Emerald of The Equator: An Indonesian TL

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A Nation to Elevate Part 7: Interlude of the 1973 Election
  • The world is not single-handedly controlled by God. But for me, this certain world is single-handedly altered by one man, which is Former President John F. Kennedy. To understand what has drastically changed from when it has to be, we must look back into the 1960s.

    Since the 1950s, there are even no debates whatsoever, about ditching the NATO. The NATO was one last defence against the Soviet Union, evermore against Communism. That ideological divide will become an unending chasm, at least until the Kennedy’s Administration. The year 1960 will be the year of major alteration, possible the end for the Cold War.

    In the minds of Kennedy, keeping NATO also means keeping the establishment. The establishment that has been erected is a divided world, a break between left and right, a battle between freedom and control. The current trend was the left was winning, as liberalism is a Westerner idea, something third world nations would not comply with. As a result, if the trend continues, the entire continent, whether in Africa, Asia or even South America, will be subjugated into a friend of the Soviet Union.

    Intervention, or allowing a coup, is also not an option for Kennedy. Kennedy was the true believer of freedom, giving freedom without the forceful amends from the United States itself. Kennedy hoped that with giving America as a truly loyal, trustworthy friend, allied nations would befriend the United States, albeit how socialist a nation is. In the domestic platform, meanwhile, is not that easy.

    Since the NATO dissolution, bipartisanship has enhanced its meaning. It was a battle on conservatism and liberalism, an old-fashioned cowboy of the world versus the sophisticated peace-dealer. After that, it was a battle between looking West or East. The Democrats, under Kennedy, has seen the imminent dangerous future China would create, thus try to secure West of America, which is East Asia. The Republicans, however, remains on their conservative stances, between instating the Monroe Doctrine or looking East, Europe.

    Kennedy’s NATO dissolution has led to many unpleasant outcomes, but with all that into consideration, all of that awful events benefit the United States. NATO’s dissolution has led Europe into thinking of rearming themselves to fight against a common enemy, the Soviet Union. In the past, those Western nations always rely on American resources, and that keep pulling America down. For Kennedy, leaving Europe to fight the Soviet Union is like a child maturing into their 18s. Let them deal with their problems, and man up.

    Kennedy’s concern was elsewhere, in the East. In 1960, the People’s Republic of China has had astounding success for a communist nation. The implementation of its policy resulted from a fruitful seed rather than the early days of the Soviet Union. Mao has balanced his political dominance and economic importance, giving the nation established in 1949 a boost in agriculture. Therefore, in Kennedy’s prediction, by 1990s China would surpass the Soviet Union as the global example of communism.

    Fortunately, Kennedy had the resourced to strangle China as a whole. The Democratic Republic of Korea, or North Korea, was already insignificant to endanger the peninsula. Japan is camped in the American sphere. The Philippines still had a friendly attitude towards their former occupants. It was now left in Indochina and Indonesia. In one single swift, rather than allying Australia, a white nation incapable of even winning from the inferior northern neighbour, America had found a true potential from allying Indonesia.

    In another region, Kennedy also watched situations in the Middle East. Egypt will not forever by English clay, and will someday revolt from the Empire. For America, it was the interest of what will the successor state be, a pal or an enemy. In multiple occasions, Kennedy has clarified that in his term no authoritarian nations shall be in cooperative terms with the United States, and that included the regime in Saudi Arabia. America wanted Iran as an ally, and in 1965 it was fulfilled, angering more of the receding Soviet Union.

    By the end of Kennedy’s second term, the plans went on perfectly as they do. The Soviet Union was losing in Germany and was being pushed back even from their precious Kaliningrad. Sino-Soviet split is happening. Turkey was adamant of opening with the Soviet Union.

    Kennedy’s eight years of political strategy, however, is completely reversed by Nixon in four years. But, the Shafer is willing to continue the former path.

    Lee Kuan Yew excerpt of America's Turn of Events
    -------------------------------------------------------​

    Nasution is extremely ecstatic. Vice President Rockefeller arrived in Indonesia to withdraw America’s embargo and opening another chapter of friendly relation. The new presidency's policy is to expand friendship everywhere and even contribute more to a peaceful world. The new presidency is also willing to reform the United Nation initially, and pushing a resolution to the conflict in Congo, and other emerging ones in Poland, India and Nicaragua.

    He is relieved that the economic downturn in Indonesia is over. However, he never gets across with the upcoming election, an election which PNI-R will lose.

    In a last-minute revision, the Premier, instead of being elected by the whole MPR, the Premier will be elected by the winning coalition’s resolution. So, now the PPP can just point somebody, as long as the coalition agrees. The ministerial office must be a compromise from the President and the Premier.

    Now, the contest is finally declared. A population of 108 million Indonesians, 6 million Madagaskars, 5 million Papuans, and 150 thousand Melanesians will decide next five years. For 555 seats of the DPR, and 114 for DPD. And by the end of the week, the results will have it.
     
    A Nation to Elevate Part 8: 1973 Election
  • Suharto looks at the official results of the election, and he even guessed correctly before it has shown up.

    People's Representative Council of Indonesia (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Indonesia)

    DPR Post-1972 (2).png

    555 Seats

    Partai Nasional Indonesia Raya (National Party of [Greater] Indonesia) - 200 seats - 36.04%
    • Fraksi Nasionalis (Nationalist Faction) - 85 seats
    • Fraksi Golkar (Military Faction) - 73 seats
    • Fraksi Ungu (Purple Faction) - 23 seats
    • Fraksi NU (NU Faction) - 17 seats

    Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (Progressive Union Party) - 185 seats - 33.33%
    • Fraksi Hatta (Hatta Faction) - 140 seats
    • Fraksi Malaya (Malayan Faction) - 45 seats

    Partai Komunis Indonesia (Indonesian Communist Party) - 110 seats - 19,82%
    • Fraksi Untung (Untung Faction) - 59 seats
    • Fraksi Pro-Cina (Pro-China Faction) - 33 seats
    • Fraksi Pro-Uni Soviet (Pro-Soviet Faction) - 18 seats

    Partai Sosial Demokrat Madagaskar (Social Democrat Party of Madagascar) - 31 seats - 5,59%

    Partai Umat Islam (Islam People's Party) - 14 seats - 2,52%

    Barisan Koalisi Daerah Timur (Eastern Coalition Front) - 13 seats - 2,34%

    Melanesian Alliance Party (Partai Aliansi Melanesia) - 2 seats - 0,36%


    ====================================

    People's Regional Council of Indonesia (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah Indonesia)

    DPD post 1972.png

    114 Seats

    Partai Nasional Indonesia Raya (National Party of [Greater] Indonesia) - 37 seats - 32.46%
    • Fraksi Nasionalis (Nationalist Faction) - 11 seats
    • Fraksi Golkar (Military Faction) - 14 seats
    • Fraksi Ungu (Purple Faction) - 9 seats
    • Fraksi NU (NU Faction) - 3 seats

    Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (Progressive Union Party) - 35 seats - 30.70%
    • Fraksi Hatta (Hatta Faction) - 27 seats
    • Fraksi Malaya (Malayan Faction) - 8 seats

    Partai Komunis Indonesia (Indonesian Communist Party) - 22 seats - 19,30%
    • Fraksi Untung (Untung Faction) - 14 seats
    • Fraksi Pro-Cina (Pro-China Faction) - 6 seats
    • Fraksi Pro-Uni Soviet (Pro-Soviet Faction) - 2 seats

    Partai Sosial Demokrat Madagaskar (Social Democrat Party of Madagascar) - 12 seats - 10,53%

    Partai Umat Islam (Islam People's Party) - 5 seats - 4,39%

    Barisan Koalisi Daerah Timur (Eastern Coalition Front) - 2 seats - 1,75%

    Melanesian Alliance Party (Partai Aliansi Melanesia) - 1 seats - 0,86%


    ------------------------------
    PNI-R is still on the lead, but the PNI-R won’t have a coalition to back up. The PKI is surprisingly strong, and manage to grab several PPP seats. The minor parties, PUI, BKDT, and MAP, all are gaining good seats, although their presence is extremely dwarfed by the top three. As the PNI-R hopes for a hung-assembly, their hopes of return are thrown away when immediately Aidit opens his party for a PPP-PSDM Coalition, forming the Solidarity Coalition.

    Map-wise, PNI-R owns the majority of Java and North Sumatra, along with Lesser Sundas, and less-populated islands like Maluku, Papua. However, there is a large yellow blob in Kalimantan, Sumatra and Malaya. Madagaskar is dominated by PSDM while bits of West and Central Java is PUI and PKI.

    For Suharto, the Premiership is a battle that has already lost. However, not so with the Presidency.

    -------------------------------------------------------​


    Arnold Achmad Baramuli is the Permanent Representative of Indonesia to the United Nations since 1971. For him, being in New York for seeing the world at large gives an unparalleled experience of diplomacy. He has seen many debates about each nation’s strategical objectives, mostly colliding with others. Being seemingly yet another puppet for the US, Indonesia is sometimes bullied by pro-Soviet ones. Baramuli never understood, even Indonesia is fundamentally a socialist nation, what difference socialism can make to excommunicate one another?

    There is an increasing hype in New York, that the Security Council would be reformed. The new Secretary-General Dean Rusk, a former Secretary of State during the Kennedy Administration, has been pushing for increasing the permanent seats. When time progresses, the divide of the five permanent members intensifies. The Congo Crisis is one example, as the Soviet Union, the United States, and France can even agree on what to do with the vast jungle region. Great Britain is a laughing stock for the Third World. China, well, is being China, quite as ever.

    Dean Rusk is also changing how the United Nations sees the Regional Group. One, for the Western nation it is unfair that less stable nation is getting an image for peacekeeping the entire world. The United Nations always has to find the middle ground, but that middle ground never accomplishes the influential progress of pacifying the world. For him, it is time to split into more regional groups. A North American Group consists of continental America north of Panama. The Caribbean will still be part of the Latin Group, now called the South American and Caribbean Group. Europe will be divided as Western Europe and Eastern Europe, the divide will be the infamous Iron Curtain, with Germany changes.

    Africa will remain as one big group, although Rusk is uncertain of it being a good idea. The Middle East, Turkestan region, and even to Bangladesh, is included as a Middle East, Central and South Asia Group. As the foremost region is having an oil-rich territory. It would be near that the region would evolve as a bloodbath of superpowers. Central and South Asia is a counter for containing Middle East’s hyperbolic influence to the UN. The rest of former Asia and Pacific Group is modified as Asia-Pacific Group. Australia, an exception, will be inside the North American Group.

    As the Groups are resettled, it is time to resolve the Security Council question. Each of the permanent security members each wanted one to add, therefore ten in the future. Dean Rusk also sights this as a great idea, more people involve more consideration and less reckless acts of one nation.

    Arnold Achmad Baramuli is here, not because the Shafer’s nation opted to choose Indonesia. It is a completely unexpected proposition from a nation that is entirely outside Baramuli’s expectation.

    ‘I am asking you, whether what your nation proposed is serious. The causes it would make towards Indonesia’s relations with the United States a bit … complicated. Moreover, there is no reason why your country decides to do this.’

    ‘We have run out of options, most of our choices have been pick by other permanent members, and the rest of them are less powerful than the state of your nation.’

    ‘Still, though. I need to pass this to Jakarta. This offer must be meticulously digested before we can proceed.’

    ‘Don’t worry, we will wait until the end of the week.’
     
    A Nation to Elevate Part 9: A Response
  • ‘What is this, a mischievous plot? Do you have any idea what will the consequences be if we are the Permanent Members of the Security Council?’ Susilo Frederik Trihandoko attempted to exhume the deep rotten results. ‘I’ll give you a hint. The entire national budget will be juiced out.’

    ‘Why is he here again?’ Suharto commented to Nasution.

    ‘The bloody constitution wants it.’ Nasution replied.

    After the election, the 1972 Constitution compels that during a transition period, both the incumbent and the successor must sit down together inside the government, overseeing the situations and conditions, possibly to smoothen the transition process. While the Presidency is still on a hot contest, the Assembly is changing itself. And not long after the results are announced, Subandrio is announced as successor of the Premier. The Ministerial positions beforehand must be consulted with the President-elect, but Subandrio has stubbornly decided that the Economic Minister must be handled by this Chinese-descendants guy.

    ‘What does it has to do with money? After all, we benefit a lot from becoming a Permanent Security Council Member?’ Sohiaan disagreed.

    ‘Being a Permanent Security Council also means that you must give some money to the United Nations. How would the world react if one of the Permanent Security members donate less than even the Netherlands?’ Trihandoko spurted out.

    Hearing the Netherlands alarmed several people in the discussion, most profoundly Nasution and Suharto, whoever combat against them during the Dutch Aggression, either the first or the second.

    ‘Still, we have a lot to benefit. Being the Security Council Member also granting us more position in the global stage. To promote what is peace of the world, and even promoting our national objectives.’ Subandrio added.

    In this context, Subandrio wanted the Non-Aligned movement to be reborn, but the Presidency is not PPP to win. After the victory of the Solidarity Coalition, both the PPP and PKI contests on who will be the presidential candidate. The Premier is already a PPP, so the PKI requested that the Presidency should be PKI’s. However, having a friendly nation of the United States a communist leader is not a great idea. Subandrio insisted that the PKI holds several Ministerial seats, like Labor, Agriculture and Industry. Nevertheless, the Coalition is struggling to have a united candidate against the incumbent.

    ‘No, Subandrio. No, because the French Fifth Republic is the one requested us. If the United States did so, I would accept, even though how reluctant I am. Approving this offer means to the world that Indonesia is not loyal and trustworthy to become a friend, and betrayal is a tradition. I may not like Uncle Sam, but doing this sympathizes for them. And in the economic context, becoming as one is also another horrible idea.’ Trihandoko rejected the contradict opinion with foreign .

    Nasution agreed. France has become so addicted to us, that they want everything to befriend us. I guess it is because we have nothing hostile to the nation, something that France needs for international relation.

    ‘Remind me again, but why do these nations want to expand their already exclusive club?’ Nasution asked.

    ‘Those fives thought that each of them is biting each other, and no one to back up. France, the Soviet Union and the United States are in the process of bickering each other. The United Kingdom has finally realized that the Conservative Party of the United States will be the only party that supported fully the Empire, and the rest, both Republicans and even the Democrats, are not in the mood to revert Kennedy’s actions. China, well, as silent as ever. Four of five later demanded a new pair of fives, possibly for cheerleading the former five.’ Manai Sophiaan explained.

    ‘What excuse? That was the lamest I’ve ever heard from the Big Five.’

    ‘Well, that was what Baramuli said to me. As far as I’m watching, I’m also seeing the excuse justified by those actions.’ Manai Sohiaan added.

    Since the dilemma in the Congo, Dean Rusk is quite upset about how ineffective the Security Council is. The place to secure the peace of the world has resided into one of the Big Five’s shouting grounds, at least by the Four of them. Britain and France come back to the past rivalry ones, the former spits their hatred that France is still having its colonies majorly intact and the latter commented about the rising fascism. The Soviet Union, as usual, debate with the United States as still the two largest in power, still until France rises again. Germany, meanwhile, is wanting a piece of the battle, loathing both France and the Soviet Union as imperialistic bastards.

    Just as we want things to lighten up, Middle East comes up. A slight problem happens as Saudi Arabia announced a confrontation against the UASR. Iran, even though still out of the fire, has fidgeting its way in, announcing their claims in parts of Iraq. Another problem is also the Israeli Question. The UASR, after having the Israelis a chance to stay in now Palestine, has decided to go screw Egypt and create a massive rebellion centre. Premier Nasser, already enough of the Israelis fiasco, decides that total exodus is imminent, and no more troublemakers in the Middle East. As a result, a massive humanitarian crisis emerges from there. The other domino effect of this crisis in Cyprus. The still British protectorate is trying to declare independence. But the confusing part is what next, as the Greeks and Turks all have a different way about the newly Cyprus state. With the Israeli Exodus moving a quantity of many Israelis to Cyprus as a temporary settlement, the entire island has become a bloodbath between angry Greeks, raging Turks, and determined Israelis.

    His thought wandered him away too much, that Subandrio has asked him thrice.

    ‘Nasution, you are still the President. What are we going to do about this?’

    Nasution returned to the original world, and just replied a simple ‘No.’
     
    A Nation to Elevate Part 10: Between Two Elections
  • 21 April 1973

    Dean Rusk is bothered by the failure of the Big Five Expansion, yet he is aware of the consequences. The United Nations is not ready yet as an international alliance. Those who are opted as the Secondary Big Fives are either unready or unwilling to become one. Indonesia is one example, Nasution has declined because Indonesia is not available to become a secondary power because of the economic instability caused by the United States. Japan is also unwilling to become one due to risk heating an Asian crisis between the newly appointed PRC as the Big Fives. ROC, or essentially Taiwan, has been kicked out from the Security Council from its continuous aggressive attitude with the PRC.

    The Soviet Union picks Yugoslavia, as a token of Slavic friendship, but the United Nations object this as with Germany included, Europe will have a great percentage in the Security Council, something Rusk is afraid to. As a result, this left with Germany and Egypt as the second-persons agreed to carry such responsibilities. However, the UN Assembly reject Egypt’s application because of the current Israeli Crisis. In the end, Dean Rusk must abandon his initiative, and the only ones successful was his new Regional Division.

    Dean Rusk also realizes, as many times before, that his status as the UN General-Secretary is not what it has to be. Randolph Churchill miserably died amid chaos in Congo, caught in a helicopter crash in North of Katanga. The Assembly should have picked a random from Asia-Pacific Group for the heir. Whatever the process it became, in the final result Rusk is elected.

    So, spring has already arrived in Geneva one month ago, yet the cold still exists. Dean Rusk is thinking that in everywhere he looks, conflict happens.

    ------------------------------------------------------------​

    So far, the Presidential Campaign still has anti-climactic progress. Nasution is still high on points than his competitor, Aidit. Aidit has become the president-nominee from the left Solidarity Coalition, while PPP holds the domestic grounds, PKI will hold the foreign policy. The effects of this are clear, it is a direct threat message to the United States. Inevitably, the United States will do everything it could to prevent this. Luckily for them, however, is that Nasution seems to keep winning.

    Aside from the political changes happening in 1973, Nasution concluded his first five-year-term to be a successful one. In just five years only, entire Java has at least been connected with two-way rail track and each-two lane highway. Jagorawi, a toll road linking Jakarta until Ciawi, is finished in 1971, then the opening marathon begins. Today, trucks can go from Jakarta to Surabaya in less than a day. The Jakarta-Bandung toll road, meanwhile, is having difficulties with hills and deep valleys.

    Sumatra is also having its building year. In Lampung and Palembang, people can now commute with a railroad. And so does Medan and Pekanbaru. Highways are still under construction, but by 1977, Medan and Lampung will be connected by train. Aceh, meanwhile, was given a ‘detention’ by Nasution. No infrastructure efforts will be built in Aceh until the entire insurgency ends. A military operation still exists in Aceh, but efforts to transform into a civilian administration is underway.

    He is seeing several wonders of his creation when he remembers the Blue Revolution.

    highway_3.jpg

    Cawang Interchange

    highway_2.jpg

    Cililitan Toll Gate

    highway_1.jpg

    Surabaya-Mojokerto Toll Road


    The Blue Revolution is masterminded by Premier Suharto. The Indonesian government officially announce the conflict it has with Britain and his cronies as the British Aggression. Then, there is a huge expansion in the Navy and Coast Guard, increasing the size into a hundred thousand each. The Navy will be a similar size to the oversized Army. The Air Force is sided because of Suryadharma had expanded technological-wise.

    Speaking of Suryadharma, Suryadi Suryadharma has passed away on 12 April 1973. His massive decline in health was mainly caused by the harsh battles in Biak. Nasution awarded Suryadharma Marsekal Besar, equivalent to a five-star general of the Air Force. In addition to it, the airport under construction near Cengkareng will be under his name, commemorating the battles he has conducted to defend Indonesia’s air region.

    Secondly, the Blue Revolution also opened a new front in the mining industry. Coal and crude oil are significantly boosted, as more rigs and mines are established across the nation. More palm plantation is approved by Nasution, and it also helps to hoist the reasons why a network of railways and roads must be built.

    He only needs to survive the upcoming election, so everything he has done for the last five years be continued.

    =========================================
    More pictures:

    subandrio.jpg

    To be Premier Dr Subandrio

    suharto.jpg

    Current Premier Jend. Suharto with his army officials during a visit to Batujajar, near Bandung for a new army training camp

    nasution.jpg

    Current President Jend. Nasution
     
    A Nation to Elevate Part 11
  • 15th July 1973

    Mojokerto, Majapahit Province

    ‘Kolonel Sudiro, what do you think about the situation in Papua right now?’ A reporter asked him.

    ‘It’s complicated, but we are dealing with the situation right now.’

    Kolonel Sudiro had just returned home from Kotabaru for his one-month leave. The higher-ups in Biak granted him a chance to return to Mojokerto, meeting his family. They requested him to see this as a vacation. In the journey home, however, Kolonel had encountered reporters which knew his successes in Papua.

    He famously crushed a fifth of the total rebellion forces in Fly River, near a small settlement called Suki. 75th Brigade of the 5th Army pushed the separatists East, halting their further advances into Merauke. After his success, Merauke had become a boomtown, drawing in more troops from Western Indonesia, and also Kotabaru for balancing purposes.

    After the United States formally withdraw its support towards Organisasi Papua Merdeka, Australia had taken the torch of it. The Land Down Under had turned into a notorious dictatorship. Matthew Courtney overtook the nation as the National Party. Promising a return of prestige and national image, the nation was returning to the Commonwealth, especially on South Africa’s plead, and funding insurgents in Indonesia. Indonesia until then could not accuse the Australians of destabilizing. Fortunately, the United Nations was helpful by noticing the chaos happening on the island.

    His friend Sumitjo, also Kolonel, is peacekeeping Aceh. As the province engulfed in another heated moment, the Army had no choice than to resort to the old style of pacification. Aceh was particularly angry with Batak Province which steals several lands during the first pacification war. Sumitjo ever experienced several ambushes attempts from the Aceh Independence Movement, mostly ended up in failure. However, the last ambush hurt him critically, wondering if Sudiro’s friend may ever return again.

    He was opening his door when the daily newspaper laid in his front door. The headlines are written “NASUTION APPEASES MEDAN VOTERS”. For him, this news isn’t a surprise at all. Everyone in the neighbourhood knew that the current President would maintain his post for the next five years. However, the challenge was an opposing-ideology Premier, something Indonesia was still new about.

    ---------------------------------------------------​

    Pontianak, Dayak Province

    Djata Inhar was the boss of the PNI-R Regional Office in Dayak province. The numbers involved inside the regional branch of the party was quite large, but nothing compared to PPP. The PNI-R Dayak Regional Office is five-stories high, so far one of the highest in the city of Pontianak. It’s a unique location, situated between two streams merged into one, gave the office a breathtaking view of the Kapuas River. Not far also, Djata could see the PPP office in the north, having a building larger than his own quickly acknowledge things in Dayak Province.

    Since the 1973 Constitution was put into effect, Sultan Hamid II was reluctant to transfer Dayak states powers inevitably. For him, federalism was the proper system for Indonesia, giving more autonomy for diverse tribes. Indonesia is not a monoculture, like various other nations. Most of the population is a melting pot of Melayu ethnics, each owning their own distinct language and tradition. This is effectively similar to the United States. 1950 returned Indonesia to a unitary state, then somewhere in the 1955 federal state, and finally a compromised system in 1973. The federal state is given to former SARs, Madagaskar, Papua and Melanesia. The former states, like Pasundan, Dayak and Batak, must now cede some of the regional autonomy to Republik Nusantara. Furthermore, the PNI-R government was agitated on flags for the Republik Nusantara. And Djata Inhar was seeing the flag rises in front of the building.

    ‘Well, that’s poetic.’

    The flag is literally from the 1945 flag, the simple red and white stripes. However simple it is, it reminded Djata Inhar of the cries of independence twenty years prior, and the struggle to maintain it. The new Federal flag may become a flag of consolidation, but this one is the flag of revolutions.

    Djata could feel, that in the next five years, Premier Subandrio will create a countless buzz in the current establishment.

    ---------------------------------------------------​

    Washington D.C, USA

    Shafer for some time in the early days of office, had been determined yet frustrated. The first day he announced that the government of the free republic will not cooperate with authoritative regimes abroad. He wanted to give a firm stance in ideology, and a character for the United States. However, the first reaction of that is the end of oil relationship from Saudi Arabia. For that Arab state, his inauguration speech was an innuendo for the Royal Saudi Family. Oil prices immediately went up, and an economic downturn happened in the United States. As the greatest nation of Earth, oil consumption from vehicles, energy production and war effort had critically influenced the economy. Europe markets, still affected by the United States economy, went even further down. As the United States announce Dollar devaluation, the most devastated country in this decline was the Low Countries, Belgium and Netherlands. As Belgium was on the verge of bankruptcy, other nations in Europe also felt the instability. By this month, nearly everyone in Western Europe was effected, the least had been Portugal and Spain.

    The second effects of America weakened by the economy was the relations with southern neighbors. State’s admittance to Cuba and Puerto Rico as the newest states only satisfied those regions, and everyone else was now defending themselves from American influence. Nicaragua’s Sandinistas, a communist movement supported by the Soviet Union, was the first to announce America’s Pax Americana to sod off. Happenstance in South America was not good either to Shafer, as American-backed coups in Chile and Argentina only provoked crimes and violence from the military itself.

    ‘Damn, if only Kissinger would just leave those nations.’

    Kissinger’s realpolitik maneuvers give Shafer a headache, as more South American nations pick one more excuse why Pax Americana is a discrimination to Latin America.
     
    A Nation to Elevate Part 12
  • For everyone that was governed by Jakarta, the election that was held in June was something the entire nation had expected. In the first week, people of the Federal Republik voted for the President. In their ballots, it had two names, either Nasution or Aidit. Every adult was instructed to vote, and in the end, 75% had voted. The presidential election had been a Nasution landslide. The only victory Aidit had is in majority of Demak, Banyumas and Majapahit. Everywhere else was surrounded by Nasution voters. The results had Nasution in a solid 72% vote. It was enough to reaffirm him as the President for another five years.

    Lost for two times now, both the PPP and PKI were reviewing their strategies once again. Their presidential campaigns had ended up a failure, and not much had teetered from the dominant right party of PNI-R. Ironically, Indonesia’s voters are significantly socialist-leaning, that alone had triggered most of the party members that even PNI-R stood a chance. Therefore, they would try their best in the Premiership. Mercifully, Soebandrio had a lot to contribute to change, and one of them was about the economy.

    Primarily advised by Frederik Trihandoko, the state’s economy was dangerously capitalist. Most of the vital sectors of the economy were directed by privately owned corporations. To make matters worse, those corporations were mostly foreign, from the United States. The dependency of corporatism was the building blocks for a potential wild economy, Frederick said. And that was why this year it must be reformed.

    Frederik Trihandoko, after the inauguration in October, had started to create some sort of government companies. Called the BUMN or Badan Usaha Bumi Negara, it has the meaning of business entity, in which the capital is owned by the government that comes from the State's assets. For its initial expansion, Trihandoko wanted to secure profitable and high-risk aspects, such as oil, rubber and palm. While the later stages would see the expansion in infrastructure companies, electronics and even water. One exclusion was the space frontier, as scholars pushed more efforts of making an independent non-profitable space agency in Indonesia.

    The first state-owned company to the making was the oil and gas company. Indonesia, although relatively minor compared to oil giants like Saudi Arabia and UASR, still had a substantial amount of oil and natural gas reserves. In the Middle East, and intra-governmental agency for oil and natural gasses was proposed to be established, but the current Saud-Nasser conflict prevents further progress. Also, Saudi Arabia was trying to be the crying kid for attention, embargoing most of the nations that dislike the Saudis authoritative rule into oil subjugation. Indonesia, as the United States was affected, was also swayed by the indirect event.

    Trihandoko established the Pertamina, short for Pertambangan Minyak dan Gas Bumi Nasional, in November 21st 1973. Upon its rising, Pertamina was immediately confronted with two major holders of Indonesia’s oil. The first was the Dutch Shell that still lingered on its colonies, and also parts of British Malaya. The other was Chevron that Suharto had given them permits years ago. Total was thriving as well and competing although smaller than the former two.

    With that, Trihandoko must slowly nationalize the already taken fields, and it would change after the 1980s.

    ---------------------------------​


    Situations in Papua was finally receding. After the election, most of the rebellious groups had diminished away, no one knew why. However, it was reported that the Australians had problems in their nation, and probably the supplies to OPM was stopped. The Australians had encountered massive labour union demonstrations, many of them progressed into anarchical mobs. Perth was the first victim; a quarter of the city was engulfed in flames as protesters battled with the law enforcement. Then, Sydney and Melbourne also had the same problems. Mainly the labour unions demanded a guarantee of their work as Australia was spiralling down to an economic fall, but the government kept ignoring the fact and just change the topic to education.

    Similar trends were also happening in Commonwealth nations. Canada and the United Kingdom was also experiencing brutal rallies, as caused the weakening of the economy in 1973. South Africa was largely unaffected, as the Apartheid shockingly given more jobs, especially for the whites.

    For most of the military, a weak economy means that the military would be cut. That was not what Jenderal Ahmad Yani had wanted. As the portrait of the Army, Ahmad Yani was a spoilt child during Nasution-Suharto’s reign. The common changes in the Premiership might change the treatment he was given. Therefore, most of the Army that uninvolved in the conflict was helping the government build roads and industries. Simply, the Army was the government’s new source of labour, less demanding and more effective.

    He just hoped that the current government would not slash the money to the Army, or even worse to the rival Navy.
     
    Apex of Chaos Part 1: US, Men and the Rise of Southern Juntas
  • US, Men and the Rise of Southern Juntas

    South America had been sparse in eventful news, much of it was boring and hollow. In World War II, those nations contributed in several Allied victories, but much of it greatly out shadowed by the United States. After the war, however, the Latino world emerged intriguing, especially after the rise of the military in Argentina. The 2nd World War succumbed Argentina into a military dictatorship, as the Infamous Decade must be ended. The fraudulent presidency of Ramón Castillo caused several military officers to merged as combative politicians. General Arturo Rawson and General Edelmiro Farrell were one of those people, emerging to be one of many presidents of unstable Argentina.

    After the 2nd World War, the Argentine nation had finally come to peace and progress, after Lieutenant General Juan Perón had been elected as president. When Perón became president on 4 June 1946, his two stated goals were social justice and economic independence. These two goals avoided Cold War entanglements from choosing between capitalism and socialism, but he had no concrete means to achieve those goals. Perón instructed his economic advisers to develop a five-year plan with the goals of increasing workers' pay, achieving full employment, stimulating industrial growth of over 40% while diversifying the sector (then dominated by food processing) and greatly improving transportation, communication, energy and social infrastructure (in the private, as well as public, sectors).

    In foreign policy, Perón first articulated his foreign policy, the "Third Way", in 1949. This policy was developed to avoid the binary Cold War divisions and keep other world powers, such as the United States and the Soviet Union, as allies rather than enemies. He restored diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, severed since the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, and opened grain sales to the shortage-stricken Soviets.

    In 1955, an attempt-coup by Lieutenant General Eduardo Lonardi ended up a failure, and Perón’s power had been significantly increased. More attempt assassination, coups and overthrows in 1957, 1958, 1959, 1961, and 1963 had always ended up Perón’s popularity to keep rising against the vilified military. As they had tried so much and ended up nothing, the military instead tried to muster some alliances and the first they had come up to is the United States of America.

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    Perón in 1964

    In 1965, the military government had reached Kennedy for assistance. In Camelot, the new order in Argentina was quite troubling, but Kennedy had announced that as long as Argentina honoured Pax American -which Kennedy meant not tilting more into the Soviet Union, France or China- were all acceptable and unopposed to the United States’ foreign strategies. But then, in 1968, the conditions significantly changed, as Nixon at that time was extremely eager of ousting every left-regime left in this western side of the world.

    The Republican, later Conservative, administration, completely funded the military to plot a coup that finally succeeds. In 12th of August 1970, Argentina launched its first-ever military coup against the government. Unfortunately, due to logistics and language problems, the military coup ended up in a stalemate rebellion, and thus started the Argentine Civil War.

    As the Civil War erupts, a fight between Perón’s loyal militias and the current government. The United States did not wait for the result to finally do a proper transfer of power. Argentina’s neighbour, Chile, was also on America’s watch list. President Salvador Allende was a friendly communist and tried to reach the Soviet Union and France. The nationalization of several American companies in Chile also added salt into the wound. Therefore, the United States contacted Divisional General Carlos Prats González to stage a coup, and the General accepts. In 1971, Chile was first to fall into a military dictatorship, with Argentina falls immediately after the Civil War ended in 1972.

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    Divisional General Carlos Prats González

    In another area of Panama, the Canal Zone became a hotbed in American politics, as the new regime questioned American sovereignty in the Panama Canal. University students protested in the Canal, with the republican government supporting it. Manuel Noriega was informed by the United States’ government to maybe assist the nation a bit. What the American wants to be another military regime in Latin America. Noriega, the one failed in 1963 and 1968, accepted. And by July 1972, Panama had a coup.

    The coup instated Noriega as the highest power in the nation, but his rise meant nothing to the Americans. Shortly after, Noriega seized the Panama Canal from the United States. Much of the United States anger, they declared war and immediately overwhelmed Panamas. As the peace treaty was to be signed, Nixon reminded of Kennedy’s successful policy of integrating Cuba and Puerto Rico. Much to a surprise, both of these predicted left-leaning rebellious states were relatively peaceful to the other 50 states, and even left influence were decreasing. So, at the start of 1973, the United States annexed Panama as the fifty-third states of America.

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    American invasion to Panama, 1972
    1975_3.jpg

    The United State's Flag, 1973

    The charm did not work this time, as entire Central America condemned America’s new wave of imperialism. Kennedy was a bad figure among those nations, and Nixon became its successor. So, with the Soviet Union just give slight help to left-militias, those movements punched a great deal into America, and one of them became the Nicaraguan Sandinistas.

    1973 was marked as the end of an economic miracle for the South Americans, as the oil embargo of Saudi Arabia to the United States created a massive domino-effect to the world. While the United States’ economy enfeebled, Belgian’s, Netherland’s and even several Scandinavians’ crumpled. What’s called the Belgian Fall, the state divulged into massive chaos and maybe had to wreck Western Europe’s economy.

    The economic downturn, militias emerging, and a significantly large left camp in the world meant one thing for most of the South American countries, the start of a communist rebellion. Nations like Brazil started to worry about the effects like Nicaragua might happen in the country, and more military was trying to restore the hope of a peaceful future.

    That certain hope had become the fundamental weapon of junta’s in South America. As markets slowed down, more labourer protested throughout South America. Chile and Argentina had shown better after the military coup. However drastic measures they had drawn, the military control was effective to prevent a major decline rather than the democratic ones. Swift and harsh actions had become a vital survival for those two nations. As that happened, more of the nations followed suit.

    In 1973, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador staged a coup against its governments, this marked the start of Junta Decade in South America. They had worried about the destabilization the 1973 Oil Crisis may have given them. Besides, there was a scare on the other side of the world, where one nation shockingly evolved to become an anarcho-socialist state.
     
    Apex of Chaos Part 2: Troubles of Europe I
  • European Troubles (Part 1)

    Western Europe returned to its sick natural divide. In the continental, the central force of the Germans meets the French, totally happening even before the World Wars. Even though the trend was so after the 1960s, before that there was a sincere trial for a settlement, which that happened in Belgium around 1957.

    After the abdication of Leopold III, Badouin reigned in Belgium. Badouin was given a nation in turmoil, divided between the socialist Walloons and the pro-monarchist Flanders. He was heckled by a socialist republican at his swearing-in ceremony on July 17, 1951, but was determined to do his duty even while resenting the way his father had been forced aside by political pressure and the bully-tactics of the mob. The beginning of the reign of the fifth King of the Belgians could hardly be called auspicious.

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    King Badouin of Belgium

    During his first decade of reign, he was particularly troubled by the two aggressive fronts. The first of it was the fight between Christian Socials and Socialists. The two major parties in the country provoked a non-active civil war in Belgium. It was called the School War. Pierre Harmel increased the wages of teachers in private schools and introduced laws linking the subsidies for private schools to the number of pupils. When the 1954 elections brought to power a coalition of Socialists and Liberals, the new Education Minister, Leo Collard, immediately set out to reverse the measures taken by his predecessor, founding a large number of secular schools and only permitting teachers with a diploma, forcing many priests out of the profession. These measures sparked mass protests from the Catholic bloc.

    The second fight was against the revolutionaries in Belgian Congo. Patrice Lumumba had emerged as an independent activist in Congo, keep pushing for Belgians out of the continent. King Baudouin visited the vast central African colony in 1955 and was given a very warm and enthusiastic welcome by huge crowds of Congolese people who spoke of him adoringly as the “handsome young man” who was very concerned with their wellbeing and progress. At a similar time, rabble-rousers in the Belgian Congo just kept rising, and Badouin already knew that this region will inevitable free away. In this context, he just wants to postpone the breakup as long as possible.

    As the king’s popularity increased gradually over the decade, the crisis immediately spawned up after 1960, especially about Kennedy’s withdrawal and disbandment of NATO. King Badouin had secured the State’s promise of safeguarding Belgium in the Den Haag Agreement, as luck would have it. But, the rise of the French Communist Party, eventually become the French Fifth Republic, upset the balance the crown. As the natural laws abide, the rise of large communist power in the south of Belgium caused the rise of the Belgian Communist Party itself.

    In the Belgian Parliament, the decade in the 1950s and 1960s had become a fragile yet stable contest between the conservative Christian Socials and the liberal Socialist-Liberal Coalition. The School Wars had just contrasted the opposing sides, but both had agreed on closing the dilating abyss of the political spectrum. Both agreed on one creation, which was European Economic Commerce.

    The predecessor, the European Coal and Steel Community, was established in the Treaty of Paris. The ECSC was first proposed by French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950 as a way to prevent further war between France and Germany. He declared he aimed to "make war not only unthinkable but materially impossible" which was to be achieved by regional integration, of which the ECSC was the first step. The Treaty would create a common market for coal and steel among its member states which served to neutralise competition between European nations over natural resources, particularly in the Ruhr.

    The resources community eventually upgraded in Brussels in the Treaty of Antwerp, 1957. The Community's initial aim was to bring about economic integration, including a common market and customs union, among its six founding members: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany. It was envisaged to be the next stage of European integration, and reject regionalism like what had happened throughout the centuries. However, NATO dissolution happened.

    The NATO dissolution caused France to erupted as a new communist nation, and open up a new chapter of communism in the world. It was still debatable that which one comes first, Maoism or Thorezism. But in the 1960s, the world’s communism was shaping to be a fragmented world, worse than the liberal United States’ bloc. Nevertheless, France left the EEC, leaving the organization completely German-centric. Furthermore, the Saar annexation had opened more wounds in the past, almost severing all reconciliations happening in the last decade. Belgium, from being protected by the giants of Europe, had now faced a threat of one giant of Europe. Miserably, the same nation also instigated the Walloons into another stage of cultural conflict.

    André Gillard is the leader of the first general strike in 1963. The Wallonian demanded federalism and complete structural reforms in the government. But, in the crowd of the strike itself, André was considered as a moderate in the ranks. There was another protester that intrigued the mobs, and that was Charles Cuvelier.

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    General Strike in 1961, marked a new stage of Belgium

    Charles Cuvelier, unlike the mature Gillard, was a pretty fresh activist in the Belgian labour unions. His inspiration had largely originated from the squashed CNT-FAI anarcho-socialists who failed in Barcelona. Many of the exiles fled to France and Belgium, along with small others to Portugal. 1961 had become his stage, as his fiery speeches of the Strike not only demanded Wallonia to be independent but also reinstating anarcho-socialism in the history of Belgium. However, André Gillard rose into political ranks, high enough to contest the Belgian Election as Prime Minister in 1969. The Strike ended with more promises of federalism. But as promises were promises, never of those emerged in reality. Even during the Gillard's rule as Prime Minister of Belgium, nearly nothing had done for federalism. Meanwhile, the Belgians were uncertain of anarchy can benefit to the labours. They ended up dissuade him for at least a decade until 1973 happened.

    In 1973, the condition of the Belgian Kingdom had slightly changed. Now, the kingdom had a better EEC, this time with the Scandinavians and the United Kingdom involved. The British Unionist Party had negotiated with the CDU for potential integration of Europe but also vilified the French. The government in Berlin was not going for that option. France was still foes with the Soviet Union. The Yugoslavian dilemma, Communist Portuguese instability, and the UASR alignment to France were angering the Soviet Union. Germany wanted to maintain these enemies, so both of them could not agree on invading the region that disconnects them.

    However, the stronger the EEC had become, the EEC had a major flaw, it was the dependency on the United States’ economy. Especially for the Low Countries, EEC economy was mainly driven by American corporations and later the American government after the Nixon Administration. As the Oil Crisis came by, the economy beyond the Atlantic halted, but the effects were direr in Europe.

    Belgium, under the constant threat of division, had been situated King Badouin to spend more. The government had not had a huge help, as the Prime Minister always advised the king about anything. The dependency was so influential that the decline of a few percentages in America caused a total breakdown in the Belgian shares. In the economical context, Belgium by May 1963 was bankrupted.

    After the bankruptcy, everyone miraculously reminded of Cuvelier’s anarchy promise, especially fellow Walloons. By the start of 1974, the Belgian state crumpled into a political turmoil. As the economy was blamed, Wallonia opted for independence. As a result, Curvelier’s anarchical speech has declared a state as by June 25th 1974, the Regional Defense Council of Wallonia was established, declaring war on the Belgian Kingdom.

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    The first flag of the Regional Defense Council of Wallonia
     
    Apex of Chaos Part 3: Libya and France
  • European Troubles (Part 2)

    The Regional Defense Council of Wallonia was proven to be a major issue to the stability in Europe. To make things worse, the anarchist labours sought the French Fifth Republic for assistance. As the nearest red nation in Europe, the French Fifth Republic was a viable option for keeping the revolution alive. However, regardless of the necessities France need for another minor ally, Georges Marchais was treading on dangerous grounds.

    A national memorandum was held in 1971 when President Maurice Thorez had died in his sleep. After his rule of almost ten years in one of the remaining colonial powers, if not the last, in the world. He transformed France from one of the many colonial oppressors into equals with Africans. The changes were so drastic that France was a different nation in the 1970s. The Equality Act guaranteed all Africans as equal as their European counterparts and was praised as the saviour of all the centuries of pain inflicted by discrimination.

    The other accomplishment President Maurice Thorez had done was revitalizing the nation’s connectivity with trains and cars. As Africa was wanted to be equal, one of the conditions was to build infrastructure akin to French Metropolitan. As a start, Thorez ordered numerous specialist in redesign Trans-Saharan Railway. Before the general construction happened, Algeria, Senegal, and other parts had a portion of disconnected railways, even West of French Sudan, there was a minimum of roads and not a single railway. The plan to track the Sahara failed due to lack of financial support. Vichy France was the nation that firstly grounded this, so historical issues must also be noted.

    In the newly revised plan, the Trans-Sahara Railway would connect Algiers to Dakar bypassing Timbuktu. The branch from Timbuktu to Dahomey or Benin region was halted as of Operation Joan of Arc. However, the plan was later cancelled, due to a new toy France had seen from Japan, the High-Speed Train.

    After Japan had begun construction of the Shinkansen (also known as the "bullet train") in 1957, the idea of the TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse) was first proposed in the 1960s. President Thorez extremely favoured new technology, exploring the production of hovercraft and the Aérotrain air-cushion vehicle. Simultaneously, the SNCF began researching high-speed trains on conventional tracks.

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    TGV 001, the first High-Speed Train in France (1968)

    The construction of this ambitious project had cost the money needed for further expansion of the unfinished road and rail construction in the southeastern part of French West Africa. Therefore, some places, like Benin, Niger, Ivory Coast, and the Upper Volta region express criticism on the Thorezian government. However, he had calculated his moves, that this bold advancement, similar to the moon landing by the United States, later Soviet Union, must be done to show dominance as a power need not underestimating.

    The other classified manoeuvres of the French Fifth Republic political adventures was influencing their eastern neighbour in North Africa, Libya. After Egypt declared its independence, Libya was completely deserted by the British government to maintain order in other parts of their African holdings. As a result, the Senussi Order claimed the government. King Idris I was crowned. However, the crown spontaneously bombarded with protests. British rule in the region was short but already proven to be disastrous for Libyans. In everything a nation could, Britain had soaked the oil resources from them and still kept attaining them after their independence in 1966. Even with an indigenous leader, the oil resources were still British. In addition to it, corruption and entrenched systems of patronage were widespread throughout the oil industry. The labour in the oil wells knew that Libya’s greatest profit came from the oil they had in their lands. Therefore, underground militants were emerging, and it climaxed on the coup Thorez and Nasser instigated in 1968.

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    Gaddafi in 1972

    Once Gaddafi removed the monarchical government, he proclaimed the foundation of the Libyan Arab Republic. Addressing the populace by radio, he announced an end to the "reactionary and corrupt" government, "the stench of which has sickened and disgusted Libyans all". Due to the coup's bloodless nature, it was initially called as "Pink Revolution", although was later renamed the "One September Revolution" after the date on which it occurred. Gaddafi insisted that the Free Officers' coup represented a revolution, marking the start of widespread change in the socio-economic and political nature of Libya. He proclaimed that the revolution meant "freedom, socialism, and unity", and over the coming years fulfilled measures to achieve this.

    The rise of Gaddafi meant that France had one more companion of his ideological group, a communist yet liberal government. Indeed, the militarist rule, unlike those in South Africa, adopted just rights and laws. Also, the government was decentralized so to improve each an ever sub-region in Libya. However, in 1970, the government must impose stricter laws restricting Libyan Jews, as the UASR declared the Jews as ‘enemies of a unified Arabia’, and spread among Pan-Arabism. During this stage, the pan-nationalism in the Arab world was characterized a liberal-communist one, an equal people and weaker government. Although the term weaker was subjective even until this point.

    After Thorez’s death, France underwent a massive political crisis of succession. There were two opposing factions inside the PCF. The first was the Union of the Left faction under François Mitterrand. Mitterrand had a more moderate view towards Thorezian communism and publicly stated that ‘Communism in France isn’t communism, is social democracy’. He was a diplomatic person, wished to exert France abroad as the third option for the two contesting powers. Even as France was the largest power in Western Europe, collate with the Soviet Union and the United States were powered much humongous than the Republic. Fortunately, Thorez had made the initial steps of becoming one, and Mitterrand acknowledged the 70s and abroad as France time to shine.

    The other faction, the Fraternity of Pure France faction, more or less advocated a very much isolationist one. Under Georges Marchais, the successful revolution of a better form of communism had to root deeply into every Frenchmen, and that hadn’t happened as optimal as it was. Therefore, it was time to reform France more, keep building inside so France would be prepared to fight in the world stage. Virtually, they were a bit more radical than the former faction.

    As Operation Joan of Arc, as France called as the First African Aggression war, the conflict lost France clay and prestige. Much to all equal French citizens, they all preferred the second faction of Marchais’. Therefore, by 1971, Georges Marchais was elected as the new President of the French Fifth Republic.

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    Georges Marchais in 1972

    But then, as the Belgian Crisis sparked into the world stage, Georges Marchais immediately sent in supplies to the Anarchic Walloon government, pretty much deny the promises he had made in 1971. The Union of the Left criticizes liability of the holder, accusing them of lying to the French people. In addition to it, more of French citizens prefer France to not involved in Belgium, especially backing a violent government that advocated ‘World Revolution, Now or Never’, indicating their goals of creating a Global Defense Council.

    Meanwhile, Marchais had a better plan, and the plan unfolded when Charles Cuvelier was assassinated on September 18th 1973, so his rival and successor will continue the war, which was André Gillard.
     
    Apex of Chaos Part 4: Troubles of Europe II
  • The Soviet Union through the 60s

    The oldest communist nation was still one of the greatest power in the world. Yet, the increasing trend towards multipolar was concerning the Soviet Union, especially how the third power was a confrontation of another communism, something very insulting for them.

    After Stalin died in 1953, the Soviet Union conducted Destalinization with Khrushchev. Also, Khrushchev implemented extensive agricultural reforms that probably appeased Ukrainians and parts of the Volga Region. The other reform was to utilize Siberia into a defence scheme, in case Europe decided to invade Russia, again.

    It is here that Stalin showed in a whole series of cases his intolerance, his brutality, and his abuse of power ... he often chose the path of repression and physical annihilation, not only against actual enemies but also against individuals who had not committed any crimes against the party or the Soviet Government.

    However, his rule was not a smooth one, as parts of the Party criticized him of being too liberal, and also anti-Stalin, was in that time Stalin was still famous. Khrushchev only silenced this criticism after the Space Program began, and the Space Race after. In addition to it, the Berlin Crisis weakened the Soviet Union as Kaliningrad had reclaimed not only in German hands but also renamed it to Konigsberg, completely joked at the Soviet’s struggle in the victory against the Axis.

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    Nikita Khrushchev
    First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1953 - 1962)

    His political struggle ended in 1962 when the inevitable party dispute ended up the moderate politician to be toppled by his comrade, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov. Molotov was the principal Soviet signatory of the German-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939 (also known as the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact), whose most important provisions were added in the form of a secret protocol that stipulated an invasion of Poland and partition of its territory between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. Stalin ever ousted him in 1949 and lost favours, but that didn’t stop Molotov to continue to support his policies.

    When Molotov became the successor of the filthy Khrushchev, as what he thought about the man, Molotov re-implemented Stalinist policies, such as the gulag, and a possible cultural revolution. He intended to wipe out any remaining liberal opposition, completely foreshadowing what Khrushchev had done. But, his harsh throwbacks resulted in him to being assassinated just a few months after, in October 1962.

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    Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov
    First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1962)

    It was a helicopter crash somewhere from Moscow to a classified KGB station near the city, but there was sabotage done involving the pilots. The KGB announced no involvement in this incident, but several links were connecting to the new KGB leader, Boris Kapustin. Nevertheless, Molotov’s successor was Nikolai Ignatov according to the Communist Party. Nikolai was a pragmatic and compromise individual. With these traits, he succeeded in mending all ends and reuniting the party again as a whole. Conveniently, his rise also caused the silent but deadly rise of the Comintern. Ignatov, especially after 1965, had already made contacts with former NATO member Turkey, promising great friendship for better Bosporus Strait access. Ignatov was also repairing Soviet’s relation with Tito’s Yugoslavia, and possibly attracting the Balkan hegemon back as Slavic brothers, although France was playing it difficult.

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    Nikolai Ignatov
    First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1962-1969)

    In addition to it, Ignatov surprisingly opened relations to the fundamentalist absolute monarchy of Saudi Arabia, and also many Horn of African countries. As Britain had withdrawn from former Italian colonies since 1955, there were independent nations willingly to side with emerging blocs, the Soviet Union as one of them. Ignatov’s other completion, other than politics, was improving the Space Race as a neck-to-neck battle, constantly giving the Americans a threat that the Soviet Union would win. There were substantial wins, as the first probe to the moon, the first animal in space, and the first-ever satellite tracking program, much of it would become the GPS as in the 21st century.

    Ignatov’s golden age ended when he died unsuspectedly of heart failure in 1969. Much of the nation’s shock, Ignatov was given a proper burial and sanctified as one of the martyrs of true communism, and a hero the Soviet Union deserved. Ignatov, before his death, had appointed his heir, and the man was Yuri Andropov.

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    Yuri Andropov
    First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1969- TBA)

    After former KGB reigned in 1969, Andropov only wanted to continue Ignatov’s legacy, and just go with the flow. In 1971, as the United States landed on the Moon, the Soviet Union quickly regained its feet from disdain and launched Cosmos-14 on April 4th, 1972. Yuri had stressed to the superpower of the Atlantic that Russia will not succumb to the capitalist win in any way, and will continue to fight. His move strengthened communist revolutions abroad, such as in Congo, divided yet still flamed on, in Nicaragua, where the Sandinistas continue to repel American forces from Panama. In East Asia however, the seizure of Mongolia devastated the Sino-Soviet friendship, and start the split. India was still a confused child between supporting China or the Soviet Union. Also, the Soviet Union was watching on Iran as well, as the kingdom had a Pakistani friend, and closing with the United States.

    Outside of the Soviet Union, the Warsaw Pact was relatively peaceful even in turbulent moments in Moscow. There was minor insurgence in Hungary and Romania, both ended up with a quick stomp-down. But, looking in the inside, Poland, part of the Soviet Union, was staging a national rebellion. The nation had a humiliating partition for the most time in history, and the people were fed up either by the federal kingdom or the communist power. In the meantime, the Polish populace was also divided into two, the first side was a pro-German option, particularly in Poznan and Silesia, mainly because of German propaganda. The Prussian region, the one cutting Poland into the Baltic Sea, was Polish mainly, and yet having a major development rather than the oppressed Soviet parts.

    After the Belgian Anarchist Resurgence, Poland had a new platform to fight for, and immediately just follow with it. the labours enacted a strike in Warsaw, and start the Vistula Spring, or in some cases the Dark Vistula Movement. The separatist manages to retake the entire Warsaw city, and push even until Katowice, and the Soviet Union counter attacked.

    A long story short, the counter-attack ended up in a failure, as the Bug River proved to be the perfect defence the rebels had from the Soviet Union. The terrain Poland had was not capable enough of thwarting the Polish separatist. In 1974, the Polish Liberation Forces called the United Nation for a peaceful resolution, ended up in rejection due to angering the Soviet posture.

    The terrible weakness the Soviet Union had shown after Poland had surprisingly held on had destabilized the Warsaw Pact as a whole. There was another wave of uprisings in Hungary, Romania, and now even Bulgaria included. Andropov laughed at a surrender option but considering he had plans elsewhere, Poland had become a ruckus for Soviet’s continuation. The Khrushchev’s plan of partition Poland had become a rough homework for the leader after. It was extremely positive that the Polish people hated the Soviet Union, and the decades of the direct rule only worsen the conditions. The people slyly worked underground and spewed up when the timing was right.

    Andropov was also considering ally with the devil (the Germans), as Poland was assisted by French diplomatically. That pesky nation was attempting to change communism as their hands. Everything was chaotic on every side of the world, and nothing was certain.


    ==========================================

    After this, we would see France attempts to enter the Cold War, becoming a Tripartite Cold War. A battle between the capitalist United States, pseudo-liberal communism (maybe social-democracy) France, and authoritarian communism Soviet Union. All I can say that Africa, Middle East, and Latin America would be contested grounds, while Asia, particularly East Asia, was having a surprise on its own.

    Next chapter would summarize the end of the crises in Europe, and maybe marked a new stage of the Cold War.
     
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    Apex of Chaos Part 5
  • 23rd December 1973

    For Dean Rusk, the instance the Wallonia Socialist Republic was declared, the situation was evolving into another proxy war. Georges Marchais, according to every French an isolationist, was not portrayed as such. The United Nations immediately intervened for peaceful negotiations. To worsen things, the Walloons were winning and demanded their status of independence. Giving Wallonia their freedom meant a complete dissolution of the country that had been liberated centuries before, Belgium would cease to exist. And also, in case of that, the German Speaking Community of Wallonia would demand separation as well, maybe joining their larger brother.

    In Poland, things had gone very sour as well. The Soviet Union, after annexing the bunch at May 1st 1962, the hatred had fired as revolution, and the anarchist ideology was used as only for freedom purposes. Khrushchev’s failed attempt on making Germany a socialist republic cost his leadership and possible would also to current Andropov. Hungary and Romania were revolting again, and if only the madness stopped, there was nothing the Soviet Union could go without chaos.

    With that reason also, the Soviet Union sought the United Nation to interfere with the problems in Europe, possible ending them with a better truce. The United Nations was also busy, as the Cypriot Crisis was still a deadlock and Israel’s exodus was still a thing. Nicaragua was fighting the United States as well, but the US obstructed the organization for further involvement, saying that it was ‘their backyard to solve’.

    Today, the first-ever conference would be held in Luxembourg for the Belgian Crisis, which was meant to be a middle ground between EEC-led Germany and France. Although EEC was an economic-based regional organization, most of its members had sent troops to help to pacify the Walloon rebels.

    A month later, another conference would be held in the Czechoslovakian nation of Ostrava city. Possibly, if not hopefully, the Poland Crisis would end there.

    Dean Rusk sighed, so much for world peace.

    ------------------------------​

    Central America, Europe and Africa were burning with their wars. South America was transforming into a military continent. The only seemed peaceful was only East Asia, as everything West of India was brewing a greater religious and interest of conflicts. China, and India, and even the split nations of Korea and Indochina, was eerily peaceful.

    It was not the long-lasting calm as anyone dared to hope. Especially Indochina and Korea, those were extremely tense. A short but annoying conflict by North and South Indochina in 1972 resulted with 17th Parallel as the nation’s demilitarized zone. The standoff had gotten interesting as the Kingdom of Indochina, literally now Laos, had been having an unpleasant coup ended up incorporated by the Hanoi government. The situation was also deteriorating as China allows North Indochina to be inside its camp, forming some sort of a pact.

    North Korea, however, was so destroyed by the latest Korean War that maybe with Kim Il Sung’s death, his son would not enjoy his reign anymore. As Pyongyang had become South Korea, the Hermit Kingdom had nothing to support on, populously, geographically and politically outnumbered by Seoul. China was not holding North Korea as well, as they had a new toy of Mongolia, and was trying the huge game with Myanmar, so then they could strengthen ties with India.

    In August 1972, the inevitable had happened to North Korea, Kim Jong Il was overthrown by General Park Song Chul, which unanimously transferred the government to the South, which was a state of the junta by Park Chung Hee. Similar to what had happened in Germany, Korea had become unified again, and the winners of the unification once again were their capitalist liberal counterparts.

    Upon seeing this, North Indochina had commenced numerous reforms for fighting against the South. As the trends had spoken, the communist party intended to not restart the nature in North of Indochina. Tôn Đức Thắng, the successor of Ho Chi Minh, had maybe begun the Cultural Revolution, killing every right-wing supporter and anti-government supporters, and giving a cult of personality for the party. Millions of alleged traitors were killed and buried massively in a mass burial, possible on Lao Region.

    North Indochina was also attempting to just be under China’s armpit, as South Indochina was trying to secure its United States’ dependency. North Indochina must fear Indonesia however, as few turns of events trying to isolate them.

    Nasution, after approval from their Indonesian Senate, had approved a possible South East Asian organization to be established. Manai Sophiaan and Adam Malik were invited to Manila’s government of a possible economic and defensive pact. In November 1973, Manila had agreed on forming that, and next year, they would be going to Thailand. The Indonesians were not closing to South Indochina, as that would increase the ongoing straw between two nations, possibly inviting China, something Indonesia did not want.

    The South was industrializing also, as the agrarian sector was helped by problems in India. Gandhi had requested much South-East Asian rice because of a deadly flood inflicting damage on the fertile Indus Valley. The Indian General Disaster of 1972 inflicting both ends of India. The North had a huge flood that killed the food production, while in Chennai a heavy cyclone stroke and end the vibrancy of the city. Although the government had mitigated successfully, food remained scarce and needed to import.

    With that, Saigon had satisfied with their rice sustainability and was shifting their eyes into industrialization. The North, however, was trying to secure power.

    That what was in the minds of Lee Kwan Yew, who had become the governor for Federal District of Singapore.
     
    1945-1973 Indonesian Leaders
  • The Leadership of Indonesia (1945-1973)

    Presidents and Vice Presidents of Indonesia

    NoPresidentPartyTermVice PresidentPartyTerm
    1SoekarnoPartai Nasional Indonesia18 August 1945 – 13 July 1949 (Arrested by the Dutch since 19 December 1948)Mohammad HattaPartai Nasional Indonesia18 August 1945 – 13 July 1949 (Arrested by the Dutch since 19 December 1948)
    2
    (Emergency Government of Indonesia)
    Syafruddin PrawiranegaraPartai Nasional Indonesia19 December 1948 – 13 July 1949Vacant--
    3SoekarnoPartai Nasional Indonesia13 July 1949 – 27 December 1949Mohammad HattaPartai Nasional Indonesia13 July 1949 – 27 December 1949
    4 (United States of Indonesia)SoekarnoPartai Nasional Indonesia27 December 1949 – 15 August 1950Vacant--
    5 (Unitary Republic, later Federal Republic of Indonesia)SoekarnoPartai Nasional Indonesia17 August 1950 – 1 June 1955Mohammad HattaIndependent (Later Partai Persatuan Pembangunan)17 August 1950 – 1 June 1955
    6SoekarnoPartai Komunis Indonesia1 December 1955 - 1 September 1963 (resigned)Muhammad NatsirFront Persatuan Kaum Turban1 June 1955 - 21 August 1963 (died)
    7 (Interim Government)WilopoPartai Nasional Indonesia1 September 1963 - 6 January 1964Vacant--
    8 (1964 Constitution)Jenderal Abdul Harris NasutionPartai Indonesia Raya6 January 1964 - 6 January 1969Jenderal Tahi Bonar SimatupangPartai Indonesia Raya6 January 1964 - 6 January 1969
    9Jenderal Abdul Harris NasutionPartai Indonesia Raya6 January 1969 - 20 October 1973Dr. KH. Idham ChalidPartai Nasional Indonesia6 January 1969 - 20 October 1973
    10 (1973 Constitution)Jenderal Abdul Harris NasutionPartai Nasional Indonesia-Raya20 Oktober 1973 - ...Seat Abolished--

    =====================================
    Prime Ministers or Premiers of Indonesia

    NoPrime Minister / PremierPartyTermDeputy Prime Minister / Vice PremierPartyTerm
    1Sutan SjahrirPartai Sosialis IndonesiaI (14 November 1945 - 12 Maret 1946)
    II (12 Maret 1946 - 2 Oktober 1946)
    III (2 Oktober 1946 - 3 Juli 1947)
    Vacant--
    2Amir SjariffoedinPartai Sosialis IndonesiaI (3 Juli 1947 - 11 November 1947)
    II ( 11 November 1947 -29 January 1948)
    I (Adenan Kapau Gani,
    Setyadjit Soegondo )
    II (Adenan Kapau Gani
    Setyadjit Soegondo
    Raden Sjamsoedin
    Wondoamiseno)
    Independent (Gani)
    Partai Sosialis Indonesia (Soegondo)
    Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia (Sjamsoedin, Wondoamiseno)

    I (3 Juli 1947 - 11 November 1947)
    II ( 11 November 1947 -29 January 1948)
    3 (United States of Indonesia)Drs. Mohammad HattaPartai Nasional Indonesia29 Januari 1948 - 6 September 1950Syariffudin PrawiranegaraPartai Sosialis Indonesia4 Agustus 1949 - 20 December 1949
    4WilopoPartai Nasional IndonesiaI (27 January 1951 - 1 June 1955)
    II (1 June 1955 - 6 January 1965)
    I (Sukarni)
    II (Hatta)
    Murba (Sukarni)
    Hatta (Partai Persatuan Pembangunan)
    I (27 January 1951 - 1 June 1955)
    II (1 June 1955 - 6 January 1964)
    5 (Changed into Premier)Drs. Mohammad HattaPartai Persatuan Pembangunan6 January 1965 - 6 January 1970Seat Abolished--
    6Letjen SoehartoPartai Indonesia Raya6 January 1970 - 20 October 1973Seat Abolished--
    7SubandrioPartai Persatuan Pembangunan20 October 1973 - ...Muhammad Ibrahim DjoyoputroPartai Persatuan Pembangunan20 October 1973 - ...
     
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    Rivalry Part 1: A Review of Nasution's Presidency So Far
  • 1973: The Beginning of the PPP-(PNI-R) Tug-of-War Part 1

    To visualize what the hell Nasution did in the third term, we must take notice of his terms before. His terms before were not enclosing his area of work because of Parindra's steering most of Indonesia's both foreign and domestic policies. Therefore, Nasution was a democratic dictator then.

    The first term was the infrastructure period, a reconstruction program. Nasution allocated a massive percentage of the national budget into building roads and rails. He was inspired by Eisenhower’s Highway and intended to copy that in Indonesia. As a result, he started the Trans-Java Infrastructure Program (TJIP). TJIP was a combined infrastructure program that was been building on the island of Java. TJIP was designed to connect Jakarta and Surabaya, both ends of Java. The project was divided into several stages. Firstly, the entire Java must be connected with railways and highways. The railways, so far already had a two-way one rail track, which was expanded into one-way two rail tracks. The highway, or a toll road, as Nasution wanted a fee entry, would be a two-way two-lane road.

    photo_1.jpg

    The TSIP near Padang, 1990

    The next project was the Trans-Sumatra Infrastructure Program, which was TJIP with the location not in Java, but in Sumatra. Nasution wanted to improve Sumatra and Java into a better, sophisticated island, with better living conditions and life expectancy. Nasution also proposed building a Trans-Papua Infrastructure Program, but the funds were driven full for the first two projects that TPIP was eventually neglected. Building TJIP and TSIP was not a cheap outline, as the government had tried their best, they need to still split the budget so to keep other sectors running. Therefore, Nasution had sought investors, domestic and foreign, into building the roads.

    There were other events in the first term besides building roads and rails. At that time, Nasution empowered an expansion of the Armed Forces. Although the intervention was not likeable in Indonesia, Nasution was trying to encourage militarist actions abroad. With simple argumentation, the war brings jobs, especially when the war did not come to the homeland. War production on helping the ideological cause could boost more of the economy Indonesia need for exponential growth.

    The second term was literally how Nasution tried to empower the military, and also promoting Suharto’s Blue Revolution. Blue Revolution was all but another name for the predecessor’s Green Revolution. Suharto spoke for an expansion of the Indonesian Armed Forces, firstly the Navy and the Army, so the expanding national extent could be protected. Secondly, Jakarta was still struggling to patrol the Malaccan Straits.

    Other projects, exotic ones as Nasution thought, was confidential even to the highest levels of the government. Only some remained known about the Sabuk Biru project, especially in Pulau Lingga and Pulau Bangka. The project would remain off the Assembly tables until 1977 and half of completion.

    In his second term also, with the help of Suharto, the DPR passed the Cendana Grants Bill. Originated from Nasution talks with Suharto at the latter’s house in Cendana, the bill simplified major regulations needed for corporations, and also giving them fewer tax compulsories. Companies like Berdikari, Samudera Indonesia, and Nusantara Jaya had evolved as contesting giants. All three of them stood out as the Indonesian companies of the 1970s because of textile industries.

    Berdikari, established by the Sjahsono Brothers, was initially a family business from the streets in Daan Mogot, Cengkareng. In 1960, Sjahsono owned a significant amount of land in Cengkareng and leased it to foreign investments for creating a textile company. As the first-ever established textile factory, Berdikari expanded to create one complex of manufacturing industry, creating clothes, beds, and other fabrics. The dangerous bargain had become a humongous profit for them.

    photo_2.jpg

    Berdikari Branch in Solo, 1970

    photo_3.jpg

    One of Berdikari's textile industries, Cengkareng, 1977

    Samudera Indonesia was a shipment industry, Soedarpo Sastrosatomo created the company back in 1966, during the Nasution’s first term. The company started transporting two routes: Jakarta-Surabaya and Jakarta-Malaka. But, in 1970, the company immediately had a very strategic shipping lane, which was Madagaskar. Fortunately for Indonesia, Madagaskar had more rice production than the island needs, so it may ship more rice to the much larger Republik Nusantara, as a result, these federal states announced their bilateral agreement, on giving rice for the industry. Samudera Indonesia became their primary artery of transportation, providing ship lanes directly to Madagaskar and vice-versa.

    Nusantara Jaya, unlike the previous two, had a more ambitious and controversial sector. The company held massive palm oil plantations that were ready to be extracted. Starting in 1971, the new company grew exponentially as they found a place in Sumatra that palm oil loved to grow. Remained the only palm oil corporation, Nusantara Jaya remained as profitable as palm oil could be. Nasution’s second term was full of corporatist expansion, and more on monopolistic trading. The result of it was a worrying growth of corruption inside the system, in the Assembly with businessmen. However, that disadvantage was later curbed by Subandrio’s first term.

    As Nasution won the election the third time, his policies were becoming more foreign-driven. As the first two was mainly building the interior, in the third term he wanted Indonesia to be more of a major player in the world. At first and second, he only wished for America’s backing and stayed in the comfort zone. On this occasion, however, he sought for changes.

    Nasution had remembered himself to have not another Madagaskar problem. So, he intended to withdraw more friendship to France and instead tried curbing French influence by giving their rivals entry to Indonesia, which was the Federal Kingdom of Germany. Elected King of Germany, King Albrect I, or Duke of Bavaria, had informed an informal yet knowing alliance with the United States. With that, Germany formed the Berlin Pact, which was NATO without Britain and France. The United States agreed to form this military pact because of the impending threat both east and west for Germany. Furthermore, Germany thrived at inviting neutral Scandinavians in the fold, something that Shafer found amusing.

    photo_4.jpg

    King Albrecht I (III if you count the HRE's elected kings)
    Elected King of Germany (1969-1974)

    Having more ties with Germany will ultimately lead to more Dutch associations, which still had a bad memory in many Indonesians. Also, the United Kingdom was rumoured to be part of this, something the entire nation completely objected to. Therefore, he devised two alternate plans, which was Iran and Argentina. Argentina was chosen ultimately because of its proximity. Madagaskar is Indonesian, and Africa was not ready to do serious business with Indonesia. The perpetual warfare, crisis, and political standoff had prevented them from even having prominence. South Africa was so far the most stable, but it was because of the genocide happening in the region. So, Argentina was their nearest choice, also suitable for connecting with the United States more.

    Unfortunately, there was nothing that Indonesia could bargain with Argentina other than just good names. But, Nasution and Videla were friends, and they intended to apply it to the whole nation. In 1975, all both of the governments can deal upon was a joint-research agreement for biotechnology and astronomy, which was still at a minimum.

    Iran, on the other hand, was entirely political. India and Saudi Arabia was threatening the United States and must have immediate counters. Iran was a suitable candidate, and Iran was also allying with Pakistan, which made things more interesting. Starting in 1974, Indonesia offered cultural sharing with their Iranians. Although the Shia-Sunni rivalry was still prominent, both nations relinquished their simple mindset for their survival.

    Nasution, in the third term, was more of ranking up to the next level from a rather boring presidency. In addition to it, Subandrio had also spice things up, with several of his ambitious plans.

    ==========================================

    The next chapter would be about a shocking situation in America. But before that, I would like to give you the 1972 elections first.

    1972_revised_edited.png

     
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    Rivalry Part 2: Miserable Happenstance on the Potomac
  • As 1975 had begun, the entire globe was cooling down from the sparks of war that happened nearly everywhere. Congo had been reduced into pariah states, each state depended extremely on each bloc. Kinshasa’s Congo, from Lumumba, had become a satellite state for the Soviet Union and also was reforming inside. Reign in terror, oppression and power, Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba became one of the most notorious red dictators in history, reigning until his death.

    Kisangani’s Congo, also known as the Republic of Kivu, was a better republican nation that even included a democratic constitution. However, Kivu was landlocked and very reliant on neighbouring countries. Luckily, Uganda was one neighbour considerate enough to help their needs. Uganda’s motive was clear, the East African Community needed more members, and Kivu was geographically and politically a decent candidate. In addition to it, the United Nations also granted independence for Ruanda and Burundi, more nation that could be invited.

    The Republic of Katanga was capitalist in everything, but not so much in democracy. The nation was a Belgian enclave in the continent, much of it had a significant Belgian population. Surrounded by enemies, Katanga’s friendly neighbour was the only Kingdom of Lusitania. The United States allied with Lusitania, probably because of the oil reserve Angola had.

    Korea was unified a decade later than Germany did. The peninsula was now led by a military general from the South, which promised a better reconciliation and reconstruction. Others thought not as promising, as corruption was increasing from the centre of Park Chung-hee.

    Problems in Europe was exceeding as well, as there would be no more nations in Western Europe, but Belgium must give in in some sort of ‘confederalism’. It gave more autonomy to Wallonia, and also providing them with the socialist leader into Wallonia’s government. Belgium was one in the territory, but two in government. The Socialist Regime of Wallonia ruled in their lands, while the legitimate Belgian government held the Flemish side. The one who only united them was monarch Badouin, that kept persisting to prevent the nation from disintegration.

    Poland was eventually liberated from the Soviet Union, forming again the Polish Socialist Republic. This second republic was different from the first because this one was given almost no independence and equivalent to any USSR republics. It was seen as the Soviet Union’s security from Eastern Europe. However, as the Turkish revolted, Andropov thought it was better to control the Bosporus rather than already secure the Western front. Poland was given less attention during Andropov's reigning years over time, and revolts becoming more active in Poland rather than anywhere else. Moreover, Andropov was curing relations with Mao’s PRC, and possible Gandhi’s India.

    Poland’s independence was something a curse from Poland as well, because their people were not unified enough. The Federal Republic of Germany had controlled their sea access, even Danzig that had been theirs for decades. Germany’s DP government was also persuading Silesia’s Polish to join Germany with better living conditions. The better infrastructure in West and East Prussia was strengthening the cause. Poland’s independence also caused Czechoslovakia to be wedge with hostile anti-Soviet nations from the north, and worryingly was enveloped by Germany in Czechia.

    As the United Nations was attempting to cool down the tensions, February 25th 1975 entered.

    In the United States, Shafer's Presidency was considered liberally radical from Southerners, as POTUS was liberal enough in passing the marijuana act. Marijuana, according to the Scranton Commission, was not a crime and must decriminalize. Shafer was also not putting more efforts into the Nicaraguan War, the war which had to start to disrupt society. Also, Republicans winning was not what both Democrats and Conservatives had hoped for. It was barely impossible for a split party to be as victors of the election, only Shafer’s Republican could.

    In his second year, the United States was getting the Rockefeller-Republican vibe in the nation and was finally getting away from the Oil Crisis in 1973. Still, the Republicans invited the Democrats into a coalition against the cultist Nixons, which worked perfectly well. During its highest tenure, VP Rockefeller must resign due to tax evasion allegations that he did with his company. The successor, Haldeman, was picked by Shafer to replace the former VP. Haldeman, in essence, was the most conservative member of the coalition. As the Nixonians are trying to rock the presidency, Shafer instead offers a 'parley' candidate that can appease the conservative voters, thus silencing them.

    However, the entire nation shocked when a lone-gunner assassinated the President during his tour in Savannah. On January 31st 1975, President Raymond P. Shafer was shot in the shoulder by lone-gunner Gregory Martin. He died of blood loss on his way to the hospital. In an urgent session, Vice President Haldeman was sworn as President and immediately draw out security concerns of the nation. After the president’s assassination, most of the entire world knew how fragile the administration’s security was. The military was gradually weakened by Shafer’s pro-business approach. After the funeral, President Haldeman demanded to significantly boost America’s security, which also included the military. The CIA, FBI and many other government agencies got their funds increased by the federal government. In just less than three months, most of the regional powers were either curbed or gone entirely by the new Presidency. His deepest mistake was to re-appoint Kissinger into the Secretary of State.

    Kissinger’s trouble with Former-President Nixon took a heavy toll on the presidency. The bills passed were only because of Shafer’s death, no else. With that also, Kissinger's agenda influenced Haldeman, such as opening more to China, which the Conservatives declined most of his proposals. The only other thing Haldeman managed to pass without difficulty was the prolonged Nicaraguan War. Shafer’s foreign policy was business than security. In other words, the late president wanted to invest in a particular nation, and obtain their friendship until they agreed to America’s military assistance. This strategy was mirrored by Kennedy’s during the 1960s when he immediately withdrew Europe for Asia, which ultimately was a great bargain.

    The United States had superior technologies that needed to be sold. Other first worlds had their toys, so none of them considered buying. However, when it came towards especially third-world nations, most of them unanimously will purchase every higher kind of stuff. That alone had maintained America’s economic boom for nearly a decade. American tools from weapons to agriculture machinery was bought by Japan, Korea, Indonesia and even Vietnam. Also, that help fruited friendship and alliance, a great foundation for curbing the red dragon.

    Haldeman's foreign policy was simply said as might is right. America is a superpower and must be maintained as such. The military was one easy example of how strong a nation could be. Therefore, the President would start launching more military intervention, campaign and volunteering for many parts of the world, much of what Shafer’s intended not to do. At first, Secretary of State Kissinger would launch the largest military campaign of the United States after Vietnam in Nicaragua.

    ========================================================
    In other words, Haldeman was reverting most of what Shafer intended to do. ITTL Haldeman is still a conservative, but mostly pragmatic.

    What is poject sabuk biru, i wonder🤔
    did economic development in Malaysia is seperate?

    Sabuk Biru; although I would elucidate it further.

    Nasution's Presidency, with its Java-centrism, had a very don't care attitude towards Malaya Region because of them having a better condition rather than Java itself. Therefore, it remained separate.
     
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    Rivalry Part 3
  • 14th March 1975

    KGPAA Hamengku Negara Sudibyo Rajaputra Nalendra ing Mataram, or the Crown Prince for the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, was almost thirty years in age. This kingdom, a rarity in the Federal Republic, has had a special right of having their regional leader a monarch, rather than appointed from the central government. In other provinces of Republik Nusantara, a governor was selected from the central government. However, a governor must be a member of the party that had the majority in the region.

    For Kesultanan, head of the regional government was hereditary, and indigenous for the region. Jogjakarta was among a few of them. As a result, the central government needed to appease those regions, one of them was to give autonomy. However, Subandrio was not giving that at all.

    The crown prince, on this occasion, had a specific objective to consult with the central government about these grants. Sincerely, Yogyakarta had been passive and needed not for more autonomy. Yogyakarta preferred to follow the central government fully, depicted as the most loyal monarchy in Indonesia. However, other kingdoms were not intrigued by that and demanded that the new proposals Subandrio’s government had given to be withdrawn completely.

    After his inauguration speech last October, Subandrio was attempting to optimize natural resources in all parts of the world. But, those sectors were not exclusive to industry and agrarian products, there were other unique sectors, national monuments had been one of them. As because of that, most of the old royal palaces would be monitored by the central government, which was not ok for most of the monarchs because of privacy intrusion. Speaking of privacy intrusion, these palaces would be opened as national museums, which even further prevent them for more privacy.

    At first, the crown prince was not unhappy for the edicts made. These palaces would have funding from the central government for redecoration and revitalization, and his sultanate would not spend money on one of the biggest portions.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------​

    Now as the foreign minister, Suharto could not determine whether his current position is a promotion or a demotion for the previous one. Being the head for domestic government, Suharto may change the entire nation. But, being a foreign minister, Suharto can be a player for the international stage, something that can alter the course of the world.

    Manai Sophiaan declined for this seat and preferred an ambassador status in the United Kingdom. According to his perspective, Indonesia should not make more enemies, rather more friends. As quite expert in diplomatic relations, he thought it was his time to assist Indonesia’s fence-mending with a former enemy of war the United Kingdom. Because of that, Suharto was given the foreign minister. He opted more for Defense Minister, but as Simatupang could not become the Majority leader, Nasution chose him for the position, as he was higher than Suharto.

    At first, he resisted on accepting this offer. But, for a few months had shown him that being the door for foreign relations is something very intriguing for the general. He had already met a few leaders all across Asia, from the Philippines, Japan, and even Iran. He had a cold conversation with China’s foreign minister Lin Biao, and nearly got a fight with one of Saudi Arabia’s princes. Most of them resulted from poor self-management and needless provocations.

    He only saw a glimpse of what Subandrio was doing in DPR. According to Nasution’s Secretary Soe Hok Gie, Subandrio pushed for an equal national curriculum, possible extend free education from former 2 years until 6 years, so the entire Primary would be paid by the government. Nasution’s privatization policies would mostly be taken back. Even Nasution’s Infrastructure programs in Java and Sumatra were vulnerable for stopping, as Subandrio preferred equal development and that meant more money in neglected parts like Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Malaya. Although the latter still had better infrastructure than even Java, decay is a thing and that could easily threaten Malaya’s survival.

    For now, he was confronted with major issues, one of them coming from the United States itself. After the dreadful assassination of the late-president, President Haldeman requested Indonesia for an extended contract regarding Liberty Space Center and Freeport’s Tembagapura. Although he was not appropriate for the man, it should include Minister of Industry and Technology. Foreign Minister was the broker for the deal and therefore can also alter a few bits.

    Suharto had been quite a fan for the United States, especially Former-President Kennedy for his speeches. He sometimes elaborated Kennedy with Sukarno, the man that brought Indonesia from old colonialism days. He eerily thought also of Kennedy bringing the nation into a new era, unconfirmed whether to the worse of the better, as 1975 was turning worse than ever before for the United States. He also heard of a scandal brewing from the press, pointing directly towards the new President Haldeman, probably could cost him his status.

    After consulting with Nasution, Suharto’s foreign objectives had become three. Three of them was instructed to not fail, as it could jeopardize Indonesia for years to come.

    Firstly, Nasution and Suharto must have carried Indonesia’s larger donor the United States into a state where they could not plan an embargo happening again. Therefore, as Indonesia’s is dependent on America’s money, America must be depended on its investments in Indonesia. Upgrade the contract of the space centre and the coal mine were two of many that could put Indonesia as a valuable American asset that they must not throw as such.

    Secondly, Nasution and Suharto must have brought Indonesia as a regional power in South East Asia. As a result, having a regional organization, either economically or defensively, was a priority in the making. Suharto planned for a defensive treaty in South East Asia, possible SEATO comprises of Philippines, Thailand, and possible Burma. The United States President Haldeman also voted for South Vietnam, as to confront the North Vietnamese even harder. Also, Nasution wanted a peaceful South East Asia, not turning them into another Africa, Europe or the Middle East.

    Thirdly, Nasution and Suharto must secure friendly relations to neighbours especially in outpost republics like Madagaskar. While east of Indonesia was largely desert of water, Madagaskar was having a difficult situation where across the straits they had a proxy war between nations of southern Africa. Moreover, Somali pirates have now entered even domestic territories, raiding coasts of the northern part of the island. As for another hostile neighbour, Suharto was given a hard task of befriending Australia again. Nevertheless, he nearly cried in agony as Australia was succumbing into more violence, giving him more complicated manoeuvres for befriending them. Australians pointed Indonesia for the messes happening right now, Indonesia needed to settle the dispute before it gets revanchism.
     
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    Rivalry Part 4: Australia
  • The Mess Down Under Part 1: The Start

    For every Australian in the 70s, they all would say that Australia went downhill after its encounter with northern neighbour Indonesia. After the Papua Liberation War ended up as their failure, as Australians called it, Australia lost major possessions outside their continent. Furthermore, the United States preferred the nation to be disconnected with their European overlord, thus granting Australia independence from the Commonwealth.

    Liberated from Britain meant a great political disruption in the Continent. Emphasized with their current defeat, the political establishment of Liberal and Labour domination. Everywhere in the state, both parties had taints that diminished their popularity as time progressed. Labour was blamed as the party which brought Australia into a war. The Liberal was condemned as bringing the war into a defeat. More and more citizens grew upset with their dominating parties, and later on, a new party emerged as a third choice, and then forth, and so on.

    Besides, both Liberal and Labor hated each other more after the current predicament and thus prying on each other for control of the government. From the time frame of 1966 to 1973, there were already five elections held, mostly resulted in an unstable government, and bringing Australia into chaos to come. In 1973, three parties were contesting the major two.

    The first party to emerge was the National Party of Australia. Emerging from a county level, most of the nationalist sympathizers joined the cause and form this big party. Started in New South Wales, the party emerged bigger as more snap-elections was held. With the beginning of gaining one seat in New South Wales, into becoming the third-largest party in Australia. The party was revanchist, crying for the liberation of the taken lands. Christmas Island was their primary campaign voice, giving the Australians a hope that what once purely Australian would be there again. However, New Guinea was not alluded by them.

    aus_1.png

    The NPA Logo

    Meanwhile, the fourth largest happened to be the exact opposite of the third. The Socialist Workers Party of Australia was born in Perth, largely because of a demonstration went wrong during the war era. Dissatisfied unions and labours in West Australia were also felt in other places as well. Because of that, they all appeased hard labours and unions all over Australia. The party advocated social democracy and fewer capitalism policies. They were also pro-labours which caused them to be rumoured as a communist party. Nevertheless, SWPA showed their real faces, as a true left party when they had turned out to be fourth in national, failing to achieve a mere one percentage than NPA.

    aus_2.png

    Socialism Democracy logo, a hand holding a rose, become the key symbols of SWPA

    The fifth, and smallest national party to still had a percentage larger than 10% was the Southern Crux Party. Named after the constellation that characterized Australia, the SCP was primarily an isolationist and south-ist. They expressed that involving matter North of Australia was a curse. This party had grown to be a ‘runaway’ party for most deniers of the loss they had in the war against Indonesia. But, the SCP was aggressive in terms of creating a South Empire, maybe incorporating New Zealand and several islands in the Pacific. Some others had thought that it must also annex Antarctica, which by far was still unmarked.

    aus_3.jpg

    The SCP Logo, self-explanatory

    In 1973, even with the FPTP system, both Labour and Liberal Party was not gaining seats more than 30%. Labour was the highest by 27%, while Liberal followed in 23%. But, the smaller parties gained respectively 19%, 16% and 15%. Reached a deadlock, the Parliament had become void for some time, as neither of those five parties was able to form a coalition. That caused a major deadlock in most of the government, and thus more riots emerged.

    The first chaos happened in Brisbane, after the nationalist protesters fought with the socialist protesters, creating a mass mob burning stores and shops. And then, it spread nationally. Cities like Sydney and Melbourne must now implement martial law due to increasingly aggressive supporters. The government was also not helping either, as neither wanted to secure the government.

    aus_4.png

    The mess was not seen by the United Nations as a threat, but the United States does. President Shafer at that time was reminded that Australia was key members of securing Asia, especially from the PRC. It was fortunate that the domino effect did not happen in Asia in becoming a red continent, and the United States was delighted that Europe was not entirely owned by the Soviet Union.

    The United States, already had a better relationship with Australia, helped them with a proposition, changing the nation entirely into a presidential republic. At first, the idea was entirely rejected by the Land Down Under. As natively under the British dominion for centuries, the nation was entirely adapted with the Westminster style of parliamentarism. This stigma waned gradually as time had proven the system’s ineffectiveness on the plurality it caused. Therefore, Australia decided to try adopting this new type of government.

    Forming as the Australian Constitution of 1974, the law apprehended a strong power to control the government, which was the President. Regardless of the majority vote, as long as the current party or coalition is larger than any other opposing force, even though was significantly smaller than 50%, the President could still rule the nation, although in the legislative body things would still get messy.

    In 1975, Australia had the first election with the new constitution adopted. As the nation had hoped this as their salvation, election participation had almost reached 100% during that time. Unexpectedly, the big two, Labour and Liberal, fell short as both fourth and second respectively of the party, as the National had reigned as first while the socialist rose third. For the first time, Labour and Liberal finally noticed the impending danger of their survival, and must immediately draw a coalition. Luckily, the SCP agreed to join the coalition. The 19% Liberal, 17% Labour and 15% SCP, ruling the nation by just sheer 1% from the majority.

    aus_5.png

    The new flag of Australia, primarily to distance from British influence, mainly driven by the United States


    After the election, it was not news that both the Nationalist and Socialist condemned with this turn of events, and their mobs grew increasingly aggressive. Starting from 1975, first President of Australia Billy Sneden must deal with Australia’s first-ever Decade of Crisis, cleaning up radicals from both wings and must prolong the nation’s existence.
     
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    Rivalry Part 5: Banjar-Dayak Issue
  • Prince Syarif Yusuf and the Status of Dayak State

    Beginning of the third Nasution term and first Subandrio term. Indonesia was starting to evolve as a better nation. Roads were completing, rails were linking. Living improvements were happening especially in prioritized regions in Java. Although not in an equal rate, other regions were following as well. But outside of that, the society stagnated.

    Living under the former administration lacked for more representation outside of Java. As the population concentrated in Java, most of the populous representative, the largest proportion in MPR, was elected. Regional representatives, the DPD, carried less number to be influential. So, most of the outer rim regions suffered suppression of voice and status. One of them was the Dayak State.

    After the dissolution of the United States of Indonesia, the Dayak Region, or much of Pontianak Sultanate territories was given back to Indonesia as the province of Kalimantan. Kalimantan was large, comprising all directions of Kalimantan, except Malaya’s Borneo. Being under one province, Dayak must relinquish most of its demands into a more populous and influential Banjar people. Although Sultan Hamid II, the leader of Pontianak that time, had contributed many towards Indonesia’s federalism and current democratic status, nothing had been returned.

    As Sukarno turned into Nasution, Dayak was just any regular state in the Federal Republic of Indonesia. Most of their domestic rights were taken to the central government of the state republic, not the federal republic, although both of them reigned in Jakarta. No real progress had happened to alleviate this small but special state, until the start of 1975.

    1975 was a special year for Pangeran Syarif Yusuf Alkadrie bin Sultan Syarif Hamid Alkadrie, nicknames Max Nico. That year marked him to enter into sultanate matters, and also allowing him to meddle in politics. As a son of the iconic Sultan Hamid II, Prince Max Nico was overshadowed by his father’s legacy. But, as a young brave man, he determined to write his name into history, and he thus tried most regularly.

    At February 28th 1975, Prince Max Nico entered the presidential office of Republik Nusantara. The grand governor of Republik Nusantara was equivalent to a governor in the United States but still had a difference here and there. Although a state of a nation, most of the rights were overviewed by the federal government, and Republik Nusantara was barely a federal state, but a province. Despite that, compared to the other Republics, Republik Nusantara was the strongest, as it holds most of the economy, people and land.

    The Prince met Grand Governor Kolonel Alexander Evert Kawilarang for apparently a negotiation about Pontianak’s status. For decades, Pontianak Sultanate had much been diminished by the regional government of Dayak State. Even if the Dayak State had power, most of it was given to corrupt officials and thus stagnating the growth of Dayak. He wanted Dayak State to have a similar situation in Yogyakarta, where the sultans were able to control their regional areas.

    This, however, would upset the balance happening in Republik Nusantara. Malaysia and Sumatra were in a fragile condition because most of them were not regarded as kingdoms, as opposed to Brunei or parts in Java. Malaysia wanted to separate itself into the former small sultanates. Returning Malaysia into 13 states would significantly power their influence, and conflict with the balance Java had benefited. Aceh was also demanding again, a Sultanate status, which Nasution was reluctant to give as their continuous rebellions against the federal government completely closed him for further negotiations. Because of Johor existing, Palembang wanted to exist again, becoming another kingdom.

    Subandrio, acknowledging that giving the sultans more place was like giving them more privileges. He thought that Indonesia might as well become ‘a sultanate’. Therefore, he tried to curb as much as he could exert. Because of that, the first-ever federal fight happened in the history of Indonesia.

    A regional diplomatic clash happened between two regions, as neither Nusantara nor Pontianak would settle a resolution. Both of them persisted to stand on their grounds, having a political deadlock within. The situation worsens when the State of Malaysia also joined in the mess, giving the federal another mess about Kedah. But, Grand Governor Kolonel Kawilarang was not worried, because he had his counter-offensive.

    Not far from Pontianak was none other than Banjar, another former sultanate turned into a regional province for Republik Nusantara. Gusti Jumri was a descendant of the dormant Sultanate of Banjar, after years of exile since Pangeran Antasari. The Banjar lineage went into exile, and unrelenting to cut the tree. Gusti Jumri was the eligible mature heir available for the throne, and the grand governor devised his plan.

    Starting in April 1975, Banjar and Dayak were engulfed in a massive political debate, about their fundamental basics of reign. Banjar was resurrected to become a Sultanate, not in favour of reclaiming their regional lands, but to cooperate with the federal government. Banjar had tried on assisting Republik Nusantara in social and cultural issues, which proven to be a positive response everywhere for the federal government. However, with Banjar outnumbered by those who sought legitimacy status, Banjar must fight with other sultans about the lack of necessity for a regional kingdom to must govern their lands.

    Called as the Banjar-Dayak Dispute, this crisis revoked the ideas of monarchism all across Indonesia. The suggestion of a sultanate not to own their regional lands was effectively working especially in Malaysia. Kedah Sultanate, Pahang, and Negeri Sembilan all withdrew their claims in their respective lands. In 1978, even Perak offered their kingship status back to the federal government, changing Perak as another normal state.

    This dispute proved to help to assist both Nasution and Subandrio in general. As a result, most polls were polarized between PPP and PNI-R. Being both ends of the government, both of them will try to outplay each other. The latter happened to succeed in 1976, as Indonesia caused a diplomatic problem in Australia.
     
    Rivalry Part 6: Subandrio's Initial Achievements
  • Bilingual Act, Subandrio’s First Achievement

    As Indonesia was nearing its eclipse, every sector of the federal government was struggling with controlling the regions they have gotten. The common slogan of ‘Dari Sabang sampai Merauke’ had grown radically as ‘Dari M’rombe (Morombe) sampai Namuga’; Indonesia spans from their Easternmost Solomon Islands to Westernmost Madagascar.

    Considering that the extent Indonesia had achieved, it was no doubt that managing them would be an extremely difficult task. The State-Republics (Nusantara, Madagascar, Papua and Melanesia) fortunately had been assisting them, especially in terms of Madagascar, where even the federal government still had less authority. It had become a time where the entirety of the domestic issue was ordered by the State-Republics, while Nasution still held the foreign policy.

    As expected, the head of government, Subandrio, was not happy with that. He was upset with Nasution having to control Indonesia at ease at international relations while domestically Subandrio was confronting problems. As being the head of government, the Premier was now finding issues with how the federal government interacts with the regional government.

    During his predecessor, the regional government had fewer interactions with the federal government. Suharto demanded that the Blue Revolution must be implemented on every citizen, but the federal government delegated the process into the State-Republics. There was one time it failed, on 1971 when Maluku Province of the Nusantara Republic had accomplished way lower than the federal had wanted, furthermore, BKDT (Barisan Koalisi Daerah Timur) numerous times blocked any success for Suharto to enjoy.

    Suharto responded with wrath that fused the remaining BKDT in Maluku, probably ending the provincial department as it used to be. As governors were still elected by the people, the feud happened when Jakarta intervened by making Federal Districts there. In just a single swoop by Suharto, District of Ternate-Tidore was formed in preserving the kingdom’s historical value, while the real reason was to appease the Sultans living there for influencing the people for the federal government, therefore contesting the ruling region of Ambon. By 1973, BKDT nearly vanished in Maluku, their former largest share for entering the federal stage was only 15% comparing to PNI-R’s 35%.

    By that incident, most of the region were afraid of confronting Suharto by any means. Even outside Republik Nusantara, criticism was way diminished and quietened. However, as quiet as it seems, it all returns when Subanrio’s on the seat. Just starting by 1973, regional powers now battling against the federal government on what was federal and what was not. More and more rights were given to the State Republics, and if not mitigated, then there would be a fracture ahead.

    Subandrio recognized this as a threat for his term in MPR, and he imagined that Nasution and Suharto would be laughing at the mess they had made. But, the Sukarno’s former foreign minister would not be swayed, as he finally knew how to tackle this matter. Inspired by the original Youth’s Pledge in 1928, Subandrio knew how to curb anti-federal regional governments, with language.
    In Indonesian, with the original spelling, the pledge reads:
    • Pertama
      Kami poetra dan poetri Indonesia, mengakoe bertoempah darah jang satoe, tanah air Indonesia.
    • Kedoea
      Kami poetra dan poetri Indonesia, mengakoe berbangsa jang satoe, bangsa Indonesia.
    • Ketiga
      Kami poetra dan poetri Indonesia, mendjoendjoeng bahasa persatoean, bahasa Indonesia.
    In English:
    • Firstly
      We the sons and daughters of Indonesia, acknowledge one motherland, Indonesia.
    • Secondly
      We the sons and daughters of Indonesia, acknowledge one nation [are one people], the nation of Indonesia.
    • Thirdly
      We the sons and daughters of Indonesia, respect the language of unity, Indonesian.


    The language was the largest problem happening in cultural Indonesia because there was no definite language that holds the majority. Javanese, Sundanese, and now the Melayu had taken a proportional equal share of the government, with Java slightly as the largest language holder. as a result, there was no strong unified language that came from a strong ethnic majority.

    Due with that case, the Youth’s 1928 Pledge had returned with a hybrid creation, Bahasa Indonesia, a language to unify all of Indonesia. As the mid-30s then 40s had a high rise in nationalism, Bahasa Indonesia became their unifying language for fighting against colonizers. In 1945, this lingua franca had helped on liberating Indonesia. However, after independence, things turned stagnated. As the nation was finally free, the ethnics across Indonesia resorted back to their native tongues. Even though Sukarno, with its blaring speeches, ordering citizens to keep using Bahasa Indonesia at all times, it was still on formal matters. Everyone at home, most of the talks on their home languages.

    This, unfortunately, fueled the regionalism spirit all across Indonesia. Especially after Nasution’s rise, which would start the so-called Java-nization, more and more regions grew troubled with the federal’s lack of cherished uniqueness of each nation. Subandrio, as also a Javan, was having the other end of the mess returned to him.

    In addition to it, Bahasa Indonesia was not very welcomed in Madagascar, as they were never involved in the Youth Pledge. So, Subandrio attempted to do the hard way, passing the Bilingual Act. The Bilingual Act would instruct every region to have two languages each, one their official regional language, one the lingua-franca Bahasa Indonesia. The as a result, while the region satisfied with their language approved by the government, the federal would also have their equal share. This would be implemented informal institutions, like administration, business and even education. Every governmental building will hoist two names, one with Bahasa Indonesia and the native tongue.

    bilingualact.jpg
    Sukarno Road with Sundanese script, common in Western Java, like Pasundan State, Cirebon State, and southern parts of Kebayoran State (which formed Bogor State in 2003)

    This proved effective for appeasing the lowest forms of government into being hammered by the federal government. Subandrio thought that this Bilingual Act would be a counter-measure for promoting the BUMN (Badan Usaha Bumi Negara) that Trihandoko had proposed. In addition to it, PPP still has to fight PNI-R, and the other planned Act would certainly distress them.

    The other planned Act was the Mutual Assistance Act. This Act was pointed directly towards the state of Malaysia and the Federal District of Penang and Singapore. Formerly the British Malaya, this region was deliberately ignored by the previous administration, thus creating a small but bothered troublesome. Highly autonomous regions up on still the highest number of income had maybe lessened the income that Indonesia should have had.

    This would help to alleviate the current halt of progress, economically and infrastructurally in those regions. Possible investing in more trade value and income. Passes altogether with the Bilingual Act in March 1976, it appeased everyone except the executive’s from Nasution and especially Suharto. This also sparked a new wave of politicians that originated from Singapore and Malaysia, gaining prominence in so far the Java-dominant Federal Indonesia
     
    Rivalry Part 7: The Two Menaces (1)
  • Menace North and South

    Nasution’s start in his third term was albeit a good one. In the process, it was running smoothly for Indonesia. In 1974, Australia was receding its hostility towards Indonesia. The Coalition between the Labour, Liberal and Southern Cross Party had brought Australia mainly toward further good-will and non-provocative measures. For some time, this party aimed for New Zealand, which was still part of the British Commonwealth. The United States has invested a lot in bringing the Down Under into its fold, securing the Pacific for the upcoming threat of the People’s Republic of China.

    The PRC was eerily quiet across the latter half of the century, primarily because it intended not to show the progress it had done. In 1973, after the successful Great Leap Forward, dictator Mao Ze Dong declared China fit for the second stage of a country’s growth, the Industrial Revolution. In Interior China, especially Chongqing, Xi’an and other parts underwent massive construction in the industry.

    Despite all efforts in hiding, the CIA managed to discover this, and thus began a series of policies to counteract these growing threat. According to Kennedy, Shafer, and even Kissinger, China was one new Soviet Union, which by far more threatening than ever. They concluded as such because the Sino government achieved the impossible – a dictatorship government that respects even the potential political rivals, meaning democracy exists even in the most left government. Mao balanced between his total authority and other meaningful criticism, acquiring the balance of control and freedom.

    This, also, fretted Nasution even before the Chinese ever acted. Nasution saw China as Indonesia’s parameter. If China can accomplish notable milestones, Indonesia must also follow. That’s why when China launched Dong Fang Hong I in 1970, Indonesia launched Indosat I in 1971. When China tried to make a stand towards the end of Sino-Soviet Split with the launch of ChangCheng I, a military satellite, Indonesia threw Antariksa I into orbit in 1975. However, the mini space race with China was slightly halted, as Nasution must refrain for throwing things to outer space and must resolve more important matters, such as international alliance.

    menace_2.jpg

    Rough drawing for Indosat I

    This little prestige play of Nasution caused a slight disturbance against the preferred balance in South East Asia. Nasution had seen major players too much, that he neglected even his neighbour. Because of that, two major incidents happened in his third term, which would be his last.

    One

    During his visit towards friendly Australia, on 28th July 1975. He spoke in front of the people of Canberra. He discussed Australia’s key importance of liberating Indonesia during the first and second Dutch Aggression, and the latest predicament both countries had been being a British foul play. He promised a better relationship and promising peace for decades to come. However, during his return to his hotel, Nasution encountered two Australian men, both of which was radical National sympathizers. In the name of Marcus Smith and Lucas Briar, attempted to kill the President with domestic use of chemicals for creating a bomb. The President remained unharmed, but the fiasco killed his secretary, Soe Hok Gie.

    In the aftermath, foreign minister Suharto demanded the Australian government to bring those two men into Indonesian trials of murder and attempted murder. However, giving that may result in the demonstrations going on between the Nationals, the Socialists Workers, and the current government to heat up. The Nationals had been accusing the Australian government into succumbing to the northern neighbour, although that was not true. Even Indonesia was not willing also. However, the Nationals fiery new leader Bill Kerr was passionate with his new slogan ‘Greater Australasia’, which justified Australia’s claims on former territory Papua, Solomon Islands, and New Zealand.

    menace_1.jpg

    Bill Kerr

    After the shooter’s extraction, which Australia had no reason not to keep them, causing a massive protest in Australia itself. More and more Australians got influenced with the National’s xenophobic accuses, and also increased radicalism in Australia. Indonesia tried to satisfy the government, by giving more and more amends. That too, caused troubles inside Indonesia, as most of Indonesians had already thought of them equally superior to the whites in Australia, and will not ‘bow down’ to their pleas.

    Other indirect implication with Soe Hok Gie’s death was Nasution became more uncontrolled than ever. During the first and second term, most of Nasution’s proposing actions was filtered with Hok Gie’s virtues and proceeded to run the nation with good deeds. Soe Hok Gie, alike Suharto, was a strong stubborn man, but stubborn to all the moral values that he had already thought. That was why when that figure became non-existent. The nation became more vulnerable to corruption, mainly towards Suharto’s family that influenced most of PNI-R, and became much more of a political dynasty.

    In 1979, even with Nasution already out from the office, the Australians had a new election, and the Nationals won the nation with a significant majority, threatening Indonesia’s survival.

    Two

    The other came from the North, not China, but Thailand. Since 1963, Thailand had suffered a costly coup that destabilizes most of the monarchy. After the similar happenings in Myanmar a year before, those same officers who ruled Myanmar suggested Thai’s Armed Forces do the same. Indeed, Thailand was a pariah even with all of the great colonizers out. For Thailand, it was just France and Britain out and Indonesia and Indochina in. Even with Thailand’s neighbour to be growing as a developing nation, Thailand had a slow-paced, even the nation was never heavily scorched by deadly wars.

    Thailand’s democracy almost won the government when the Army took action first, forming the Thailand Military Junta, although the kingdom was still intact, most of the powers were held by the Prime Minister, which was the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. Field Marshall Thanom Kittikachorn became the leader of Thailand, and he too had ambitions. However, his time was not right around a decade later, in 1975, when the time finally strike.

    In 1975, Thailand was a better-unified monarchy. Most of the political rivals of the military remained silence, and not gaining voices anytime soon. The military was in an all-time high, even higher than Suharto’s Blue Revolution.

    That year, the Third Indochinese War happened, North and South Indochina fought again, this time was relatively short because Thailand shock the region with attacking both sides. Called the Thai Aggression, the nation’s objective was to reclaim 1904 borders and also established the Kingdom of Cambodia and Laos. Much to the shock of both countries, in a few months they settled a peace deal, partitioning the Indochina as a whole. Indochina was diminished into Vietnam. And both parties, North and South felt very betrayed with Thailand’s aggression.

    Even Indonesia was very shocked and replied with Thailand's kick from any negotiations for a regional Intra-organization. And instead, Nasution must implement plan B.

    ----------------------------------------------​

    Sorry for the cliff-hanger, but I prefer this regional intra-organization must be put in the new chapter. Therefore, I'm afraid that you should wait for the next.
     
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    Rivalry Part 8: SEATO
  • Hawaii Pact Book One: Spratly & Paracel

    The Hawaii Pact, or is better recognized as Pacific Alliance Treaty Organization (PATO), is a millitary alliance as a result of growing Chinese threat on the 21st century, Most of us although dated the background back to Kennedy's Asian focus, the real origin of Hawaii Pact is the birth of SEATO, later was merged to Spratly League as USEAN.

    In July 1975, the Third Indochinese War began, A minor border conflict between the North and South had erupted into yet another warfare. This battle soon attracted spectators, and volunteers all across the world, In Hanoi, both China and Soviet Union aided the Democratic Republic of Indochina. They gave supplies, air force and money bo assist them. Meanwhile, the United States and her allies helped the Federal Repuplic in all they can afford. The South during the 1973 Border Clash had won the South until the 17th Parallel, they were trying to move upwards, this time to Hanoi. For the first three months, the fighting was inconclusive. The Communists had more men than their counterpart, but Saigon's air superiority bogged down any advances.

    On November 13,1975, however, things went radically complicated, when both parties witness the invitation of the third, from the West. The Kingdom of Thailand, apparently, had waited a decade for the perfect time to invade. After foreign backing and total military preparation, everyone was outflanked when Thailand blasted their artillery.

    Thailand was a kingdom ruled by military, Field Marshall Thanom decided to reverse every colonial expansion that cost Thailand their lands. Although past was not a correct justification suitable for the world to accept, Thailand manage to reduce world anger by giving some of the land for his allies, like the Kingdom of Indochina, later became Kingdom of Laos.

    Bảo Long, after his military defeat on the Second Indochinese War, was crippled with Laos as his turf. Later on, that region would be overthrown by Viet Minh Symphathizers, much of it was incorporatedto North Indochina. So, the monarch must be exiled to nearest allies, which is the Kingdom of Thaland. Having strategical missions, Thailand opted supporting Laos for reclaiming their old extent.

    Therefore, as both parts of Indochina were engulfed in violence. Thailand sought this opportunity to restore order, or simply a blatant land acquisition. In just a few months, Thailand pushed North and South with relative ease. And because of that, the peace deal for the Third and short Indochinese War, ended with Thailand to have new friendly kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia, also having the old 1904 Borders.

    Indonesia, having some sort of mutual assistance with South Indochina, was furious with Thailand sudden aggression. At first, Indonesia wanted to invite Thailand into a regional assosiation, pimarily to be another regional group able for securing their own. However, with Thailand instead to invade Indochina, and literally disband both nations as now Vietnam only. Thailand was under Nasution’s wrath.

    In late 1975, Indonesia had secured the Philippines for a possible alliance, military and econoically. As both friends of the United States, and afraid with China, Indonesia can join hands with the Philippines easily. After the Third Indochina War, public sympathy for South Vietna rose, and they all demanded for Indonesiato formally assist them. That was the elephant for Nasution.

    Nasuton knew that allying with South Vietnam would fast forward the tensions against North. In superior context, the United States was able to fight both China and the Soviet Union’s volunteers because their lack of cooperation and willpower. With more members joining in the proxy war, more would be at stake, and the next war in the region will cause the world war to happen, definitely. Furtermore, things got really heated up when it was revealed that France was behind Thailand’s aggression.

    France, geopolitically, could not go anywhere to China without passing Indonesia by sea. France was relatively isolated by the world, hated by everyone in Europe except Portugal and Yugoslavia. Going everywhere by land to Asia was not an option, as it would cross the EEC, which has bad relations. Gremany successfully blockade France with friends, all of France’s neighbors, the Low Countries and Italy were under EEC’s camp.

    Going by sea, was relatively better. France’s best relations with UASR gave them complete access of the Suez, but when they tried to reach China, Malacca is a problem. Thorez adminitration solved this issue by basically bribe Indonesia from Madagascar. But, the Marchais Presidency was more ambitious, and he decided to make one nation on South East Asia under her (France’s) influence, so they would cross the straits safely without worrying the Indonesians would blockade them because of their ties with the United States.

    Therefore, Georges Marchais got interested with the Kra Canal. Forming as an aternative to the natural sea access, this Thailand’s Suez Canal can bypassed the Malacca Straits, and ending the monopoly Indonesia had. Luckily, France was not experiencing this situation, as Nasution’s Presidency allowed the access to have relatively free tariffs, which later became one of his downfall later in 1978 Election.

    A long story short, France was able to put Thailand under their influence, albeit secretly, and formed some sort of mutualism between two powers. France by Thailand was able to have a better and active relations between China (which was France’s number one priority to counter the Soviet Union), and now giving Thailand better clay. France help in the Third Indochinese War was also proven with guns and artillery support.

    Of course, now South East Asia had become the first active proxy battle between three powers. It was later shown that China slowly withdrew from North Vietnam and favored Thailand, as the latter proved to be a better negotiator, rather than North’s ambivalent side between the Soviet Union or China, which still had tensions because of Mongolia. China officially abandoned North Vietnam for Thailand when China officially sided with France in 1977, a formal say of ‘go to hell’ to the Soviet Union.

    In this matter, Suharto noticed two horrendous things, one that China had found himself a new, yet moderate ally that would reshape communism, two that China was expanding, and three that South Indochina was surrounded by hostiles. He needed to act quick and decisive, and this regional organization was one smart maneuver.

    In 19th January 1976, the South East Asia Treaty Organization was formed. SEATO comprised of Indonesia, Philippines and South Vietnam, with the United States and Japan as member states outside the region. On the next month, a formal economic pact called Spratly League, as it was created in the Spratly Islands by three navy ships from the respective nations.

    The Spratly Islands incumbently controlled by three nations, Indonesia from Malaysia’s and Brunei’s Acquisition, Philippines and South Vietnam. The Paracel Islands remained a dispute between the South and the North, not to mention that the entire South China Sea was claimed by both China and Taiwan, with the former was creating a navy for it and the latter already spawned tensions. Especially when the United States found large oil reserves full for exploitation, none of the South East Asian Nations attepted to surrender their claims.

    The first dispute SEATO bizarrely concluded was the Spratly Islands dispute. Rather than splitted between three nations, the archipelago would be administered under a joint government, the Spratly Special Territory was created under SEATO, and later given to an economic alliance becoming a regional organization under the same name, Spratly League.

    ====================================​

    Happy Eid al-Fitr everyone. Wish you all well even during this unfortunate events.

    My computer was having issues, and would be fixed on Thursday. So, I'm typing this on mobile.

    2020-05-28 (2).png

    Map of Indochina after the Third Indochinese War

    I'll give you the map of Indochina after having my laptop fixed. But, please enjoy this update!
     
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