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You're assuming white on black violence exclusively, IMO.
Southron vs Yankee, rebel vs collaborationist, white vs black, rich vs poor, ....
Yes, it could have descended into a real snake pit, especially if Reconstruction tried harder to build up black militias and businesses, and then the Feds pulled out. Or rather, scaled down, while trying to impose the same standard.
Maybe not Rwanda levels. Certainly post invasion Iraq levels.