Even developing aviation it needs to advanced by around 30 years to get an aircraft capable of affecting major naval vessels.
Second Empire France was a rival to Britain in first-line warships, and in early ironclads the British and French were matching each other in producing classes to rival.
The devastation required by the OP dream might be helped by the military thinkers figuring out the physics of making a firestorm earlier, so waves of zeppelins with a specific mix of HE and incendiary bombs systematically attacking a target. This would be a terror bombing campaign. Firestorms only work against dense urban targets. But one could also destroy a lot of industry if the factories were in urban areas. And the initial thinking on aerial bombing imagined something like this.
The period is not going to allow accurate bombing by airships to threaten the surface fleets of the day. The optics and calculators are not good enough. Dive bombers were the only plane that could hit a warship in World War Two. And zeppelins have to keep a safe distance from the target lest the be shot down by AAA