Greater New World redux

North America
1,300 years ago=
It had to happen. The Cliff Dwellers expanded eastward with the Mound Builders likewise westward. And neutral traders brought goods back and forth. Sometimes when they met, intermarriage occurred. And it turned out that the shrub-ox and wood-ox were close enough related to interbreed with female young fertile. Both groups were very powerful,so it was best for peace to be maintained. Thus,traders would also be ambassadors and neutral judges in disputes when they met. The sharing of silk secrets also helped.
Pacific Northwest next,then the Thule,then Tierra del Fuego/Antarctica. After that Norse and Rapa Nui.
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North America
Pacific Northwest
The inhabitants of the Pacific Northwest were fairly dynamic in original time. They were weavers with complex society,huge canoes,seafaring and at times aggressive. To them,slaves were wealth,they had no problem with huge potlucks and they had ornate longhouses,totem poles,canoes and masks. There is some evidence to support them using iron and they certainly took to new weapons eagerly! The plateau,basin and coastal California are also included in this. There's evidence that some did cultivate blue camas through controlled burning. In this timeline,they discover agriculture. and some unique domesticates.
North America
Pacific Northwest.coastal California
10,000 years ago=
Mammoths are huge behemoths,the mighty monarchs of the Ice Age with few natural predators. The mainland ones,that is. There were pygmy mammoths both in the Channel islands of California and the pygmy woolly mammoth of Wrangel Island off the Chukchi coast of Siberia. The pygmy woolly mammoth was extant 4,000 to 2,000 years ago while the Channel island pygmy elephant supposedly died out 10,000 years ago. Except in this case,they didn't. Mammoths are excellent swimmers and would swim to the mainland and island hop to other islands,like the San Juan Islands and Aleutians staying extant. Half the size of the average mammoth,they needed less resources.but were still strong,which would prove attractive to later people.
Now everyone knows that camels are only native to the Gobi Desert and North Africa/Middle East right? Except the llamas and alpacas of the Andes of course. Yet camels,originated in North America and the camelops a little larger than bactrian camels was still extant 10,000 years ago. Here they survive,in the region around the Pacific Northwest and Canada and will prove instrumental in development of certain cultures.
North America
Pacific Northwest/California/Basin/Plateau
The history of coastal California and Pacific Northwest is a long one with a human presence dating back at least 12,000 years. They are advanced without agriculture for the coastline is rich. The Pacific Ocean is teeming with life,plants are plentiful,the climate is mild and salmon a staple of both groups is plentiful. Outside of dogs and grey foxes they have no animal domesticates with the exception of chuckwallas in Baja California. For more domesticates and agriculture to occur one would have to go into the interior,into both the Basin and the Plateau where life is not that easy and hardship more common. And of course,that is what happened.
North America
Plateau/Basin 1
7,000 years ago=
Some of the pygmy mammoth population moves inland while remnant populations of the camelops survive. Both have butterflies later on.
6,000 years ago=
The ancestors of the ,Salish and Chinook maintain oak savannas similar to interior California tribes and also begin to stay close to camas fields,eventually cultivating them. Meanwhile in the Basin, some of the ancestors of the Paiute and Shoshone still followed Archaic Desert Tradition and being nomadic. In California,some of the Chumash split and went to the interior using cooperative hunting. In time,these groups would become intertwined. Some might would say it was more the women behind it than the men. That maybe a young Paiute girl migrated northward and married an Interior Salish man,bringing her knowledge into the tribe. Basically,these were small breakaway bands that migrated and intermarried. Maybe they were outcasts? Calamity perhaps? Orphans and elderly without family to take care of them? Perhaps all of that. Anyway,there was an alliance beginning.
5,000 years ago=Some people of the Fremont culture migrate to the Basin/Plateau area. More than likely due to a combination of infighting and seeking new trade. Their influence spread and they themselves were influenced.
4,000 years ago=By now,agriculture was common. They were planting blue camas,bitter root and kouseroot(desert parsley) as tubers. The maintaining of oak savannas also helped them to keep chokecherry bushes, laurel sumac and thickleave yerba santa in the vicinity. Wila,a lichen that grows on trees was encouraged. All this would help attract desired wildlife. And since they were using drives and corrals in hunting,this would help in other ways.
3,500 years ago=Due to some drought some of the people had taken to capturing animals using corrals and drives. In time,they would begin to breed them. What they preferred were bighorn sheep and mountain goats, then later on shrub-ox,peccary and camelops. The oak savanna system worked well with them becoming a form of sylvopasture. The prairie chicken also saw domestication at this time. A boon in domesticating bighorn sheep and mountain goats was the abundance of wool which was important to these people who were beginning to be famous for their weaving.
3,000 years ago= Some discover that the camelops can be ridden which helps with migration and travel. The pygmy mammoth begins to be captured and tamed if not domesticated. But,similar to the Thai in Asia,they come close! Some of the people begin to see themselves as if not Fremont,then the inheritors of Fremont.
A few things to note about these people. The men have facial hair. From long mustaches to full beards,they don't have an aversion to facial hair. Slavery is huge as it was for the coastal people,along with potlaches,carvings and a highly artistic society. They're still as martial as their kin on the coast and more than willing to expand. They basically become a huge pain to both Mound Builders and Cliff Dwellers. For they will expand eastward adapting the prairie turnip and little breadroot to their agriculture.
2,000 years ago= Yes,this alliance of Salish,Chinook,Paiute,Shoshone and Chumash forge their way inwards all the way to the Great Lakes,where they are defeated in combat by the Old Copper Complex and Mound Builders. They then retreat back to the Plateau and Basin where they stay dominant and keep copper weapons. They will eventually learn iron. They Pacific Northwest tribes of the Coast and the Chumash of California progress at the same rate only with domesticated bighorn sheep,mountain goats,shrub-ox,camelops and tamed pygmy mammoths. They still raid as far south as Mesoamerica and some begin raiding in Siberia where they capture pygmy woolly mammoths which crossbreed with regular pygmy mammoths. They also bring back slaves from Siberia.
Thule next post
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North America
For some reason the Nearctic of North America lacked in some of what Siberia had. Which makes no sense considering that there was immigration from Siberia little over a thousand years ago and Siberia is almost within walking distance of Alaska. They should have had more. There was caribou and reindeer are essentially domestic caribou,there was also the muskox and the moose. Well,they get a boost. Not as big as in some timelines,but they get a little more than what they had.
North America
2,500 years ago=
Not much changes regarding development. Except the some of the Pre-Dorset take to following caribou and muskox. And pay more attention to bog cotton,alpine sweetvetch,labrador tea,fireweed and beringian spring beauty. Given how short the growing season is,any attempt at agriculture is similar to fire-stick farming.
2,000 years ago=
The Pre-Dorset begins capturing muskox and caribou which leads to domestication. Their dogs help to herd them. Contact with Siberia allows the pygmy woolly mammoth to come over. This allows the Pre-Dorset to stay in one place longer.
1,000 years ago=The Thule begin to leave Alaska and migrate throughout Canada. There is conflict with the Pre-Dorset,but the Thule has much of the same livestock and more advanced weaponry like crossbows,and later on iron including fishscale armor. They still have kayaks and umiaks, Throughout the next few centuries they visit and trade with Iceland and even Ireland. And back in Alaska,there is trade and conflict between the Thule and Siberians like Chukchi resulting in a minor slave trade.
Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica next post
South America
Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego is a harsh,unforgiving land. Thoroughly in the Subantarctic region and the inhabitants of the land,Fuegians are among the most cold-tolerant people around.To the south is Antarctica,which hasn't seen human inhabitants until a century ago in our time, Here things change a little.
2,000 years ago=
Similar to how the culpeo was domesticated to become the Fuegian dog,so to did the warrah(Falkland wolf) see domestication by Fuegians migrating to the Falkland Islands. The steamer duck also saw domestication. This lead to population explosion which saw Fuegians from all tribes to migrate southward hunting seals,penguins and whales. Their canoes gradually got more sophisticated as they explored the northern coastline of Antarctica becoming indigenous there. The fur from seals helped to provide additional clothing and they became more exploratory.
500 years ago= Some of the Moriori leave the Chatham Islands for the Auckland Islands,Bounty Islands,Campbell Islands and Snare Islands where they learn to cultivate the megaherbs there. More leave migrating eastward to South America where they meat with the Fuegians now Antarcticans. Intermarriage occurs and the megaherbs spread. Within a century or two,some of the fused group travel to and colonize the Kerguelen Islands cultivating the Kerguelen cabbage. It's not fulltime,but they have a semipermanent presence there. The Moriori keep their navigational package and the Fuegian/Antarctic People keep to Antarctica. It's not easy and is in fact hard,but they survive and persevere.
Now before I tackle Vinland and Rapa Nui let's look at the various domesticates,primarily animal. Livestock is different from wildlife in both appearance and temperament. Look at the cattle breeds,primarily the 'primitive aurochs' type breeds of Texas Longhorn,Highland,Cracker Cow,Pineywood,Sayaguesa and White Park. All those are easy calving,low maintenance,hardy and capable of handling harsh terrain and predators yet their still different from their wild ancestors. The same applies to these new domesticates of Oceania and the Americas.Aggression is bred out through culling and they are either bred up or down in size as to what's acceptable. Shrub-ox/wood-ox and muskox are slightly reduced in size,the peccaries are bred up to be bigger and the bighorn sheep and mountain goats are more or less kept the same,just less aggressive. For the caviemorphs,their size is constant,but they are bred for unusual color patterns and some for increased hair. Domestic emus are not allowed to be too aggressive either. One can tell the difference between domestic and wild without domestics being freaks of nature. As for cuisine,Mound Builders have black drink,mescal which was an indigenous liquor spreads throughout the Americas,jerky,pemmican and parched corn are still important travel foods and violent ball games are universal throughout Oceania and the Americas for a variety of reasons.Mainly for entertainment,but also as a way to train warriors and teach war strategy. For disease,I can't promise much,tho more domesticates might mean more zoonotics. Maybe a mutation of Rocky Mountain tick fever that somehow winds up contagious. Tho they have versions of sheep and goats,it's not Old World sheep and goats. If anyone knows of disease that can be transmitted from muskox,bighorn sheep or mountain goat,then let me know. Soon it'll be time for Vinland and Rapa Nui. And by the time of Columbus,he won't be regarded as a hero or great discoverer. While there'll still be Old World/New World conflict,it's not going to be a cakewalk for the Old World by any means.
OK,for any experts on Vinland and Rapa Nui,if you have any ideas,then let me know. One thing to understand,Rapa Nui will expand throughout South America with Vinland doing the same in North America. They will not dominate,but they will be substantial ethnic groups by the time of Columbus. Likewise with any new Siberians setting up shop in North America,Indonesians in Australia or otherwise. And they will be different from those in Europe or Oceania due to isolation,adaptation to different cultures and admixture.
Rapa Nui 1
The timeline for the Rapa Nui in Easter island is vague. Some say they arrived in the 3rd century A.D,others say the 12th century A.D. They stayed in Easter Island with no livestock and lost their navigational package. Well, a few things change for them.
Rapa Nui 2
The key element to Rapa Nui success is not being confined to just Easter Island. Granted Easter Island is on the outskirts of Polynesia,but it's close enough to South America to just about count.
800 A.D= The Rapa Nui leave Tahiti and arrive at Easter Island bringing pigs,chicken,taro and bananas with other Polynesian crops . They set up trade with the Moche and acquire guinea pigs,llamas,alpacas,corn and other Andean crops that better fit Easter Island. They still make their moai,but deforestation doesn't happen.
900 A.D.= The population of Rapa Nui is growing fast. Some head into South America looking to make their way. A few set sail up and down the coast of South America,setting colonies in Galapagos and beyond. While,they're not a match militarily for the various civilizations of the Andes/Mesoamerica,they have a superior navigational package which sets them up well as merchants.
800 A.D.=The Rapa Nui arrive at various California islands and intermarry with the island Chumash,some also head further up north to where the Salish and Chinook live. They then head back to California and an uneasy alliance begins.
700 A.D.=Some Rapa Nui head back towards Polynesia,specifically Tahiti and New Zealand. In Tahiti,they domesticate the moa-nalo and bring them back to their islands. For New Zealand,they bring South American domesticates,which helps tremendously. A few take to raiding into Micronesia and Melanesia for slaves to bring back.
By the time of Columbus,the Rapa Nui are prosperous and numerous. Since they're not isolated,they have some disease resistance. They also have tech adapted to their seafaring life.
Vinland next
Everyone knows that the Norse discovered America in the Middle Ages half a millenium before Columbus. They even had a colony called Vinland and further out west Markland. But somehow,the colonies did not survive. Well,that can be fixed easy enough.
Vinland 1
At around 1000 A.D. Leif Erikson landed at Newfoundland,New Brunswick and similar areas and explored.They even set up colonies. The problem was hostile natives(primarily Beothuk) and lack of immigrants.So how to overcome these odds? One solution would be the system of outlaws common in Norse justice. Leif Erikson's own father Erik the Red was an outlaw. So,word got out about Vinland being sparsely inhabited and some of the outlaws decided to take their chances here. If they could prove themselves,then they weren't fair game, A few brought their wives and children. Some brought slaves from Ireland and Russia as well.
Another decision was to avoid the Beothuk after a few bad encounters and to spread out with their longships. They would visit Labrador,Maine and inland meeting and trading with the Micmac and Abenaki. A key (false) assumption about the failure of Vinland and Greenland that pisses me off,was that they wouldn't learn from the natives and adapt to changes. When,it's been proven several times historically that the Norse readily assimilated to the native population where and when they settled down.
Vinland 2
1100 A.D=
The decision to avoid the Beothuk and to accept outlaws who would follow the rules helped to keep Vinland going. They brought over their sheep,goats,dogs and cats. They also had barley and turnips that sometimes did not too well. But they had spread out,met the northernmost parts of the Mound Builders and adopted their crops. The Eastern Agricultural Complex which was suited for the harsher climate of Vinland. Little barley,goosefoot,marsh elder,maygrass,erect knotsweed and more were readily adapted as were the shrub-ox. Going westwards,towards the Great Lakes and Old Copper Complex,the Vinlanders also learned about and adapted the zizania(wild rice).
Architectural wise,the Norse longhouses the Vinlanders favored became hybridized with the longhouses of the Micmac and Abenaki as an admixture between the two populations occured. And more immigrants arrived from all over Scandinavia and even the Baltics for a reason. Vinland was religiously tolerant. They had to be to be. And that was welcome news,for those who wanted to keep their old religion. And a new reason for some increased immigration would happen in a few centuries. The Mongols.
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Vinland 3
1220 A,D.=
The Mongol Invasions of Europe were chaotic times. Especially for those in Eastern Europe. Some of the Kievan Rus would flee,first to Scandinavia,then on to Vinland island hopping from Iceland to Greenland then to Vinland. They brought with them new architecture and some pigs and cattle. There were naturally some conflicts,but then they settled in. You also had immigrants from Ireland. By now,the Vinlanders had a good trade network and working alliance with the Mound Builders.
They had brought over a dog. The Vallhund a herding dog of the Spitz family. Basically looks like a curly tailed,short legged wolf,but just one of many Spitz type dogs brought over. What made the Vallhund unique (besides their appearance) was that some got loose and interbred with the red wolf which was noted and used. They also had the Forest Cat which was a domestic cat noted for large size and easy adaptations to harsh northern climes. Somehow,the Forest Cats of Vinland would grow even larger than those in Scandinavia and a few would be given to Mound Builder chieftains as signs of friendship and comradery. Another animal brought over by the Kievan Rus would be the horse and donkey. Not too many,but just enough for a viable herd or two that would spread.
In due times,the practice of ferreting and falconry would spread throughout the Americas using American species. That is next post.
OK,next posting is about falconry and ferreting New World style,than we have the Rapa Nui meet Vinlanders. Any ideas for that?
Vinland 4
One or rather two forms of hunting was introduced via Vinland to their allies,which rapidly spread throughout the Americas............................
falconry and ferreting. Common throughout Europe and central and south Asia. The use of predators to kill prey animals. Very common among the royalty and nobility and used by women as much as men for despite modern prejudices,medieval women frequently went on hunts and used crossbows and other weaponry as well.
For falconry they used=
American Kestrel,Peregrine Falcon,Prairie Falcon,Gyrfalcon,Merlin,Orangebreasted Falcon,Bat Falcon,Redtailed Hawk,Rough Legged Buzzard,Ferruginous Hawk,Red Shouldered Hawk,Broad Winged Hawk,Swainson's Hawk,Ridgway's Hawk,Cinerous Hawk.White Throated Hawk,Galapagos Hawk,Gray Lined Hawk,Gray Hawk,Zone Tailed Hawk, Rufous Tailed Hawk,Harris Hawk (Peuco),White Rumped Hawk,Great Horned Owl,Golden Eagle, and White Tailed Kite
For ferreting they used=
Patagonian Weasel,American Mink,Black Footed Ferret,Stoat,Lesser Grison,Columbian Weasel,Amazon Weasel and Long Tailed Weasel.
In some places,a hybrid culture was springing up based on intermarriage and cultural exchange. It was getting to be more and more common to see mixed features and coloring spring up with a justice system based on both groups. The Vinlanders still traveled back and forth to Europe and still interacted with the Barbary Coast. Despite the Little Ice Age and dominance of the Thule, Norse Greenlanders did not die out,but rather adapted faster and rapidly admixed with the Thule who likewise adapted the Norse longship to their kayaks. The herding of muskox and reindeer became commonplace in Greenland with minor crops adapted towards polar climes. And the Thule developed more of a presence in Iceland and even Ireland where they would intermarry and mixed blood children showing up around the coastal areas.
600 years ago=
The Rapa Nui expanded farther north with outposts deep in South America. Eventually some would cross the isthmus of Panama and go into the Caribbean. Likewise,Vinlanders had made it as far west as the Cliff Dwellers and were setting up trade with the Mayan Empire in Mesoamerica. Thus,the two groups would meet. Sometimes there were clashes,but there was also trade. In a few places there was intermarriage.
Note=One thing that was favored by the Norse was amber. They used the gem in their jewelry. Another thing is that,tho honeybees might be difficult to export,tho I reckon the Vinlanders did eventually bring some over,there was also the meliponnine bees of South/Central America that could be used for mead. This butterflies Columbus,since knowledge of the New World is commonplace by his time. The Italian City States still go strong along with the Hanseatic League. Sorry,but slavery still happens. Maybe not so much race based,but slavery was common in many pre-Colombian societies,as in Polynesian,Norse,Moor and too many others. It won't be hereditary or race based tho. Al-Andalus and the Byzantine Empire still fall,tho Spain won't be the superpower it was,nor France or Britain.These were colonial superpowers and that won't be quite so easy this time,tho there'll still be conquest,it'll be more like British India.