Empire of New Castille

The 1850 constitution allows female military recruits but they are limited into non combat roles. The Civil service demanded it in that update. There are less female voters due to females not being allowed in military service(with the exception of the Yellow Guards/Amazons) from 1823 to 1850 but by 1850 they would be co equals in number of voters.
Your past update did say that every male (involuntary) has to undergo military service for 15 years (active 5; reserve 10). The civil service demands that women be allowed in the military service (only in non-combat roles) but I assumed this is only voluntary (unlike the forced conscription of the males, which i think is quite good, with the low population that Philippines had, they needed that conscription). An since before the 1850 constitution, the military banned women and so I assumed with the 1850 constitution, the military allowed women into the military, not just forced them.....
Like in Prussia, every male had to serve the army at age of 20. Recruits would serve the army for 5 years and remain with the reserve another 15 years. The regularity, quality of the training and drills would be similar to the Prussian army both standing army and reserve.
The Civil service representatives, composing of a lot of women civil servants, wants women to vote. The Army and Navy did not recruit females. Andres negotiates by forcing the Army and the navy to open both their branches to female recruits limiting them to non-combat assignments from medical personnel to administration and logistics.
If we count the gender distribution of voters, that makes every male technically able to vote and the females fewer by the voluntary female recruitment. and so voters still skewed towards the males.

Maybe, I just assumed a lot, the wordings of the sentences were sometimes quite vague hehe (like the military and navy opening their doors to recruit females, it doesn't say anything if the recruitment is voluntary or involuntary. I assumed its voluntary since the military was so against it in the 1st place.)
 
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I mean the Philippines has the distinction of being the first government to allow women to vote in this TL. The first self governing government to allow women to vote was in New Zealand in 1893. But they couldn’t run for parliamentary seat.
 
Your past update did say that every male (involuntary) has to undergo military service for 15 years (active 5; reserve 10). The civil service demands that women be allowed in the military service (only in non-combat roles) but I assumed this is only voluntary (unlike the forced conscription of the males, which i think is quite good, with the low population that Philippines had, they needed that conscription). An since before the 1850 constitution, the military banned women and so I assumed with the 1850 constitution, the military allowed women into the military, not just forced them.....


If we count the gender distribution of voters, that makes every male technically able to vote and the females fewer by the voluntary female recruitment. and so voters still skewed towards the males.

Maybe, I just assumed a lot, the wordings of the sentences were sometimes quite vague hehe (like the military and navy opening their doors to recruit females, it doesn't say anything if the recruitment is voluntary or involuntary. I assumed its voluntary since the military was so against it in the 1st place.)
Sorry about that. But the women recruitment should be involuntary. Since the pattern were a looking after is the Prussian military service which is involuntary.

But yes, the women voters will be fewer initially due to fewer women in military service(just the Yellow Guards/Amazons). In a couple of decades they will be equal due to deaths of the older generation who had fewer women voting. Eventually it would be everyone capable of voting barring circumstance that one runs away from military service.

The good thing about is Member of Parliament can still run but cannot vote. e.g. Woman who had serve public service but did not serve the military due to lack of women in the military early on.

Or older women can serve the military since the women will serve as a non combat role just to get the right to vote.

I mean the Philippines has the distinction of being the first government to allow women to vote in this TL. The first self governing government to allow women to vote was in New Zealand in 1893. But they couldn’t run for parliamentary seat.
Yes. Philippines or culture before the Spanish had more a gender equal treatment.

In OTL despite Spanish and American colonization, that culture survived and reappeared post independence OTL 1946. I am trying to replicate that culture reappearance here.
 
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My only concern is the right to vote, it seems like the military has the edge here hahaha (hence why there are discussions in between updates of the Philippines fast becoming a police/military state or is a military state already(and an informal branch or "arm" of the British empire).....which lead to the talk of office of the emperor was originally a military post rather than a royal title, in the roman days)
Also, the Philippine involuntary recruitment is only limited to males, right? The female voters would be even less....I fear that with this setup, future legislations will benefit the male gender more than the female or even repeal laws that protects females, slowly transforming the Philippines into a paternalistic society (which was already encouraged by the machismo culture of Andres and paternal culture of Spanish)
Well I am concerned around there too mate, and also I hope that Andres or his descendants try lean himself more to the elites and the church than the military, and allow sufferage based on wealth requirements and disable conscription to enable more progress by freeing up the manpower needed for economic activities. As the military might be the one who technically defacto controls the governent is what I fear
 
allow sufferage based on wealth requirements and disable conscription to enable more progress by freeing up the manpower needed for economic activities
I fear that the galleon has long sailed on that front, and won't stop until it rules that side of the Pacific as the gamerestado.
 
Well I am concerned around there too mate, and also I hope that Andres or his descendants try lean himself more to the elites and the church than the military, and allow sufferage based on wealth requirements and disable conscription to enable more progress by freeing up the manpower needed for economic activities. As the military might be the one who technically defacto controls the governent is what I fear
Hhmmm...little of chance of that happening in Andres era (with him a military man and his supporters are the military as well). Only way to do that is coup him (actually the failed ATL Palmeros Conspiracy is that group you want to change and succeed if you want elitism (they are the most like class group that will support the suffrage by wealth distribution and the most vocal in disabling the conscription) and their economic power to increase influence in the Philippine government. But a coup that early is just begging a set back of progress of Philippines that early, eh?
I fear that the galleon has long sailed on that front, and won't stop until it rules that side of the Pacific as the gamerestado.
I'm not actually against the authoritarian militaristic reign of Andres per se (I even think his autocratic reign help the stabilization and the foundation of Philippines in its early formative years. And its doable with the low population that Philippines has.) But a militaristic reign comes with its own set of problems and with the unique position that Philippines has (an archipelagic nation (and thus little chance of being invaded by armies alone) with a navally powerful big brother influencing its foreign policies and surrounded by technologically weak neighbors), it makes for an interesting timeline.
 
29. Austrian Masterpiece 1848-57
29. Austrian Masterpiece 1848-57

The Kingdom of Prussia also had their own revolts. Grand Duchy of Posen, a Polish duchy under Prussian control, revolted. Even Berlin had revolts. The King’s brother, Prince Wilhelm, was successful on crushing the revolt. But he became unpopular at the time that he had to leave for Britain disguised as a merchant. He was called Prince Grapeshot for using cannons to quell the revolts.

The Frankfurt Parliament, the first free elected parliament for all Germany was held in 1848. In 1849, the Frankfurt Parliament offered the German crown to King Frederick William IV of Prussia. The revolts in Austrian Empire and the rest of Europe were still going on. He rejected the offer of the Frankfurt Parliament as crown from the gutter.

First Schleswig War in the Duchies Schleswig and Holstein, Lauenburg. The Duchies were controlled by Danish crown but Holstein and Lauenburg were part of the German Confederation created conflict between the German Confederation and Kingdom of Denmark.

The revolution in France inspired people in Schleswig and Holstein to revolt. Even with the help of German Kingdoms including Prussia, ended with an armistice in 1849. Kingdom of Denmark won by defending the Duchy of Schleswig and Holstein versus the German Kingdoms including Prussia.

However, by 1850, once the winners of revolt were clear, the Prussians proposed their own union in Erfurt Parliament. The Austrians rejected the idea. Prussia held another conference of princes in Berlin was held. There were several disagreements between Prussia and Austria between how to deal with Duchy of Schleswig and Holstein, and Electorate of Hesse.

The shrinking of the Austrian Empire gave the Prussians confidence that they can beat Austria. The Austrian-Prussian War started in June 15, 1850.

The Russian empire has been the ally of both the Kingdom of Prussia and Austrian empire since the Napoleonic wars. This war would put the Russian empire in precarious situation having to choose one from the other.

Prussian diplomats met both the Russian and French diplomats without any success.

The Austrian offered de jure and official control of Austrian Galicia. The Russian were the ones who crushed the Polish rebellion in Galicia from 1848 to 1849. Austria also offered free reign and support of Russian interest in the Balkans. In return, they would stay neutral throughout the war, only helping Austria if Hungary attacks Austria. Russia agrees to these terms.

Most of north German states joined Prussia. Austria led Kingdom of Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, Wurttemberg and most of the Southern States.

Empire of the Philippines sent observers to both sides - Kingdom of Prussia, Austria and French Empire.

Austrians had another card to play. Emperor Franz Joseph had asked to her mother charm her way to Napoleon II and request aid in the upcoming war with the Prussians. Napoleon II was very adamant to take control of Prussian Rhine. Princess Sophie and Emperor Franz Joseph agree to the proposal without consulting the other German Kingdoms.

Prussian and Austrian battles were mostly in the Bohemian Kingdom. When most of Prussia manpower was tied defending vs Austria, France declared war, flooding Prussian Rhine.

The war ended with Austrian led German states victorious.

Kingdom of Wurttemberg receives Hohenzollern. Kingdom of Hannover takes Prussian Westphalia and Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, Austria takes Prussian Silesia. Kingdom of Saxony takes Prussian Saxony. Prussia will be excluded from Germany and the German Confederation. The main consideration would be Prussian Rhine. There was a dispute between Napoleon II who was promised the Rhine but Bavaria also wanted the Rhine.

Eventually, a compromise between Austria, Bavaria and France was met with the participation of Britain. Britain does not want France receiving most of the Rhine. Austria was not eager for another war with France. France and Austria concluded behind doors a secret agreement that Austria will support France with regards to dealing with the Low Countries in return for France giving up their most of the demands of Prussian Rhine.

The agreed terms - Saarbrucken/ Saarland will be given to France. Part of the Electorate of Trier (Trier-Saarburg) will be given to a Bavarian noble wife of Napoleon II’s choice. She will be a princess-electorate of her own right. Napoleon II will have the right to send representatives to the German Confederation. The rest of Prussian Rhine will be taken by Bavaria.

Kingdom of Prussia only retains Brandenburg, Posen, Pomerania, West Prussia and East Prussia.

Most of the German states who sided with Prussia and against the German Confederation were either absorbed by Austrian allies or had to abdicate.

In 1851, Napoleon II visited Munich to meet King Maximilian II’s sisters. King Maximilian II’s sisters were almost all married. Princess Alexandra was not married. Napoleon II found her to be eccentric. At first, it was tolerable with Princess Alexandra’s fixation of cleanliness. Until she told Napoleon II a story about her swallowing a grand piano made of glass, that made Napoleon decide she was not fit to be her empress.

Not until in 1853 when Duke Maximilian of Bavaria and his wife Princess Ludovika along with their daughters went to Paris to meet Napoleon II and introduce Duchess Helene. Duchess Helene, daughter of Duke Maximilian, was very pious but always late and tardy. Accompanying them was another daughter named Sisi. She was sweet, shy and exquisitely very beautiful, long chestnut brown hair at 5 Feet 8 Inches but Napoleon II towered over her at more than 6 feet. All of the Wittelsbach women were charmed by Napoleon II. Napoleon II eyed Sisi more than her sister and they spent more time with each other. Sisi enjoyed riding in the countryside with Napoleon II remembering the days when she was younger riding with her father. Both Napoleon II and Sisi eventually fell in love with each other.

They married in 1854 and she was crowned Empress of the French.

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Elisabeth Empress of the French​

In 1852, a conference was held in London to settle the issue with the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Kingdom of Denmark, France, Sweden, Russia, Britain and Austria agreed that the Duchy of Schleswig would be absorb by the Kingdom of Denmark. The Duchy of Holstein and Lauenburg would become independent and be part of the German Confederation. Prince Christian was chosen by the Great powers as heir presumptive due to King Frederick VII seemed incapable of fathering children.

During the revolts of 1848, Danubian principalities revolted. Russia helped the Ottomans quell these rebellions. The Russians did not withdraw the troops and viewed themselves as protectors of Orthodox Christians.

The Ottomans gave an ultimatum in September 1853 to leave the Danubian principalities. When Russia did not remove her troops, the Ottomans started the war October of the same year.

The Ottoman empire is weak. They have already lost what is now Kingdom of Greece. Egypt is quasi-independent. The Ottoman empire has been politically and economically unstable. The Russian empire have been gaining strength at the expense of the Ottomans. This changes the balance of power and status quo in Europe.

Preferring Status quo, in February 1854, Britain demanded the Russians forces withdraw their troops from the principalities. Britain was supported by the Kingdom of Hungary in the call to remove Russian troops.

Russia expects Austria to give her the same courtesy of attacking Hungary in case they join the war. Austria agrees to these same terms.

France decides not to join the war. Reading stories of his father’s defeat in Russia and with no French interest within the region, the French opted to selling the Ottomans, British and her allies with weapons, supplies, etc. The French also smuggled and sold supplies and weapons to Austria and some made it to Russia.

Napoleon II seeing an opportunity that both Britain and Russia tied down in a war, offers to buy Luxembourg from Netherlands in 1854. Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was sold for 5 million guilders to France.

Before Napoleon II came to power, there was a Belgian revolt led by Belgian emigres in Paris in 1848 but failed due to lack of support by the French government. This gave Napoleon II the idea back then of conducting a series of maneuvers. First move of Napoleon II was to prepare and fund, arm Belgian emigres again in France but to supplement them with French troops pretending to be Belgians. France will then position a large army near the Belgian borders.

Netherlands was invited to the invasion. Since 1830, there was Orangism movement in Belgium to restore Netherland’s control.

Napoleon II, hearing the success of Lee-Lopez expedition and acquisition of the United States of Cuba and Hispaniola, wants to replicate those success in Belgium. By 1854, both France and Netherlands sent their own version of “Filibusters” in Belgium. With the Belgian army in Flanders and Wallonia tied fighting French Belgian Legion and Dutch filibusters, both the French army and Dutch army enters to “help” the Belgians only to occupy and overwhelm the Belgian Army.

Britain tried to blockade French and Dutch ports. However, a lot of British resources and manpower are tied in Russia and the Balkans. Britain now have to decide to fight both Russia and France, Netherlands at the same time.

Napoleon II offered the British compensation and donations in their war versus Russia in return to accepting French and Dutch control of the low countries. France and Netherlands will pay part of the British campaign against Russia, Dutch takes Flanders, France takes Wallonia. Austria, also head of the German confederation, who was part of the treaty in 1839 to keep Belgian independence, supports French occupation of Wallonia. With Britain alone implementing the treaty of 1839 and the ongoing war with Russia, Britain accepts and signs off French and Dutch control of Belgium.

Emperor Napoleon II and Empress Elisabeth paid a state visit to Britain in 1855 to seal the treaty with Britain. Prince Alfred describes the gifts received from the emperor.[1]

“Mama was given a picture of a dog in tapestry by the emperor – to Alice a peepshow which had some views of Paris in it, besides some very pretty landscapes. To Lenchen and Louise a large doll nearly as themselves. To Arthur two tables full of soldiers – to Leopold two figures – a lady playing on a guitar – a doll which is wound up and moves its hands, and a Hussar and Vivandiere of his own regiments, which waltz and both run round the table and play; and to Bertie and me each a small cannon in imitation of the one which he invented himself. “[2]


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Napoleon II’s 1855 visit in London​

Most of the Russian and Ottoman campaigns were thru the Danube and Caucasus. The British tried to create another front in Crimea and Baltic. It was an attempt to pin Russian forces in the area and relieve the pressure from the Danube. Sensing Ottoman defeat in the Danube and the view at home might see this a defeat, the British created another front in Russian Alaska.

The end of the Russian-Ottoman war (Crimean war) resulted in the independence of the Danubian Principalities in 1857. Montenegro’s independence was recognized. Both Serbia and Bulgaria gains independence but only takes a small part from the Ottomans. Kingdom of Greece who sent volunteers to help Russia received land from the Ottomans. Russia annexes Southern Bessarabia. Ottomans defended Caucasus and borders would remain the same in the Caucasus front. Britain receives Russian Alaska and hailed by the British at home as a victory over Russia. Russians viewed the war as a victory and success of the Russian army.


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North and Central America after the Crimean war


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Europe after the Crimean war (these are rough estimates; sorry if borders are inaccurate)​

[1] Replicated Napoleon III’s OTL visit with Napoleon II instead

[2] Alice, Louise, Arthur, Leopold are all Queen Victoria’s Children; Lenchen is the nickname of Helena and Bertie is the nickname of Albert, both children of Queen Victoria
 
30. Dragonslayer (1844-1854)
30. Dragonslayer (1844-1854)

After the Opium war in 1843, the Philippines learned deploying troops and logistics, improving the military. The Philippines also learned how to force a very large but weak nation in paying reparations. The British have been excellent teachers since independence in 1823. Not only did they bring trade, shared technology and invested in the Philippines, Philippines learned how to conquer and run an empire.

At the start of 1844, Emperor Andres started drilling the military, combined army and navy. At that time, no one had an idea what they were drilling for.

Andres started inserting Filipino Chinese agents and informants inside Imperial China spreading from the Chinese treaty trade ports and into Formosa. Their goal was to start a rebellion against Qing authorities.

Andres waited patiently until a rebellion started in China 1850. Qing China experiencing famines, disasters, economic problems and recent defeat caused more harm to the Chinese. Farmers were heavily taxed rents drove dramatically, and banditry became common.

Hong Xiuquan, who started preaching his own version of Christianity in Guangxi 1844. And in by 1851, Hong declared himself Heavenly King starting a civil war in China. The rebellion grew steam with victories over Qing forces.

Simultaneously, there was another rebellion in Central Plains Mandarin (Nian in Huaibei dialect) started by Zhang Lexing.

Andres did not act despite the situation in 1851.

Not until 1853 when a Chinese rebellion occurred in Formosa followed by a filibuster expedition, demanding independence from Qing, and Taiping conquest of Nanking did Andres mobilized his forces.

Andres already developed a plan for Formosa. First, insert agents to incite a rebellion. Second phase, the plan was to allow Filibusters or Philippine terminology Filibusteros to move in China. With Filibuster wars happening in Americas, Filipinos also sent their own filibusters. These are military veterans, mercenaries financed privately to invade a nation. They gained support by private businesses in the Philippines including Filipino Chinese and former Chinese who hate the Qing.

In 1853, the Philippine military have grown since 1840s. The payment received from Opium war and inclusion of women; the regular army was enlarged to 50,000 in 1853 in preparation for the Chinese campaign, the army reserves have grown to 50,000. The navy grew to 40,000 regular staff and 100,000 reserves.

Andres, with a secured succession, will be accompanying his army and fleet in China. He will not directly command troops knowing his foreign advisors, his trained officer corps, naval and army staff are better than him. He will be more of motivator for his troops sharing the same food and quarters as his troops. Andres is also risking everything on this campaign. If he died and failed, he prefers to die in the battlefield with his troops.

Before his departure, the British ambassador in the Philippines asked if Andres can send aid to help the British in the Russian-Ottoman war. Andres politely declines at this time due to the current engagement of the Philippines, with resources and manpower tied in his own campaign.

In 1854, another set of multiple rebellions sprang up in China - ethnic uprising of Miao in Guizhou province and Red Turban rebellion in Guandong Province.

The Invasion of Formosa began in March of 1854. The Imperial army and marines took Peng-Hu then landed in multiple coastal areas, taking ports and forts. They eventually joined the Formosan rebels and the Filibuster army.

After the pacification of Formosa, 20,000 Philippine troops were sent onwards to Beijing. Another 20,000 will follow. More than 100,000 invasion troops can be tapped between army, navy and their reserves.

The first 20,000 quickly captured the Chinese island Zhoushan and ports Yantai and Dalian. Garrison were left at the ports.

On August 3, troops were landed at Beitang near the Taku forts.

20,000 combined Philippine Imperial Army and the Philippine Imperial Marines stormed and captured multiple Taku forts defended by 7,000 Chinese in August 21, 1854. Philippine forces proceed to capture Tianjin in August 23. [1]

Alarmed by the loss of Taku forts and Tianjin the Xianfeng Emperor sent ministers to discuss peace terms with the invading Philippine army. Andres rejected the peace negotiations.

Philippines also sent a small detachment of Gurkhas ahead of the main force to capture the Chinese Emperor or at least make sure he does not escape.

Philippines sent 4,000 troops ahead of the main army.

Sengge Rinchen, who had just repulsed 80,000 Taiping army a few months back, was ordered to stop the Philippine forces in the town of Zhangjiawan near Tongzhou in August 25 but was defeated by 4,000 Prussian and British trained Philippine infantry/marines, artillery and cavalry. His 30,000 Chinese troops and Mongol Cavalry were unable to stop or even significantly slow the advancing Philippine forces.

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Philippine Imperial Army marches to Beijing​

Despite the territorial losses of Prussia during the Austrian Prussian war, Philippines was still committed to the Prussian system. Philippines was after tapping a larger percent of the population, well trained but with an acceptable cost rather than French system of mass conscription. One of the advisors that were sent by Prussia was then Colonel Helmuth von Moltke. Moltke had experience advising the Ottomans in 1830s. His assignment in the Philippines was timely, that he joined the campaigns in China to advise the Philippines and to observe in behalf of the Kingdom of Prussia. Moltke accompanied the Philippine forces including Emperor Andres. Emperor Andres and Moltke had a lot of common including both despising the notion of a republic and soldiers being the cure to democratic and liberal aspirations.

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Philippine Imperial Marines takes one of the Taku Forts​

Sengge Rinchen had another chance and brought a much larger army of 50,000 troops. The climactic battle took place on the morning of August 28, 1854. The Chinese army was well established in front of a canal which connected Beijing and the Peiho river, near two large stone bridges at Palikao.

10,000 Philippine troops arrived in the evening of the August 27 and took up positions opposite the Chinese forces. On the morning of August 28, Sengge Rinchen launched the first series of massive frontal attacks on the Philippine positions, led by his Mongol cavalry and supported by waves of infantry. The Chinese army was mostly annihilated. Unable to retreat because of the canal behind them, units were forced to fight until they were wiped out. By the afternoon of August 28, there was no Chinese army that can prevent Andres to take Beijing.

Philippine forces prepared storming Beijing. Engineers built entrenched positions for artillery batteries and methods to break the city walls. In September 14, just as the assault was ready to being, the city gates were opened. Beijing surrendered to Philippine forces with Chinese Prince Gong responsible for negotiations.

Philippine troops entered Beijing. Both Summer Palace and Old Summer Palace were captured. Looting was not permitted by Emperor Andres. [2]

Xianfeng Emperor tried to escape to the Imperial summer palace in the mountains of Chengde but was ambushed by the Gurkha detachment sent ahead of the main force.[3]

With the Emperor Xianfeng captured, Andres dictated the terms.


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Reaffirmation of extraterritoriality of Philippine citizens.

Philippines gained the right to station permanent diplomatic legations in Beijing.

China cedes (Penghu) Pescadores Islands, Formosa Island, Zhoushan, Qingniwa/Dalian to the Philippines in perpetuity.

Andres wanted a very large amount of indemnity based on Philippine experience on the Opium war, compared now- the capture of Beijing and Tianjin, Chinese Emperor. The indemnity demand (including emperor’s ransom) by Philippines was too high for the Chinese who are currently fighting multiple rebellions. The amount was negotiated in return for the following:

Zero tariffs to all Philippine goods. All Chinese ports were to open trade to the Philippine merchants. However, a clause would state that these rights will only be given to the Philippines, and if they request it to Britain and Kingdom of Prussia. Britain and Kingdom of Prussia will stipulate their expanded “request” on a later date. The inclusion of Britain and Kingdom of Prussia were due to presence of British and Prussian advisors and observers.

Philippines promises to aid the Qing in case another nation other than Britain or Kingdom of Prussia demanded a new treaty or a revised treaty with China. France, United States, Kingdom of Sweden and Norway, Russia have current treaties patterned after the Treaty of Nanking with Britain and Philippines. Andres does not want his current advantage in China spill over non-allied nations just like after the Opium war.

Right to travel was also given to Filipino citizens, allowing entrance to anywhere in China.

Recognition of the independence of Kingdom of Korea as tributary/or Philippine sphere influence and not anymore part of Chinese tributary or sphere of influence. All the reefs, atolls and islands of Nan Hai and Dong Hai will belong to the Philippines.

The demand of Philippine ransom was still high so negotiations led to 450 million taels of silver (around 18,000 tons) to be paid to the Philippines with an interest of 4% per annum until debt was amortized.[4]

There was also an issue on piracy on Chinese waters. The Chinese lacked a large enough navy to get rid of the pirates. Philippines, who was patrolling Philippine trade routes in China, offered to patrol all Chinese waters for the sum of another 10 million taels of silver per annum. The Chinese wanted to add coastal protection from foreign navies. The Philippines only agreed to protect from all foreign navies that were not the British Royal Navy. This clause will be reviewed and renewed every 10 years.

The Chinese also brought up the issue with the Portuguese in Macau. The Portuguese stopped paying rent after 1843 and have occupied the island of Taipa. The issue with the Portuguese happened before 1854 but Philippines was willing to expel the Portuguese if China cedes to the Philippines Macau, Coloane and Taipa in perpetuity. The Chinese were reluctant to agree due to losing the rent. Despite never in the Philippines initial demands, Emperor Andres pressured the Chinese to give Macau, Coloane and Taipa up in perpetuity for free.

An agreement was made on how to handle the Chinese rebels. Philippines will recruit, train and lead a new Chinese army patterned after the Philippine army. The Chinese will fund this new army.

With the treaty of Beijing ratified by Xianfeng Emperor and Emperor Andres Novales, Philippines starts aiding Qing forces in pushing the Taiping rebels south.

Taiping rebels who were expecting to attack Qing controlled Tianjin in October was shocked to see Tianjin occupied by Philippine troops and Philippine flag flowing, greater firepower thrown at them. Taiping forces retreated as they were chased by Qing and Philippine forces.

The Philippines also started training local Chinese troops, financed by Qing government. It is a Qing Imperial army led and trained by Filipinos. They were trained in European techniques, tactics and strategy.

[1] All of the battles in TTL replicates British and French success. Third battle of Taku Forts was replicated by the Philippines since British and French under committed in the first two. Philippines was totally committed with manpower and resources. The British had an ongoing rebellion in India in OTL 1857.

[2] Old Summer Palace was destroyed and looted OTL

[3] OTL Second Opium war, Emperor Xianfeng was not captured/escaped.

[4] TTL Treaty of Beijing 1854 is a combination of OTL Treaty of Tianjin 1858 and OTL Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895 with the indemnity equivalent OTL 1901 Boxer Protocol (emperor’s ransom) with some changes on my part.
 
Such an outrageous treaty would spook the Russians real hard and cause undue alarm in London as they basically made the Qing a Philippine client, to say nothing of those ones in the Qing court. Here's hoping that the Philippines can consolidate its gains before the British focuses toward the Pacific once again, and that the British Prince to be power-hungry enough to refuse whatever designs that London will come up with to humiliate his domain.

The Filipino-led armies distinct from the banner system would also add to the eventual mix in the Warlord Era, basically consolidating whatever lands they occupy as Reichskommissariats.
The Chinese also brought up the issue with the Portuguese in Macau. The Portuguese stopped paying rent after 1843 and have occupied the island of Taipa. The issue with the Portuguese happened before 1854 but Philippines was willing to expel the Portuguese if China cedes to the Philippines Macau, Coloane and Taipa in perpetuity. The Chinese were reluctant to agree due to losing the rent. Despite never in the Philippines initial demands, Emperor Andres pressured the Chinese to give Macau, Coloane and Taipa up in perpetuity for free.
Why would the Qing even bring it up if they would cede it without rents anyway? Do you intend them to be that stupid?

EDIT: Those ones studying Rangaku at Nagasaki must be shitting at their pants knowing that the Filipinos had convinced the Qing court to relinquish unto them the tributary status of Korea. Catholic missions in Korea when?
 
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Well, this update managed to surprised me a lot hahaha And here I was expecting a 2nd Battle of La Navale but instead we got a weird mashup of 2nd Opium War/Chinese Rebellions/Boxer Protocols (though the more closer equivalent is the 1st Sino-Jap war wherein a westernized Asian country attacks China and its Japanese rep aftermath) several years earlier and done solely by Philippines by itself (Britain and Prussian were there only as advisors and observers). And what's more, they managed to capture the capital and the Chinese emperor by themselves, thus having the Chinese government capitulate at its core. (only to release them after an lots and lots of unfair unequal treaties for China, yay for Philippines)

Dragonslayer, indeed....

And since Andres seems to give his very life for this Dragonslaying campaign, May I ask why in the ever loving God's name would he attack CHINA of all nations. What does he hope to gain from this campaign? (is it more cost efficient to attack the Dutch and absorb the rest of OTL Indonesia?) With this war, his nation may become famed for capitulating the Chinese government but because of this very reason, especially with the treaties strongly favoring Philippines, the other western powers may become wary of Philippines (if it was the Indonesian islands, the other western powers wouldn't care so much but this is China were talking about, that nation that everyone wants to get a piece of and here comes Philippines taking most of it (spheres of influence/severely unequal treaties, hell, The Treaty of Beijing could give a run for the 20 Demands Treaty of OTL Japan). Even Britain will think twice about this militaristic nation who managed to make one of their most "important" but albeit "inferior" trade partner capitulate completely (and they aren't in the know about Andres' China secret campaign during the preparation years) and may start to impose restrictions and distancing itself.

A comfort in this is that US is much more weaker in this TL (severely lacking the projection of power in China since they never reached the Pacific), French and other Europeans are too busy with internal European affairs. And just as Simeon said above, Britain and most of all, Russia will be severely alarmed by this war. Philippines is on its way to become the OTL Japan, respected but friendless and without allies (seeing that Philippines attacks China on its own and Andres refused British offer to fight in the Russian-Ottoman war).

Wow, I'm rather amazed that Andres managed to transport 30000+ men over the seas from Luzon to China, they must have good amount of transport ships and guarding ships of the lines (hehehe I assumed since the Sino-Philippine War Wikipedia pic has no naval count)

The Implications of Philippines having the spheres of Influence in Korea and the Eastern parts of China (Pescadores Islands, Formosa Island, Zhoushan, Qingniwa/Dalian), It seems that Japan has no direction to go and expand, the West and East of their mainland is more or less under Philippines' spheres of influence (China and Pacific) and to expand either way will incur Philippines' interest for better or for worse
 
Well, this update managed to surprised me a lot hahaha And here I was expecting a 2nd Battle of La Navale but instead we got a weird mashup of 2nd Opium War/Chinese Rebellions/Boxer Protocols (though the more closer equivalent is the 1st Sino-Jap war wherein a westernized Asian country attacks China and its Japanese rep aftermath) several years earlier and done solely by Philippines by itself (Britain and Prussian were there only as advisors and observers). And what's more, they managed to capture the capital and the Chinese emperor by themselves, thus having the Chinese government capitulate at its core. (only to release them after an lots and lots of unfair unequal treaties for China, yay for Philippines)

Dragonslayer, indeed....

And since Andres seems to give his very life for this Dragonslaying campaign, May I ask why in the ever loving God's name would he attack CHINA of all nations. What does he hope to gain from this campaign? (is it more cost efficient to attack the Dutch and absorb the rest of OTL Indonesia?) With this war, his nation may become famed for capitulating the Chinese government but because of this very reason, especially with the treaties strongly favoring Philippines, the other western powers may become wary of Philippines (if it was the Indonesian islands, the other western powers wouldn't care so much but this is China were talking about, that nation that everyone wants to get a piece of and here comes Philippines taking most of it (spheres of influence/severely unequal treaties, hell, The Treaty of Beijing could give a run for the 20 Demands Treaty of OTL Japan). Even Britain will think twice about this militaristic nation who managed to make one of their most "important" but albeit "inferior" trade partner capitulate completely (and they aren't in the know about Andres' China secret campaign during the preparation years) and may start to impose restrictions and distancing itself.

A comfort in this is that US is much more weaker in this TL (severely lacking the projection of power in China since they never reached the Pacific), French and other Europeans are too busy with internal European affairs. And just as Simeon said above, Britain and most of all, Russia will be severely alarmed by this war. Philippines is on its way to become the OTL Japan, respected but friendless and without allies (seeing that Philippines attacks China on its own and Andres refused British offer to fight in the Russian-Ottoman war).

Wow, I'm rather amazed that Andres managed to transport 30000+ men over the seas from Luzon to China, they must have good amount of transport ships and guarding ships of the lines (hehehe I assumed since the Sino-Philippine War Wikipedia pic has no naval count)

The Implications of Philippines having the spheres of Influence in Korea and the Eastern parts of China (Pescadores Islands, Formosa Island, Zhoushan, Qingniwa/Dalian), It seems that Japan has no direction to go and expand, the West and East of their mainland is more or less under Philippines' spheres of influence (China and Pacific) and to expand either way will incur Philippines' interest for better or for worse
To be fair, it would have been much more believable if we had a more elaborate and comprehensive list of Philippine and Rebel officers, even if they are completely random names, perhaps with the latter having its own third column due to the Filipinos eventually turning on them. You simply can't organise detachments like that without competent commanders after all.
 
You know I realized that the Philippine model of government might actually be a fairly popular idea in anti colonial movements around the world.

A former colony overthrowing their colonizer and starting to become a major player in the international stage.

Though it’s own experiment in imperialism would harm it’s image. It would still be a fairly popular government to model oneself on in anti colonial movement.
 
Well, this update managed to surprised me a lot hahaha And here I was expecting a 2nd Battle of La Navale but instead we got a weird mashup of 2nd Opium War/Chinese Rebellions/Boxer Protocols (though the more closer equivalent is the 1st Sino-Jap war wherein a westernized Asian country attacks China and its Japanese rep aftermath) several years earlier and done solely by Philippines by itself (Britain and Prussian were there only as advisors and observers). And what's more, they managed to capture the capital and the Chinese emperor by themselves, thus having the Chinese government capitulate at its core. (only to release them after an lots and lots of unfair unequal treaties for China, yay for Philippines)

Dragonslayer, indeed....

And since Andres seems to give his very life for this Dragonslaying campaign, May I ask why in the ever loving God's name would he attack CHINA of all nations. What does he hope to gain from this campaign? (is it more cost efficient to attack the Dutch and absorb the rest of OTL Indonesia?) With this war, his nation may become famed for capitulating the Chinese government but because of this very reason, especially with the treaties strongly favoring Philippines, the other western powers may become wary of Philippines (if it was the Indonesian islands, the other western powers wouldn't care so much but this is China were talking about, that nation that everyone wants to get a piece of and here comes Philippines taking most of it (spheres of influence/severely unequal treaties, hell, The Treaty of Beijing could give a run for the 20 Demands Treaty of OTL Japan). Even Britain will think twice about this militaristic nation who managed to make one of their most "important" but albeit "inferior" trade partner capitulate completely (and they aren't in the know about Andres' China secret campaign during the preparation years) and may start to impose restrictions and distancing itself.
Dutch dont have that amount of silver. Britain taught Philippines well on how to bully larger but weaker nations to get cash.

Britain and Prussia was included in the treaty though. Britain will get its fair share of concessions.

A comfort in this is that US is much more weaker in this TL (severely lacking the projection of power in China since they never reached the Pacific), French and other Europeans are too busy with internal European affairs. And just as Simeon said above, Britain and most of all, Russia will be severely alarmed by this war. Philippines is on its way to become the OTL Japan, respected but friendless and without allies (seeing that Philippines attacks China on its own and Andres refused British offer to fight in the Russian-Ottoman war).

Wow, I'm rather amazed that Andres managed to transport 30000+ men over the seas from Luzon to China, they must have good amount of transport ships and guarding ships of the lines (hehehe I assumed since the Sino-Philippine War Wikipedia pic has no naval count)
Russia and Britain are currently stuck in their Crimean war as of 1854. In OTL Russia only moved against China after Crimean war, but the Second Opium war was also ongoing.

30,000 isn't simultaneous. Second Opium war had transported 17,000 the French and British on third try on taku forts.

The 50,000+ is spread out which includes Formosa Zhousan, Dalian, Yantai. Even during the battle going to Beijing only 4,000-10,000 Filipinos can fight the battlefield with 10,000 being the max.
Such an outrageous treaty would spook the Russians real hard and cause undue alarm in London as they basically made the Qing a Philippine client, to say nothing of those ones in the Qing court. Here's hoping that the Philippines can consolidate its gains before the British focuses toward the Pacific once again, and that the British Prince to be power-hungry enough to refuse whatever designs that London will come up with to humiliate his domain.

The Filipino-led armies distinct from the banner system would also add to the eventual mix in the Warlord Era, basically consolidating whatever lands they occupy as Reichskommissariats.

Why would the Qing even bring it up if they would cede it without rents anyway? Do you intend them to be that stupid?

EDIT: Those ones studying Rangaku at Nagasaki must be shitting at their pants knowing that the Filipinos had convinced the Qing court to relinquish unto them the tributary status of Korea. Catholic missions in Korea when?
The Qing at least know something that Andres doesn't with the Portuguese Macau.
 
You know I realized that the Philippine model of government might actually be a fairly popular idea in anti colonial movements around the world.

A former colony overthrowing their colonizer and starting to become a major player in the international stage.

Though it’s own experiment in imperialism would harm it’s image. It would still be a fairly popular government to model oneself on in anti colonial movement.
Well, Philippines by it very existence and history (even without taking on colonial imperialism) is a clear message to all anti-colonial movements around the world especially in SEA, where its neighbors are practically colonies of other western powers. The British and other Europeans with the stake in the area (the area which are China, India and SEA) will have to watch out closely due to that. Now, I'm really interested when the British will intervene, if they leave Philippines with their colonial ambitions, their very colonies (Singapura, Malaysia and India - is there still an ogoing rebellion in this TL at this time? cuz if yes, i feel Indians may have heard of Phil) are at risk of rebelling in trying to emulate Philippines (and Philippines smuggling weapons into these colonies- hey they did it with the Javanese and Balinese).
 
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Russia and Britain are currently stuck in their Crimean war as of 1854. In OTL Russia only moved against China after Crimean war, but the Second Opium war was also ongoing.
And wouldn't Russia and Britain become suspicious of the timing of attack? I mean Andres attacked China when Russia and Britain where busy in the Crimean War (essentially their Great Game)

Britain and Prussia was included in the treaty though. Britain will get its fair share of concessions.
30,000 isn't simultaneous. Second Opium war had transported 17,000 the French and British on third try on taku forts.

The 50,000+ is spread out which includes Formosa Zhousan, Dalian, Yantai. Even during the battle going to Beijing only 4,000-10,000 Filipinos can fight the battlefield with 10,000 being the max.
Ok noted haha with Britain and Prussia.

Though 50000+ may be spread out but all of these areas are separated from Philippines by a big ass sea which means ships are needed
 
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Well, Philippines by it very existence and history (even without taking on colonial imperialism) is a clear message to all anti-colonial movements around the world especially in SEA, where its neighbors are practically colonies of other western powers. The British and other Europeans with the stake in the area (the area which are China, India and SEA) will have to watch out closely due to that. Now, I'm really interested when the British will intervene, if they leave Philippines with their colonial ambitions, their very colonies (Singapura, Malaysia and India - is there still an ogoing rebellion in this TL at this time? cuz if yes, i feel Indians may have heard of Phil) are at risk of rebelling in trying to emulate Philippines (and Philippines smuggling weapons into these colonies- hey they did it with the Javanese and Balinese).
They may think twice on that idea though once it embraces its Imperialist tendencies and start to identify itself towards Mexico and the rest of the "West". Thanks to the greater stability of Latin American nations, the post-Hispanic states would be identified together based on their creole elite.

Perhaps, Racialism ITTL will involve the "mixing" of the "best" of races due to the multiracial nature of those states like, c'mon, liberalism and unconditional regard for human dignity is largely whacked in the country anyways. It's not too far-off before they start searching for reasons why Negrenses and other non-Europeanised populations in the country as well as overseas got "left behind".
 
They may think twice on that idea though once it embraces its Imperialist tendencies and start to identify itself towards Mexico and the rest of the "West". Thanks to the greater stability of Latin American nations, the post-Hispanic states would be identified together based on their creole elite.

Perhaps, Racialism ITTL will involve the "mixing" of the "best" of races due to the multiracial nature of those states like, c'mon, liberalism and unconditional regard for human dignity is largely whacked in the country anyways. It's not too far-off before they start searching for reasons why Negrenses and other non-Europeanised populations in the country as well as overseas got "left behind".
Interesting....OTL Mexico and Latin America were so unstable that this kind of racialism did not take off haha.....if that's the case, racial mixing would be more tolerated and thus racial (ex: white vs black in US) segregation would be be implemented less. Due to this, I think there would would an "in-fashion" in the far future to search for mates in other racial group (though Caucasians would still prefer to mix with Hispanics and Austronesians (due to Philippines popularity)
 
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Interesting....OTL Mexico and Latin America were so unstable that this kind of racialism did not take off haha.....if that's the case, racial mixing would be more tolerated and thus racial (ex: white vs black in US) segregation would be be implemented less. Due to this, I think there would would an "in-fashion" in the far future to search for mates in other racial group (though Whites would still prefer to mix with Hispanics and Austronesians (due to Philippines popularity)
The downside is, eugenics will be far more intense; with their willingness to consider non-white and non-European races, they will peruse through them in defining undesirable traits through prejudiced and pseudoscientific conceptions. What's more... interesting, to say the least is with discrediting the physical aspect of the theory, they'll define undesirability more with virtues and the aspects the inspected people's cultures had. It would be more anthropological than medical in nature, and that discipline would get spoiled for some more time in name of imperialist domination.
 
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Realizing something...Yuan Shikai and Sun Yat-sen (significant Chinese leaders in OTL) will be born into a China that has been abjectly weakened by Philippines, whose government was ruled by an absolute monarch whose (though transitioning to constitutional monarchy with a British emperor) with very British pro-leanings and dabbling in imperialism. Wondered on how republicanism in China would developed by then (though I suspect it would develop more or less like in OTL only Philippines is lumped in together with the west as "one of the imperialists". But then, we have this gem here:
Taiping rebels who were expecting to attack Qing controlled Tianjin in October was shocked to see Tianjin occupied by Philippine troops and Philippine flag flowing, greater firepower thrown at them. Taiping forces retreated as they were chased by Qing and Philippine forces.

The Philippines also started training local Chinese troops, financed by Qing government. It is a Qing Imperial army led and trained by Filipinos. They were trained in European techniques, tactics and strategy.
There was also an issue on piracy on Chinese waters. The Chinese lacked a large enough navy to get rid of the pirates. Philippines, who was patrolling Philippine trade routes in China, offered to patrol all Chinese waters for the sum of another 10 million taels of silver per annum. The Chinese wanted to add coastal protection from foreign navies. The Philippines only agreed to protect from all foreign navies that were not the British Royal Navy. This clause will be reviewed and renewed every 10 years.
But this China, though defeated and forced to unequal treaties by Philippines has some silver lining in this situation (bleak it may be for the Chinese). China's waters will be protected by the Philippine navy (though not from the Royal Navy , understandable) and their army trained by the Philippine army, leading to possible earlier military modernization and industrialization of China. I guess with Philippines being the sole beneficiary of the indemnity (unlike OTL indemnity shared by several nations), it would be the one spending on the modernization of China (is education, health and social infrastructure buildings for the Chinese also included with Philippines' plans, Namayan?) With Philippine citizens and merchants given free travel and investment in China means that western ideas would flow more readily into China 50 years earlier than in OTL.

Most of all, how is this going to factor into Philippines' tendency for imperialism (with the 450 million taels from the ransom/indenmnity plus the fact Philippines is only one with benefiting from the silver ransom, Philippines can technically finance more colonial expansions (on military spending) if it really wishes and not get broke (money becomes less of a limit for Philippines' goals, only other factors will limit Philippines' goals (population most likely but if Philippines were to invade the Dutch and her heavily populated colonies....well, I'll just say Philippines' future is going to be interesting).

OTL US has also dabbled with imperialism (our own country paid for that dearly) but its also due to the US - PH war being so costly (money/men) than the Spanish American War, that it partially killed US ambitions for colonial empires and prevented US becoming like UK 2.0. ATL Philippines war with China did has costs but the rewards are so much greater, making the war itself very successful for Philippines (no Pyrrhic victory unlike the US-PH war for Americans)

I was really hoping Korea wasn't part of Treaty of Beijing hahaha... I guess I want Japan to have Korea, Northern China and be the ones to mainly deal with Russia if they ever expand while Philippines stick to the Pacific and the SEA spheres of influence (though I doubt now if Japan can pursue colonial expansion with the strategic resources more or less under Philippines spheres of influence). I rather fear with Philippines still low population, they will be stretched thin (though if they adopt Britain's method of controlling a country by working with its leaders, that's becomes less of a problem)

EDIT:
I find it very interesting that Philippines still has monarchy government and Alfred succeeding Andres for the throne. Any post-colonial society or would be empires in SEA and East Asia would then prefer monarchy rather than republicanism (considering Philippines' success with the monarchial government system). It's also interesting since Alfred has a mother who marries off her children to different monarchies in Europe (OTL moniker the Grandmother of Europe)....would Alfred follow his mother's ways and sets up his children for marriages with the Asian monarchies? (we might see an Alfred descendant marrying into the Japanese Imperial family, the Qing dynasty, the Siam kings etc though with the absolute primogeniture in place.......)
 
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