For Want of A Sandwich - A Franz Ferdinand Lives Wikibox TL

Country profile - Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a country in the Middle East, bordered in the north and east by Iran, in the south, the Persian Gulf in the south and the Hashemite Empire in the west.

History
The scramble that followed the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after the Great European War convinced the United Kingdom to move into the Basra vilayet and Dammam in 1920, as the British had been present in Kuwait since 1899 and in Abadan, then part of Iran, since 1909. Britain had been neutral in the Great European War and had reached a gentlemen’s agreement with Germany regarding the upheavals in the Middle East, not going as far as Baghdad since the Germans wished to secure the Bagdadbahn in spite of the Arab Revolt. The Foreign Office claimed to secure the Shia Arab population, fearing they would be persecuted under an unified Arab kingdom ; in fact, it was about securing the Persian Gulf and hoping for prospective oil fields (they were discovered in 1938). On 24 July 1923, the Kingdom of Mesopotamia was founded as a British protectorate, with Sheikh of Mohammerah Khaz’al bin Jabir at its helm and its capital in Basra, comprised of the former Basra vilayet, Iranian Khuzestan and northeastern Arabia. A rebellion against British control was quelled down in 1925.

Carved out of a dying empire, Mesopotamia was the prime example of being caught between a rock and a hard place : the Hashemites claimed the country as part of a greater Arab nation ; Iranians too, as fellow Shia believers. Abdullah bin Khaz’al, king from 1936, tried to use oil windfall to modernize his demesne but had to suffer widespread corruption and religious hostility ; the 1951 Iranian revolution resulted in a general strike in Abadan, quickly repressed by the British who deprived Abdullah from its few powers and reinforced their military presence in the Persian Gulf. Mesopotamia became independent in 1961, as part as the Commonwealth and under close European supervision due to its oil wealth and the rises of both Arabia and Iran.

In 1974, Prime Minister Fuad al-Rikabi overthrew the aging King and proclaimed a Republic ; first seen as aligned on the Europeans, his secular policies drew the ire of the Shia clergy and, in an unexpected move, signed an alliance with Iran in 1977. Fearing Iranian expansionism, the Hashemites, with Western support, invaded Mesopotamia, starting the First Mesopotamian War (1978-1980) ; the war ended in a stalemate encouraged by the Great Powers, with both Hashemites and Iranians guaranteeing the independence of Mesopotamia. The Hashemite Civil War, starting in 1982, caused oil prices to fall down, plunging Mesopotamia, along with the world, in an economic crisis ; in a last ditch effort to save his country’s wealth, al-Rikabi nationalized oil assets in 1983 but was assassinated by a Shia fanatic a few months later ; his successor, Field Marshal Abd al-Karim Qasim couldn’t hold and he was overthrown by a religious uprising the following year, supported by Iran. An islamic republic, led by a college of Shia clerics headed by President Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and Prime Minister Ali Sistani, was established in 1984, making Mesopotamia a true Iranian puppet.

Muhammad Muhammad-Sadiq al-Sadr, a cleric related to the President and a known opponent to Iran, was assassinated in 1987 by the Iranian secret services, and a proposal for unification with Iran the following year had to be quickly withdrawn due to Hashemite uproar. The Islamic Republic of Mesopotamia, synonymous with political repression and highly conservative policies, nevertheless saw a period of prosperity and peacefulness, as oil prices recovered and allowed Mesopotamia to modernize, even if corruption remained widespread within the corporatist system and social inequity increased. With the death of Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr in 2004, his successor, Moqtada al-Sadr, son to Muhammad Muhammad-Sadiq, pushed for a controlled liberalization of the democratic system, allowing for a new Constitution in 2005 and the retirement of Sistani the following year, along with free elections. Nevertheless, the social divide, Moqtada’s too cautious approach, the falling of oil prices due to the conversion of Western economy to nuclear and renewable energies along with dissent encouraged by the Hashemite Empire, led to a democratic uprising in 2011, starting the Mesopotamian Civil War (2011-2015), that turned in a proxy war between Arabia and Iran. The war ended in 2015 with the victory of democratic forces, establishing a secular republic led by Prime Minister and democratic activist Laila al-Othman.

The new regime remained very close to Iran and on 11 March 2020, Mesopotamia shocked the world by announcing its will to unify with their eastern neighbour, citing the succesful integration of Afghanistan earlier in the year. The Hashemites responded by declaring war on Iran, with both armies invading Mesopotamia in the Second Mesopotamian War. The World Council immediately pushed for deescalation of the conflict that turned into trench warfare ; soon, the Wuchang pneumonia would devastate the troops, resulting in a temporary ceasefire, with Mesopotamia split along a Najaf-Kuwait line. As the Wuchang pneumonia is now receding in the Middle East and skirmishes still happening on the front, many fear that the Second Mesopotamian War will soon resume, dragging the whole Middle East along...

Political situation
Since 2015, Mesopotamia has been a semi-presidential republic, inspired by the Iranian system, with both the President and Prime Minister being designated by the bicameral Parliament, composed of the Shura Council as its upper house and the House of Representatives as its lower house. Members of the Shura Council are elected for nine years, with elections every three years for one third of the assembly ; the House of Representatives is elected every five years. The President is Mohsen Rezaee, a Conservative who rallied to the democrats and was elected for a seven-year-mandate ; the House of Representatives is dominated by the Coalition for a Democratic Mesopotamia, a big tent coalition who led the Mesopotamian Revolution and Civil War, led by Laila al-Othman, an author and political dissident who emerged as the leader of the democratic front, resulting in her becoming Prime Minister. The general elections scheduled for 2020 were postponed due to the Second Mesopotamian War.
Due to 30 years of an islamic regime, the new Mesopotamian republic, which has proclaimed itself as secular, has yet to change its institutions ; the judiciary system is still deeply modeled on the Sha’ria for law and personal matters. The lack of advancement in five years of its democratization process is seen as a cause for unification with Iran. Following the precedent of the former Afghan government, the Mesopotamian institutions had anticipated its general resignation and resulting integration as a Province of Iran, but the eruption of war prevented such moves, resulting in the Mesopotamian government being now a caretaker one, devoid of any powers due to the divide of the country along frontlines.

Social situation, population
With 24 million people, with a third being under 20, Mesopotamia is a blooming nation, yet one of the most ethnically diverse in the Middle East : with the majority being Arab, the country also counts Bedouins, Mandaean, Ma’dan, Lur, Qashqai and Persian minorities, ranging from the tribes in the west, a westernized Arab population in the cities of Basra, Karbala and Najaf, and Lurs in the east ; even if Arabic remains the official language, most Mespotamians also speak Persian as a second language. Shia Islam generally remains the unifying point for the Mesopotamian population, who mostly self-identify as Arabic. This dichotomy, along with the feeling that the nation was a mere colonial construction by the British, aggravated the foreign claims from both Mesopotamia and Hashemite Arabia, that each considered Mesopotamia as their due territory.

Thanks to oil and good natural conditions thanks to the Tigris and Euphrates, Basra, the capital and largest city, along with Najaf, Karbala, were allowed to flourish during the century, as the development of Kuwait, Abadan and Dammam owned much more to the oil industry ; the oil income allowed the government to drain the unhealthy swamps in southern Mesopotamia and develop the urbanism of the old Shia cities, thanks to construction workers emigrating from Bharatavarsha and China. Nowadays, Basra is aligned on the standards of living of London and Berlin, with its technical universities renowned throughout the world (Najaf’s seminary occupies this role for the religious matters) and being a prized destination for business expatriates. The quality of its hospitals, for example, was noticed and prized during the SARS and Wuchang pneumonia epidemics. Nevertheless, real estate and the cost of living are terrifyingly expensive and most Mesopotamians are unable to afford it, turning many to immigrate to Iran or the Hashemite Arabia.

Freedom of speech and press are much more guaranteed since the fall of the islamic republic in 2015, but the main issue in Mesopotamia remains corruption and clientelism, all well fed by oil incomes ; even the official efforts during the islamist era didn’t quell down this system.

Economy
Located between the Tigris and the Euphrates (Mesopotamia means Land Between the Two Rivers in Greek), one of the cradles of civilization, Mesopotamia still relies on agriculture, encouraged by the natural alluvial plain that existed since Prehistoric times, providing a natural irrigation. But in the XXth Century, the country owned a lot to the Persian Gulf and its oil deposits : extracted in Khuzestan, Ghawar and the Basra region, refined in Abadan and Kuwait, nationalized since 1983, Mesopotamia has been one of the largest oil producers in the world throughout the century and now comes in fourth, behind Russia, Hashemite Empire and the United States. The financial manna provided by oil practically funded the modernization of the country, counting among the best infrastructures in Asia and aligning, in its cities, the standard of living on European ones ; nevertheless, since the 1990s and the conversion of most Western economies to nuclear and renewable energies, oil prices have since dropped, making Mesopotamia a prime example of the Dutch disease, failing its reconversion ; the sharp rise in taxes in the 2000s is considered one of the main causes of the Mesopotamian Revolution, and the country still accounts for one of the largest gap in GDP per capita in the world, as 1 % of the population holds two thirds of the country’s GDP while hunger and poverty are a common sight in the rural country.

Military
The First Mesopotamian War limited the size and equipment of the Mesopotamian Army, that had been trained by the British Army during the protectorate and early independence eras. Preponderant during the early republican era, the army’s role in Mesopotamian politics decreased a lot during the islamic era, with islamic supervisors being appointed to survey the army ; the mass defections and weakness of the army during the Civil War proved it right during the Civil War. Still recovering when the Second Mesopotamian War erupted, the Army didn’t opposed much resistance, with the Wuchang pneumonia doing more casualties than actual fighting ; the few remaining troops now serve for peacekeeping missions during the ceasefire.

Culture
Born from British meddling in the Middle East, Mesopotamia decided very early to concentrate its national identity on the Shia faith, resulting in the establishment of an islamic republic two decades after independence. Hosting the Shia holy cities of Najaf (tomb of Imam Ali) and Karbala (tomb of Imam Hussein), Mesopotamia’s social mores were regulated by a powerful Shia clergy, that was in power from 1984 to 2015 and still remains very powerful in nowadays Mesopotamia. As a result, even if the death penalty has been abolished in 2015, fornication and homosexuality are still criminal offenses in Mesopotamia ; nevertheless, the quite strong Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian minorities in Mesopotamia were never quite persecuted, living under a dhimmi status of legal protection as “people of the Book”. The Mesopotamians were also consistent into celebrating their pre-Islamic history, with the government encouraging the renovation and visits of Ur, Uruk (Sumerian) and Susa (Elamite), even during the islamist period. The oil museum in Abadan and the Monument to the Two Rivers in Basra complete the rich culture of Mesopotamia, a source of renown, even if the country remains quite low internationally for entertainment, owing to years of censorship, its most prominent artist being writer Saadi Yousef.
 
Loving these country profiles, may I request one for Hutuland? It’s interesting that their current President is a Tutsi.
 
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Country profile - Nile Republic
The Nile Republic is a country in central Africa, bordered in the north by Egypt, in the east by Oromia, in the south by Bunyoro-Kitara and Buganda and in the west by Ubangi.

History
As Sudan had been part attached to Egypt since the conquest of Muhammad Ali and the British conquest in 1899 as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium, the Treaty of Alexandria, in 1950, by having Egypt annex northern Sudan, only clarified an administrative oddity, hoping to keep Egypt within their sphere of influence in the light of the loss of India. Nevertheless, the strength of islamists in Egypt that they had endured during the 1940s worried the British over the Black African, christianized, underdeveloped southern Sudan, which had always been different from the Arab, Muslim and developed north, fearing that a too bigger Egypt would be impossible to control and that religious strife in Sudan would spark a larger rebellion in Subsaharan Africa. It was thus that the Nile Colony (after the name of South Sudan had been rejected by London) came into existence on 1 January 1951, splitting Sudan in half.

Lacking schools, hospitals, roads, brides and other infrastructure until the 1950s, the Nile Colony lacked cohesiveness, being split between Dinka, Nuer, Zande, Bari and other peoples and only served as a landing link between Egypt and Kenya ; the British tried to simplify the whole region, by integrating the Nile Colony with Uganda and Kenya into a East African Dominion from 1953 to 1962. That year, Great Britain withdrew from Egypt where their positions had been untenable and renounced to East Africa, leaving Nile Colony as an useless (in a strategic sense) and undeveloped piece of land. The British provided some basic infrastructure in the 1960s, adding unclaimed Acholiland in 1966 after Uganda had been split into rival kingdoms, before being eager to grant independence on 1 January 1972 to the Nile Country as a member of the Commonwealth. Henry IX would rule as King of the Nile for only two years before a military coup from General Gordon Muortat Mayen on 27 February 1974 resulted in the proclamation of the Republic, remaining part of the Commonwealth but granting the country its current name.

Muortat ruled as the average military dictator over his large agrarian country, with a mix of military repression, clientelism and divide-and-rule tactics between the ethnicities, until a major event occurred in 1978 : oil was discovered around Bantiu, on the Egyptian-Nilotic border. The discovery was seen as a blessing that would allow the Nile Republic to become relevant and prosper (while enriching Muortat), but it proved a poisoned chalice : as German, Japanese and British investors poured into Rumbek, the Islamic Republic of Egypt became greedy and declared war on their southern neighbor in 1982 ; three years later, the Nilotic Army was devastated and had to cede to Egypt parts of their bordering regions, inclusing the Bantiu oldfields. The humiliation resulted into Muortat being deposed in a military coup by his right hand man Tito Okello in 1985. Okello would take advantage of the Egyptian War to join the international coalition and receiving in 1989 the lands lost during the Egyptian-Nilotic War along with South Kordofan, Kafia Kigi, Abeyi and Heglig.

Okello restarted the exploitation of oil but, hailing from the Acholi minority, he was less astute at playing each Nilotic ethnicity against each other : John Garang, leader of the Dinkas, the Nile Republic’s largest ethnic group, seized power in a coup against Okello in 1991, starting the First Nilotic Civil War when the Nuers, led by Riek Machar, rebelled against the central government. A complex and sanguinary conflict that pitted every ethnicity of the Nile Republic against each other, largely ignored from the rest of the world and spilling into the Abyssinian Civil War, the First Nilotic Civil War ended in 1997 with Garang’s victory, returning to a statu quo and the promise of a more comprehensive share of powers between the ethnicities ; Garang, in spite of his promises for a fair and democratic Nile Republic, would not abide to his promises, with a new Constitution finally adopted in 2005 that put an end to the presidential republic but still concentrated power in the hands of the Dinkas. A Nuer rebellious army, trained in neighbouring Ubangi, invaded the Nile Republic in 2014, resulting in a Second Civil War (2011-2014), also won by the central government. Garang died in 2018 and left power to his Prime Minister, Salva Kiir Mayardit, a fellow Dinka.

Political situation
According to its 2005 Constitution, the Nile Republic is a federal constitution semi-presidential republic, “providing for the representation of its many peoples through the upper house, the 100-members Council of States, and the representation of its one people through the lower house, the 250-members Legislative Assembly” ; in fact, the country is a presidential republic dominated by the Dinka people, its largest group, granting token representation to the 80 and so other ethnicities. Rumbek, the capital, is located in the middle of Dinka territory and two Civil Wars have contributed to kill and repress all dissent against the dominant ethnicity that has held power since 1991. The current President is Salva Kiir Mayardiit, a military man, who served as Prime Minister from 2005 to January 2018, when he succeeded longtime President John Garang after his death ; he is expected to be elected on his own right in a sham election in July 2021. Under him, in a largely administrative role, is Prime Minister Arok Thon Arok, a fellow Dinka veteran. For the rest of its phony democracy, the Nile Republic, a former British colony and member of the Commonwealth, is inspired by the Westminster system. The 2005 Constitution also made care of dividing the country in administrative regions not representing at all the ethnic map of the Republic, avoiding warlordism in states neighbouring Oromia and Ubangi, from which the rebel groups that provocated the Second Nilotic Civil War came from.

Social situation, population
One of the most ethnically diverse countries of Africa, divided between Christianity, Neo-Kemitism and folk religions, the Nile Republic uses English and Swahili as vernacular languages, with the former British administrative center of Wow being the most populated city, as Rumbek only serves as an administrative center and the country remains mostly rural. Since 1991, the Dinkas have seized all layers of power in the country, holding on politics, military, economy, administration, media and religion, while the other ethnic groups, such as the Nuers, Zandes, Baris and Acholis, being relegated to labor and low-level functions ; this ethnic strife was a direct cause to both Nilotic Civil Wars, each distant by only 14 years ; as half of the Nilotic population is under 18, in one of the youngest nations of the world, many Nilotics have only known war and oppression. Illiteracy, malnutrition, infant mortality, disease, low incomes and even Katangan virus are a common sight in the Nile Republic.

As a result of these conflicts, the Nilotic diaspora is among the largest of recent times, with major communities residing in Egypt, Oromia, Ubangi, Buganda, the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States ; most of the diaspora is comprised by refugees from the Nile Republic’ suppressed peoples, driven out by both civil wars ; as many of these exiles comprise former rebel fighters, child soldiers, political dissidents or simply civilians traumatized by the horrors of war, these communities have been synonymous with organized crime ; the Nuer Lions, an international organized crime group comprised of ethnic Nuers and present in Berlin, New York City, London and Los Angeles, has been targeted as a “violent of major concern and a direct threat to public peace” by both the RSD, MI5 and the FACT.

Economy
A rural country, relying on agriculture due to his very fertile lands and over 60 million cattle, the Nile Republic’s attempts at infrastructure, modernization and development have been deeply neglected during British colonization and early independence and devastated by two subsequent civil wars. The record inflation and instability of the Nilotic pound don’t help either, resulting in one of the poorest per capita income in Africa. The country is nevertheless rich in natural resources, such as oil, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, diamonds, hardwoods, limestone an hydropower, with the third largest oil reserves in Sub-Saharan Africa, but their exploitation has remained limited to the center of the country, with British, American, Chinese, German or Japanese companies undertaking and collecting the exploitation and their redistribution limited to the Dinka ruling ethnicity, resulting in skyrocketing levels of corruption in the country.

Military
The main tool of repression for the Nilotic government since independence, and also the kingmaker of the country, the Nilotic Army yields tremendous power in the Nile Republic, reinforced by its performances in the Egyptian War and two civil wars but, being dominated by the Dinkas, equipped by old German and British weapons and gear, suffering from poor training, insubordination and low pay, has been characterized as “savage” by military experts. During both civil wars, violations to the Geneva Convention and war crimes were unfortunately common for the Nilotic Army, with pillage, rape, looting, execution of prisoners, destruction of rebel villages, enlisting of child soldiers, massacres and ethnic cleansing being pinned upon the military by World Council reports, even if war crimes were also committed by the rebels in both wars. Attempts to have Nilotic war criminals brought to justice were brought down by the government and, even if President Salva Kiir has relied much on the fidelity of high-ranking officers, many veterans and low-ranking soldiers have since deserted and Nilotic mercenaries abroad are a common sight in war zones throughout the world.

Culture
As a very recent nation, whose unity has only existed from the 1950s, the Nile Republic still enjoys a very large folk culture, concentrated on local traditions and native religions remaining very present nowadays ; even if writers, musicians and artists have emerged within the Nilotic diaspora, mostly with works related to the violence of both civil wars, the Nilotic modern culture has yet to emerge ; given its magnificent landscapes and rich traditions, the Nile Republic could have been a popular touristic destination, but due to the recent conflicts and poverty that has plagued the country since thirty years, the Nile Republic is synonymous with “hellhole” in the eyes of many travellers and remains neglected by them.
 
Loving these country profiles, may I request one for Hutuland? It’s interesting that their current President is a Tutsi.
He's more of an acting President, a figurehead meant to show the world "look, we're not like Azania, we love our minorities". But all countries will be eventually covered !
 
So, how big is Shanghai compared to OTL Tokyo as it is the biggest city ITTL? And on that note, any cities would you say are more prominent IOTL (and vice versa) here aside from cities which would be butterflied away like Islamabad and Abuja?
 
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He's more of an acting President, a figurehead meant to show the world "look, we're not like Azania, we love our minorities". But all countries will be eventually covered !
Okay, I take it that the real power belongs to the Hutu supremacists.

Katangan virus is ebola, correct? I think Mrs. Tshombe wouldn't appreciate the name! :p
 
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Country profile - Rhodesia
Rhodesia is a country in southern Africa, bordered in the North by Katanga and Tanganyika, in the west by Angola and Kalahari, in the south and the east by Azania (formerly Botswana and Mozambique).

History
Rhodesia began the XXth Century as separate countries, all united as colonies under the British Crown, as Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia. It was not until 1955, with Great Britain getting in bad terms with South Africa and the Empire preparing for independence, that the three entities would be united under the Dominion of Greater Rhdoesia and Nyasaland, envisioned as a single country under white rule, more secure than Kenya and that would be able to counterbalance the former Boer country. As Southern Rhodesia had been more developed than its neighbours, having been under self-rule since the 1920s, the region took the helm of the new federation, leading a modernization effort more effective than in other British colonies.

Nevertheless, the move would backfire against the British. The black majority, under Kenneth Kaunda in Northern Rhodesia and Henry Chipembre in Nyasaland, would agitate for black rule and Pan-Africanism ; undertaken by a Conservative government, the united Dominion would be criticized by the Labour government of Hugh Gaitskell, fearing that the situation in Rhodesia would evolve into a new Kenya or South Africa : in August 1962, London announced its resolve to dissolve the Dominion into separate entities and to prepare for a referendum on majority rule. Early elections in Rhodesia (where only white settlers were entitled to vote) gave a Conservative majority under Winston Field, who considered the move from London as an immediate threat against their very existence and proclaimed unilateral independence on 3 December 1962, with Field becoming President and his second, William Harper, as Prime Minister ; the 1963 Constitution inscribed the primacy of the white race in Rhodesian matters. In 1964, Rhodesia allied with South Africa.

Nevertheless, as relations between Great Britain and South Africa were rekindled, Rhodesia also accepted to come back into the Commonwealth, accepting to become a Kingdom on 6 July 1966,with Edward VIII getting proclaimed as King of Rhodesia. Meanwhile, the Rhodesian government intensified its repression of Black independantism, resulting in the assassination of Henry Chipembre in 1965 and Joshua Nkomo in 1974, as Pieter van der Byl came to power in 1968, enacting a Pyrist government and intensifying a rhethoric of “the proud and educated settlers threatened by the black savages”. As the opposition divided, as evidenced by the entry of Nyasa leader Hastings Banda into van der Byl’s government in 1970, the situation in Rhodesia finally resulted in a massive guerilla from 1972 to 1983, led by the Zanla and supported by Liberia and Kongo. In 1975, the assassination of van der Byl led to the rise of Richard Hope Ball, who intensified the repression and turned Rhodesia into a heavily militarized country ; it seemed that Rhdoesia would fall into the same chaos that stroke South Africa a decade later.

Nevertheless, in 1978, Minister of Defence Ian Smith, who had been the public face of repression within Rhodesia, managed to remove Hope Ball into a motion of no confidence ; Smith, even if he was a strict believed in the White Man’s Burden, was aware that white rule was untenable in Africa, that white Rhodesians were vastly outnumbered and that chaos and civil war would be the only future for the country. The new Prime Minister sent an open hand to the guerilla moderates, led by Reverend Abel Murozewa, who gladly accepted, resulting the 1980 Salisbury Agreement : a new Constitution was adopted, affirming the equality of all races under law, federalizing the country to put down the huge influence of Southern Rhodesia, and striking a powersharing deal with Smith and Murozewa as co-Prime Ministers. The two leaders also shared the Peace Nobel Prize in 1981, while only radicals led by Robert Mugabe continued the guerilla until he was killed in 1983 by German commandos.

The “Rainbow Nation” of Rhodesia undertook its democratization, becoming a Republic in 1982, with Ian Smith as President and Abel Murozewa as Prime Minister, until the direction of the Salisbury Agreement was confirmed by the outbreak of the South African Civil War in 1983 ; supporting the Pretoria government from the beginning, Rhodesia withdrew its support under the direction of Murozewa in 1988 after the detonation of a nuclear bomb by the Malan dictatorship, restoring support after the removal of Malan the following year, and focusing its efforts on the greeting of refugees, Boers and Blacks along. The outpouring destablizied massively Rhodesia, reaching 10 million people and camps becoming separate entities within the country. The racial strife reached Rhodesia with the country becoming the main destination for the three consecutive Boer Evacuations from 1990 to 1997, and Rhodesian troops being defeated by the Azanian People’s Front during the battle of Johannesburg and later defending the Afrikaner Boerstaat. The Boer refugees tried to stage a coup in Salisbury in 1997 in order to open a new front, but Murozewa managed to call on a general strike that defeated the coup. Smith resigned from the Presidency and Murozewa took his place, intensifying the democratization of the country and integrating the South African refugees.

While Rhodesia managed to take on the new century as an united nation, as Smith (in 2007) and Murozewa (in 2010) both passed away, the nation became the main front against Azania, engaging in a continuous war against the Pan-Africanist and supremacist nation, fighting in Botswana, Mozambique, Nyasaland and Matabeleland, helping to the building of the Azanian Wall. Since 2018, Azanians have occupied Nyasaland and Matabeleland, a state of emergency has been proclaimed and the Rhodesian War has fought a war of attrition, digging trenches.

Political situation
Under the 1982 Constitution, adopted after the Salisbury Agreement, Rhodesia has been a multiracial federal parliamentary constitutional and democratic republic, inspired by the Constitution of the United States. In order to inscribe the equality of all in front of the law, since 2008, the Presidency and the Prime Ministership have to be jointly held by people from different races, exemplified by the power sharing by President Ian Smith and Prime Minister Abel Murozewa. The largely ceremonial Presidency has been held, since his election by the Senate in 2021, by Guy Scott, a former Senator for Livingstone, of Scottish origin, formerly member of the Rhodesian Reconciliation Front (center-right). Since the 2018 election, the Prime Minister, holder of the executive powers and leader of the ruling party in Parliament, has been Nelson Chamisa, an Assemblyman from Fort Victoria, hailing from the Movement for Zimbabwe (centrist), of Bantu origin. The Senate reflects the federal nature of the state while the House of Assembly is elected by universal suffrage, each sharing the legislative power, while the judiciary system is inspired by English common law, even if most of its rules have been amended since the proclamation of a state of emergency and martial law since 2018.

All discrimination based on race and racial prejudices is forbidden in Rhodesia, leading many to consider it one of the most progressives in the world, particularly in light of the South African Civil War that happened in the same decade ; however, critics point it out as a largely cosmetic rule, as it did nothing to take down the widening gap between races and doesn’t adress the issues of gender equality and homosexuality, that is still criminalized in Rhodesia. Others feel that the colonial heritage in Rhodesia is still present ; a referendum was held in 2008 in order to change the name of the country to Zimbabwe, in order to better reflect its Native heritage ; the referendum failed, with the “No” gaining at only 53 %, even if efforts have been made, such as the idea of powersharing between executive positions.

Social situation, population
With a small minority descending from the white settlers and a large, multiethnic coloured majority, Rhodesia seemed poised to meet the same fate than South Africa ; nevertheless, now numbering more than 50 million people and with a Constitution recognizing 22 official languages, the country has managed to become the example of the “Rainbow Nation”, with law and civil service acknowledging the equality of all races and providing for equal development. Nevertheless, the gap remains : the white minority, of European ancestry, is aging, urban, more educated and concentrates economic control, mostly landowning, while the black majority, made up of more than 100 ethnicities, is quite young, more scattered in the countryside, and is significantly poorer, even if a middle class has managed to rise and affordable college education is accessible for the youth ; equality between sexes and access to health remains however a massive concern in Rhodesia. Mass vaccination against the Katangan virus was nevertheless a success, leading to the near-eradication of the disease.

Nevertheless, the outpouring of refugees from the former South Africa, along with Botswana and Mozambique, has changed the demographic balance in Rhodesia, composed of people who lost everything in the war against Azania and radicalized factions from each race. If the richer Boers have managed since to depart to the United States or Europe, the capital and most populated city, Salisbury, has significantly expanded due to massive slums, along with massive refugee camps overseen by the World Council in Southern Rhodesia, where violence is a common occurrence and where Rhodesian police doesn’t dare to enter at times. Even if Rhodesia is widely considered as a democracy, the state of martial law that has endured since 2018 has led to a significant strain on opposition parties aligned on Pan-Africanism and massive insecurity from ethnic paramilitaries.

Economy
A mostly rural country, Rhodesia is rich in natural resources, cultivating tobacco, tea, cotton sugarcane , while enjoying massive copper, nickel, platinum, diamond, coal, asbestos, gold and iron deposits, leading Rhodesia to be considered, along with Katanga, as “Africa’s bread and metal basket”, drawing hydroelectric power from the 1959 Kariba Dam ; the Murozewa government made much to draw the rural population out of subsistence agriculture, along with applying massive taxes on foreign companies in order to keep some economic independence. This economic situation, however, leads Rhodesia to rely massively on imports for manufactured goods, leading to a looming inflation on the Rhodesian dollar ; the strain of the continuous war on Azania also leads to a deterioriation of the economy in favor of a massive war effort, and Rhodesia is considered as tettering on bankruptcy and will be relying on foreign aid in the near future.

Military
Since the outbreak of the guerilla in 1972, continuing with the South African Civil War and the War on Azania, Rhodesia has been at war for almost 50 years, with Azanian troops entering its territory in 2017. Considered one of the best militaries of the world, the Army also reflected the changes within the country, with an overall command being equally divided between whites and blacks. Benefitting from state of the art German equipment along with military help from Britain, the United States and Germany, the Rhodesian Army was forced to withdraw north of the southern portion of the Azanian Wall, making a tactical retreat from Matabeleland and Nyasaland, and has managed to hold the ground against Azanian forces, fighting a re-enactment of the Great European, complete with trenches, barbed wire, anti-personnel mines along with massive bombings on Azanian positions. Propaganda has called Rhodesia “the vanguard of civilization” and the Rhodesian military, that has held tremendous power since the proclamation of a state of emergency in 2018 and the reestablishment of the draft, remains very popular in the country.

Culture
Even if the Rhodesian curriculum insists on the “considerable efforts made by the British settlers to civilize the area”, an oddity in Africa seen nowhere but in French Algeria, the government made much effort to glorify the heritage of the kingdoms of Zimbabwe of Mutapa that dominated the region, restoring and opening to the public the ruins of Great Zimbabwe. Even if the proximity of Azanian threat is a reality, Rhodesia benefits a lot of tourism, for its historical riches but also its natural ones, such as the Victoria Falls in Northern Rhodesia. With a growing cinema and music industry, Rhodesia is also renowned for its literature, led by such figures such as Tsitsi Dangarembga and exiled artists from South Africa, even if the latter is more evidenced in Europe or the United States. Its sports teams, in soccer or in the Olympics, have also been distinguished.
 
So, how big is Shanghai compared to OTL Tokyo as it is the biggest city ITTL? And on that note, any cities would you say are more prominent IOTL (and vice versa) here aside from cities which would be butterflied away like Islamabad and Abuja?
Shanghai is around 40 million inhabitants for the city and 90 million for its greater urban area. Overpopulation sure is a problem for the city ! As of cities more prominent ITTL, I would say Königsberg (due to Polish and Jewish immigrants), Shiraz (due to being the capital of Iran for a long time), Erzurum (due to the Armenian population never having a genocide), Sofia (due to Bulgaria's better chances ITTL), Saigon (due to a better Indochinese economy with less wars), Darwin (due to increased Australian trade with Asia)... as of cities whose influences decreased, we could say Athens (reduced to a mere provincial capital), Singapore (violently converted to Malay culture, its population fleeing to China), London (reduced influence of the UK), various cities in India (pariah state of Bharatavarsha)...
Okay, I take it that the real power belongs to the Hutu supremacists.

Katangan virus is ebola, correct? I think Mrs. Tshombe wouldn't appreciate the name! :p
No, Katangan virus is the popular name for AIDS, along with "Askari cancer" or "Soldier fever". It wasn't connected to gay people ITTL but more to German soldiers deployed in the Kongo War, where sexual promiscuity and violence from German draftees along with blood transfusions on the battlefield led to a massive spread of the disease. Ebola is known as "Nzara", after the name of the town in the Nile Republic where the disease first appeared and was better monorited by British doctors here.
 
How many of the refugees from South Africa who fled to Rhodesia were white/coloured/Indian refugees and how many are Christian Africans who fled the country to escape the Neo-Kemitist regime's policies on religion?
 
Botswana War
BotswanaWar.jpg

The Botswana War (also known as the Botswana Campaign) was a military conflict involving the Republic of Botswana and the invading forces of Azania, that resulted in the complexe annexation of Botswana by Azania. It is now considered as a continuity conflict from the South African Civil War and part of the Azanian Wars.

Botswana had been an independent country since 1976, joining the Commonwealth upon its creation, and was considered a black-majority prosperous democracy, especially as compared to neighbouring South Africa. Nevertheless, the instability and the influx of refugees created by the South African Civil War led to a military coup in 1988, led by General Mompati Merafhe. Established as a strategic position for the Coalition of Freedom, Botswana was subject to a low-intensity war starting in August 1995, when Azanian irregulars were spotted in the southern area of the country. The military buildup in Botswana, along with the continuing conflict with the Boerestaat and the Inkhata Rebellion, prevented at first an escalation of the war.

The war entered its second phase with the fall of Springbok on August 21, 1998. Now given free reins at home, Peter Mokaba decided to pursue his dream of a Pan-African Union, starting with the immediate neighbours of the fallen South Africa ; the Azanian Army was redirected towards Botswana, starting a full-scale invasion of the country and inaugurating the Azanian Wars that would last to our days. The Coalition forces managed to slow down the Azanians for a year, but the overextended front, ranging from Kalahari to Mozambique, led to a total collapse of the lines by winter 2000, with the nation of Botswana coming to an end with the fall of its capital, Gaborone, on April, 14 2000. The following day, Azanian Mwalimu Mokaba fled in the captured capital and proclaimed the formal annexation of Botswana by Azania, calling it “the first step to the dream of an united Black master race”.

The fall of Botswana was celebrated among Black supremacists and Pan-Africans, with spontaneous demonstrations sparking in Liberia or Kongo, while in the Western world, the neo-pyrism advocated by Azania became an evil in the likes of islamism. The event cemented the Coalition of Freedom and its support by Western nations, as the conflict continued in Kalahari, Mozambique and Rhodesia.

The Botswana War is also notable for its terrible human cost, with the tenth of Botswana’s prewar population killed during the conflict, either as military or civilians, and as the third of its population fled to neighbouring countries, fearing Azanian repression, further destabilizing the economy of the region.
 
How many of the refugees from South Africa who fled to Rhodesia were white/coloured/Indian refugees and how many are Christian Africans who fled the country to escape the Neo-Kemitist regime's policies on religion?
The fate of the Indian South Africans was dire, as Bharatavarsha remains a closed country, some refugees were able to make it to Bengal or Dravida Nadu, others were killed. As of the Christian Africans, they form part of the current waves of refugees.
What happened to Tehran ITTL for Shiraz to be Iran's capital for a while before being returned to Tehran?
Northern Iran was annexed by Russia during the Great European War, prompting the Iranians to relocate to Shiraz, as Tehran was too close to the border.
 
The following day, Azanian Mwalimu Mokaba fled in the captured capital and proclaimed the formal annexation of Botswana by Azania, calling it “the first step to the dream of an united Black master race”.

The fall of Botswana was celebrated among Black supremacists and Pan-Africans, with spontaneous demonstrations sparking in Liberia or Kongo, while in the Western world, the neo-pyrism advocated by Azania became an evil in the likes of islamism. The event cemented the Coalition of Freedom and its support by Western nations, as the conflict continued in Kalahari, Mozambique and Rhodesia.
Damn.
 
Unfortunately Azania‘s conquests have probably lead to a lot of racism against blacks in the west, not unlike the unfair mistrust that happened in OTL against the Japanese. At least this time America’s not shipping an entire race off to interment camps citing national security as an excuse.
 
Are there any non-African countries Azania has reasonable relations to much like how North Korea IOTL has ties to the likes of Assad's Syria, the Islamic Republic of Iran, or Zimbabwe (including training elements of the Zimbabwean military)? I will assume Bharatvarsha and Peru are amongst the 70 countries who recognize Azania at the very least.
 
Country profile - Aden
Aden is a country in the Middle East, bordered by the Hashemite Empire in the north, west and east and the Aden Gulf in the south.

History
One of the oldest cities in the Middle East, Aden was sold to the British by the Sultanate of Ahej in 1838 and secured by Royal Marines on 19 January 1839 : the port’s situation on the tip of the Arabian Peninsula was tantamount for securing the road between the Suez Canal and India, securing cargo between the Red Sea and the Horn of Africa and allowing for British trade between the Suez Canal, Mumbai and Zanzibar. The country became a settlement governed from India, then a Crown colony in 1937 ; in the same time, the Suez Canal was opened, Italian influence in Eastern Africa and Yemen increased, India and Egypt became independent and the Arabs were unified under the Hashemites. But when the Hashemites overwhelmed the Arab Emirates, Southern Arabia and Yemen in 1963, they knew they had to stop at Aden ; as the British had conserved their control of the Suez Canal and of various states surrounding the Indian Ocean, they knew that London would go to war to protect one of their last jewels. In 1965, the Hashemite Empire came to an agreement with Great Britain, acknowledging British control over Aden in exchange for annexation of Southern Arabia ; London responded by granting independence to the harbour on 30 November 1967, as part of the Commonwealth, a small country of little more than 1,100 km2, not counting Socotra, occupied by British forces as part of the Free City of Aden.

Keeping a strong British military presence, both to keep the Hashemites at bay and to ensure the continuity of trade throughout the area, the new city-state soon fell under the iron grip of former trade unionist turned politician Abdullah al-Asnag, who had driven away from his Pan-Arabic and Neo-Syndicalist views to establish a dictatorship over Aden, with British reluctant support and taking advantage of the troubles in neighbouring Hashemite Arabia, taking advantage of a continuing state of emergency. Al-Asnag was overthrown in 1986 by General Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, leader of the small Adenite Armed Forces, with British support, as London had grown tired of al-Asnag’s bad press ; Hadi had an ally in the presence of former al-Asnag associate Ali Salem al-Beidh, and followed him into proclaiming a Republic in 1994, with Hadi taking the Presidency and al-Beidh the Prime Ministership ; in spite of this change, Aden remained within the Commonwealth, as the Adenite leadership was still aware of the need of British credits and protection.

Nevertheless, wanting to spare costs, the Clarke government announced in 2005 their resolution to close the military garrison in Aden within two years ; al-Beidh, who had assumed all powers in Aden since Hadi’s retirement in 2004, reacted by leaving the Commonwealth, as the last British troops left Aden in 2007. Now the prey of Hashemite irredentism, al-Beidh tried to build up his military arsenal, but the decline of Aden was initiated, as Somalia invaded their small dependency of Socotra Island in 2014, without firing a single shot. This defeat along with tax raises and mandatory conscription led to al-Beidh’s overthrow in 2018 by a popular revolt, giving rise to a new Constitution. But the fortunes of Aden look dire, in the face of pan-Arabist terrorist activity and Hashemite saber-rattling.

Political situation
A free city in the likes of Brussels, Abu Dhabi or Zanzibar, Aden has been independent since 1967, a Republic since 1994 and has had its current Constitution since 2018 and the popular revolt that toppled longtime Prime Minister Ali Salem al-Beidh, abolishing the Prime Ministership altogether. Since 2018, executive powers are vested in the presidency, occupied since 2016 by General Aidarus al-Zoubaidi, a former associate of the al-Beidh regime and responsible for the military buildup, elected to a seven-year mandate by the Shura Council, the upper house of the Adenite Parliament, alongside the House of Representatives, elected on universal suffrage in rules inspired by the Westminster system. The judiciary system is a mixture of British common law and Islamic law.

Even if the 2018 Revolution allowed for the rise of efficient multi-party democracy, the current electoral system doesn’t allow for the rise of other parties than the Aden National Party, that has ruled since 1986. Also, since independence, due to the existential threat posed by the Hashemite Empire, Pan-Arabist parties have been forbidden on the charge of high treason ; due to that, Pan-Arabist organizations, such as the Liberation Front of Greater Yemen, have resorted to terrorism, such as in 2000 against the British military presence or in 2020 against the port of Aden.

Social situation, population
With 3 million people and counting, with almost half of its population aged under 25, Aden is among the most densely populated countries of the world ; apart from its majority Qahtanite Arab population, descending from the clans that inhabited ancient Lucky Arabia, and ancient populations such as the Yemenite Jews and Christians, Aden has welcomed a growing Asian and African diaspora, interested in the labor of the blooming port. Sunni Islam is the religion of most Adenite citizens, with the Constitution providing for freedom of cult, while the society remains divided according to the clanic proportions that can be seen throughout the Arabian Peninsula. In spite of official discourse that has stressed the unique history of Aden and its differences from the rest of the Arab World, most Adenites feel Arab.
The wealthiness of the port of Aden have allowed to a certain high quality of living within Aden itself, providing for excellent universities, hospitals , education and social infrastructures, but the lack of diversification for the Adenite economy, due to the country’s small size, along with the burden of military buildup led by the late al-Beidh administration, led to massive protests throughout the city in 2018 and finally the disposition of the government ; if democracy has been encouraged in Aden since, many of its inhabitants feel Arab at heart and see the future of the Free City to be within the Hashemite Empire in a few years.

Economy
As the main reason for its very existence, the commercial port of Aden is also the main fixture of its economy, with most of the country’s surface being devolved to its maintenance and development, hinterland like embankment ; even if the golden days of British India and of the Suez Canal are far behind, Aden remaining among the world’s busiest ports, behind Shanghai, Singapore, Qingdao, Rotterdam and Antwerp, being at the center of trade routes between the Middle East, the Indian Ocean, Eastern Africa, India and the Suez Canal. As the cornucopia of the city-state, being Aden’s largest employer and state-owned since the 1990s, the harbour has also proven as a poisoned chalice, as the small country failed to diversify its economic sectors, due to its small size and after unsuccessful searches for oil deposits along the coast, while only a small fraction of the country’s population has been truly benefitting from the port’s wealth, the majority being confined to labor, in light of ever growing migrations. The disruption of world trade after the Wuchang pneumonia also led to a new halt to the trade in the area, provoking a collapse of the Adenite pound (indexed on the British pound) and provoking more riots.

Military
Once heavily dependent on the British garrison, Aden has made efforts to build up its military since the British withdrawal in 2007, keeping in mind its neighbouring of the powerful and heavily nationalist Hashemite Empire. Nevertheless, since the 2018 Revolution, mandatory conscription and national service have been abolished by the government given its impopularity, and experts consider Aden as having a “lame duck military”, not enough equipped nor trained in light of a potential Hashemite invasion ; the takeover of Socotra by Somalia saw no action from Aden, due to its unpreparedness. Nevertheless, the Adenite Navy is noticeable, even if its missions are limited to protection of trading ships and cargos against piracy in the Gulf.

Culture
Owing to its multi-millenial history, more than a century of British presence and its situation at the crossroads of the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, Aden can boast of a decent cultural heritage, such as its Zoroastian Temple, the Cisterns of Tawila dating back to the pre-Islamic era, its mosques and other British heritage ; the country can also boast of an unique multicultural demography, such as its sizeable Yemenite Jewish community and Afro-Arabic community. Nevertheless, due to recent Pan-Arabist terrorist activites (2000 terrorist attack against British barracks ; 2020 Aden Harbour attacks), tourism has stalled, along with reviews that have pointed the lasting consequences of unbridled economic development for the trading harbour.
 
So it seems like Germany has their own version of commonwealth ITTL, I wonder which countries is in it.
Germany has both an European Community (much less developed than OTL, it's more like a Super-Zollverein or a Super-ALENA) and the Reichspakt, a military alliance. It comprises much of Germany's allies and former colonies.

Unfortunately Azania‘s conquests have probably lead to a lot of racism against blacks in the west, not unlike the unfair mistrust that happened in OTL against the Japanese. At least this time America’s not shipping an entire race off to interment camps citing national security as an excuse.
It does. Anti-Africanism has a long history, first created by Liberia and now by Azania. By now, Muslims are being the popular scapegoat.
Are there any non-African countries Azania has reasonable relations to much like how North Korea IOTL has ties to the likes of Assad's Syria, the Islamic Republic of Iran, or Zimbabwe (including training elements of the Zimbabwean military)? I will assume Bharatvarsha and Peru are amongst the 70 countries who recognize Azania at the very least.
Actually, much of these countries are developed Asian countries such as China, Korea or Indochina. Why ? Because capitalism make strange bedfellows, and the riches of Southern Africa are something to behold; plus, they feel like the Afrikaners were guilty and deserved what they got, and they don't care much about Africa.
 
Actually, much of these countries are developed Asian countries such as China, Korea or Indochina. Why ? Because capitalism make strange bedfellows, and the riches of Southern Africa are something to behold; plus, they feel like the Afrikaners were guilty and deserved what they got, and they don't care much about Africa.
But yeah, do the Peruvians and/or Bharatvarshans recognize Azania?
 
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