nothing to lose). Alaskans, disgusted at the lack of the Continental USA to do anything about their main allies, seceded easily, joining the Yukon in a union in order to show their newer allegiances.

Canadians, now throughly horrified at how close they had come to being atomic vapour voted in a government promising to develop nuclear weaponry. With Americans support in tacit consent while they sorted out their own problems, the EU, India, Alaska and their own greatest scientists perfected most of the weaponry that the world had developed without them after World War 2. Their armed forces, badly damaged, were being given such an overhaul that within a few years the recruiting centres were swamped with idiots thinking they were toys they were entitled to because they had helped in the resistance.

The Navy and Air Force as well as Armour took a bit longer; however by the time the former Russian states as well as the EU were a tenth of the way done rebuilding their lost cities Canada had the second largest navy in the world: India had first, the Europeans not far behind. Two Air Craft Carriers (The HMCS Trudeau and HMCS Chretien respectively) with an expanded force from before the war of 22 Frigates of the Kamloops-class, 10 Destroyers of the Yellowknife-class, 20 Patrol boats for the Otter-class, 6 Auxiliary Supply boats in the Portage-class, 16 training boats, 4 Amphibious Landing Support ships in the Huron-class, 12 Submarines of the Esquimalt-class hunter-killer and 4 Arctic Owl-class attack subs.

The Air Command was reequipping with Alaskan-brought technologies derived from the F-22, and was beginning to used unmanned drones that were more capable than anything downed from Russia; the newest forces could stay up in the air longer than before thanks to automated refuelling airships orbiting near major cities as well as more efficient engines. The V-22 Osprey was adapted to use different engines, making it sleeker and more Canadian with the addition of scramjet engines (though very hard on the passengers during acceleration, the aircraft could not be shot down most of the time) as well as it's own semi-autonomous drone escort flight which could be launched in-air. Reconnaissance and Patrol were almost entirely drones in the air, however the newest VTOL craft were in use: helicopters with advanced stealth properties were able to evade Indian radars in joint Indian/Canadian exercises.

The newest Armour took full advantage of an odd weapon: the coil gun. Now finally small enough to fit on land vehicles, the coil gun launched a wide variety of rounds, and the armour was developed from the M1 Abrams tank with minor changes to fabrication to increaser the ratio of stronger molecular bonds. As well IFVs took full advantage of smaller drones, able to have 2 each in compartments on the top, under smaller coil guns. The Canadian trooper himself was being enhanced with certain medical procedures to allow (a prototype neural link available to special forces only was too expensive to roll out to all troops) faster reflexes, stronger bones as well as increased muscle mass and healing aids. Equipment was lessened by drone-provided airdrops that could be called in faster than a trooper could search his rucksack; with case-less ammunition and full body armour capable of stopping most rounds from the third world the weapons also included the ability to review battlefields on the fly with computer links for the suit.

On the economic side of things the American consumer drive was lessening as the fighting continued, so Americans felt a hard pinch; coming to Canada to get new jobs, many were able to find them. However Canada couldn't solve all the worlds problems, India didn't want to be a China-redux and soon enough a deal was made to add a higher level of economic co-operation between the EU, Commonwealth, ASEAN as well as Brazil and the states that made up ex-Russia. It was to be a single currency, printed in Canada (since it was one of the Wealthy Countries that wasn't radioactive, close to an unstable China or still developing). With this new influence Canadians were near the top of the world, only the EU had more power.

The social side of the Canadian upshot was that Americans, while typically more conservative than their Canadian cousins, soon found themselves willing to pick up the traditional mantle of their new home. Marijuana was legalized, however taxed, as well as other soft drugs, and some sociologists say this helped in seducing Americans and other immigrants from their homelands to Canadian thinking. As Natives wanted more say in things Quebec was made into two provinces, similar to Nunavut in the North and traditionally Quebec to the South. New conservation technologies as well as environmentally friendly advances allowed for a greater feeling of being Canadian involving being environmentally active. It was around this time that the demand for oil fell below the profit threshold for the environmental disasters in Alberta, allowing the nation to re-cooperate its beauty in one of its western provinces.

After a decade, Canada now has most of the North East United States, Hawaii, Washington and Michigan. The Chinese Civil War was over, the nationalists in Taiwan being soundly defeated when they attempted too early to regain control. Most of what was considered 'not' China by anyone but hardline communists were becoming independent. Mongolia expanded and settled down into the new economic order, Tibet and other republics formed from the inland areas, receiving assurances from India for protection. Hong Kong received a Singapore-like status as most of China struggled to maintain its identity. Europe was nearly fully rebuilt and the states of Ex Russia were slowly feeling out what it was like to be by themselves. South Africa's lead on the continent had been matched by places like Namibia and Egypt, Somalia having been "pacified" by a Saudi Arabia-led force and become a solidly Muslim state. The South American states were solidly on the new currency, as were most Central American and Caribbean islands. Even the 5 different states that came from the United States were talking about using it. India had developed into a first class nation, though its internal differences still seemed to hold it back. Australia and its surrounding Commonwealth states had become a republic, stable and wealthy.

As before, the Commonwealth would try to grow tighter: the Caribbean states decided for a union with Canada as it grew larger on the former USA. Seeing this, Florida, which was being solidly oppressed by Louisiana and Texas, rebelled and won its own independance, begging to join the growing Canadian state. Troops came to maintain the peace as a referendum was held in the Caribbean states and Florida. with only some of the Old Confederacy on the Atlantic now, the American states were getting closed in on: Mexico was already losing a war on drugs without the help of the American Behemoth, since Canada wasn't able to or willing to totally replace it. Texas/Louisiana was agitating for a war of aggression with them, and when Florida left and Canadian troops were East, they decided to continue South. Mexico asked Canada to assist it, and soon enough Canadian troops (including semi-integrated Carribean and Florida regiments) were in Mexico assisting as Canada sent more troops to Florida to prepare an assault into Louisiana. This war was again nuclear, with the few Texan/Louisianan weapons being used on Mexican fighters with a great effect of causing them to break. Canadian Troops held fast, their higher technology chains salients and pockets all over the former border. Before they could be overrun, they banded together, a huge contingent that would have been a target too good for nukes had they any left. By this time Canada was rushing over the Border, easily destroying the dystopia that was the Louisianian/Texan state as most of its forces were chasing Mexicans. Before it was over, Mexico was a horrible mess that required an occupation force just as much as the Southern gulf states of the Ex-USA did.

After five more years the Californian Pact (a Celifornian Hegemony over Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico tried to take Baja California from the now-barely standing Mexican government, claiming it was requested by the residents who saw nearly no government. Canadians were again called into the former United States, going into Arizona and New Mexico to avoid having to land on the heavily defended beaches of California. However the Canadian Navy really shined here, sinking California Hegemony ships under the waves easily. Bombarding them from long ranges and utilizing stealthy drones and cruise missiles to attack, the Californians could do nothing but sue for peace. Mexicans accepted it beside Canadians as the other states between Michigan and Washington applied for Provinceship soon after one another, South Dakota falling away from North Dakota to join Wyoming and Utah in a union.

After fifty years the Canadian Republic has saved the EU from what was dubbed by sceptical AH.commers over half a century ago as "The 'Randomoid Caliphate' War", and now the Prime Minister can have a Mediterranean home along with his Ottawa one at 24 Sussex. The huge occupation force from the Economic Alliance (the new Currency near the beginning) was half a billion troops keeping the most historically unstable areas in the world under what amounted to a Mercantile Force. With all of the world using the currency printed originally in Canada, they had such a head start that accepting Europe into Canada piece by piece barely left any room for Japan, Greater Australia, The South African Union (going north) and the rest of North America. Canada was so full it couldn't reach it's wallet, which should say something about the Canadian Identity. However it was in fact still strong, despite the expectations. The English speaking world waved the Maple Leaf (now growing nearly everywhere in the world) as well as many others now that Canada Day was almost beating Christmas in economic benefits.

However South America was a rising power, having unified under the Brazilian flag twenty years before Japan became a few separate provinces. The economies were too intertwined for full on war, and soon enough ti came down to the biggest merger in all of history, Canada and Brazil. The Canadian Identity survived as the first Prime Minister in the 1,000-seat Legislature was from Toronto. As eventually other nations joined this pan-continental superpower the maple leaf landed on Mars, robotic drones began to perform advanced tasks to set up for a colony ship arriving. Soon enough, as the Mars colony celebrated it's first birthday, a peaceful affair on the Red Planet, Canada was involved in Africa in shaking hands with the Somalian President to add another province, not the last and not the least.

A final note, on the Hundredth Anniversary of the Canadian-Russian War, the streets of the Kremlin were still occupied by Canadians, however the mood was different. Much different. Strains of 'O Canada' could be heard as the World was at peace under the Canadian Flag, unchanged since1965.
 
Thicker Than Water

It started in the late Nineteenth century. There were riots, armored uprisings in all the major European capitals. That alone got the backs of the Monarchies up. Communism, was seen as the greatest threat the European way of life. But, if your in a cage with a Lion, you wont notice a spider. Race riots were breaking out in every corner of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. They probably wouldn't have led to much, that is at least, if the Austrians hadn't acted so harshly. What could have simply been the putting down of a riot led to a slaughter of Serbians in the south and Czechs in the north. The horrors of this action was over blown in separatist papers, and even in many Austrian ones. The Austro-Hungarian Civil War started April 3rd 1887, three years to the day after the slaughter.

Civil war is a term used very lightly in this event. The War itself lasted less than a week. The different ethnics making up the Empire simply declared independence as Republics. The Empire of Austria died with nothing more then a whimper. The Largest and only real battle in the Civil War was the attack on Vienna. Serbian, Czech, Hungarian and Republican Austrian forces fought for three days to take the capital. The Austrian Royal Guard crumbled. The Majority of the Austrian army was being torn apart in the south, none were defending the assumed safe Austrian homeland. The Austrian Royal Family fled to Berlin on the 7th of April. On April the 8th the flags of each new Republic flew over the Royal Palace. The Easter European Republican Alliance was proclaimed in the defense of the new nations. At first the only nation to recognize the new nations was the United States. Over the next few years most other nations came to recognize them, all but the German Empire.

In 1888 the revolution that had ended the Austrian Empire spread to Serbia and later attempted spreading too Romania and the Russian Empire. The Serbians fell when the Yugoslav movement joined forces with Republicans, the Serbian Royal Family attempted to flee to St Petersburg. But were captured by Ukrainian Republican forces shortly after crossing the border and returned to the Serbians. The Royal Family was exactitude by Republican forces on the 14th of November 1888, and the Kingdom of Serbia annexed into the Serbian Republic.

The Republican revolts broke out days later in Romania. Much smaller then the revolts in other nations, with the added benefit of the Romanian Government expecting revolution led to a quick end to the would be rebellion. The Romanian Army occupied the border and Romanian ports to keep the treasonous republicans from escaping.

In Russia, where the living conditions of the population was worse than all of Europe several Republics formed, in Finland, the Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and a Russian Republic in Moscow. The Muscovite Republic was immediately surrounded by the Imperial Russian Army. The Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian republican forces lacked the coordination and unity that the Austrian Republics had and turned on one another over territory disputes. In effect ending their involvement in the Russian Civil War before the Russians even reached the borders of the new Republics. The Democratic Republic of Finland and the Ukrainian Republic how ever were a very different story. Both were ale out oust the Russian occupational force hold off the Russian Army's attempted advance into their territories. With more Republican revolutions threatening to break out with in the Empire the Tzar recognized their independence inorder to use the Army to keep Russia-proper intact.

Now with the destruction of the Serbian Crown, a failed revolution in Romania and tearing apart of Russia a sears of talks began in London led by Queen Victoria. Most of the Monarchs of Europe formed The Crowns Interest Pact. An alliance of sorts led by The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to protect European Monarchist interests from Republican forces and influences.
 
All About My Brother: A Taiping Rebellion Timeline

PRE-OBLIGATORY ADMINISTRATIVE STUFF: Please go here to discuss the timeline, comment on the timeline, or demand a refund.

OBLIGATORY ADMINISTRATIVE STUFF: I’ve never written a timeline before, so please be gentle when telling me how much I suck. This timeline will describe an alternate Taiping Rebellion, that being the civil war which tore China apart in the mid-19th century. I’ve never been much for the “1899: Important Thing Happened” style of alternate history, so I’m going to take a kind of history book approach to what happened, with occasional first-person bits. Additionally, there won’t be one big point when everything changes; rather, there will be a series of small unfortunate events (unfortunate if you’re a fan of the Qing Dynasty, that is). The real exciting stuff will start around 1850, but this post will mostly be about setting the stage for what’s to come. And . . . that’s it for the obligatory administrative stuff! So we begin.

**********************

Introduction: The Father, the Son, the Holy Ghost, and the Other Guy

Excerpted from “Hong Xiuquan: The Man, the King, the God,” by Honda Keisuke. People’s University of Tokyo Press, 1979.

- 洪秀全 (Hong Xiuquan) was a man who could safely be discounted. For there were millions of others exactly like him. Born in the village of 福源水(Fuyuanshui) in Guangdong on January 1st, 1814 as 洪仁坤 (Hong Renkun), his parents, 洪兢扬 (Hong Jingyang) and 王氏 (Wang Shi) were members of the semi-proletariat middle-peasant class. Hong Xiuquan thus came of age under the thumb of the imperialist exploiting classes, who for centuries had held the laboring peasant masses in a state of feudal quasi-serfdom.

Hong was by all accounts a dutiful student, although his formal education was cut short at the age of fifteen, when his parents could no longer afford tuition fees. He continued studying on his own, and in 1836 traveled to the provincial capital of 广州 (Guangzhou) to take the civil service examinations. He returned home empty-handed, as did more than 95% of all those who attempted to earn degrees. Hong’s humble class origins worked against him; although examples of poor men who earned a degree and went on to fame and fortune were heavily publicized, in reality most of the degrees went to privileged scions of the reactionary elite classes. Hong sat the exams three more times, failing on each occasion. It was after his third failure that he had his first dreams, or “revelations” as they would later be called. Although previous scholarship has placed Hong Xiuquan in the role of proto-Marxist revolutionary, I will use a post-Modernist-neo-structuralist-anti-colonialist-deconstructo-formulistic Fourth Wave Marxism-Fukuzawaism (1) approach to argue that in fact, Hong was . . .

Excerpted from “The Birth of the Red Heresy,” by Paolo Bellucci. University of Florence Press, 1950. (2)

- In 1837, after failing the civil service examinations for the third time, Hong Xiuquan slipped into a fit of delirium, probably brought on by a combination of stress and shame. In the words of the famous Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, it was “the panic attack that changed the world.” The series of dreams that Hong had in this state have been written about and dramatized a thousand times. This volume will content itself with the facts. Hong later claimed that in his dreams he saw an old man complaining that men were worshipping demons instead of him, followed by Confucius being tortured for his sins and then repenting. In his most vivid hallucination, Hong dreamt of being brought to heaven on the wings of angels and meeting a golden-bearded man who ordered him to rid the world of evil, after which he took out Hong’s organs and replaced them with new ones. Most critically, the bearded man addressed Hong as “Younger Brother.”

Hong saw no greater meaning in these dreams for six years, until in 1843 he failed the examinations for the fourth time. It was then that his cousin Li Jingfang gave him the book 劝世良言 (Quan shi liang yan, or Good Words to Exhort the World), a Christian tract by the writer Liang Afa. Thus was the Red Heresy born; Hong immediately connected the tenets of Christianity to his dreams from six years earlier. He saw himself as the adopted younger brother of Jesus Christ, who had been sent by God to rid China of Confucianism and found a new heavenly kingdom. Hong’s first converts were his cousins Feng Yunshan and Hong Rengan, who had also repeatedly failed the civil service examinations. After being forced out of their village by Confucians, the three men traveled to 广西 (Guangxi Province), where they began to preach and by 1850 had assembled a group of at least 10,000 converts, known as the 拜上帝会 (Bai Shangdi hui, or God-Worshippers Society).

Excerpted from “Bad Houseguests: The History of the Kejia People,” by Allison Seymour. New York: Goldman, Sachs and Company, 2002.

- Although much has been written about the religious dimensions of the Taiping Rebellion, relatively little mention has been given to its origins as an ethnically-based movement. In fact, Hong Xiuquan, his cousins, and the core of the Taiping army and administration were members of the 客家 (Kejia) minority. The 客家 (Kejia, or Hakka, literally meaning “guest people”) have a long and complicated history . . .

The earliest supporters of the Taiping Rebellion came not only from the Kejia, but from another prominent ethnic minority in Southern China – the 壮 (Zhuang) people. In effect the Taiping Rebellion began as an uprising by disaffected minority peasants, spurred into action by their charismatic leader.

NOTES
(1) This would be 福澤諭吉 (Fukuzawa Yukichi), who in the real world was an incredibly influential Japanese philosopher, educator, and political theorist. I have plans for him.

(2) Hong’s heterodox interpretation of Christianity has been dubbed “The Red Heresy” due to a mistake made by his former teacher, American missionary Issachar Jacox Roberts. As Hong’s fame grew, so too did Roberts’, and in 1858 he published a book detailing his experiences entitled My Name is Red. This title was chosen based on Roberts’ mistaken belief – his Chinese wasn’t that great – that the “Hong” in Hong Xiuquan was written with the character 红, which means red. In fact it’s written with the character 洪, which means vast or grand. Roberts was unaware of this fact, and even if he had been, My Name is Vast just doesn’t sound as good. Like all misunderstandings it spread rapidly, unchecked by the truth, and even today Hong Christianity is commonly referred to as the “Red Heresy,” and the Great Kingdom of Heavenly Peace is often simply known as “Red China.”

*Careful readers will notice that everything so far pretty much happened in real life – there’s not too much alternate in this history yet. Sorry. I did it this way because the Taiping Rebellion isn’t as well known in the West as it might be, and thus I thought it was important to establish the context in which it occurred. Next update coming tomorrow.
 
to moderator

whoops, sorry. still figuring out how this sub-forum works. i know that what i just submitted does not meet the standards for "timelines and scenarios" - i was hoping to upload the TL bit by bit, because it's really long . . .
 
Upside Downside - UK and Falklands location swap

Freely I admit inspiration by NordicBrit's Falklands in North Sea and NomadicSky's 'Surprise Argentina' TLs, but this is all my own. A game of consequences, if you will...

Upside, Downside
The Transition woke Gordon Brown and his wife with a soundless, lightless flare of energy and a mild earth tremor that lasted about a minute; the Prime Minister was conscious of a feeling as if his stomach had twisted halfway around and then back again. He had the bedside light on in a second and his wife was sitting bolt upright in alarm. With an agonised cry “The children!”, she leapt out of bed and went to the door, almost knocking over the official outside who was hurrying in to check on them. He stood aside, she shot down the corridor and the Prime Minister raised an eyebrow as the official came in.
“Yes, yes – I’m alright – what’s going on? Was that an earthquake or a terrorist bomb?”
“We don’t yet know, Sir – will you come down to the Situation Room?”
Gordon Brown sighed; here he was in what might be the last six months of his Prime Ministerial career, faced by an unwanted and troublesome problem; for a bizarre moment he wished that his foolish opponent Cameron had to face it instead, but life is life.
“At least we’ll get the information faster there than anywhere else. Better stand by to activate COBRA just in case. If there’s nothing significant within thirty minutes, I’m going back to bed.” He was to wince at the memory of that remark in the years to come. “H’mm...I’ll dress... Get me some coffee, will you?”
Within ten minutes it became clear that the tremor was affecting most of Britain and within half an hour some startling reports began to emerge – aircraft missing offshore, undersea cables cut, a disaster in the Channel Tunnel and a lack of contact on satellite services. Terrestrial radio and TV were working, but the only cable TV services were those originating within the UK itself. More data emerged over an hour as GPS systems reported consistently that Britain was not between Ireland and France in the Northern Hemisphere, but at a location in the South Atlantic. Gordon Brown, his pulse racing, a cold shiver down his back, was faced by the fact that somehow Britain had been moved to the location formerly occupied by the Falkland Islands. By then he was in Cabinet Office Briefing Room A – the COBRA beloved by journalists and hated by those forced by crises to use it.
“...Leaving aside the how and the why, we have to face the situation and deal with it.” The Prime Minister faced his staff and colleagues. “Where are the Falkland Islands ?”
The Combined Air Operations Centre at High Wycombe had been the first to realise that there was a problem and the first to solve it by using GPS data to re-point satellite antennae towards the big communications satellites above the equator. At the cost of some signals degradation, they had been able to re-establish links with RAF Aldergrove near Belfast and with RAF Mount Pleasant, for the Falklands had been moved wholesale to where England had been. Governor Allan Huckle and his Council were trying to make sense of a bewildering situation; Port Stanley now faced south east, RAF Mount Pleasant had recovered twenty desperate airliners and two ferries had been wrecked in Percival Cove. Europe was just waking up to the disaster that had occurred, whilst the French SNCF were recovering the remains of a train wreck in their truncated half of the Channel Tunnel. Britain in its home waters consisted now of the Falklands, the southernmost Channel Islands and Northern Ireland, plus an array of frantic North Sea oil platforms that had massive oil pollution spills to deal with. HMS Vanguard, the on-patrol Trident submarine, was understood to be still in its Arctic patrol zone, so there were no problems with the deterrent.
As the hours wore on, it became clear that the problems were not so much military as economic; the oil and gas pipelines vital to Britain’s economic survival had been severed and with them went much of the energy needed to run the country. The coal-fired power stations, the nuclear stations and the wind and hydro plants, could just keep Britain going, but 43.5% of generating capacity had been natural gas. That would mean restricting non-essential uses until either more gas could be sourced or replacement oil, coal and renewable could be brought on stream. Food was nearly as bad – 95% of fruit and 50% of vegetables eaten in Britain were imported, mostly by air. Flights from places such as Kenya were easily re-directed, but costs were bound to rise. In the short term, it meant an increased cost of living and possibly some rationing. The chickens of importation were indeed coming home to roost – Britain was in a worse position because of imports than it had been in 1939. The national fishing fleet was tiny compared to the 1960s, whilst fish farming relied upon sand eels and other ‘scrap’ fish that were not obtainable in the South Atlantic. Gordon Brown and his advisers became more and more concerned as the hours to GMT dawn grew closer, a time when he was going to have to take Benzedrine to stay awake long enough to record a message for Britain.
By 4 a.m., David Cameron and his key Shadow Cabinet had arrived, followed soon after by the Liberal Democrats. Salmond’s SNP in Holyrood were slower off the mark, teleconferencing with COBRA from a conference room in Edinburgh. Gordon Brown grimly told Salmond that immediate independence was off the agenda as national survival would call for a Government of National Unity. It was not very diplomatic, but both he and Cameron stood together on this issue.
“The Argentinians are a few hundred miles due west.” Cameron reminded Salmond. “If we show any weakness, we’re in the shit.” Strong words for Cameron, so they struck home. “Or do you want them flag-planting in the Shetlands and Hebrides as a replacement for the – hah – Malvinas?”
“They wouldn’t dare!” Outrage from the First Minister, as red as a turkey cock.
“I can guarantee that they will.” Gordon Brown spoke more softly. “They know damned well that we’ll start handing out oil drilling licences tomorrow. The Falkland Islands Dependencies are the only economic lifeline between us and disaster. David’s just convinced me that without asserting ourselves, we’ll lose everything.” Cameron nodded, his face more than serious; the hazards of ignoring British authority would have to be enforced by the Royal Navy and the RAF. “Above all, nobody is going to forget that we’re now the only nuclear power in the Southern Hemisphere – and with the most powerful armed forces.”
Deflated, Salmond was forced to fall into line; the independence movement in Scotland had looked to North and Celtic Sea oil as its economic future, so snatching that away had only left tourism (likely to be lost), whiskey (likely to be drunk), forestry and agriculture. However, Brown sugared the pill by pointing out the need for more industry in Britain and the likelihood of extra employment connected with the energy industry. The likeliest oil drilling prospects were southeast of the position Britain found itself in, and that position was intriguing. Britain had been oriented north-south, but now its long axis was turned eighty-five degrees, so the Shetlands lay to the west and Lands End and the Isles of Scilly to the east. The Argentinians would have to fly along Britain to get to the oil fields, which made the RAF and Royal Navy stations in Scotland as important as RN Devonport and RAF Coningsby. Rosyth Naval Base would have to be re-opened to provide forward support for the Navy, so that in itself would boost Scotland’s economy.
Defence was one of the easiest problems to solve, with Harriers sent to the Shetlands, Typhoons to RAF Leuchars and the old bases at RAF Machrihanish and RAF Stornaway slated for re-opening. The AWACs aircraft from RAF Waddington were already altering patrol patterns and the Nimrods in Lossiemouth scanned the seas for possible hazards. Desire Petroleum’s drilling operation north of (now) East Anglia, was under tight protection, for it offered the first and best hope of getting oil ashore within the next couple of years. RAF Mount Pleasant was also tasked with protecting the fields in the North Sea, for tankers could transport the crude for sale, even if shorter voyages from other oilfields could help supply Britain in its current location.
“We interrupt our programmes for a special broadcast from Downing Street by the Prime Minister, the Right Honorable Gordon Brown, for the Government of National Unity.” The announcer sat on the couch uneasily. “Amongst other matters, he will explain why dawn is delayed and has announced a National Rest Day to recover from its effects.”
“The United Kingdom has been moved from its place in Europe down to the South Atlantic.” Gordon Brown hoped that the make-up on his face was not already melting from perspiration. “Why and how this has been done is not clear, but it is beyond any nation or organisation on Earth. The Falkland Islands now occupy the spot where the United Kingdom was. Because the new location is five hours behind GMT, sunrise will be at 11:15 a.m. This Transition took place at approximately 1:35 a.m. this morning. The Leaders of the Opposition and I are agreed that we must form a Government of National Unity to deal with the problems posed by this strange event. I have with great sorrow to inform you that an estimated 4,570 people have already lost their lives in the Channel Tunnel disaster and various airliner and ferry wrecks caused by this Transition.” He hoped his face showed how he felt, as well as his weariness. “The Cabinet Office will release information as it becomes known. For proof, you can expect dawn at 11:15 a.m. The sun will rise in the former ‘south’ of England, setting in the former ‘north’ of Scotland.” A wry smile at the camera. “Instead of being north-south, we’re now east-west, with Scotland in the west and England in the east.” He showed a copy of the map, unveiled behind him. “The weather will be wet and windy, becoming worse as the months go by, because midwinter will be in June, as in New Zealand. The Met Office scientists are still working out the details. Please be patient – tomorrow we will start a normal day, today is a time for thought and prayer. By the way, Police leave is cancelled and the Armed Forces are standing by to assist in maintaining law and order. It has been agreed with the Attorney General that anybody attempting to cause trouble will be detained until the Courts can deal with them. The necessary Emergency Legislation has been authorised and given Royal Assent under the Prevention of Terrorism and Emergency Powers Acts.” A pause while he drank a glass of water.
“The international effects are obviously considerable. I am happy to say that the governments of Australia, New Zealand, Chile, South Africa and the United States, have all offered their assistance and friendship in our hour of need. The European Union has accepted that Britain had neither warning nor influence over what has happened. Relatives of those living in the Falkland Islands will be glad to know that the Falklands are safely where England was and that H.M. Forces will continue to defend and protect both them and Northern Ireland. We have not yet been officially contacted by the Republics of the Argentine, Uruguay and Brazil, but will do our best to ensure that peace continues between our great nations. The detail of our new lives in the South Atlantic remains to be worked out, but I and my colleagues are determined to make it a good one for all our citizens. Thank you for listening and I will speak to you again at 6 p.m. this evening.”
The Republic of Chile had a very alert Ambassador in Rafael Moreno, who no sooner realised (from GPS) what had happened, than he contacted both his own nation by short-wave and got in touch with the Foreign Office. The duty operator initially thought him drunk or mad (Moreno forgave him) then put him through to the Cabinet Office. Chile got in ahead of the USAF liaison at High Wycombe, offering to hold discussions about ‘matters of mutual interest leading to an Alliance’, words that were balm to David Miliband’s ears. The Americans basically wanted to know what Britain was up to, but when Brown asked Obama whether Area 51 had been playing around with Britain, the point sank home. Well aware that the US forces in Britain were now (a) in the wrong spot and (b) liable to be sent home as useless, Barak Obama told Gordon Brown that America would assist its ally to the best of its ability. Rather candidly, the two men discussed re-establishment of communications and it waqs agreed that Britain continue its troop deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan in exchange for food and oil. Britain was going to take full advantage of its 200 mile economic zone and would not accept any interference from the Argentine.
Chile agreed to recognise British Antarctic Territory and the Falklands Dependencies in exchange for the Alliance and the scientific bases in the Palmer Peninsula. Naturally, that would infuriate the Argentines, for their claim covered the middle of the BAT, and would worry nations such as the USA with its habit (like Russia) of ignoring everybody; Britain had no intention of losing its economic rights and meant to reinforce its position in the Antarctic and South Atlantic. Under the Antarctic Treaty, Britain would maintain its existing bases and might keep a very wary eye on the Russian and Argentinian ones. Chile also saw an excellent market for its nitrate fertilisers, wines, fish, timber and other products, looking forwards to tourism from Britain. However, the obstacle of Argentine airspace might mean that Uruguay and Brazil got the lion’s-share of tourism, particularly because their beaches and hotels were well developed. An ally as tough as Britain would help to stop Argentine adventurism, ending the Andean wars that were a constant headache for little Chile.
South Africa, once it overcame its astonishment, saw Britain as a useful marketplace and another ally; Simonstown naval base had plenty of room for British ships, and if it could sell some oil...! The government in Pretoria decided that it was worth the effort, for maybe God had intended this amazing state of affairs to occur, as a sign of His power. A broadly similar attitude existed in Australia and New Zealand, both nations laughing at the British heading south ‘for the winter’. But it was acknowledged that a common heritage made it certain that the three English-speaking nations would form some kind of defence union. New Zealand looked forwards to shipping milk and dairy goods to Britain, for it was certain that no EU country could now sell them at a rate acceptable to Britain . As the High Commissioner in Australia House remarked to his deputy, the British would only take a few years in the Roaring Forties before deciding emigration to somewhere warmer would be a better idea. In this and other matters he was to be both right and wrong.
Gordon Brown’s remarks about the Police and the Army had been very definite and had sent a signal that organised crime was quick to understand; the Police arrested looters on sight and stored them in disused Army camps and football stadia until collected for Magistrates’ Court hearings. The legal profession protested, but found the Government had authorised detention without charge for up to two months – without compensation.
“We’ve enough to worry about, without coddling crooks!” That remark from the Chancellor, Jack Straw, made him highly unpopular with the crooks and the lawyers, but very popular with everybody else. Power shortages were real, as were food shortages, whilst petrol had to be rationed. By the second day – March 18th 2010 – the Government had put its plans into action; British industry would have to be directed to produce the essentials, until energy became more plentiful and coal or oil could be gasified for the gas-turbine power stations. A few mothballed oil-burning and coal-burning stations could be re-commissioned, but the rest was a matter of using what there was most efficiently. Bus services were encouraged and private cars discouraged, a matter that caused many grumbles but forced local authorities to expand bus services. Within a week, the services had been doubled, using old buses and minibuses on minor routes, but the black market in stolen petrol and diesel was to be a nightmare for filling-station operators and farmers.
“There just isn’t enough energy available!” A weary Conservative junior minister had admitted to one probing journalist. “It’ll be a month or so before the tankers re-adjust schedules enough to bring in more oil. We need more nuclear stations and a lot more wind turbines!”
The situation in the Falkland Islands had not changed very much, so far; the population were astonished by the Transition, but saw no reason to change their calm attitude to life and rather rural outlook. The Governor and the Council knew that the move to the North Sea had taken them from the, frying pan into the fire, for their unsophisticated loyalty to Britain made them vulnerable, even more so than their very limited military protection. An area the size of Wales was effectively held by a population of 3000 and a few hundred Armed Services personnel, with a small squadron of aircraft and one Type 42 destroyer. The seas around and between the Islands held a population of fish from the South Atlantic that would soon be targeted by French and Russian trawlers, whilst Port Stanley would soon be invaded by thousands of newsmen, thrill seekers and scientists looking for fun and answers. The distance to the French coast now being 200 miles rather delayed the French, until some companies began to charter planes and helicopters for the flight to Port Stanley airport.
The first group of interlopers were actually some enterprising Belgians who landed at Pebble Island from a helicopter to the astonishment of local farmers. Bill Davis and his wife were rather stunned when the Belgian reporters pressed microphones towards them and started to film their reactions. Davis’s demand to know who the Hell they were and that this was the British Falklands did set the tone for subsequent exchanges. The clannish and private Islanders had no interest in the press, particularly at a time when there was farm-work to be done. RAF Mount Pleasant ordered the helicopter to proceed to Port Stanley airport for customs inspection, but with the lure of the Governor and Council being willing to make a statement to a gathering of the media. The Belgians headed west forthwith, to land beside the airport and grab one of the few taxis to get to the Town Hall. A light plane landed soon after at the airport, its passengers from Paris Match and Le Monde, but was held up by customs inspection until after an Irish flight brought in Northern Irish and Erse correspondents.
Allan Huckle, the Governor, greeted the press contingent at the Town Hall, with the Legislative Assembly beside him. He confirmed that no cause had as yet been identified for the Transition and that scientific debate was ongoing, but refused to call the event a miracle.
“Divine miracles are supposedly benevolent.” Huckle pointed out. “The loss of life has run into thousands, although thankfully the Falkland Islanders have lost only one man, the fisherman Joseph Bracken. We cannot assume it was malevolent, either, because the energy involved could have killed us all. However, I am sure that people of all beliefs will pray that the outcome will be peaceful and that God’s Will shall be manifest.” That carefully-crafted remark was to win him a KCVO in the Birthday Honours, for it went down very well with Muslims in Leeds and Catholics in Dublin. “My request to all the nations of Europe is that we be allowed time to find our feet, for this event has stunned all in the Islands.”
“Your Excellency, with Britain in the South Atlantic and the Falklands being here – which part is the British Isles?”
 
a Pale House- All you can do for your country

POD: Instead of the Curse of Tecumseh, a dealier one is laid upon our nation's first president and his followers, or so many whill say is the cause of many white house deaths.


1770- Future President George Washington and his party meet with a Native soothsayer. POD- Instead of a peaceful dinner and talk, an inexperienced hunter shoots and kills one of the soothsayer's fellows, which ignites the slaughter. Barely a quarter hour later, most of Washington's group are dead and the fortune teller lives but a moment longer than his comrades. With the last of his strength, he curses Washington and all those whom shall dwell in his house.


4/30/1789 George Washington is sworn in for his 1st term as President. Although he has survived two wars and illness, there is still a touch of fear from his “reading”.


03/04/1797 George Washington is sworn in for a third term. Initially he planned his retirement, however with Vice President Adams resigning due to “boredom”, Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton convinces him to seek another, perhaps hopping to wield more influence as his mentor tired. Unfortunately, a Federalist did not take second, instead Thomas Jefferson, a leading figure in the Democratic-Republicans, is elected Vice President.


12/14/1799 President Washington succumbs to pneumonia and the incompetence of his physicians, only a few months after he a made a solemn inspection of the uncompleted White House. It takes almost a week for word to spread, and a few days more before Thomas Jefferson is sworn in as the second President. Jefferson is also the first but not last widower to become President, and has survived a number of his children with both Martha Skelton and Sally Hemings.


3/4/1809 James Madison is sworn in as the third President. Outgoing President Jefferson seems the most relaxed he has been since Washington's passing.


1813 In the retreat from Washington D.C, President Madison takes charge of an artillery unit and tries to assist them. The date as well as the cause is ultimately unsure, but it is believed that the cannon either exploded or the President may have been killed by indirect fire from the British or perhaps accidentally shot by one of his own soldiers. Many newspapermen and speakers indict the redcoats as the President's murderer, leading to an even more vicious fight, shocking even the native allies of the British. Elbridge Gerry is sworn in as President soon after word arrives, however he will only hold the office a little over a year before he passes away. Largely in private, president pro tempore Joseph Varnum replaces him, although it is the generals and Madison's surviving cabinet that run the country and war. Varnum does not seek a term of his own.


03/04/1817 James Monroe is sworn in as President.


1818 President Monroe dies from a bout of a malaria. Daniel Tompkins becomes President.


03/04/1825 John Quincy Adams is sworn in as President. Although death will not come to him, his father and his son George will, the former of old age the latter suicide.


03/04/1829 Andrew Jackson defeats Adams and is sworn in, his wife dead from the toll of the dirty campaign.


01/30/1835 Andrew Jackson becomes the first president to be murdered, shot in the heart and then stabbed by the madman Richard Lawrence. Martin Van Buren becomes President, he too a widower prior to his inauguration.
04/04/1841 William Henry Harrison dies from pneumonia, exactly a month after his inauguration. John Tyler is sworn in.


02/28/1844 President Tyler is killed in the explosion of a prototype cannon. Happily though, his son would marry Julia Gardiner, whom also lost her father. President pro tempore William P. Mangum succeeds him.


06/15/1849 Former President James K. Polk dies, three months after leaving the Presidency.


07/9/1850 President Zachary Taylor passes away from possible poisoning or gastroenteritis. Millard Fillmore becomes president.


04/18/1853 President William Rufus DeVane King succumbs to tuberculosis at his Alabama plantation. He was the only president to be sworn in on foreign soil, taking a holiday in Cuba for his health. Unfortunately, with the death of President-elect Franklin Pierce in a train accident, he was not to hold office that long, only twelve days longer than Harrison. President Pro Tempore David R. Atchison becomes president.


04/30/1853 Former President Fillmore's wife passes away less than a month after leaving the White House. His daughter will follow a year later.


11/4/1856 Former Senator John Fremont and former Congressman Abraham Lincoln (Republican) are elected President and Vice President of the United States, over Ambassador to Great Britain James Buchanan (Democrat) and former President Fillmore (American). Outgoing President Atchison had generated much disdain for the Democrats and his or their policies, also very much uncouth rumors where spread about Ambassador Buchanan's relationship with the late President King.


9/7/1861 Former President Mangum dies of a stroke. He will go down in history as a traitor, for supporting the Confederacy and for his sons whom will fight against the Union.


9/1862 Former President Atchison is killed while leading a Confederate attacks against Union troops. Like President Mangum, Atchison too will be noted as a traitor.


04/15/1865 President Fremont dies after being shot in the back of the head. He had been inaugurated for a third term just a month ago( Fremont and Lincoln had campaigned on the theme “don't change horses in cross stream” during the endgame of the Civil War). General in Chief of the Union Army Ulysses S. Grant is also dead, a mortal wound from a thrush of a dagger by the President's assassin. Secretary of State William Seward is also slain, fortunately though, the attempt on Vice President Lincoln fails. Lincoln is sworn in, will win a term in his own name, and ensure that Reconstruction and civil liberties for freed slaves are upheld (he also has the 13th amendment to incorporate guarantees of these liberties, for all men and women.)


7/1871 President Lincoln's youngest child, Tad, dies of tuberculosis.


11/29/1872 Vice President and President-elect Horace Greeley dies, following his wife. The electoral college therefore distribute his electoral votes to his running mate, B. Gratz Brown, whom will be sworn in as President in March.


8/20/1875 Former President Lincoln and his surviving son commit his wife to Bellevue Place, a sanitarium in Illinois. The former First Lady had slowly gone mad, and will spend the end of her days there.


08/4/1881 Former President Samuel J. Tilden dies. His health had deteriorated soon after the election, and failing in early 1880, therefore ending his reelection campaign.


7/2/1881 President James A. Garfield is shot and mortally wounded, eventually passing away two months later from infection. A wild shot from the assassin, struck Secretary of State James G. Blaine
in the eye, killing him almost instantly.


11/18/1886 Former President Chester A. Arthur dies from a brain hemorrhage a little over a year after leaving the White House


10/25/1892 President Benjamin Harrison's wife passes away from tuberculosis.


07/17/1893 President Grover Cleveland dies as a result of surgical error in the removal of a tumor from his mouth. It is believed that he may have accidentally ingest chloroform through a rag after the container for laughing gas was found empty. Vice President Adlai Stevenson is sworn in as President, while the physicians are eventually acquitted.


09/6/1901 President William McKinley dies as a result of a fatal gunshot wound. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt succeeds him.


05/1909 President William Howard Taft resigns the presidency following the passing of his wife from a stroke and a powerful bout of influenza. Vice President James Sherman succeeds him.


10/14/1912 Former President Theodore Roosevelt, campaigning for a third term, is fatally wounded by a gunshot from an insane bartender.


10/30/1912 President James Sherman dies of kidney ailments. With the Vice Presidency vacant, Secretary of State Philander Knox succeeds him, in the five month period until the next President is inaugurated.


08/6/1914 First Lady Ellen Wilson succumbs to Brights disease.


10/2/1919 President Woodrow Wilson dies of a stroke. Vice President Thomas R. Marshall succeeds him.


08/2/1923 President Warren Harding dies of a heart attack. Vice President Calvin Coolidge succeeds him.


7/7/1924 Calvin Coolidge Jr, son of President Coolidge, dies of blood poisoning. Coolidge soon after changes his mind and declines his party's nomination. Instead, Wisconsin Senator Robert LaFollette Sr. and Harding/ Coolidge Secretary of Commerce are nominated and win.


6/18/1925 President LaFollette dies of heart disease. Vice President Hoover succeeds him.


12/15/1928 Recently reelected President Herbert Hoover is killed in a train accident (later believed to be a bombing from Argentinian anarchists.) Vice President-elect Charles Curtis will be inaugurated on March the 4th.


02/15/1933 President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt is assassinated by Giuseppe Zangara, along with Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak in Miami. It is believed that Cermak was the only intentional kill. Vice President-elect John Garner will be inaugurated in three weeks.


1/20/1941 James Farley succeeds John Garner as President. His Vice President is former Missouri Senator Harry S. Truman, and he will serve two terms.


11/1/1950 President Harry S. Truman is assassinated by Puerto Rican nationalists. Vice President Alben Barkley will succeed him.


4/24/1953 Robert M. LaFollette Jr., son of the late President LaFollette, commits suicide.


9/1955 President Dwight Eisenhower dies of a heart attack. Vice President Richard M. Nixon succeeds him.


04/30/1956 Former President Barkley, reelected to his senate seat, dies of a heart attack.


11/22/1963 President John F. Kennedy is assassinated, along with Texas Governor John Connally, in Dallas. Vice President Johnson suffers a fatal heart attack as a result of the shock. House Speaker John W. McCormack is sworn in as President, whom made the unusual decision to appoint a Vice President, due to his advance age. He appoints Senator Humphrey of Minnesota, whom will go on to be elected President in 1964 since McCormack decided not to seek an election of his own.


04/1967 President Humphrey is assassinated in bombing on a German Military base by Communist agents from the East, posing as student protestors. Vice President Albert Gore Sr. succeeds him, but loses the Democratic nomination (the problems with Vietnam are blamed on President Gore), to Eugene McCarthy, whom has made “a deal with the devil”, in accepting George Wallace as his running mate (with some conditions). The two barely edge out former President Nixon, but it's still a win.


05/17/1972 President Eugene McCarthy is shot and crippled by Arthur Bremer, while campaigning in Maryland. Though wounded, McCarthy does not resign the presidency. He decides not seek renomination, but also tries to keep Vice President Wallace from grabbing it. By time the dust settles, the Democratic Party nominates Edmund Muskie and Thomas Eagleton, both of whom are hit by scandals (some true, but many made up by the Republican party.) and are defeated in a landslide by Nixon/Rockefeller.


09/5/1975 President Richard Nixon is assassinated by followers of Charles Manson in Sacramento. Vice President Nelson Rockefeller succeeds him, and Charles Manson and “Squeaky” Fromme are given lethal injections.


1/26/1979 President Nelson Rockefeller dies of a heart attack, caused by intimate relations with a female aide. Vice President Gerald Ford succeeds him, but will be defeated by Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy a year later.


4/3/1989 Former President Gore's grandson and the future President Gore's son, dies in a tragic car accident.


01/1990 Neil Bush, whom is incumbent President Bush's son, dies in prison following his conviction in the Savings and Loans Scandal.


05/26/1993 Former President George H.W. Bush is killed in a car bombing in Kuwait. Bush had succeeded Kennedy and fought Iraq over its invasion of Kuwait two years prior. President Bill Clinton, whom had defeated Bush, orders the Navy and Air Force to launch crippling air and missile attacks. More than half of Iraq is plunged into darkness by strikes against energy sources and supposed WMD facilities, and the sons of Hussein are killed by direct hits on their individual palaces.


07/20/1993 White House Counsel Vince Foster requests a private meeting with President Clinton. He shoots the President in the chest then turns the gun on himself before the Secret service agents can respond. The White House physician declares President Clinton died at the scene of massive blood lose. Vice President Gore succeeds him, and his presidency is a successful one. He'll win a term of his own in '96, with New Mexico Congressman Bill Richardson as his Vice President.


12/10/1995 Former President McCarthy dies of complications from Parkinson's disease. His doctors believe his life may have been shortened by 10-20 years after being shot by Arthur Bremer.


12/5/1998 Former President Gore, father of the incumbent, dies.


01/13/2002 President George W. Bush dies from choking on a pretzel. Vice President Dick Cheney succeeds him.


01/29/2002 Noelle Bush, niece and granddaughter of the late Presidents Bush, and daughter of former Governor Jeb Bush (convicted on counts of vote tampering, etc.) dies of a drug overdose.


12/15/2004 Pauline Gore, widow of the first President Gore and mother of the second, dies in her sleep.


02/11/2006 President Dick Cheney shoots and wounds another man while quail hunting in Texas. Three days later the victim dies and Cheney resigns, pending a possible criminal trial, but dies of a severe heart attack before anything happens. Vice President Rudy Giuliani succeeds him.
 
Leaves in the Wind: the Balkanization of Liechtenstein

Complete "Nano-TL" for Leaves in the Wind.

Original Thread: https://www.alternatehistory.com/discussion/showthread.php?t=154637

Please direct any comments there.

Enjoy! :)

GK...

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The winds of fate blow randomly, as much in the literal sense as the poetic. Certainly we will never know what random climatological event caused the Great Divide which led to the fall of so ancient and historical of a nation. What butterfly's ill-timed flap of wing? What unfortunate Bantu sneeze? What incontinent sheep did deliver so fateful of a change in winds such that the fated Leaf Of A Thousand Tons would fall, as it did, onto the lawn of discord?

It is said to have begun as an argument over said leaf, last of the season's yellowed autumn foliage. All of its compatriots had days since fallen as they are wont to do in the autumnal season, yet this lone straggler had held on until late in October when the fateful wind caused it to drift lazily to the west over onto the lawn of Ingrid Ganz. This minor event might have met with nary a shrug had Frau Ganz not already been in regular and heated argument with neighbor Helga Ingersol over the dispositions of the latter's leaves. This was, it would seem, the leaf that broke the donkey's back. Frau Ganz, lost in that moment to the passions of vengeful anger, stormed down Frongassstrasse in Eschen to her neighbor's house where the ensuing argument turned violent, then bloody.

With the trickling line of blood rushing from Frau Ingersol's nose the die had been cast. The first blood had been spilt in the Great Liechtensteiner Civil War.

The Liechtensteiner Civil War heated up that evening when Herr Ingersol became aware of the Ganzian assault on his wife. Full of righteous anger, he stormed to a local Gasthaus where Herr Ganz was known to visit after work. The ensuing argument grew, encompassing friends of both parties. Needless to say, alcohol was involved in the incident. Soon the Ingersolian and Ganzian factions came to blows, the violence spreading into the guests-at-large where lingering resentments over the results of a local youth sports game exploded with the violent release of buried tensions.

For the first time in years the Landespolizei was deployed to keep order, but the undersized and underequipped force was barely able to contain the conflagration. With containment facilities too small to hold the entire group, the Gasthaus itself was made into a temporary holding facility while a local Sergeant attempted to diffuse the situation.

All might well have returned to normal at this point had one of the patrons not been young Klaus Weissenegger, a known local anarchist agitator whose actions up until this point had never gone beyond badly-photocopied fliers. Denouncing the "fascist use of force" in containing the near-riot, Herr Weissenegger managed to reagitate the simmering crowd, which exploded again into violence. This time the Landespolizei were unable to contain the riot, which quickly spread into the surrounding streets of Eschen.

By the third day of the violence Eschen had descended into chaos and neighbors Switzerland and Austria had closed the borders. Eschen was divided into Ganzian and Ingersolian factions and in nearby Mauren youth were taking advantage of the distracted police force to commit smash-and-grab petty theft. Amidst this chaos Herr Weisenegger rallied a growing faction of the disaffected lower-middle-upper class youth and seized the hamlet of Schaanwald, declaring the People's Democratic Republic of Schaanwald and raising the red banner high atop nearby foothills.

Immediately reactionary elements joined the fray. Vestigial fascist elements of the National Union party marched in Vaduz, demanding the restoration of the Liechtenstein Army in order to restore order from "Marxist revolution". Counter-marches by a coalition of centrist and leftist factions clashed with the Rightists in the streets. Dozens were inconvenienced.

Amidst the street clashes a young police corporal named Grubershickel attempted to organize a militant putsch from a local beer hall. His dozens of followers, promised free beer, marched on the Government building, but owing to numbed senses stormed the local Gymnasium instead and fell back under a whithering spitwad barrage. Retreating to Rodabota in the mountains Grubershickel declared the short-lived National Socialist Republic of Oberland, which fell apart once the last of the hamlet's kegs ran dry. Nonplussed, Grubershickel declared a pogrom against the nation's "Jewish problem", but unable to find any (both Jewish families lived elsewhere) he declared himself Fuhrer of a rump Oberland, which amounted to a loft in remote Malbun.

By day five the Prince and all 25 members of the Landtag had fled the capital amid rumors that rioters were coming for them with pitchforks and torches (as it turns out all five of the nation's pitchforks were being employed to stack hay, their bearers wondering what all the fuss and noise was about). The Rump Liechtensteiner Monarchy in Wangerberg sent out radio addresses urging order, but with the government fled almost two miles civil order broke down completely.

By this point rampant warlordism overtook the nation. The southern Unterlands was under the control of the Balzers Fütballer Club and Militia, which possessed two of the nation's seven firearms (one of them an heirloom wheel lock). The Oberlands broke into at least a dozen autonomous cantons while an unusually intelligent ram led the rest of one shepherd's flock into the mountains, it can only be assumed to establish his own Oberlander Ovid Oblast.

By the time the UN stepped in to restore order the duchy had split into over 20 Nanostates from Ganzberg to Ingersolstadt to Balzerland to the PDRS to Schaffstadt to the Free City of Steg, which had avoided any real violence and apparently declared independence for the hell of it. All 37 members of the UN Security Platoon worked fervently to maintain order, most notably when tensions rose in Eschen over the Ganzian erection of a picket fence along the shared border with Ingersolstadt. The rump monarchy attempted to restore authority, but by this point the UN security force, hoping to get back home in time for the weekend footsie matches, officially recognized every Nanostate, including Schaffstadt. Twelve members (the losers of a straw-draw) stayed behind to maintain order.

By this point Fraus Ganz and Ingersol had decided that this was far too much fuss over a leaf and met for coffee, vowing later to go buy shoes in Vaduz.

Over the next few years the situation in the former Liechtenstein began to normalize. The Ganzerwall was torn down in 1994 as a gesture of goodwill, the divided city of Eschen finally reunited after a decade of division. In 1998 the rump monarchy in Wangerberg made peace with the Balzer Footballers forming an economic union known colloquially as the "Balz und Wang". The PDRS collapsed in 1998 in a financial crisis caused when Premier Weissenegger lost his ATM card. The National Socialist Republic of Oberland ended in 2000 when its fuhrer was evicted from his loft for failure to pay rent. He was promptly killed while attempting to conquer Schaffstadt, convinced that the head ram was somehow Jewish.

In 2006 the Balz und Wang customs union expanded to include most of the former Liechtenstein. A common currency was (re)adopted and free trade established.

Finally, in 2008 the Bill of Reunification was announced and a union-wide plebiscite declared. It passed and was ratified in 2009 as a new federalized constitutional monarchy under a single leader whose bravery in battle and diplomatic aplomb were universally admired: Prince Traber, Hochschaff of Schaffstadt.

The new Duchy of Schaffenheim, which later became known to the world as "Schaffenstein" after a high-profile typographical error by the Rand McNally company, was born.

Where the new Duchy of Schaffenheim/stein will go from here is unknown. Furthermore, it is unknown if the shaky new nation can hold together in the untimely event of Prince Traber's passing. Whatever the future holds, however, the tragic tale of Liechtenstein reminds us all of that one simple truth: it's best to learn to accept the winds of fate, and learn to rake our own fucking lawns.

From Fall of the House of Liechtenstein: History of the Great Liechtensteiner Balkanization of 1982 by Professor Helmuth von Munkey, University of Trimport.




Fin.
 

DanThompson

Future Predictions for Barack Obama’s presidency

A serious, fairly optimistic though realistic timeline for the next 7 years.
I made this at the end of March (just after healthcare legislation passed) so its a month and a half out of date, but that hasn't affected it greatly.

I made a chart in microsoft excel of Obama's future approval ratings and this timeline was really based around that, I got the idea from http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/info-presapp0605-31.html which has all the president's approval ratings from 1945-2008. However I don't think it can really be posted here.





2010


April – The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant becomes operational in Iran, however, programs with the plant cause it’s shut down a fortnight later. It opens again permanently in June.

August – While leaving a speaking engagement in Washington, President Obama and his entourage are fired upon by two drug-addicted white supremacists from Georgia. They fire 9 shots and wound one secret service agent before several agents return fire and gun them down. One is killed immediately and the other dies in hospital 7 hours later. The Democratic Party has a field day in presenting the case for stricter gun control laws and that far right-wing conservatives are using violence to make a ‘crude ideological point’. However, the Republicans counter by criticizing the Democrats for taking advantage of the incident to ‘support an ideological agenda’. Obama’s approval temporarily jumps as much as 7 points.

September – President Obama announces the end of combat operations in Iraq, only 50,000 troops remain as peacekeepers, contractors and in other roles to rebuild the long ravaged country. Levels of violence remain fairly steady in 2010 and 2011 (though far lower than in preceding years) and take until 2014 to end completely. The announcement that the Iraq war is effectively over causes President Obama’s and the Democratic Party’s approval ratings to rise by several percentage points.

September/October – Efforts in the congress to combat global warming take centre stage. Having passed the House of Representatives the previous year, the ‘American Clean Energy and Security Act’ (which includes an emissions trading scheme) goes through a series of grueling negotiations, amendments and votes in the Senate in a battle similar to the healthcare bill. In late October, following Republican filibusters, hundreds of proposed, adopted and rejected amendments and fierce debates progress is halted by the midterm elections.

November – the Democrats battle their way through the hotly contested midterm elections to maintain a 55 seat majority in the senate, down from 59, and a reduced but still substantial majority in the House of Representatives. However, senate majority leader Harry Reid is voted out of office.

November/December – a fortnight after the midterm elections the Democrats resume their efforts to pass the ‘American Clean Energy and Security Act’ through congress. Republican filibusters continue and the act is shelved at the end of the year. However, a smaller bill that includes further restrictions on industrial pollution, a $50 billion investment over 3 years in ‘green’ technologies and significant reductions in government subsidies for oil and coal companies over the next five years passes in a narrow vote. The EPA is also given slightly expanded powers and responsibilities on President Obama’s orders; however his authority without congressional approval is limited.

December – The United Nations climate summit in Mexico leads to a non-binding though slightly more widely adopted agreement than the previous year’s Copenhagen summit. Ultimately little progress is made.

2011
January – Unemployment falls back under 9%.

February – The Obama administration announces that Guantanamo Bay has finally been officially closed. This sparks a fresh political debate over dealing with terrorism.

March –The ‘Philadelphia Train Bombings’ kill 73 when three suicide bombers detonate homemade explosive devices on subway trains in Philadelphia. The resulting investigation and highly controversial trial in civilian courts of several arrested coconspirators, as well as perceived flaws in America’s security and the bombings occurring so soon after the closing of Guantanamo Bay, cause President Obama’s popularity to slip by several points from the mid 50s to high 40s.

April/May – Gay rights take centre stage as the Democrats compile and try to push through congress a bill to expand benefits for gay couples by essentially legalizing gay marriage. The debate rages across the nation as the bill is filibustered by Republicans and the attempt is abandoned in late May. Controversy is also stirred up by right wing politicians and pundits that the sudden debate has been brought on by the Democrats to ‘distract the nation from the Philadelphia bombings’ and the Obama administration’s ‘obviously completely failing policies on dealing with terrorism’. Although flatly denied and ridiculed, the accusations of distracting the nation have some basis in truth.

Mid-year – Total US debt stabilizes at around 100% of GDP, a figure that remains constant for the next few years.

August – Barack Obama celebrates his 50th birthday.

October - Sarah Palin is one of several prominent Republicans who announce their candidacy for the Republican Presidential nominee alongside Mitt Romney, Mike Huckabee, Tim Pawlently and others. Polls have first preference support for Palin and Romney among Republicans in the mid and low 30’s, Huckabee in the low 20’s and with the other candidates in single digits.

October – Unemployment falls back under 8%. With every sign of economic recovery the incumbent President’s approval rises.

December – The United Nations climate summit in South Africa achieves little more than it’s predecessors. Efforts to replace Kyoto with a stronger treaty continue to fail.

2012
March – The last foreign troops leave Iraq for good, with only some observers, advisors and ‘nation building’ organizations remaining. Levels of violence continue to dwindle and Barack Obama’s approval ratings jump several points.

April – Sarah Palin concedes the Republican nomination to Mitt Romney. Romney chooses Tim Pawlently as his Vice Presidential running mate. Polls have voting preference for the Romney/Pawlently ticket at about 43% against Obama/Biden’s 56%.

May – A suicide bomber’s attempt to blow up an airliner heading from Madrid to Boston fails when security screening picks up the concealed device in his luggage. His resulting trial and the attack’s timing so soon after the end of the Iraq war leads to further debate over terrorism that hurts the approval ratings of several western governments, including Obama’s.

June - Unemployment falls back under 7%.

June – President Obama announces significant increases in funding for ‘nation-building’ efforts in Afghanistan, claiming that ‘there have been numerous signs in recent months that the Taliban are losing their resolve to fight.’ He rules out a troop surge or reduction in the near future.

July – Former President Jimmy Carter dies at the age of 87, Obama is among those who attend his funeral.

September - Summer Arctic ice coverage briefly falls to a new record low of 5.4 million sq kilometers. However the upcoming Presidential elections distract most Americans from the news, despite the efforts of green groups and some Democrats to use the opportunity to advocate for climate change legislation. However, the Obama re-election campaign picks up some steam from the news and promises to once again try and introduce a cap and trade plan for America, which Obama calls the ‘greatest disappointment of my first term in office.’

November – President Obama wins a second term in office over Republican nominee Mitt Romney in a landslide election. With approval ratings in the high 50s he carries 410 of the 539 electoral votes with 54.1% of the popular vote vs Mitt Romney’s 43.5%, the largest election majority since Ronald Reagan’s re-election in 1984.

Obama campaigns on a platform of ‘We successfully ended the Iraq war, pushed healthcare and green energy development legislation through a hostile congress, reformed and strengthened the economy and greatly expanded gay rights. In my second term, my top priorities are ending the war in Afghanistan, abolishing the death penalty and continuing to take much needed action on climate change’

Romney meanwhile campaigns on promises to ‘reverse the big-government policies of the increasingly left-wing Obama administration, which have left the nation with a crippling debt that will take generations to repay.’ However he is considered by many conservatives to be far too left-wing and their support for him wavers throughout the campaign. The libertarian and constitution parties receive record numbers of votes, drawing almost 1% from the Republicans.

The Democrats lose two seats in the senate, their majority decreasing to 53 seats.

December –With Kyoto expiring in 2012, the 2012 United Nations climate summit in Qatar has much riding on its success and it eventually results in a fair replacement of Kyoto. After two weeks of negotiations the ‘Qatar protocol’ is ratified by most United Nations member states including the United States. Due to expire in 2025, the protocol sets requirements for each and every individual country to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by a certain percentage by 2025, with interim goals in 2018 and 2022. Part of the agreement continues and expands earlier agreements for richer states to invest hundreds of billions of dollars in green energy and to jointly support green energy programs in poorer countries.
President Obama addresses the conference with one of the most famous speeches of his presidency, where he proclaims ‘This is the defining agreement of our time, the defining resolution of our time, on any subject, counting any previous or ongoing dispute. We will have wind farms in the Andes and Alps, we will have solar arrays in the deserts of Nevada, Egypt and Australia, we will build tidal generators in the inlets of Europe and Japan, we will build geothermal plants around the entire, Pacific ring of fire, we will build nuclear, and perhaps one day fusion power plants, to light up the cities of China, India and America. This is an agreement, with which we can build the infrastructure to power, all of the united nations of Earth. It is an agreement, with which we can work and compete together in harmony and peace, to create a better society for our children and grandchildren, for the present and future peoples of Earth.’

December – Total coalition deaths in Afghanistan for 2012 stand at 433, the lowest figure since 2008.


2013
January - The unemployment rate falls below 6% for the first time since September 2008. Over the next few years it wavers between 6%and 5% as another ‘boom’ cycle naturally takes hold.

February – The Obama administration opens the new year of congress with another incarnation of the ‘American Clean Energy and Security Act’ that attempts to introduce a cap and trade plan. The popularity of the plan following the successful Qatar conference helps it pass through the house and senate with wide margins, with several Republicans voting for it. The bill requires 6% decreases in CO2 emissions by 2017, 10% by 2020 and 25% by 2030, after the signing of the bill President Obama’s approval rises several points.

Early/Mid-year- Violence in several African nations including Sudan, Mauritania, Senegal and the Democratic Republic of the Congo causes tens of thousands of deaths throughout 2013. The conflicts receive much media coverage due to the ease with which images and videos of the violence can spread across the internet.

May – Following intensive diplomacy several shaky ceasefires are mediated by the UN and various groups in Mauritania and Senegal stand down as UN aid convoys are sent through and ‘nation building’ begins to take place to stabilize the country and appease the warring parties. President Obama and UN chiefs launch the ‘United Nations Peace Enforcement mission in Mauritania’ and by August UN troop strength in Senegal stands at 14,000, a quarter of the troops are American.

July – The Appropriations bill for the 2014 fiscal year introduced by the Obama administration includes tax increases of 3-5% and some limited spending cuts in several departments include defense and commerce. After much debate and dozens of amendments introduced by both sides the bills pass through both houses of congress with narrow majorities. The ultimate effect of the bill is a reduction in the federal deficit of some 25% for 2014 from $600billion to $450billion. Proposals to introduce a value-added tax (or Fairtax) to the bill are debated and rejected but many Democrats and Republicans agree to ‘debate the issue in the coming months.’

September – The ‘Abolition of Death Penalty Act’ passes the lower house, however the Republicans block the move for weeks in the Senate and a compromise is eventually reached. Each state will hold a referendum in which they can vote to abolish or stick with current capital punishment laws; the referendums are due to be held within six months.

October – Violence erupts in Senegal with insurgent groups warring on the UN supported central government. To stop the fighting some advocates demand intervention by US forces to bring security to the ‘failed state’ and protect UN aid convoys, however the Obama administration refuses and most UN convoys end up being halted in Senegal’s ports for security reasons.

October – Former President George H.W. Bush dies at the age of 89, Obama is among those who attend his funeral.

November – President Obama announces planned troop withdrawals in Afghanistan, with a third of US and about half of the European forces in the theatre to return home by the end of 2014.

December – Amid worsening violence in Senegal and massacres caught live on camera, a groundswell of support in America for military intervention convinces both parties to support the sending of a rapid reaction force to end the violence. By the end of the month 10,000 US soldiers are in Senegal and UN aid convoys are once again getting through to starving rural areas. Some opponents of the intervention characterize it as ‘we went into Iraq, pulled out and then went to Afghanistan, then we pulled out of Afghanistan and now we’re going to Africa!’

2014
January – Levels of violence in Senegal decrease markedly following dozens of American casualties.

February – After five years of the Obama presidency a CSPAN poll ranking American presidents finds Obama ranked 10th, behind Woodrow Wilson and ahead of Lyndon B. Johnson, Ronald Reagan ranks 8th, Bill Clinton 15th and George Bush 32nd.

February – With four years having passed since the first major healthcare debate and the economy recovering the Obama administration feels the time is ripe for another attempt to introduce a ‘public option’ to provide healthcare services in America. The debate is, surprisingly, not as fierce as the first one with conservative opposition not nearly as vehement.

March – Following over 50 separate referendums the death penalty is abolished in an additional 6 states for a total of 23 out of 50, up from 17 that has already abolished it or not used it since 1976.

March – With over 15,000 US soldiers and some 30,000 UN personnel on the ground in Senegal diplomatic efforts lead to another ceasefire and more intensive ‘Peace enforcing’ and ‘Nation Building’ measures. The successful intervention has two effects on President Obama’s approval ratings, they rise due to the intervention’s success (and constant assurances from the Democrats that ‘we have a comprehensive exit strategy to end the conflict, it will proceed with the swiftness of the 1991 Gulf War, not the 2003 Invasion of Iraq) but waver in the long run due to controversy over Obama’s hesitancy the previous year to intervene at all.

May– A heavily amended bill that does include a public option makes it through both houses and is signed by President Obama into law. Although the Democrat’s approval wavers during the debate, it goes up after the bill is signed while the Republican’s declines. Most of the major reforms introduced by the Democrats and passed in congress in 2010 are in effect by now, and plans for a limited public option to be introduced in 2017 and expanded fully by 2020 are drawn up and begin to be implemented. Notably, 16 Republicans in the House and 3 in the Senate vote for the bill, with most Democrats voting for it as well.

June – Pakistan’s President Asif Ali Zardari is assassinated while visiting Pakistan’s north-western frontier province, attempting to prove it’s ‘evident return to stability’. His death and twin bombings in Islamabad two days later cause turmoil in Pakistan and within a fortnight a senior Pakistani general has taken control of the country in a coup d’etat, ushering in yet another era of military rule. The general forms his own political party, the ‘Pakistan Democratic Party’ and holds rigged elections mid-year, his party winning a landslide victory. The Obama administration is forced to play down the breakdown of democracy in Pakistan, but they can honestly say that efforts to combat the Taliban along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border remain as intense as ever. The new President promises to SecState Hillary Clinton when she visits the country a few weeks after the coup that ‘my government is as determined as ever to rid the peoples of Pakistan and Afghanistan of the Taliban menace.’

July – Coalition commanders announce troop withdrawals in Afghanistan will be postponed by 6-8 months due to a resurgence of violence in the country, partially related to the recent instability in Pakistan. Obama’s popularity slips with many criticizing him breaking his re-election promises to withdraw from Afghanistan during his second term.

August – The withdrawal of American soldiers from Mauritania is completed as UN peacekeepers take over to maintain security in the country.

August – The ‘Federal Deficit Reduction Appropriations bill’ is introduced into congress; the bill includes tax increases including an increase of the top tax bracket rate from 42% to 45% for the 2015 budget and increases in excise and estate taxes. It also includes spending cuts or freezes in most major government departments, particularly Defense, Commerce, State Housing and Urban development and Veterans Affairs. The ultimate effect of the bill is a reduction in the federal deficit by 50% for 2015, down from $450 billion to $200 billion. There are hopes of stabilizing the budget by 2017.

October – Fidel Castro dies aged 88. Within days the Obama administration announces the formation of a diplomatic entourage to Havana to meet with Fidel’s brother Raul Castro, who ascended to the presidency in 2008. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton leads the American contingent and in November talks begin about lifting America’s embargo on Cuba if free and fair elections are held in the country.

November – in the midterm elections the Democrat’s majority in the senate holds steady at 53 seats. The issue of the ongoing talks in Cuba is raised by both major parties. They are viewed negatively by most Republicans and as a positive opportunity by the Democrats.

December – The ‘Havana conference’ results in some concessions from both sides but falls short of its goals of ending the US embargo on Cuba in return for free and fair elections to be held in the country. Raul Castro, who had introduced several reforms to bring greater economic freedom to Cuba then it had under Fidel Castro agrees to speed up and introduce more reforms over the next few years. These include an end to rationing in Cuba by 2020, the raising of income taxes as the main source of government income to replace much of Cuba’s socialist economic system over the next five years and greater freedoms for foreign companies. In return the US travel ban in Cuba is to be lifted by 2017 and some embargo restrictions ended. Questions on whether Cuba will hold free and fair elections at some point in the near future are avoided by the Cuban delegation, and SecState Hillary Clinton has to tell reporters ‘unfortunately not’ when she returns to Washington from the conference.

December - The 2014 United Nations climate summit in Brisbane ends with an additional agreement to limit ongoing deforestation in developing countries, investments by richer countries in green energies like wind and nuclear in tropical counties like Brazil and Kenya are approved.

2015
January - Osama Bin Laden, now 57, is arrested by CIA agents in the Egyptian city of Minya, about 200km south of Cairo. It is gradually revealed he has been hiding in Saudi Arabia for much of the past decade, having left the Afghan-Pakistan border regions in 2005. He has occasionally travelled to several countries such as Egypt and Yemen in recent years making rare appearances at Al Qaeda training camps and extremist Islamic religious schools. A lengthy trial for him and a dozen associates arrested with him begins in the US and President Obama feels confident enough to ‘declare an effective end to our most important mission in Afghanistan.’

March – Aged 72, Joe Biden suffers a heart attack while on a state visit to Australia, though he quickly recovers media speculation abounds that he is too old to run for the Presidency in 2016.

April – President Obama announces a new timetable for withdrawing from Afghanistan, with American troop numbers to decline from their current level of 76,000 to 45,000 by early-2016 and half that again by the start of 2017. European troop numbers are planned to decline from 36,000 to 20,000 by mid-2016.

April – A 25% increase in NASA’s budget over three years is announced by the Obama administration and passes through congress in an appropriations bill. Plans for NASA to return to the moon by 2023 and for a Mars mission to occur by 2030 are expressed as ‘probable’. The announcement comes weeks after Chinese plans for a moon landing by 2025 are announced. Analysts point out that NASA’s increased annual budget of $25 billion is opposing the growing Chinese space agency’s budget of $4 billion, Russia’s of $3 billion and India’s at $2 billion.

July – To test their new JF-17 Thunder fighters and the resolve of the Indian military, the Chinese initiate an aerial skirmish over the disputed region of Arunachal Pradesh along India’s North-Eastern border. In a brief battle lasting less than half an hour the Chinese cause the scramble of an Indian air superiority squadron by violating Indian air space, they then retreat back into China and ambush the pursuing Indian fighters right along the border, 4 Indian fighters are shot down, three are damaged and one Chinese fighter is damaged. All parties immediately ‘urge restraint’, including the UN secretary general and the Obama administration.​

August – President Obama announces a departmental reorganization to come into effect the next year. About half of the department of energy, led by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the Office of Science, is to be combined with the Environmental Protection Agency to form a new department called the Department of Climate Change and Renewable Energy. It is the first new cabinet level department to be formed in the United States since the Department of Homeland Security was formed by President Bush in 2002.

September – President Obama attends the opening of the Freedom Tower (1 World Trade Center) in New York. The building is opened on the 14th anniversary of the destruction of the original towers in 2001.

November – Joe Biden announces his retirement from politics and that he will not run for the Presidency in 2016.

December - The 2015 United Nations climate summit in Tokyo is preceded by the introduction of emissions trading schemes in Japan and South Korea. Another promise achieved is for most developed countries to phase out ‘heavy pollution’ coal power plants by 2020 and developing countries by 2030.

2016
January – Several prominent Democrats and Republicans announce their candidacies for their party’s nomination for President. Martin O’Malley, Chet Culver, Mark Udall, Robin Carnahan, Tim Kaine and Evan Bayh all campaign for the Democratic nomination as do Mitch Daniels, Tim Pawlenty, John Hoeven, David Vitter, Scott Brown, Paul Ryan and Dave Heineman for the Republican nomination.

Former Maryland Governor Martin O’Malley clinches the Democratic nomination and begins campaigning throughout the country, he chooses Senator Robin Carnahan as his Vice Presidential running mate.

Mitch Daniels clinches the Republican nomination and chooses house minority whip Eric Cantor as his running mate.

March – Following several months of speculation, discussion and voter polling, the Democrats introduce a bill into congress to immediately halt production of the penny and abolish it as legal tender at the start of 2017. It easily passes with over 70% of the vote in both houses.

April – India becomes the fourth nation to independently carry out a manned space mission. There is great media speculation about an ‘Asian space race’ taking off between China, India and other countries.

June – Troop numbers in Afghanistan stand at 27,000 American and 21,000 European soldiers. Both the Republican and Democratic nominees for President support a timetable for withdrawing the remaining troops from the largely stabilized country by the end of 2017, just over 16 years after soldiers were originally sent there early in the Bush Presidency.

August – Hurricane Igor, the most powerful Atlantic hurricane ever recorded, causes heavy damage and loss of life in Haiti, Cuba and Florida.

September – Summer Arctic ice coverage falls below 4 million sq kilometers, smashing the previous record of 5.4 million set in 2012. Combined with Hurricane Igor, the new record sparks a fervent debate over how to deal with climate change. In response, the Obama administration and the O’Malley/ Carnahan ticket bring out a long since prepared bill to take advantage of public demand for legislation that ‘gets tough on climate change.’ The ‘Climate and Energy conservation Act’ that calls for much stricter pollution limits for vehicles, buildings and industry and further investments in green technologies is introduced into the lower house in October. However most Republicans and many Democrats oppose the legislation and negotiations on it quickly stall. The O’Malley/ Carnahan campaign promises to introduce and sign the act into law if elected to the Presidency.

November – With the economy once again booming and Obama’s approval ratings nudging 60% Martin O’Malley is elected President of the United States on the 8th of November in a fairly close election with 50.3% of the vote, with the Daniels/ Cantor ticket winning 48.6%. The Democrats lose 2 seats in the senate, maintaining a 51 seat majority and a small majority in the House of Representatives in the midterm elections. President O’Malley campaigns on a platform of ‘returning the federal budget to surpluses not seen since the Clinton administration within three years, stabilizing the war-torn nations of Africa through diplomatic and economic engagement and developing the green energy independence America has for so long deserved’

2017
January – The Obama administration releases a report on renewable energy development that estimates wind power provides 7.5%, hydroelectric dams 6.1%, solar energy 1.5% and geothermal energy 0.4% and other renewable sources 0.1% of US electricity generation, for a total of almost 16%. The incoming O’Malley administration vows to raise that amount to 20% by 2020 and 28% by 2025.

February – Hillary Clinton announces her retirement from politics.

September – Osama Bin Laden is sentenced to death and the sentence is carried out by lethal injection. Aged 60, he is killed 16 years and 4 days after the 911 attacks took place.
 
No Bikinis For You (Or A Quadros Return)

During his forced retirement, as the military regime (imposed in a large part thank to crisis he provoced back in 1961) did not allowed him to participate in politics, Janio Quadros was rather a pathetic figure.


Janio Quadros during his better days.​

This alcoholic, demagogue and cabotine, elected as President in 1961 in landslide against colorless opponent, hand-picked by the outgoing Juscelino Kubitschek, initiated a series of major reforms and initiatives, including establishing relations with the Eastern Bloc, taking a neutral course in foreign policy, creating Indian reservates and first ecologic parks, starting numerous anti-corruption investigations and planning of the futher development in order to transform Brazil into a trurly independent power.

On the other side, he became notorious due to his own erratic behavior as well as moves such as banning bikinis and gambling.

After just half of a year in office, with dimising support in Congress, Quadros suddenly resigned from office in a sophisticated manevuor. He hoped that the resignation would be immedially rejected by the acclamation of Brazilian people or the Congress along with military out of fear that his leftist Vice President Joao Goulart would take over. He, naturally, hoped that after rejection he’d return with bigger power.

Well, he was wrong and his resignation was quickly accepted. However “self-coup” attempt turned out to be a start of the worse political crisis in Brazil history, culminating first with attempts to curb legal President Goulart, and then with a military coup, which would impose Generals rule for decades.

With a first signs of democratization, bitter and broken Quadros decided to run for Governor of Sao Paulo, a job he once held, in 1983, just to suffer a defeat.


Janio Quadros in his recent, less good, days.​

However, still uknowingly to the most, one important development presented former President a chance to make a comeback in a great style.

More to come.
 
Das Dritte Reich: Deutschlands Letzte Gelegenheit



Intro:

The year is 1925. The world is still in great shock from the 'War to end all Wars' which had just been ended 6 years ago, under painful circumstances for Germany. Lands were lost to Poland; France; Lithuania; Belgium and even Denmark; the German Army may at last consist of 100 thousand men - which used to be about 13 million during the war; the Rhineland, the heart of the Reich, is under Entente occupation; transport from East Prussia to the rest of Germany has become harder with the loss of Danzig and surrounding areas, and last but definitely not least, the German people is suffering under the (currently still minor) economic depression that came from all this and mainly the fact that the war debts weren't paid yet.

Now, on the 28th of February, as if all that trouble wasn’t enough, the current Reichspräsident, Friedrich Ebert, dies due to various health problems. Many leaders of various parties attempted to become the new president, and these candidates are: Erich Ludendorff (NSDAP); Ernst Thälmann (KPD); Heinrich Held (BVP); Karl Jarres (DVP); Otto Braun (SDP); Wilhelm Marx (Zentrum) and Willy Hellpach (DDP).

The results of the election (on the 29th of March) pointed out that Karl Jarres of the Deutsche Volkspartei or German People’s Party was the winner, with a plurality of almost 39%. However, according to the constitution of the Republic, a second round is required if no major plurality is gained.

The results of this second election point out that the candidates with highest number of voters are Jarres; Braun and Marx. Jarres has a plurality of 46,6% while Otto Braun has 38,3% and Marx has 8,9%. Jarres' plurality is near half of the total voters. This means that he will now officially become the new Reichspräsident of Germany.



Karl Jarres is a 51 year old man, whom was born on the 21st of September in 1874 in Remscheid, in Rhenish Prussia (The Rhineland). Having studied in Bonn when he was a young man and being the mayor of Duisberg (in the Ruhr) since 1914, he has a lot of experience in administration, and will thus hopefully also be a good president. At least he - unlike many other German politicians of the era - is a democrat and sees no reason for the revival of the Kaiserreich.

A new, glorious era for the German Republic is about to start...
 

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The Fate of the Batavians

This will be my first timeline/scenario which I've been working on for quite a while, even before I joined Alternate History. The timeline is about an ancient Germanic tribe who are also the ancestors of the modern day Dutch people. Suprisingly enough there was a lot of information to find, anyways, I'm posting what happened in the OTL as some background information for those of you who don't know about the Batavians. I know this is a lot for the first update, but hell, enjoy:


Introduction (OTL)

The Year of the Four Emperors:

The sixty-ninth year after the birth of Christ was the year of the four emperors, when the acting emperor of the Rome was switched four times after the death of Caesar Nero Claudius. His first replacement as emperor was Galba, the second one was Otho, the third emperor being Vitellius and the last one being Vespasian.

In early 68, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, Caius Julius Vindex, rebelled against the unpopular Nero after a new tax policy had been made, declaring that governor Servius Sulpicius Galba should be the new emperor. Vindex’ rebellion was quickly put down by Roman legions from Germania Inferior and officially ended when Caius Julius Vindex killed himself. By June of 68 AD, the senate had enough of Nero and again Galba was declared the new emperor and Nero was declared a public enemy of Rome.

The legions that destroyed Vindex’ rebellion were punished for “obstructing” Galba’s path to emperor and their commander, Lucius Verginius Rufus, was replaced by the new emperor. Aulus Vitellius was appointed the new governor of Germania Inferior (present day Belgium, Luxembourg and the southern half of the Netherlands), causing the Roman Legions in Germania Inferior to lose loyalty to the new emperor as well as causing the local Germanic populace to feel insulted by the loss of political confidence in their people. The Batavians, a sub-tribe of the Chatti that lived in Germania Inferior, known to be the fiercest barbarian warriors by the Romans, even had their Imperial Batavian Bodyguard disbanded.

Galba did not remain popular for long with the people of the Empire, destroying and taking fines from towns that did not accept him as the new emperor. Galba was a paranoid leader and constantly thought that people were plotting to overthrow him, therefore he had many of his political rivals executed. Galba also refused to give rewards to the legions that supported his ascension to power, causing him to become unpopular within the ranks of the army as well. In early 69 a civil war erupted when the legions of Germania Inferior refused to swear allegiance to the new emperor, declaring their governor, Aulus Vitellius, as the new emperor.

Galba was killed by his own Praetorian guard and an ambitious, powerful man, Marcus Salvius Otho, was declared emperor by the senate the same day that Galba died. Even though Otho was not known to be tyrannical or cruel, and was expected to be a fair leader, Vitellius’ legions from Germania Inferior were marching to Italy to seize Rome for Vitellius. Otho, not wanting to start another civil war, sent emissaries to negotiate for peace with Vitellius. It was too late for peace however and Otho’s legions were defeated by the combat-hardened veterans from Vitellius’ legions. Otho then committed suicide rather than fleeing, leaving Vitellius’ as the new emperor.

After Otho committed suicide Vitellius was recognized as the new emperor by the Roman senate. After having tightly secured his position of power, Vitellius held feasts, banquets and parades that left him nearly bankrupt; eventually Vitellius was forced to borrow money. When money lenders started to demand their repayment, Vitellius had them, as well as his political rivals and citizens that opposed him, killed.

Meanwhile in Germania Inferior, the Batavian tribe declared their independence after a high ranking Batavian was executed by the Romans after false charges of rebellion. The Batavians were led by an angry Gaius Julius Civilis, a Batavian Roman citizen whose brother had been executed, and who himself had been falsely accused and imprisoned on charges of betrayal and rebellion twice.

Not long after Vitellius was declared emperor, troops from the provinces of Iudaea, Aegyptus and Syria declared Titus Flavius Vespasianus (Vespasian) the new emperor of Rome. Vespasian was a man who held exclusive military power given to him by Emperor Nero to put down the Jewish revolt. Supported by governors from the Middle-Eastern territories, Vespasian quickly sent an army to seize Rome for himself.


About the Batavians:

The Batavians were a truly unique people from a relatively small tribe (40,000 members approximately), that settled south of the Rhine in the modern day Netherlands, living in small settlements composed of 6-20 houses with Roman fortresses looking over them and with an oppidum (storehouse) in modern day Nijmegen. The Batavian people made their food by cattle-herding and farming, living around riverbeds and swamps that provided them with wet and fertile soil.

The Batavians were originally a pro-Roman part of the Chatti tribe that was forced to leave by the anti-Roman part of the tribe. The Batavians settled down in a small fertile island in modern day Gelderland called “the Betuwe” (meaning “Good Island”); this is one of the reasons why they might have been called “Batavi”.

Instead of paying their taxes to the Romans with coins, the Batavians paid them in soldiers, supplying eight auxiliary cohorts as well as well as several cavalry units (and the disbanded Imperial Batavian Bodyguard) at any given time.

Most of the written information about the Batavians came from the Historiae novels by the Roman historian Gaius Tacticus, who stated that they were the bravest and toughest warriors in all of Germania, being skilled horsemen, boatmen, swimmers as well as superb infantry. The Batavians proved themselves to the Romans in Britannia by serving as amphibious units, aiding the Romans greatly. The first historical report that mentions the Batavians was in the time of Emperor Tiberius when Batavian soldiers aided his army and fought against an army commanded by Arminius himself.

The Batavians were a peaceful tribe that only fought under the Romans (if not against them). The warlike part of their culture can be traced all the way back to the foundation of their tribe, as they claimed to be descended from the Greek hero “Herakles” (Hercules), who supposedly visited the Betuwe during his travels.

Like many Germanic tribes under the Rhine, the Batavians were heavily influenced by the Celts, causing a debate amongst historians whether they should be classified as Germanic or Celtic since they truly had a blend of both cultures. The native tongue of the general Batavian populace was either a local Celtic or Germanic language, although many Batavians were fluent and literate in Latin, due to the fact that every capable male had to serve in the Roman army after becoming 16 years of age.


The Barbarian Uprising:

Meanwhile in Germania Inferior, Gaius Julius Civilis, who also was the commander of Batavian Roman auxiliary cohorts, was looking for a way to distract the Romans. After meeting Brino, the chief of the Cananefates (a neighboring tribe of the Batavians), Civilis convinced him to join their rebellion as well. Soon after the meeting, Cananefatean warriors started attacking Roman forts. The Romans, now fighting in a civil war between Vitellius and Vespasian, were low on manpower and sent a few local auxiliary units to put down the rebellion. The auxiliary units were quickly massacred by Batavian soldiers led by Julius Civilis, who then assumed the position of leader of the Batavians as well as the leader of their new found rebellion.

Infuriated by the defeat of his troops, Flaccus, the supreme commander of the military in Germania Inferior, sent the V Alaudae and the XV Primigenia legions to destroy the Germanics. The two legions were accompanied by three Batavian cavalry units who deserted the Roman army for their own countrymen, lowering the already low morale of the Roman troops. The two Roman legions confronted the small Batavian army by the Oppidum Batavorum (Batavian Storehouse) where the tribe’s treasury was stored. The Romans suffered a crushing defeat and were forced to retreat out of the now Batavian-claimed lands.

Vespasian, fighting a civil war against Vitellius for the position of Roman emperor considered himself blessed by the Germanic rebellion since the rebellion kept Vitellius’ most loyal troops from returning home. Vespasian thus saluted the rebellion and promised the Batavians their independence if he were to become emperor. Civilis used this to justify the rebellion in the eyes of the general Roman populace, saying that the Batavians were fighting for Vespasian against Vitellius’ troops.

After the V Alaudae and the XV Primigenia retreated to the Roman fortress of Castra Vetera, Civilis chose to pursue them and laid siege to the fortress. Castra Vetera was a very well supplied, modern fortress that was nearly impregnable, so Civilis decided to starve out the Roman troops.

On the 21st of December 69, Vespasian won the civil war and was declared the new emperor of Rome. The Romans expected the Batavians to lift the siege now that Vespasian was the new emperor. Julius Civilis however did not care about Vespasian; Civilis cared only about Batavia, a soon to be independent kingdom. Flaccus, now with an actual emperor to serve, start preparing an army to defeat the Batavians besieging Castra Vetera. Civilis however was not going to wait for the Romans to attack, and therefore sent eight cavalry units to ambush the army. When the eight units attacked the Roman army they were completely obliterated. The cavalry units did serve their purpose however, causing enormous losses of man power as well as morale on the Roman army, leaving it a disorganized, fractured wreck.

Knowing that the weakened Roman army (led by Flaccus) would come to liberate Castra Vetera, Civilis abandoned the siege and threatened to attack Moguntiacum, causing the Flaccus to rush his troops there. Upon reaching the unharmed Moguntiacum, Flaccus and his troops went back to Castra Vetera and celebrated the accession of the new emperor Vespasian as well as the liberation of Castra Vetera. Flaccus distributed sums of money to his army for the celebration. The troops however were historically loyal to Vitellius, the former governor of Germania Inferior and took Flaccus’ act of generosity as an offense. Flaccus was murdered by his troops and his second in command deserted his post. With the whole Roman army trapped in Castra Vetera weakened, fractured and confused by its lack of leadership, Civilis saw his chance and attacked it once more.

The legions now helpless were promised a safe escape if they abandoned the fortress and left it to be plundered by the Batavians. The now desperate Roman soldiers accepted Civilis’ terms and surrendered Castra Vetera. Once the Roman army was a few kilometers away from the fortress it was ambushed by other local Germanic troops and was completely annihilated. The Batavians were now freshly armed with all the equipment, weapons and gold left in the fortress of Castra Vetera as well as the gold from the Oppidum Batavorum and a local Roman palace.

In the early part of year 70, things were looking good for Civilis, now reinforced with the eight auxiliary units that had abandoned Vitellius’ army, had dozens of local Germanic allies that had also joined the rebellion. The rebellion even spread to Gaul, with the Trevirans and the Lingones being the first Celtic tribes to declare their independence. Led by Julius Sabinus, the Celts were able to capture two local Roman legions. Soon dozens of other Gallic tribes joined the rebellion, resulting in a complete “barbarian uprising” across Gaul and Germania.


The Fall of the Rebellion:

The barbarian uprisings in Germania and Gaul now posed a serious threat to the Roman Empire. Consequently once Vespasian had the situation in Rome under control, he sent a massive army to crush the rebellion once and for all. Seven legions assembled from all across the Empire and led by Quintus Petillius Cerialis were sent: the VIII Augusta, the XI Claudia, the XIII Gemina, the XXI Rapax, the II Adiutrix, the VI Victrix and the XIV Gemina. On the news of the approaching army, many tribes in Gaul surrendered (those Frenchies) and the two Roman legions captured by the Celts were released. Several former Germanic allies of Julius Civilis declared their neutrality, leaving only a few tribes in Germania Inferior still fighting the Romans.

Civilis was now desperate, as he was facing one of the biggest armies the Romans had ever assembled with only a small elite army, a small fleet and a few allies. Civilis sent his men to raid the approaching Romans but these minor raids had little effect on the massive army. His men on water were more successful however; capturing the Roman flagship. After hearing about the humiliating loss, Quintus Petillius Cerialis directly invaded the Betuwe. Upon hearing that the Jewish rebellion was over and thus more legions might be coming their way, Civilis made a wise decision and surrendered to the Romans, avoiding mayor bloodshed.

Once all the local tribes had surrendered the Romans renewed their “deal” with Batavians. For safety measures the Romans burned the biggest Batavian city by the Oppidum Batavorum and relocated it to a defenceless spot. The Romans also stationed the X Gemina legion by the Betuwe to ensure peace. The fate of Gaius Julius Civilis, the patriot and mastermind behind the rebellion, is unknown, although it is believed that after the rebellion was over he fled or was exciled or moved to Frisia, an independent Germanic territory north of his own tribe.


__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



24-12-69

On a starry night outside the fortress of Castra Vetera, Gaius Julius Civilis was in his tent trying to fall asleep, he was thinking of the magnificent eagles he saw by the Rijn that day, hoping that they would somehow pick him up with their ferocious talons and transport him to his dreams. Civilis was opening and closing his eyes restlessly, he was like this almost every night. Civilis wasn’t really bothered by the thousands of Roman soldiers minutes away from him, as the leader of the Batavians, a Roman soldier should make him giggle. Julius heard foot steps rapidly approaching his tent and fixed his eyes towards the entrance, waiting for the late night visitor to enter the tent.

It took roughly two seconds for Julius Civilis to identify the visitor entering the flaps of his tent, it was a young captain called Robert Friedrichson. Robert seemed to have no problem entering someone else’s tent in the early morning, as he seemed awake as ever. Once Robert had comfortably positioned himself inside the tent, he waited for Civilis to greet him. Julius slowly crawled out of his wool and quietly said “is there a reason for you barging into my tent so early in the morning, Robert?” the moment that Civilis finished his sentence, the young captain blushed and stammered “yes general, the Romans, they..” “Calm down my son” Civilis interrupted him. “There is no reason for a man to speak that fast. Why don’t we sit down?” Julius said as he slowly made his way to a bunch of chairs. After the two Germans had sat down, Robert’s heavy breathing was now the only noise coming from within the tent. After waiting for a good 20 Robert slowly opened his mouth and hastily began “sir, the Romans, Vespasian I mean, four days ago he won the war!” After not getting a reply from the legendary general, Robert looked down to the table and waited for the older man to address him, when suddenly Civilis grimly said “well, then we don’t have much time.” Robert did not exactly know what the older man meant, and decided the best way to find out was to give up some of his pride and ask a possibly ignorant question. “What do you mean, sir?” Robert asked. Civilis hesitated not to answer this time and said “now that Vespasian has control over Rome, the pig is bound to send more dogs towards us.” “But we are strong; we can withstand any assault any Roman man could bring to us, especially with the uprising in Gaul.” “Doesn’t matter” Julius quickly snapped. “The Gauls are weak, they have always been weak, plus, they are afraid of the Romans and will inevitably back down, leaving only us and our brethren” Julius said. “We should be able to do without them, we have the Canenefatae, the Tubanti, the Chauchi, the Frisii, we have you!” the younger man said as if this would suddenly change the situation they were in. After Robert had finished speaking, a dark silence had filled the tent. Julius Civilis then stood up from his chair and put his right hand on Robert’s right shoulder. “That’s not enough my boy” Civilis informed him. “Now, my dear Robert, we should both get some sleep. We can discuss this further when the sun is high in the sky” Civilis’ added. Only a few seconds after Civilis had finished talking, Friedrichson stood up, made a polite bow and quickly turned around and left the tent.” Civilis watched him leave in agony, it hurt him to disappoint the young man with his reaction, but he felt like there was not much that he could say. Civilis now felt more restless than ever.

When Julius Civilis was back in his bed, he thought about his brother, who the Romans had executed. He too, was going to be murdered, but Nero Claudius freed him of charges before he was dead and let him resume command of the auxiliary troops stationed near Batavia. It was the will of the gods, Julius thought, he survived for a reason. Then Julius thought of many pleasant memories he had of him and his beloved brother as they were growing up, and then he thought about how the Romans effortlessly stole his life away, which was a thought that quickly filled him with rage. Julius quickly calmed down as he thought about Robert, as he had lost his brother a few day ago in the cavalry charge that Civilis had ordered against the approaching Roman army, every single Batavian man in that attack died, and they all knew they would, they died voluntarily, they died for their people. Thinking of Robert’s brother made Julius think of all the Batavian men and woman. The more Julius thought about it, the more he realized that if he wouldn’t sue for peace, all the Batavian would end up dead and all the Batavian woman would be enslaved. This made him wonder if he should try to make peace now that Vespasian was the new emperor, thinking of such an important matter made him finally fall asleep.


25-12-69

After Julius Civilis had washed his face, he left his tent and went out into the Batavian camp, greeting soldiers who passed him. Last night Julius had made up his mind about what he should do regarding peace and war. Julius summoned Robert and Marcus Duillus and told them to have word sent for Brinno, chief of the Cananefatae. Julius also told them to have word sent for other high ranking soldiers in the camp; Civilis wanted an emergency council to be held, immediately. After the better part of two hours, Brinno and his bodyguards finally arrived at the Batavian camp. Civilis was lucky that Brinno and his warriors were so close by Castra Vetera, otherwise the meeting would have been held this evening, and he really wanted to get this issue solved. Civilis studied Brinno as he and his two bondsmen came through the flaps of the tent, he was a gigantic man, standing over 2 meters tall (6’8 feet), he was pale, bald and had a huge messy beard, he fitted your average Roman description of a “barbarian”. As Brinno finally stood next to the 17 other men gathered in the relatively large tent he loudly said “I came over as fast as I could, I was told there was an emergency.” “You are correct” Civilis said smoothly as he stood at the head of the long table now placed inside the tent. “My friends, as you all know, Titus Flavius Vespasianus is now the new emperor of Rome, and I have a question I would like to ask you”.


29-12-69

The new emperor of Rome, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, was looking over the city of cities from his balcony. He had recently moved into the palace upon Palatine Hill, and he thought the majestic construction suited an emperor, an emperor that was not Vitellius.

Earlier that week, Flavius had convinced himself that he was going to be a great emperor, and change the history of Rome forever. Rome… Vespasian thought to himself. Rome was everything that was beautiful about humanity, Rome was far better than Judaea, the province that he had been in for the last decade. Vespasian loved everything about Rome, the gossiping in the bathouses, the chit-chatting by the markets, the marble temples, the clay houses, the beautiful landscape outside of the city, he even loved how the word “Roma” rolled of his tongue. He enjoyed watching the sunset on his new land; it was an activity that he had always enjoyed, even in Judaea.

Vespasian was suddenly awakened from his trance when one of his slaves shyly said: “Sir, there is a message from Gaius Julius Civilis for you” holding a parchment in her hand. “What?” Flavius demanded confusedly. “Julius Civilis the barbarian?” “Yes my Excellency” the slave replied. “Well, give me the parchment” Titus Flavius Vespasianus said almost shouted, he wanted to read whatever letter this man had sent him as fast as he could. As he read the parchment his bewildered look turned into a small grimace. Gaius Julius Civilis, the cunning leader of the Batavian tribe, demanded that he would keep to his word, and grant the Batavian tribe independence from the Empire. Not only did he demand their independence, he asked for the independence of the Canenefatae as well, he also demanded the fortress of Castra Vetera! Flavius held the parchment down and started blankly at the marble floor, shocked at the contents of the letter. He was reluctant to give up a Roman territory, especially one that served as a buffer zone between the Empire and Germania, but, he had made a promise, and he was a man of his word. The Canenefates were not in huge numbers either, and were not much of a loss. But Julius Civilis also demanded Castra Vetera and all the supplies that were held within it. Julius Civilis threatened to continue his rebellion if he did not accept his terms, and promised him that it would only get worse over time. Ironically, Civilis also told Vespasianus that he wanted to be allies. This was too much to handle for the new emperor, who handed the parchment back to slave and sat town on a fairly comfortable sofa, sighing at the sudden overwhelming dilemma that he was facing.


25-12-69

Civilis had told Brinno and the fellow leaders of the Batavian tribe that he wanted to end the fight against the Romans, saying that they could all gain their independence, and there was no need for further bloodshed. Civilis also said that if they were ever to set up their own independent domain, the Romans would be good allies to have. None of the other men objected once when Civilis was speaking, and when he had finished talking to them and asked them to put in their votes, they all thought it was a good idea.

After the meeting was over Brinno asked Civilis if he could talk to him alone, to which Civilis accepted, watching the 54 year old man grunting heavily while moving himself closer to Julius. Brinno slowly said “as you can see, Julius, I’m getting old.” “Nonsense” Civilis replied. “Julius, I am getting old. And I want to give up my position of chieftain.” “What?” Civilis replied. “I am old, and I do not think I have many years left in this world.” Civilis held his mouth shut this time. “As you know Julius, I have no sons, only three daughters. As much as I love them, they’re not going to lead the Canenefates.” Julius continued watching the colossal man speaking what was on his mind silently. “What I’m trying to say is, if Vespasian gives us our kingdom, I want you to be king.” “King?” Julius asked. He had never thought of who was going to lead his people once they had gotten rid of the Romans. “I want you to be king of the Canenefatae as well as the Batavians.” “Brinno…” Civilis stammered. “I don’t know what to say”. “There is nothing you can say, all you can do is accept” the old man said as he stood up and slowly left the tent, leaving Julius Civilis standing there in shock.
 
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