Emerald of The Equator: An Indonesian TL

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Realpolitik Part 8: Jammu-Kashmir & Germany
  • This will be the last chapter of Realpolitik, chapter 6c

    Regensburg, Hawaii Pact and the Post-Bismarck Pragmatism; John Smith, 1998

    1963 progressed slowly during that certain time, as the German General Election happened. For the world, the German General Election had been their finest decision. The decisive battle, the one true event that will change us all. Tensions of the Cold War, although already creating sub-factions in both contesting parties, had been an all-time high.

    The show-down in Germany have been reduced to two simple factions. The right and the left. The right was a Coalition of CDU and DP (All German Party). The left was the coalition of CSU and KPD. CDU or Christian Democratic Union is a Christian Democratic, Liberal-Conservative party of Germany. This faction during that time holds the largest portion of Western Germany and became an ally for the Americans. The DP is a fully Monarchist party. The party holds dearly for the restoration of a German Monarch into the throne. This party was supported by the British, especially the British House of Windsor. The CSU or Christian Social Union is mainly a socialist party with democratic tendencies. It became a friend of the French and immediately shifted as Bavarian’s regional party after the Saar Annexation. Its populace in other provinces was immediately disappeared after the despicable event. Last but not least, the KPD or Communist Party of Germany held the largest portion in newly enlarged East Germany, and also hold significant ‘snitches’ of the CSU.

    As factions of four had been grouped into two. The situation in Germany was extremely tense. Debates among the contesting powers would frequently result in a brawl. Nearly every time a political debate ensued, an army of policemen must ready for the immediate aftermath. Moreover, on some occasions even police force was obsolete, and anarchy had erupted.

    As the 1963 Election was getting close, so do tensions rise.

    The situation in other nation, like India, was more chaotic.

    Since 1961, the government of India had issued an attack towards Pakistan, thus beginning the Second Indo-Pakistani War. Worryingly, this type of aggression between two states has become a routine, a seasonal clash between two powers of the subcontinent. Furthermore, even their casus belli was always the same -Kashmir Region.

    Jammu-Kashmir Region is a region located north of the Indian subcontinent. Once a princely federation, the British withdrawal of India has let this region become a land dispute among three powers, China, India and Pakistan. India had been the most vocal for the region, claiming it fully as legally Indian. Pakistan and China, however, cooperated with a deal and decided to split the region according to people living there. In the Pakistani terms, India would still get a part, only the Hindu-majority ones.
    jammukashmir.jpg

    In every war between two third-world nations, so does a proxy war involved between major powers. However, the major involved is not simple the US vs the Soviet Union. Presumably, after the intense rising of new ideological powers, more and more nations stood up against the two hegemony. Britain, France and China had braved up to help without any orders from them. Situations in the subcontinent were so messy that the war of aggression had ultimately become a war between themselves.

    Pakistan had a trustworthy friend of China. Albeit an Islamic nation, Pakistan had been shifting gradually towards the wisdom of Mao. Especially after the Great Leap Forwards, where Mao’s economical fantasy actually did come true and the People’s Republic of China experienced the 70s as ‘Economic Boom’. A secret alliance had been signed by those two, guarantee each other for assisting in case one side gets troubled.

    India, as a result, must find another ally besides China. Russia is no answer, because of similar ideologies with India’s enemy’s friend, and also the Soviet Union’s assistance to Pakistan. The United States is not going to bother either. Their ongoing war in Vietnam, Indonesia and preparation against Korea had kept them busy for the time being. The United Kingdom was an obvious no. How could the nation cooperate with their former colonist? The answer was left with one nation, the Fifth Republic of France.

    Despite the French being socialist, the nation is on the opposite with the Soviet Union, thus also with China. Also, France had, even until now, no interests in reclaiming any of their Indian ports, thus exhilarate India as well. First negotiations of a friendship had started days after the war started. Hence, what is happening in the subcontinent for the next two years of aggression is dubbed “Proto-French-Soviet Proxy War”. This war would become the start of a proxy war between France and the Soviet Union to determine which one is the better socialist nation.

    Back in Germany, situations are still uptight. There is no clear victory between two competing factions, and even within each faction holds a fragile alliance which can break handily. Still and all, an incident in May 1963 changed the course of German history.

    On Labor Day of 1963, a rally of socialist and communist supporter was assembling onto streets in parts of Rhineland. As the largest industrial region in Germany, Rhineland, of course, owned many labours. These labours were friends of the left and primarily would vote for them. As the labours were celebrating their day, a provocative action, presumably conducted by radical labours, attacked the police force that was patrolling. After that, what was called the “Night of the Wretched Wrenches”. This night was purposely reflected the “Night of the Long Knives”. On that night, radical labours occupy major government building in the region, and declare a silly ultimatum to the government that “Socialism or a Rhenish Independence”. Everywhere in Germany, the folks were boiling, and in retaliation burn every socialist campaign poster in streets.
    riotgermany.jpg
    The Soviet Union were extremely furious. The French have done an unexplained stupid move. Even their once ally Eastern Germany had already dejected their former masters. France, pointed to the Soviets, even failed to apprehend the situation. France in any way is absurd if such actions were being done. Thus, France was the first party to notice that there was another third party involved in the depths of this movement, and they realized the United States had something to do with this. They did not know how, but they sensed it. It remained a mystery until the Papadopoulos Leaks divulged this unresolved piece of history.

    ---

    A CIA operative, codenamed the Blue Valkyrie, was an operation approved by Kennedy to infiltrated the core members of radical socialist labors. Play a savage plot involving the labors, they will attack government vital assets, but unnecessarily endanger their lives. Names like Rudolf Wegner will be used as an undercover. So, in the end, people of Germany pin-point the lefts for this barbarity.

    Richard Papadopoulos

    ---

    Surely, in the 1963 election. Votes for the left plummeted to an all-time low of only 10%. That even included the portion of CSU and KPD, with CSU being the lowest of only 2%. The Democratic party of CDU gained the most votes in Germany, with the DP as the runner up. Immediately, a new unified Germany will be managed, and a new constitution will be drafted.

    As the secret agreement held between CDU and DP, the agreement must be fulfilled. Each German states shall be given a monarchy referendum, stating that each state will become a kingdom or just a democratic state. Aside from Lower Saxony, Bavaria, Baden-Wurttemberg and Prussia, the nations have voted for a republic nature. Each province will have their historical powers of Kingdom of Hannover, Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Swabia and Kingdom of Prussia. Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen become a federal city.

    In 1964, the Federal Kingdom of Germany is being created under the manner of the elective monarchy of every five years. In a parliamentary monarchy, Chancellor shall become the head of government and non-affiliated towards any monarch. But, the agreement seemed to be uncompleted. It is because we forgot one last kingdom of Germany, the Austrian Hapsburgs.

    In 1955, the state of Austria was just unified as the Second Austrian Republic. However, the charismatic figure of Otto von Hapsburgs had led the people thought monarchy is still a good thing. Otto would rally with democratic figures of Austria, saying that ‘Old Authoritarian of the Hapsburgs’ must be replaced with the new ‘Democratic Characteristics’. In 1960, the nation had become monarchy once again, a Kingdom of Austria. All seems so surreal, that in 1964, Germany ‘Anschluss’ Austria again, as put the Hapsburgs as one of the elective monarchies.

    The situation in Germany could not be so unearthly if all powers were not so busy with their own wars. In fact, the 1960s was nicknamed the Promiscuous Decade.
     
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    Strengthening Within. Part 1: Resignation & 1st Amendment
  • At last, we return to our wonderful nation. This chapter is written with determination for our homeland only. I predict it will discuss things during the 1960s and maybe 1970s. Especially after the war, where a Marshall Plan-esque will happen to Indonesia. Enjoy!

    Garuda Spreads her Wings: How Indonesia become a great power of the century; Jonathan Trihandoko

    Things that happened in 1963 may have disrupted the nation badly. No wonder, Vice President died and President resigned, this is something Indonesia can be ashamed for. Other nations would stand until the end, while our dear proclamator left politics because of his emotions. People mildly became upset of him during that time. ‘Coward’ and ‘Loser’ are some words he was described by the folks. In the eyes of us -officials- however, it was the right move.

    During that era of turbulence, Indonesia was desperately need of a characteristic. A new nation just born after the gifts of World War 2, is far fragile. We had witnessed many of Third World Nations, particularly the ones who declared itself a nation after the WW2, descended into colonialism once more or fell at least once under a ruthless dictator. We, Indonesia, are literally the only third nation survived and move up as significant role in the world. Many other predicted nations that had a better future than us, met their poor fates. Indonesia once almost tilted itself towards dictatorship, under the nose of Sukarno.

    Since the beginning, Sukarno was not an enthusiast for liberal-parliamentary democracy. He always hoped a strong-presidential Indonesia. Furthermore, his approach with the Indonesia Communist Party have tilted himself into believing that Parliament is a waste of democracy. If Sukarno had reigned a few more years, we could see the ICP establishing a coup. Indonesia, then, would become the communist nation America had afraid for. America, as always, prepared a back-up plan in case this happens. And boy, we definitely would not want to go that path.

    Surely, America was not a perfect ally of Indonesia then. Her eyes had always been Papua and Papua only. The islands that embody a large spoils of minerals, particularly uranium and gold, have gain great interests in Washington. They weren’t keen on Jakarta, but they had to due to political circumstances. The resignation of Sukarno let this wrong type of assistance as mutual. Indonesia’s soft stance with America had successfully stirred the nation into “Asian America”. So, instead of the nightmares that may come. Sukarno had done what was the best ever option, resigning. His resignation rooted out all any possibilities of a totalitarian rule, especially by power- thirsty Communists. Also, his resignation marked the end of that hapless Islamic-Left Coalition. And marked the start of 2nd longer Party System. A system that lingers around the center of ‘War’ or ‘Peace’.

    In just a week, Indonesia had lost two of its leaders. The Constitution never had anticipated this outcome, so they gather again and form an Amendment.

    Firstly, the nation never anticipated the loss of two leaders in a row, especially when the vice president was first to fall. There were no succession laws on this occasion. So, the Assembly made one. Because of this peculiar event, the Assembly will hold a snap-election in 1964. Hoping all of Indonesian core territories will be liberated (which surprisingly did happen, under the glorious assistance of the States). And then, a new succession law is being made.

    If somehow a President left office due to any circumstances, Vice President will replace the President. If the Vice President replace the President, and still have more than two and a half years to govern, the new President will appoint a Vice President of the Assembly’s choice, after a voting procedure. If somehow, both of them left, the Parliament will take over and appoint a President of Choice immediately.

    Different case happens in Prime Ministry. The Prime Minister, if leaves office, the governing party or coalition must appoint a new Prime Minister of choice. Therefore, Deputy Prime Minister seat will be erased. A Vote of No Confidence can still be given by the majority of the Assembly and Senate or the President itself.

    Second, national Administration, or simply Indonesia’s regional composition was altered. The extensive exclusion granted for diverse types of regional government has finally confused the government. Especially when Malaya decides to join Indonesia, the snowball was just get bigger. The old one, giving levels of autonomy didn’t help. With the Amir’s Region (See SEZ) in table, things get extremely nauseous.

    The Assembly decided to finish this knotty link, with a thorough explanation in this Amendment. Initially, the region will be separated into two equal systems.

    The first one is the usual Federal State. The Governor will lead each state, has its own Legislative Body, and contribute seats in the bicameral bodies of the National Assembly.

    The second one, is the Federal Kingdom. Differ than the regular Federal States, a Federal Kingdom has an exception of a monarch as Governor, and also send royals too as Regional Representatives (or simply the Senate). Popular Representatives (or in here the Assembly) still exists identical to Federal States, but royals are not allowed to place a seat. These regions don’t recognize any exclusive rights or grants given than the existing Constitution chapter.

    Next, the Federative Republic of Indonesia aside from two equal systems, has three level systems.

    The first one, and the lowest is the Federal State/Kingdom Branch. The details already stated in the previous chapter.

    The second level is the Special Economic Regions (SER). The SER has his rights on bicameral legislatives, but it also possesses several exclusive claims, especially on economic sector. For example, the law given in the Region is highly pro-investor, and because of that capitalism exclusively rules in these places.

    The last and the highest autonomy gained is the Special Administrative Regions (SAR). These regions have their own Assembly secluded from Indonesia’s National Assembly, full autonomy and exclusive legal system. The last and highest tier of Indonesia’s administrative system, the Special Administrative Region is fabricated in such a way that including one SAR involves creating a new Amendment itself. Therefore, there are a few more Amendments made in Indonesia because of the SAR.

    Lastly, is this. Election, or mostly the Electoral System, is primarily discussed. The voting system pre-Amendment – albeit clear – still failed to compensate several typical likelihoods. On that account, in this Amendment, the Electoral System is significantly explained. The Assembly, or People’s Representative Council, is elected every five years on a general election. It will involve all parties eligible for election, but regional parties are not allowed to participate in the Assembly. The Assembly will use proportional system; vote depends on the populace. The Assembly voting procedure is also divided into two methods. The first two thirds is elected by proportional, means by election polls. The last third is electef by Constituency. Similar to US Electoral College, this ‘Constituency’ conduct similar way. The People’s Regional Council, or Senate, is elected two in every states, except the SER, that receive three rather than four. The SAR don’t receive seats, as they have separate Parliament.

    So, the new Electoral System can give a proportional representation of the people, also alleviating the demands of the local regions, so minority does not seemed to be repressed.
     
    Strengthening Within. Part 2: 1964 Election Narrative
  • 2045: 100 years of Indonesia. By Prasetyo Subagio

    Post-Sukarno Presidency is always considered as a new era. A new page of Indonesian history, which is when foreign incursions to our land literally ended. Although Papua is still occupied by the time Sukarno resign. It is not so far when in 1964, West Papua has been liberated and three months later, so does the East.

    The successful Operation Cendrawasih, Liutenant General Suharto and Air Marshall Suryadarma as mastermind, liberated Papua in swift action. The extensive knowledge of the terrain and America’s superior fire power knocked off any Commonwealth presence in Papua. As Papua has been freed by March 1965, the entire Australian Occupation in Sulawesi, Maluku, and Lesser Sundas had also collapsed and liberated way before. Therefore, Nusantara conveniently held election with all her people.

    1964 Election is held in October, for Legislative, and in November, the Executive. The Election was quite expected, as the People’s Coalition faltered in pieces, with the ICP still stands. The jingoistic PGI was the clear winner of the election, achieving more than anyone else, a staggering 39%. The PUP lags behind, as Hatta made a resounding campaign to increase popularity to 31%. The INP, senior to others, stagnant in its previous mark, even declines slightly. The opposition completely falters, as the TUF is implicitly reduced by the government due to the Aceh Scandal, also a Kedah Scandal which involves a scheme for a Indonesian Caliphate, which leaked by local newspapers. TUF then disbanded harshly, which caused 1964 Election as the only election not to have a Islamic Party participate.

    The SPI, socialist party, also falls by lack of leadership, and many of the members fled for the PUP. As a result, by the 1964 Election ISP was completely absorbed to the PUP. The ICP is the only opposition holding, the ECF, a regional party of the East, has similar fate of the TUF, and decided to just dissolve in history. For conservationist however, especially fundamentalist, a small and trivial United Development Party (UDP) is built under the ashes of TUF an partly ECF members. A West Papuan’s ECF splinter however, become one of Papua’s Regional Parties that legally participate exclusively in Papua SAR.

    The 1964 Election Results marked the start for the PUP-PGI domination. Their Coalition, National Coalition became the largest ruling coalition ever in Indonesian history, a staggering 90% of votes. Their tasks are also perfectly fit as PUP keens on domestic policy and PGI focuses on foreign issues. In 1965, a new Administration begins with Hatta as Prime Minister. Notable members in PGI stole the most ministerial seats in Hatta’s 1st Administration.

    In Papua, Legislative Election was slightly different, because of its SAR status. Regional parties are allowed in SAR, but Papua didn’t relish those exception. Instead, the PGI and ECF competed for majority. This trend continues for the rest of the century. A clash between pro-immigration PGI and pro-conservationist ECF persisted as the longest debate in Papuan History. PGI won in 60% portion, in the end.

    The Presidential Election, regardless of the nominee, will be won by the Coalition. The only opposition left, the ICP, was impossible to compete such a supermajority. In the end, Aidit, ICP Nominee, only achieve barely 20% of the vote. While Coalition Nominee, General Nasution, won the rest although he never politically campaigned in the streets. He only used his generalship as his promotion.

    Nasution become the nation’s 2nd President.
    330px-AH_Nasution,_Jalesveva_Jayamahe,_p11.jpg
    Nasution’s first moves was demanding on most of British or Australian Islands in Indian Ocean. Nasution put tremendous efforts to the US by telling them that most of the islands must be traded either to US or to Indonesia. America firstly declined, thinking that maybe in this mess, Australia may still be friendly towards the US. However, with Australia’s surprise attack to America’s Mariana Islands, added with East Coast raid by the British, America surely was mad.

    These attacks was done to say that British and Australian forces still existed. Canada, Britain’s Dominion who was so frightened to battle America that they did not join the war, by 1965 had increase troops along the border. America sure knew this, and also prepare for the ultimate liberation of the Northern Brother. Bermuda, which shockingly still British during the war, managed to become Britain’s radar outpost for America’s movements. Weirdly enough, East Coast was silent, so Britain foolishly decided to anger the American mob. Cities in Cheapskate Bay are raided.

    The raids on the East Coast become one of the worst defense failure in American history. The American Navy that surely was distracted in the Pacific, left their ‘front door’ opened to the enemies. What then happened was literally the destruction of Bermuda, and British islands in Caribbean are all surrounded by America. In Britain, a Vote of No Confidence was given to the current government, due to incompetence. A new PM was appointed, a certain Peter Thorneycroft. Thorneycroft searched for a better peace deal for the Kingdom. Naturally, former PMs orders for raiding the East Coast hardened for peace deals. America wished for everything from Caribbean Islands, Indian Ocean Territories and British Islands in the Pacific to be in the peace deal. Thorneycroft, elegantly, declined such shameful surrender, and carry on with the war. What he didn’t expect is in early 1966, an civil war of a certain Western nation imploded British Africa into a bloodbath of tribal and colonial warfare.

    Back to Indonesia, the PUP spoke for National Re-adjustment, a domestic mega-project to shape Indonesia’s post-war Era. Major cities ruined because of this conflict, mainly due to extensive bombings led by Australia from Christmas Island. However, after recent push in Papua, the attacks subsided. Hatta, former ally, then rival, then reconciled friend of Sukarno, plan to develop Jakarta as Sukarno’s legacy. This process is called as “Sukarno-ification” which also occurred in Papua, as some cities are renamed with ‘Sukarno’ essence. Sukarno’s plan for Jakarta was a modernist architecture, reform Jakarta as ‘Old and New’.

    Notes:
    I am on my vacation today, since it's New Year's Eve. Because of that, I post this by mobile. I sadly must postponed those maps like 1955 ones.

    And for the New Year Special, I decided to post the next chapter much sooner. Rather than on 1st January, time is rather difficult for me so I rather post it sometime later.
     
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    Strengthening Within. Part 3: A New Year Early Update
  • Modernist Architecture: Hatta’s Tribute to Sukarno, A Story of Jakarta’s Classical Era

    Taufik Darmawan, 2000


    The Old was a term for colonial buildings. Dutch architecture, and also Chinese, survived for hundreds of years. Floods, quakes, age and bombs even partly failed in wiping them off. Kota Tua remains a colonial-esque city. Small streets with low-rises shaped the old Jakarta. Besides Kota Tua, Gambir and Jatinegara also have the same architecture. Sukarno before hated this building, condemned it as sufferings of the past’. However, considering the far future, he opted to actually improve it as Districts. He thought that European cities like Hamburg preserved Medieval structures. Moreover, history is not something Sukarno’s may erase, as they themselves carved our future.

    images.jpeg-1.jpg

    Pre-Colonial Trams, still be used even until 21st Century, with modifications surely.

    The Old Architecture is mainly located mostly in Kota Tua, Gambir and Jatinegara. Although all of them includes modern styles, like Metro Stations, all of these city districts have trams. Bambang’s 1971 Law for Public Transportation allows trams to survive in these places. It would form a sort of loop around the area, especially Kota Tua where various museums are established. The other landmark this District has is its crowded transfer stations. Beos, Senen and Jatinegara Stations are expanded in such a way that Metro and Commuter Line with also tram tracks to transfer each other. In Gambir, the station is completely modified to become Jakarta’s Metro Hub.

    Old train tracks of Jakarta, especially the one that crosses Gambir, was majorly disassembled, while new routes planned by the Jakarta Reconstruction Committee was drawn. The JRC was partly influenced by the American style of infrastructure, so we could see the Grid Patterns in Old and New.

    The New Architecture is a brand-new design plotted by modernist architects. Broad buildings with wide broadways become their special characteristics. Also, large sidewalks and separate bike lanes become viral, although we can see bike lanes in Old Architecture. The most iconic of them all is majestic interchanges, like Semanggi Interchange and Kuningan Interchange, with Cloverleaf Junctions as their systems. This type of Architecture lingered in Jakarta History for the rest of the century, declined where Fungsionalism and Glass Architecture also modified New Architecture began in the 1980s.
    American investors build many of Jakarta’s classical skyscrapers. It icons the Economic Boost happen in the nation for the next ten years, with Post-War Boom, Carter Plan and Arms Boom in Indonesia. Sadly, good news must end when at the start of the 1990s, an Oil Embargo happened.

    240px-Merdeka_Square_Monas_02.jpg

    Monas or Monument Nasional is a monument designed by Indonesian-American Architect Robert Simangunsong. 156 meters tall, the tower remained the tallest in Indonesian history until BNI 46 overthrew it in 1974, for 241 meters.


    images.jpeg-2.jpg

    Bundaran HI, the 1970s. In the 1980s, the majority of these complexes is enhanced with large buildings and Metro Stations.

    This new stage of Indonesia’s city architecture spread to other cities like Surabaya, Semarang, Bandung and Bogor. Outside of Java, this broad style of the building did not thrive as exponentially as cities in Java does.

    Another special trait of this new plan is mostly the Highways. Highways, or Toll-ways in the Indonesian context, expand dramatically in this era. Especially after America gives her Wallace Plan, Java would construct its Trans-Highway starting from the 70s, starting with Jakarta Inner Ring Road as a start. The plan would be constructed in 1971, finished in 1999.

    Note:

    1964 is the start of Indonesia’s Modern Architecture Era. IOTL, Sukarno already boosted this type of design around the 1950s and began thriving in 1960. HI Roundabout, Sarinah, Semanggi Interchange, OTL DPR Building are examples.

    IOTL, Modern Development were mainly linear, focusing on OTL Sudirman-Thamrin Road, and parts of OTL Gatot Subroto Road. ITTL, Modern Architecture revolves linear on Thamrin Road. Thamrin is almost like OTL. Menteng still exist ITTL, except the elite-esque housing is far bigger, covering everything until East Cikini Road, even goes South to Ciliwung Border near OTL Manggarai Station. Manggarai ITTL exists as a Metro Hub, Station becomes many stacks of Subway tracks.

    But, in the South of the West Flood Canal, Modern Architecture follows a Grid Pattern from Dukuh Atas to Setiabudi, and OTL Prof. Dr Satrio becomes the border in the South. Everything in between is given to high rises similar to New York’s Midtown. The area was enormous, the whole zone was completely built only after the 21st Century. Furthermore, American investors were agitated about building a Green Belt as a border between Kebayoran and Jakarta-proper.

    IOTL, Sukarno tried to make Kebayoran Baru molded into Jakarta. ITTL, Kebayoran Baru was still considered a separate city, even until the 2000s, although the relation of Jakarta-Kebajoran is similar to Bandung-Cimahi OTL.

    OTL, Jakarta Inner Ring Road of the West Sector is from Cawang to Pluit. It passes Semanggi Interchange, Slipi. ITTL, JIRR passes even smaller rings. On the Western side, it goes on the outer side of the West Flood Canal, so ITTL, JIRR passes Dukuh Atas, Tanah Abang, and Tomang. So, the Flood Canal would be enclosed with train tracks like OTL and Toll Roads. The OTL JIIR, become ITTL Jakarta Outer Ring Road. ITTL, there is no road parallel to toll-like OTL. So, it would look like the Western part of OTL Jakarta Harbor Toll Road.
    ITTL, there is no direct connection to Tanjung Priok for JIRR. JIRR in the North is denoted as part of Tran-Java Highway, from Merak to Banyuwangi.
     
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    Strengthening Within. Part 4: National Rearmament
  • 2045: 100 years of Indonesia. By Prasetyo Subagio

    Nasution was inaugurated as President, along with many elected officials, at 6 January 1965. It marked a new Era, Post Sukarno Era or Reconstruction. This era will marked of its strong Armed Forces, ABRI in Indonesian perspective. Indonesia then would experience the greatest ever awakening in Asian history. It’s rise depicted similar to Japan in the 20th Century. When this era ends, the Reconstruction Era (1964-1992), Indonesia’s military presence was head to head with China.

    Until this day, experts cannot agree whether Indonesia during the era is a ‘military junta’ or not. America’s New Pax Americana Policy, since Kennedy Administration, had involved in rise of ‘military junta’ in South America. America feared South America’s thick roots on Socialism, which would lean themselves to France, or even worse, the Soviet Union. Especially after Cuba’s ‘democratic annexation’ to the United States, many of Red militias across South America were hardened and radicalized. The fall of Castro, in their eyes, become a call of martyrdom. As a result, we would see Central American nations fall under dictatorship, and likewise fates in South American nations.

    Indonesia, however, was a peculiar case. Indeed, Indonesia’s Armed Forces expanded greatly during the rule. Indonesia is also involved in many of America’s conflicts, especially in South East Asia, South America and Korea. One of Indonesia’s most controversial intervention, the “Indian Intervention” on the region’s longest continuous conflict, would later sparked Fundamentalism in Indonesia.

    The 1959 Constitution does not help either. Presidential status as Head of States is written in the Consitution. However, there are many flaws of this. The President can involve in government matters, and may dissolve the Assembly if they failed on governing the nation. The Assembly, however is unable to impeach or step down a President, only the Senate can. In addition to it, President powers above all of Indonesia, which includes the SARs. The Assembly, meanwhile, is excluded to SARs, as they have their own Assembly. The Senate comprises of all regions, including the SAR.

    The meaning of the above paragraph is Prime Minister’s powers only reigns in proper Indonesia only, and had no constitutional power in removing the President. The President however, can remove Prime Minister, and end even removing the Assembly. The only power that checked the President is only the Senate. This, by far, resulted the President as the highest power in Indonesia.

    Nasution knew this, and easily benefited from this situation. The PGI may only hold few government seats, but they are vital. The Presidency is theirs, and Foreign relations is also theirs. Because of this, the PGI can curb any opposition from the established Coalition. As a result, their brilliant strategy created INP as their ‘puppet’ or PGI’s boy even though INP is older and more established.

    Nasution first action was the Enlargement of the Army. During the Australia Aggression, the Armed Forces did expanded. From bamboos to bombers, the Air Force of Indonesia quintupled. Suryadarma, the incumbent Air Marshall, had helped this section of the Armed Forces from mere formalities into formidable forces. Indeed, the Air Force personnel exceeded even the Army and the Navy.

    Coast Guard was the second largest in the Armed Forces department. Although their duties is to patrol, the aggression war shaped the Coast Guard into a second Navy. Their boats, patrol boats, had been fully equipped with weapons. Enlists were fully trained for difficult combats. The Coast Guard had become an elite, modern literation of a Navy.

    The fundamental two faction of the Armed Forces, the Army and the Navy were the ones weakened and stagnated during the war. It was only after the Cendrawasih Offensive that both could show their strengths, and that even were shadowed by the success of the Air Force. The Army had lost half of its former men, only to move into the Air Force. The Navy also, moved to the Coast Guards.

    Nasution, as a army officer, was not pleased by this. Nearly all sovereign nations upheld the Navy and especially the Army as their fore powers. How in Indonesia they became obsoletes? Therefore, he negotiated with PM about this matter, and Hatta agreed. A government policy called ‘National Rearmament’ was programmed in 1965. The content of the policy was developing the Army and the Navy unto a Secondary Power level. This task was arduous, and would need time to complete. But, this would be necessary, for the Adventurism Indonesia would have in their jingoistic era.
     
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    Strengthening Within. Part 5: Peace With Victory
  • Contemporary History of Indonesia
    By I Made Abi Krisnawijaya


    1965 had meant one thing for the British, their inevitable doom. Their war effort was crippled by the Behemoth Blues (USA), with their ally-puppet Indonesia. The joint forces had reached Port Moresby, and even land in Darwin. The Royal Air Force presence in the Far East had been eliminated. It seemed that Britain soon be forced to meet their terms.

    In the end, it did. The Treaty of Darwin concluded in July 1965. A peace deal between two opposing sides had reached a destructive end. Britain had forced a withdrawal of every overseas possessions in Indian and Pacific Ocean, and also Bermuda. The British West Pacific Territories, an astonishing large swaths sparse islands, except decent size of Solomon Islands and Fiji, was split by Indonesia and the States. Indonesia would take the Solomon Islands only, while America took the rest. As the Americas wanted a peaceful reconciliation with the Australians, Australia would held a referendum of leaving the Commonwealth, and finally reached her independent status. However, Australia’s transition of status would left a huge pile of mess to come.

    Diego Garcia, part of British Indian Overseas Territories was gifted to Indonesia. Indonesia as to vindicate their friendship alliance with the whites, allow America to have presence in the island for another 100 years. Diego Garcia would then become a joint military base, a Indo-American base. Apart from Bermuda, the British islands in the Atlantic were relatively untouched. Even Canada were untouched either. Kennedy, on that time, restrained the US to go overboard, so America’s image stayed good internationally.

    In Indonesia, this peace deal confirmed a great victory for the Republicans of Nusantara. The PGI acclaimed this as ‘Indonesia’s Greatest Win’ against the brute Europeans. Their once nation divided, had fully united once more. Now, Malayunesia has united under the glorious Federal Republic of Indonesia. For Hatta Cabinet, these new swaths of land had given them new problems, how to administrate them.

    British Malaya had comprised of Sultanates, most of them hated the Republic. Only a few, like Johor and Brunei, were willing to synchronize themselves as similarly as Jogja or Solo. Furthermore, their administrative divisions was definitely differ from us. If we implemented British Malaya’s style of demographic administration, Indonesia now would have more than a hundred states. So, a simplification, or merging of Malayan States, must be done.

    The next problem for Hatta was, in fact, the Singaporean Question. Singapore had been an alien to British Malaya, their ethic composition of Chinese and Tamils had become a red in blue sea. This matter if not dealt properly, would resulted a separatism in Singapore, which Indonesia feared of. In the other hand, Indonesia keened on keeping Singapore, as means of boosting Indonesia’s GDP. Singapore, until the others can overtake, would become the largest contributor to Indonesia’s economy. In fact, their little presence also prevented many Indonesia’s crisis from falling into recessions. Hatta thought about this, and come up with a careful solution.

    Penang, Labuan, Malaka and Singapore will be given their SER status. Johor, Perak and Brunei, part of Indonesia’s return of favor, are allowed to maintain their kingdom. The British Borneo, was divided accordingly before, Sarawak and Sabah. But, parts of Sarawak was given to Brunei as gifts. In the Peninsula, Johor and Perak were given additional territories. The rest were unified as one Federal State of Malaysia.

    In Papua, both ends united. East and West finally reconciled as one. The Papua SAR was finally whole. Different from Indonesia proper, Papua may had a distinct administrative divisions that was entirely more represented than Indonesia-proper. The current leader of Papua SAR, Captain Johannes Abraham Dimara preferred a more geographical division, rather than the usual demographic one. To diminish the strong presence of the former division, no provincial borders passed the 141° East Line, the former line that divides the island. To ease tensions among the diverse Austronesian tribes in Papua, no ethnic terms is used for provincial names. Instead, cardinal points are used. North, South, East and West Papua was created. Solomon Islands were incorporated to Papua, and joined with Bougainville to form a Melanesia SAR. And with that, the East is settled and cleared.

    As constituted, an Amendment was specifically given for the new SAR, and things were fine. West of Aceh, those micro-islands were also being dealt with, as the British Indian Territories at first had been transformed into Indonesia Indian Ocean Territories. However, afraid dissented the Creoles, Indonesia rather gave them another SAR for them, dubbed Mauritius SAR. The Chagos Archipelago, the one with Diego Garcia as one of them, maintained by Indonesia as part of Overseas Territories, and would be used mainly by the US to ‘patrol’ political situations in India or the Middle East. In the end of 1965, the Republic would stand with pride as the 2nd nation, after Japan, that had Overseas Teritories. Although this expansion was domestically despised by Indonesian citizens, Nasution’s rule stayed strong for the next five years.

    ___
    This damn forum update is giving me more mess than benefits... :)

    I guarantee a map in the next post.
     
    Strengthening Within. Part 6: Britain and Egypt Update
  • The Sun Finally Sets on the British Empire
    John Cradford, 2010


    The year 1966 was nearing to a multipolar world once again. Capitalism and Socialism were divided yet into two factions each, resembling the radical and the moderates. The United States had become the moderate liberal. Self explanatory, America’s stances for civil rights and the spectacular victorious ventures in South East Asia had strengthened their core Constitutional values. It became highly unpopular for White-Supremacist, especially with America’s new ally, is in fact, everything but white related.

    Britain became the more radical version of the States, especially the right wing. The failures of Conservative Party let this new movement, Unitist movement, to rise as the new Tories. Evolve under racism, patriotism and nationalism, the party became resounding imperialist, even fascist to some extend. Also, this new shift had strengthened Royal Powers, as the new growing party, the British Unionist Party, gave support for again, a British Empire. This exclamation was fulfilled when a snap election held in 1966, immediately after the war.

    In the eyes of the Labours, this unitary left wing convinced for a victory. No wonder, Conservatives were doomed. Their stubborn war hawks humiliated Britain to the greatest extend. If only the US relations in the 30s, we surely would lost everything but Africa. But then, their hopes of becoming the largest in Britain was in danger, as a overwhelming 30% goes for a new party, the BUP. The BUP, under highlighted John Bean, a rightist activist. He managed to rally with the Scottish National Party, and also Welsh Cymru Party. The party based on rural regions of Scotland and Wales, with some enclaves in Southern England also.

    download.jpeg.jpg

    John Bean in a campaign

    This BUP had also rose into prominence because of one thing, British Africa Implosion. During the election, the Parliament had already suffered major problems. Unemployment, rising inflation and economic downfall had been the better of terms. The worst of them were the revolts happening in Africa. Since the Aggression, UK had tighten its grip on her colonies. Rather than the old plan of decolonization, the Brits prefer total assimilation to the Empire. However, that meant various African tribes to stay within the Commonwealth hold, which was already loosening.

    The first fire had commenced in British vexatious colony, Egypt, it spread to the Continent, and start of the African Rebel Era.

    Egypt is truly the gift of the Nile. Large streams of water fertilizing the desert gave Egypt an oasis in the middle of drylands. With also geopolitical importance, like the Isthmus of Suez, supply the trade influx from Africa to Europe and Asia, and since the Canal completed, connect Europe and Asia with better and faster sea lanes. In geographical stance, this nation has every potential to become a superpower. Sinai in the West protects any foreign invasion with rough topography. Sahara envelops the region isolated Egypt from raids and bandits. But, despite all the benefits Egypt could reap, this nation never exploited his own, rather others did.

    Since the Roman, Egypt had been under several empires, such as Byzantium, Ottoman and now the British. Particularly the British Empire, Arabs in Egypt became a British Protectorate and assisted Britain in both World Wars. In 1952, a British Promise gave them independence. Under an ambitious king, Faroukh I, the Kingdom rose as one industrial nation in the Middle East. The Kingdom grew as a young learner. Although independent, Britain’s influence still existed, mostly in Suez Canal. However, there were flaws in this new Kingdom, one of them was the Islamic Question.

    Since the British Era, the Kingdom of Egypt sided mostly to secularism. As once a believer of Egyptian Gods, Coptic, Christian, then finally Islam, various faiths evolved inside. This was not an issue, until Jews arrived in Palestine. The Islamic majority sown discontent to the new nation in the Middle East. ‘Invasion’, as some might had said. As Israel was a British and American ally, Egypt too become cordial allies. By that reason, in the 50s, public resentment grew as the Kingdom stayed friendly with them albeit the people said no. Egypt was so close to fully become a regional power of the Middle East, almost surpassed Iran and Saudi Arabia. However, the Kingdom shattered, and revolt.

    egypt.jpg

    Egyptian Revolt 1956


    Hence, the 1956 Egyptian Revolution abdicated the Sultan, and gave way for a authoritarian republic under Abdel Hakim Amer. Abdel Hakim Amer, born in Samalut, was a religious man. In fact, his faith convinced him to become Egpyt’s number one. For him, his faith had become the oppressed, although its majority. For the Kingdom, peace was the main priority, and peace threatened Arab existence on the Palestinian lands. He decides to take initiative, and with his military power as Liutenant General, he launched a coup. His new creation, a Republic of Egypt, was mainly a mixture between theocracy and military junta. They want their neighbor, Israel, must die. In addition to it, Faroukh abdication led the British to fully take Suez as theirs, which was outrageous for Egypt. The rest became history as we knew.

    In the first war, Egypt managed to reclaim Suez, and even push Israel back to 1948 Partition Plan. The new republic had great win in the region. However, the Empire stroke back in 1960s, and return the Dynasty as British Protectorate, again. Heavy patrol followed suit, and the idea of theocracy failed in Egypt, which ascended a much more threat, a red Egypt. In 1966, Abdul Nasser, a communist politician, declared Socialist Republic of Egypt, the whole of Africa started to crumble.

    abdul.jpg

    Abdul Nasser, Egyptian Premier until 1988


    Pax Britannia was deteriorating, and massive instability erupted throughout the continent. Even the French colonies, also a Socialist leaning, were slightly hit by this. Since the Red Revolution of 1966, the Empire constantly under attack. Tribes would revolt, like in Nigeria, Kenya and Rhodesia. Especially with the short-lived French Civil War, which ensued the Francophone intact, Britain stood in a hard place, and would struggle throughout the century.

    In the end, what Africa had became was the largest proxy war in this new stage of Cold War. British dominance reduced to loyal dominions, like Canada and South Africa. After that, dominions gained more power in British Politics. Soviet Union, fortunetely, was far from having an ally inside the Continent. The great powers capable to compete in Africa were France and the US. France, yet experience damages of a civil war, had recognized Africa long to quickly regain supremacy, but America used an ally who ever reigned in these lands, and that ally was the Federal Kingdom of Germany.

    download.jpeg-1.jpg

    Genocide of Congo Basin, the largest genocide in world history. Formerly a proxy battle between France and US, the region worsened to become tribal killings. Tribes killed each other from 1970 to 2000s, only to fully pacified by Congo National Army in 2002.

    By this tactic, although not as optimal as it may had become, still stemmed French influence for overrunning the Continent. Africa’s Rebel Era, as Indonesian might say, is one of the most unique events in history. The main objective of the revolution was to bring Socialism to Africa. Meanwhile, when the Era ended, most of the rebelled regions later became mostly colonized again, with a new master in crown. The French were one master. Still, few regions, mainly in the Horn, became so violent, that anarchy became the government’s system.

    Egypt, later under Abdul Nasser, had become a French ally, and also succeeded in assisting Yugoslavia to formalize a treaty of friendship with France. The socialist world, it seemed, had evolved to become a contending fight between two lefts, France and Soviet Union. It was not in the 70s, when China also attempted to enter the stage.

    ----------
    Notes:

    Since the American shift to the Pacific, and not so in Europe. The US interestingly created something they would have never anticipated, a divided Red. France and the Soviet Union, was similar to Sino-Soviet Split OTL, but much stronger. In the end, the entire strategy of the US is stated on one idiom.

    "One must comes down to go up. One must bank left to turn right. One must defeat a Commie with another Commie. Use other's hand to punch your enemy."
     
    Last edited:
    Strengthening Within: 1964 Elections
  • People's Representative Council of Indonesia (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Indonesia)


    DPR.png


    320 Seats

    Party of Greater Indonesia - Partai Indonesia Raya - 124 Seats, 38.75% (96 Popular, 28 Constituency) (+77)

    Progressive Union Party - Partai Persatuan Perubahan - 99 Seats, 30.94% (74 Popular, 25 Constituency) (+65)

    Indonesia National Party - Partai Nasional Indonesia - 66 Seats, 20.63% (49 Popular, 17 Constituency) (+1)

    Indonesia Communist Party - Partai Komunis Indonesia - 31 Seats, 9.68% (21 Popular, 10 Constituency) (-1)


    ---------------------------

    People's Representative Council of [West] Papua Special Administrative Region (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Admnistrasi Khusus Papua [Barat])



    Papua DPR.png


    50 Seats

    Party of Greater Indonesia - Partai Indonesia Raya - 33 Seats, 66.55%

    Eastern Coalition Front - Front Gabungan Daerah Timur - 17 Seats, 33.45%
     
    Strengthening Within: 1964 Government Term
  • 1964 Administration

    President:
    Gen. Abdul Haris Nasution (PGI)
    Vice President: Let. Gen TB Simatupang (PGI)


    Prime Minister: Mohammad Hatta (PUP)

    Indonesia Strong Cabinet

    Minister of Foreign Affairs: Maj. Gen. Suharto (PGI)
    Minister of Interior: Mukarto (PNI)
    Minister of Defense: Gen. Ahmad Yani (PGI-Affiliated)
    Minister of Justice: Umar Wirahadikusumah (PGI)
    Minister of Information: Muhammad Yamin (PNI)
    Minister of Finance: Ong Eng Die (PNI)
    Minister of Agrarian Affairs: Chairul Saleh (PUP)
    Minister of Trade Affairs: Sumanang (PUP)
    Ministry of Industrial Affairs: Adam Malik (PUP)
    Minister of Transportation: Djuanda (PUP)
    Minister of Public Works: Djuanda (PUP)
    Minister of Social Affairs: Fajar Lubis (PNI)
    Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs: Muhammad Yamin (PNI)
    Minister of Religion: Sul. Hamengkubuwono IX
    Minister of Health: Dr. F.L. Tobing (PUP)
     
    Indonesia Map Circa-1966
  • indonesiaeote.png


    Finally... I intentionally displace any Indonesian Indian Ocean Possessions, like Mauritius, because it is too lazy
    I'll update the map on 2000, which will have surprises.
     
    Pax Nusantara Domestic Issue Part 1
  • Indonesia: The Youngest Asian Tiger
    Liem Siew Liong, 1990


    As the nation finally stabilized, Indonesia could at last planned for her future. Years of fighting for the nation truly had disrupted the economy, as Autarky was once again being implemented. This war-economy system isolated Indonesia from anything outside, and Nasution needed to change this worrying habit. And so, he proposed. Using the flaws of the Indonesian Constitution, President Nasution proposed the Pax Nusantara Policy to the Parliament. During that time, Prime Minister had been changed to Premier due to reduce similarities with existing Parliamentary system of Britain. So, Premier Hatta consulted with Nasution about Pax Nusantara, and added several domestic ideas from Hatta himself. Pax Nusantara Policy, meaning Peace Within Nusantara, was a mega-project government long-term plan that shaped 20th Century of Indonesia. It was ratified on 13th November 1966, and immediately put into effect by 6th January 1967. The policy itself included 25 chapters of government plan, also inputted various then-impossible plans like Sunda Strait Bridge, Singaporean Strait Tunnel, and Batam-Mainland Express. The plan was simplified to be divided into five, according to the five factors of industrialization.

    One, Land factor.

    The recent conflict enlarged Indonesia to become the largest nation in the South East Asia. Owning the most profitable sea lane in the world, Malacca Strait is everything Indonesia need to become a great power. However, the young government may face several difficulties within her borders, as with big land comes also big crimes. Piracy is still a crucial issue in national sovereignty. Although the Coast Guard had been established separate from the Navy, and also had expanded under the Wilopo Administration, Piracy still existed in Indonesia, mainly stealing fish and cargo.

    In addition to it, inequality in development also became another issue. During the Dutch colonization, Java and Sumatra were the only islands that was built with a railroad, and also several industries. The rest, like Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Maluku, were considered worthless trash. After incorporated Malaya, Indonesia also faced another problem, which the Malayan government could take over Jakarta, and constructed a Malay-center government rather than the initial Java-center government. As a Javanese himself, he surely afraid of possible takeover of Indonesia under the hands on Malaya.

    Pax Nusantara was a program destined specifically for improving areas once under Dutch East Indies, to compete the better British East Indies. For compensation, however, was given to the British East Indies, like Malay State, to autonomously grow under the Indonesian flag for thirty years as ‘adjustment’. Truthfully, it was intended to focus more of the under-developed Former-Dutch East Indies. Before implementation, people highly criticized this procedure as extremely pro-Java. However, after few decades of implementation, opposite opinions started to rise.

    Two, Labor Factor

    This sector, was where things turned complicated for the government. Nearly all of the labor force lived within Java, and minuscule amount in major cities of Sumatra and South Sulawesi. Nearly everywhere but Java was only farmers and illiterates. Fortunately, the national education plan in the 50s improve literacy in the East. So, Pax Nusantara was destined to sprawl what in Java to outside of it. 15 cities, including the United States’ promised city, Tembagapura, was included to subsidize any laborer wish to settle. Mining production was increased, so did forestry and other non-renewable drillings. Farming would become heavily mechanized, and forestry was altered into profitable specimens, like rubber. And then, textile, chemical and other industries were spawned slowly throughout the implementation.



    Factor​
    Summary​
    Existing Infrastructure​
    Pax Nusantara Program​
    General Impact​
    LAND​
    • Space

    • Natural Resources
    Malaya, Java and Sumatra were highly industrialized regions compared to other islands like Sulawesi, Kalimantan, and Borneo.

    Natural Resources-wise, Regions particularly in the East had many potentials, like oil, minerals and fish.
    Similar to Manifest Destiny, and Pax Americana.

    Also, Pax Nusantara determined to maneuver any possible separatism in the East.
    Eastward Expansion led to rapid growth in the East, exceedingly well also. Land wealth was genuinely extracted and exploited. However, this led to the infamous deforestation in many places.
    LABOR​
    • Leadership

    • Workers

    • People

    Java was crowded compare to any region on Indonesia. The population discrepancy in Indonesia was so high and potential on killing the economy.Pax Nusantara opened numerous factories, corresponding with natural resources there, in everywhere outside Java. Few kick-started cities, like Batam, Balikpapan, Kotabaru, Tembagapura, was given additional funding to boost the immigration.Immigrants make up a large percentage of the work forces. Javan-ization became a 20th -21st Century event for Indonesia. But, overpopulation in Java reduced dramatically.
    CAPITAL​
    • Refers to the money and the factories themselves
    Money had always been a problem since the establishment of the republic. The government strived for acquiring loans from other nation. In the start, only few nations like US gave funds.Foreign aid from the United States, assisted industrial boost due to Vietnam Civil War, and Indian Revolution, and shenanigans in Africa, particularly securing Madagascar.Reached a form of productive cycle between capital, industry and administration. Loaned money improve industry, which would repay the loan given. Government, as affected by profit, spent in roads, which further improved industry.
    CONNECTIONS​
    • Roads
    • Canals
    • Railroads
    • telegraph
    Railroads were exclusive in Java and parts of Sumatra. Roads were extremely limited in Eastern Indonesia, but better in Java and Malaya.Give outstanding half of total government budget to build roads and rails all across Indonesia.The establishment of a Sea-Toll for cargo. Trans-Java, Trans-Malaya, Trans-Sumatra, and Trans-Papua of rails and roads would be created. Public transportation, like a possible MRT in Singapore, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur also were designed, and built. In the end of industrialization, 25 cities would be exposed to futuristic public transport like Monorail, LRT, Eco-Tram or MRT. 50 more would be exposed to basic transport like bus.
    TECHNOLOGY

    • application of science to industrial uses
    Technology improvement was highly for cities only, as city and rurals were cut off. Any technological ease were only exercised on major cities.Giving America the right to establish Space Base somewhere on Fakfak. Improve the curriculum, national education, and slightly tackle fitful conservatism.Major advancement on this could advance Indonesia almost as levelled as Japan. Technology thrived on research center surroundings like in South Papua, West Kalimantan, South Maluku, and Bangka Belitung.
     
    Pax Nusantara Domestic Issue Part 2
  • Part 2
    Continuation from

    Indonesia: The Youngest Asian Tiger
    Liem Siew Liong, 1990


    Three, Capital factor

    Since colonization period, Indonesia had always been giving money rather than earning it. Part of wealth of kingdoms in all of Indonesia was always tribute to colonizers, such as Portugal, Netherlands and the British. During the Independence Wars, Indonesia must spend nearly all of their income for war effort. Wilopo Administration managed to return much of the money into the national vault, but dried again by the war expense of the Indonesia-Australian war.

    Nasution, at that time, had nearly no budget to have. Tax was still ineffective for the government, as tax-collectors had overwhelmingly frustrated on requesting tax. In addition to it, to improve tax collecting, infrastructure must be upgraded, and that also took money as well. So, all of the budget must rely on industrial profit. Because of this, Nasution thought why not than boosting industrialization. So he did just that. In SER, investors had given total freedom in regulations. In other regions, region with high resources was immediately constructed with industrial complexes. So, a long story short, the government led business do their own work.

    Furthermore, foreign relations were fostered primarily by the center government. Apart from renegaded the United States, Indonesia reached everywhere that was rich, including the Socialist France, and Japan. By that way, the shape of industrialization in Indonesia was heavily influenced by foreign nation’s requirements. Cheap labor, where ever they are, become a hotbed for industry.

    So, capitalism rules primarily in metropolitans and heavy industrial complexes. SERs were flooded with money, while others rely on national budget. This resulted with high gap between SERs and States, and the clashes next to come.

    singapore.jpg
    singapore2.jpg

    Left: Construction of Peal Bank Apartments in Singapore, 1970s
    Right: Bukit Timah, 2010s


    bintan.jpg
    batam2.jpg

    Left: Bintan Military Airport, 1970s, lively during American Adventurism in Asia, boost Bintan greatly
    Right: Batam Ocean Park, 2000s, located South of Batam City


    Four, Connection Factor

    This factor had been the most observed one for the government, because of its vitality to the national guideline. To be frank, nearly all of the 20th Century was marked with construction. The most ambitious of them all, is the plan to connect all sides of each Indonesia’s major islands.

    Firstly, Trans-Java. Trans-Java was designed to envelope Java as a whole, connecting both ends with train rails and highways. Although not parallel at each other, highways were built connecting the same cities train rails had done. Split into two main paths, Trans Java had a Southern and Northern Way. The Northern Java Road, New Jalan Pantura, connected every cities lying near the Java Sea. The Southern Java Road, New Jalan Selatan, connected high elevated cities with its distinct steep and curvy roads. Links of connecting the two giants, in Bogor, Bandung, Cirebon, Semarang, was made. They joined up in Solo to later split again in Madiun, where the South travels to Malang, then return to Surabaya.

    Next, Trans-Sumatra, similar to Trans Java, but with a larger costlier construction. From Medan to Lampung, roads and railways would be built. Medan and Palembang would be connected from this project. Hoped it would become a major contributor for increasing economical rate in Sumatra, Trans-Sumatra had given another intriguing factor, cultural connectivity. Immediately after the construction, isolated tribes had started getting to know the outside world, and dramatically reduce illiteracy, poverty, and social inequality.

    Trans-Borneo and Trans-Sulawesi were smaller sample of this megaprojects, solely the roads were being built. Trains yet never established until the 21st century, when the 2nd General Construction begin.

    However, the last but the most curious case, the Trans-Papua. Trans-Papua, although with the population very sparse, was intensively built to surpass even Sumatra. Bechtel Group, funded this project to facilitate the United States strategic foreign policy, which is securing Indonesia by making Papua an American outpost. Therefore, they built Papua like it is Hawaii, and the infrastructure galore was used optimally when 21st century came.

    Jagorawi.jpg
    jakarta.png
    papua.jpg

    Left: Gasip Interchange, connecting Trans-Sumatra to Pekanbaru, which later proceeds to Padang
    Center: Sosrobahu Technique used for the 2nd Jakarta Ring-Road Construction
    Right: The Spectacular Central Papua Interchange, connecting East-West to North-South. In fact, in 2000s, a city named Sukarnopura built South East of this interchange.
     
    Pax Nusantara Technology Factor
  • Part 3

    Still Continuation from

    Indonesia: The Youngest Asian Tiger
    Liem Siew Liong, 1990


    The four factors were greatly affected to national course for the rest of the century. The last factor, technology, however, was entirely affected to the other part, foreign relations.

    Technology in Indonesia was extremely rare. After series of wars, conflicts and general confusion of the society. The condition stagnated until 1970s Indonesia still look like the 1950s, except with more population. Many, many of farming tools is still 1955 dated, as also with military, industrial and administration means. Indonesia had survived to 1966 with only 1st Wilopo Era Modernization. As a result, Nasution decided to change things.

    His power in the Army was superior during his Presidency. In addition to it, general dissidents yet lingered around the Parliament itself. PGI had grown to be divided into two factions, a moderate and an aggressive faction. The moderate faction, led by General Suryadarma, with Suharto and Nasution as fellow believers, promote an American Approach and firmly confident of Indonesia’s path to greatness by relying on the United States. The moderate faction had been relatively economist and militarist, but no intellectuals. The second more radical version of PGI, nicknamed the ‘Purple Faction’, by Senator Frans Kaisiepo. A natural Papuan descendant, Senator Frans trusted that Indonesia’s only way to greatness was to become a major power for Asia, with the first step by reuniting Austronesia as a whole. That also means to promote a Non-Aligned Outlook, which Sukarno had proposed decades earlier. Jacob Suebu, Frans’ right-hand man, even stated that from Easter to Madagascar, it shall be truly Indonesian. Besides their ambitious territorial claim, and a harsher jingoistic manner, Purple Faction had a more, scientific method of ways. The Purple Faction really believe that Science might be the answer for Indonesia’s greatness, and promote intellectuals to support this, like well-known Aburizal Bakrie, an ITB electro-technician who left his family business legacy to assist in constructing nuclear power plants, as well as the founder of BTNI (Badan Tenaga Nuklir Indonesia) or INEO (Indonesian Nuclear Energy Organization).

    For Nasution, the split of the party may lose them the later 1969 Election. However, he wanted his military faction maintain their leadership. So, he orchestrated a compromise between two factions, with proviso as follows.
    • Several Purple Faction members will hold several important government officials regarding technology and information. That means they leave the technology problem to the Purples.
    • With the rest still control by the Military Faction, they must secrete augmented adventurism that favors the interests principally to Indonesia. Madagascar must be secured, and so does the Pacific.
    This matter greatly cost more money than the national budget could handle. The additional funding necessary for the Purple’s satisfaction still generated headache for Nasution. So, he requested, once again, an American help. This time, however, was NASA.

    "First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth."

    That proclamation by President John F. Kennedy before a joint session of Congress on May 25, 1961, set the stage for an astounding time in our nation's emerging space program. The goal -- fueled by competition with the Soviet Union dubbed the "space race" -- took what was to become Kennedy Space Center from a testing ground for new rockets to a center successful at launching humans to the moon. Neil Armstrong's "one small step" on the lunar surface in 1971 achieved a goal that sounded like science fiction just a few years earlier.

    During the 1960s, the infrastructure of the Launch Operations Center took shape as preparations for the lunar missions continued. However, after serious considerations of the climate, geography and social effects, the space center moved to newly rented 10 hectares of land given to the Indonesian government. Now, it is called the Liberty Space Center.



    The Apollo 10 launch from pad 39A came on March 26, 1971. The eight-day mission took the crew on a 935,000-mile journey to another world. On April 1, an estimated 530 million people watched the televised image and heard Armstrong's words as he became the first human to set foot on the moon, fulfilling President Kennedy's challenge.

    By 1970's end, the Apollo Program had completed twelve successful moon landings, and Liberty Space Center was the launch capital of the world. Not until 1980s, when political movements led the United States to build Forrester Space Center to relocate the launch capital of the world further west.

    Against a backdrop of the decade's social changes, the exciting achievements in space gave Americans collective pride.

    Cheryl L. Mansfield
    NASA's Frank Forrester Church Space Center

    Long story short, Papua was given an impressive task on modernizing Indonesia with technology by making the island a bridge between Indonesia and the United States in terms of development, technological advancements, and political situations. After the increase incentives in technology, Indonesia in the 70s, and especially the 80s would spark an electronic boom. The boom was so massive that Indonesia could compete Japan in producing electronic devices. But, lack of entrepreneurs and several coincidental rigors threw Indonesia deeply into trouble. Much more of it would be seen later in the height of 80s.

    To strengthen the point, Indonesia decided to sell Kennedy Island in return for another extensive assistance for technological advancements and other requests. The States accept greatly, but in a few years, this just and fair trade must shuffled again when a certain figure in the US ascended to power.

    Photos:

    btni.jpg
    habibie.jpg
    aburizal bakrie.jpg
    ford-shelby.jpg

    Left to Right (BTNI Office in Jakarta, finished construction in 1975, became a nuclear supervisor for Oceania and South East Asia, still become a National Headquarters until a new building built on the Reclamation Project; B.J. Habibie in holding his dream plane, he establish a major contribution of Indonesia's role in world aerospace technology, opening Nurtanio which will rival Boeing and Airbus in 2040s; Aburizal Bakrie during his reign in BTNI, teamplay with US for building several nuclear stations in Indonesia; Ford Mustang 1966, a famous racing car in Indonesia during the 70s)

    java.jpg
    papua.jpg

    Left to Right (Functioning Kalijati Nuclear Power Plant near Cirebon, part of the 70s One Island One Plant Policy, shadowed by 90s Green Declaration, the Nuclear Plant was the only plant active in Western Indonesia; Fly Nuclear Complex, built under the Pampered Papua Crisis, capable of withstanding the entire consumption of two Meraukes [now 3 million people])
     
    Baffled Decade Part 1: Domestic Parties
  • 21 May 1968 Kompas TV Exclusive Report

    The evolution of Indonesia’s politics has been quite twisty dynamics. While some marked the decade as the start of a new order in Indonesia, other suggested that it would be more than just that. Growth by the end of the decade have been tremendous, especially nearing the end. Infrastructure was their top priority, along with military. Therefore, these factions, military and business, have gain status as dominant power in Indonesian politics.

    Here’s how…

    The Party of Greater Indonesia, since their Christian start, had become the largest party in Indonesia. That’s one strange case, as Indonesia is faithfully Islam, along with other religious minorities. Their key note on keeping power was, literally, the driving force of a war. So, since the war has ended, the party have to rethink about this strategy. Ignatius Joseph Kasimo Hendrowahyono, leader of PGI in the 60s to 70s, was stuck between a rock and a hard place. In one side, the military had pursued to promote economic stability and general improvement of Indonesia’s infrastructure. In the other hand, the intellectuals persisted in educating the mass about the importance of science in this new era, and approved adventurism to anywhere strategically. No one really know how the intellectuals, or the ‘Purple Faction’, turned more jingoistic than the military itself.

    The abyss of dissolution was barely avoided. If Nasution had not forced a compromise, surely the party would split up. However, the new deal instead boosted the party as a stronger one. It evolved to become a sort of symbiosis. In the end, we instead see these factions swap roles. The Military faction, or now called the Golkar, become a business faction with means of improving civil prosperity. The Purple Faction become a techno-military faction with means of improving self-prestige. In 1969 election, we would see this party victorious once more. As a pro-American party, they supported American actions, at least until America messed up. But during the 60s and so on, the party remained the largest party in Indonesia.

    Party of Greater Indonesia - Partai Indonesia Raya

    LeaderIgnatius Joseph Kasimo Hendrowahyono
    HeadquartersAnggrek Neli Murni Street No.11A
    IdeologyEconomic Liberalism
    Ultra-Nationalism
    National Populism
    Pro-Millitarism
    Political PositionRight
    International AffiliationPro-United States

    The second party, a satellite for the PGI, was the old National Party of Indonesia. Rather than pro-American authoritarian democrat PGI, the INP was rather a liberal Party. The party used to promote Marhaenism, which functioned similarly like Marxism. However, with the political situations at sight, they threw this to the bin, and instead promote Wilopo’s marvelous legacy, the Asia-Africa Conference. Ali Sastroamidjojo, party leader after Wilopo step down, envisaged more connections to other nations like Egypt, Liberia, India and other liberated nations. Therefore, they sought for reduced American influence in Indonesia. Although this upset the Americans, the INP hovered at the ‘good guys’, and relatively undisturbed, because there were other more troublesome parties at the moment. The party needed an icon that was not too American-backed, but still an American ally. Japan was still mere satellite due to situations in the Korean Peninsula. The Philippines was giving in for a back-door in case Indonesia sever Vietnam assistance, which was ridiculously absurd. However, one Kennedy ally is fairly independent, and suitable, Federal Kingdom of Germany.

    Federal Kingdom of Germany was a developing kingdom. Their brilliant strategy of curbing anti-French radicals while cooperating with left-wing populace of Eastern Germany maintain the balance within the Kingdom. The Reich indeed detested Thorezian imperialism in a new type of communism, which involved their beloved Saar to be annexed. However, Elected King Louis Ferdinand I, directed the mass to look East, and be aware of a bigger red hegemony lurking in the borders. So, the nation became the largest fairly democratic nation in Europe. During the 70s, people would consider Fourth Reich as an oasis in Red Europe. In addition to it, the collapse of United Kingdom got Germany to replace UK’s sole power of protecting the Low Countries.

    By this case, Germany become friendly to USA. However, their friendliness was far from being controlled, like Japan or Indonesia had become. They persisted on holding the balance, befriend USA so France and Soviet Union won’t budge. They did well in teetering the European balance back to democracy (France’s election is simply formality for another Thorezian win), so well that in 70s, an African Cold War began with Germany’s rise.

    For Ali, this particular nation had succeeded to be unaffected by the red menace in every corner. He exclaimed Germany as one true Non-Aligned nation. Indonesia, once envisioned Sukarno to be unaligned to any nation, must now correct her path again as such. Our ample dependence towards the Americans could harm us in the future, which he predicted well on the 90s.

    Indonesia National Party - Partai Nasional Indonesia

    LeaderAli Sastroamidjojo
    HeadquartersPangeran Diponegoro Street No.58
    IdeologyPancasila-ism
    National Conservatism
    Conservative Democracy
    Pan-Indonesianism
    Pro-Intervention
    Political PositionCentre-Right
    International AffiliationNon Aligned (Pro-Germany)

    As PGI was the dominant right party, PUP was fairly left, social democrats to be precise. This was the case because the merging of SPI (Socialist Party of Indonesia) had turned the party a bit socialist. However, they didn’t patronize the French. Actually, they acknowledged themselves as true successor of Sukarno’s party, not like ICP. Citizens of Indonesia still praised Hatta as proclamator, and so his popularity remained high throughout the decade. As Premier also, Hatta decided government policies into effect. Unfortunately, PGI’s intervention into many of his agenda may give him some displeasure. The 70s marked the PGI-PUP split. But the 60s Hatta contained his annoyance for strategical reasons.

    Progressive Union Party - Partai Persatuan Perubahan

    LeaderMohammad Hatta
    HeadquartersPangeran Diponegoro Street No.60
    IdeologySocial Democracy
    Right-Sukarnoism
    Progressivism
    Political PositionCentre-Left
    International AffiliationNon Affiliated

    Most leftist party in Indonesia, and the staunchest opposition in Indonesia, was Indonesia Communist Party. Still holding the most left of voters, Indonesia Communist party was famous for its propaganda and blaring speeches. Still Aidit in power, the Communist party was Chinese-leaning. There were also some percentage which was pro-Soviet or pro-France. The latter however had so little portion that no significant effect was given. The former, interestingly, gain more power during Soviet’s involvement in the Middle East. The party became increasingly polarized, as they had no idea which great communist nation to follow. China had great progress involving Great Leap Forward, so successful that Mao literally praised like a god. Although China’s involvement in Korea was debatable, many ICP members liked the Dragon Empire. In the other hand, increasing Soviet involvement in the Middle East, also boosted communist voters significantly. A creation of a particular large unified nation in the divided Middle East helped the ICP propaganda into nationalist voters.

    Indonesia Communist Party - Partai Komunis Indonesia

    LeaderDipa Nusantara Aidit
    HeadquartersGen. Suryadarma Street No.11
    IdeologyCommunism
    Bolshevism
    Maoism
    Political PositionLeft
    International AffiliationPro-Soviet Union
    Pro-China

    When 70s decade began, Indonesia still only had these four in election polls. The earlier 1950s Act of decreasing political parties strengthened this establishment. Even until the next millennium, parties were few.

    Notes: Papua and Melanesian political parties will be discussed later, as I considered them unnecessary for an early update, especially since they were quite newly established regions.
     
    Baffled Decade Part 2: Change of Flags and Pancasila
  • Since Sukarno’s spoke the five fundamental characteristics an Indonesian nation must have in 1st June 1945, Pancasila have become exclusively Indonesian ideology. An ideology that even Western nations envied for, and Eastern nations liked upon. The ideology that lived and roared the Europeans out during the Independence War, and screamed at the British for victory at war.

    During the United States of Indonesia Era, a national emblem had been created with an anthropomorphic form of Garuda. The Garuda hold the Pancasila’s armorial, shaped for a shield, with five different segments. However, no official Garuda form had been established in the 50s, as experts debated with each other without no conclusion.

    On January 10, 1950 a Technical Committee was formed under the name of the National Badge Committee under the coordination of the State Minister Zonder Portfolio Sultan Hamid II with the composition of the technical committee Muhammad Yamin as chairman, Ki Hajar Dewantoro, M. A. Pellaupessy, Mohammad Natsir, and R.M. Ngabehi Poerbatjaraka as a member. The committee is tasked with selecting a draft proposal for the country's emblem to be selected and submitted to the government.

    The initial design of Garuda Pancasila was by Sultan Hamid II, in the form of a traditional eagle with a human body.

    Referring to Bung Hatta's statement in the book Bung Hatta Answering to implement the Cabinet Session Decree, Minister Priyono held a contest. Two of the country's best design symbols were chosen, namely the work of Sultan Hamid II and the work of M. Yamin. In the next process that was accepted by the government and the Parliament was the design of Sultan Hamid II. M. Yamin's work was rejected because it included sunlight and showed Japanese influence.

    After the design was chosen, intensive dialogue between Sultan Hamid II, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta continued to be carried out for the purposes of perfecting the design. There was an agreement between the three of them, replacing the tape gripped by Garuda, which was originally a red and white ribbon to a white ribbon by adding the slogan "Unity in Diversity".

    Garuda Pancasila which was inaugurated on 11 February 1950, without crest and position of the claws is still behind the tape. Sultan Hamid II again submitted a draft design of the state symbol which had been refined based on the evolving aspirations, so as to create an eagle form which became Garuda Pancasila and abbreviated as Garuda Pancasila. President Soekarno then submitted the draft to the RIS Cabinet through Mohammad Hatta as prime minister.

    AG Pringgodigdo in his book About Pancasila published by the Department of Defense and Security, ABRI History Center said that the draft of the state emblem by Sultan Hamid II was finally inaugurated for use in the RIS Cabinet Session. At that time the image of the head of the Garuda Rajawali Pancasila was still "bald" and "" not crested "" as it is now.

    Completion back emblem of the country continue to be pursued. Garuda Pancasila Rajawali bird heads that are "bald" to "crested" do. The shape of the claws that gripped the tape from the front facing back to facing the front was also improved, upon President Soekarno's input.

    On March 20, 1950, the final shape of the revised state symbol received President Soekarno's disposition, who then ordered the palace painter, Dullah, to redraw the design in accordance with the final form of the State Minister RIS's Sultan Hamid II which was used officially until now.

    After the creation of Pancasila, Sultan Hamid seemed to silenced once again, quite from politics. In the 50s, he would give no major political movements for or against the government.

    formerpancasila.png
    pancasila.jpg

    (Left to Right, Up to Down: Old USI Garuda Emblem, New FRI Garuda Emblem, with meanings in Indonesian)


    Ida Anak Agung Gede Agung, however, was a different case. He entered into national politics, and be famous, exactly after Sultan Hamid’s decline in this sector. A historian and Balinese, Ida was a liberal. He didn’t join any party during the 50s and 60s, but he contributed a great factor to Indonesia’s conditions, particularly increasing federalism. He would become the leader of Maluku State, then become South Maluku State, for astonishing twelve years, until return to Gianyar as native king that cared fully for his people. He would ignite minority movements against Javan supremacy, demanding Indonesia to observe more into vast undeveloped regions of the East, rather than the build-up West.

    He, also, promoted Bali as a tourism spot for Westerners. According to his life experience as a Bali native, Bali’s sunset is ripe for tourism. As a matter of truth, Bali’s sunset maybe was the best after all across the world. So, he would assist Anak Agung Bagus Sutedja to promote tourism in Bali. Even though tourism progressed slowly in Bali, by the Oil Crisis we would see the region actually boomed in spite of an economic downfall.

    For Maludin Simbolon, he was given an extraordinary task as a Colonel in the 1950s. after the creation of Federative Republic of Indonesia, along with four military branches, Army, Navy, Air Force and Coast Guard. He was assigned by Sukarno in 1956 to redesign the military flags. The old flag was complicated and full of decorations, which dyeing it would be a nightmare. The Indonesian High Command had ordered him to conduct a simple search for ideas.

    So, Colonel Maludin Simbolon decided to give a shot. During his military expeditions cooperating with Vietnam insurgents against France, Simbolon had witnessed a unique symbol. Viet Minh designed a particular red Vietnam flag, and the contrast of the star with the blank background amazed him. The power of this flag was very obvious, as even Democrats and Monarchists tried to implement a similar adaptation to the Red flag, which was also appealing.

    In the end, he drew a rough sketch for four branches of the army, which was as follows:

    army flag.png
    navy flag.gif
    airforce flag.png
    indonesian coast guard flag.png

    (Left to Right, Up to Down: Official Flag of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Coast Guard)

    Sukarno accepted these new flags, and ratified it in 1957, and it was still being used even until the 21st Century. Although with several opprobria with right politicians, the flag was used neglecting all criticism, and lived on to be the flag of the National Armed Forces of Indonesia.

    Not entirely out of context, but in the 60s, a number of federal politicians began to question whether Indonesia’s then flag was universal for its ideological, government, and geographical purposes. The simple red-and-white flag, was used by Indonesia since 1945. As Sukarno said:

    Red is the symbol of courage, White is the symbol of purity. Our flag has been there for 600 years.

    That particular flag had existed way beyond the meaning of Indonesia itself. The flag's colors are derived from the banner of the 13th century Majapahit Empire. However, it has been suggested that the red and white symbolism can trace its origin to the older common Austronesian mythology of the duality of Mother Earth (red) and Father Sky (white).

    However, after Papua’s admitted as a Special Administrative Region, which was a higher autonomous region than a Federal State can, a proposal was given to the Assembly that a flag change must be done.

    No one really knew what proceedings had happened relating to this topic, but Soe Hok Gie reached the end of the road as the winner of the flag proposals. Soe Hok Gie was a Chinese-Indonesian activist, and later become politician. During his youth days, he opposed authoritarian regime, which grew after the rise of Nasution. Despite of him classified as Nasution’s potential thorn, many fellow PGI and INP bolstered him, partly using him as some sort of balance especially for the Purple Faction as Military’s balancing weight. Aside from the political concerns, in 1968 Soe Hok Gie managed to be ordained as Indonesia’s new flag creator, which he explained his flag as follows.

    The new flag of Indonesia is a balance between Indonesia’s tradition and modernity. Indonesia’s tradition was resembled by the Majapahit’s Ular-ular Perang Flag, a flag with nine horizontal stripes of alternating red and white. A Majapahit’s Sun, or Surya Majapahit¸ is positioned center of the blue section on the left side. Surya Majapahit symbolizes the greatness of Indonesia, and the awareness of Indonesian culture. Meanwhile, the blue color resembles the growing acceptance to democracy and Western politics, which will become a major characteristics for modern Indonesia. The 8 pointed stars resembles the 8 initial provinces created after Independence, also resembled Indonesia’s relations to all directions. Stars on each vertices resembles the modern Dua Benua, Dua Samudra connotation, reaffirming Indonesia’s geographical status as connector of Asia-Australia Continent, and Indian-Pacific Ocean. The five stars may also resemble Indonesia’s greatest regions, Java and Lesser Sundas as the center, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Malaya. Five-pointed stars also resembles that Indonesia acknowledges Pancasila as a national ideology. The Sun inside Majapahit Surya symbolize Indonesia's tropical sun due to its centric location, and also Indonesia's undying fire of becoming a star in the world.

    Even though Soe Hok Gie had stated the four stars resembled as such, military personnel still considered those stars as the Four Branches of the Armed Forces. In the near future however, these stars may also be considered as four Indonesian SARs, which conveniently occur after chaos in Europe. Nevertheless, public broadly accepted the new flag, and it was flown on the Presidential Palace on 5th May 1968.

    indonesianflag.png
     
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    Baffled Decade Part 4: Indochina's Confusion
  • Hell comes to Earth: A Indochinese Wars Summary Part One
    Martin Windrose (2004)

    When it comes to the most prolonged war in Asia, Indochina is the champion. Begin with the return of France to Indochina, the apparent war finally ended when Nguyễn Hữu Chánh declared the obliteration of the seemingly last remaining New Viet Minh forces. For simplification purposes, the stages of war is divided into four stages, each and every one owns special characteristics.

    The first stage, or the first Indochina War, happened from 1946 to 1950. The first years of the war involved a low-level rural insurgency against the French. In 1949 the conflict turned into a conventional war between two armies equipped with modern weapons supplied by the United States, China and the Soviet Union. French Union forces included colonial troops from the whole former empire (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Laotian, Cambodian, and Vietnamese ethnic minorities), French professional troops and units of the French Foreign Legion. The use of metropolitan recruits was forbidden by the government to prevent the war from becoming even more unpopular at home. It was called the "dirty war" (la sale guerre) by leftists in France. Luckily, the French managed to exile the Viet Minh into Thailand so peace was restored in France after the Hanoi Conference in 29 December 1950. The Soviet Union, upset by the outcome of the war, decided to abandon the comrades for some time. This, as the result, marginalized the Viet Minh, and incapable to return to Indochina for some time.
    indochina_1.jpg

    Indochinese Colonial Troops, essential of securing the region. However, after the Second Indochina War, most of the colonial troops volunteered to fight with Viet Minh.

    The First Interbellum, as experts have said, was a dangerous peace within the French Empire. As usual, the French deposed Buddhism in metropolitans. As early as 1953 rumored allegations had surfaced of discrimination against Buddhists in Vietnam. These allegations stated that Catholic Vietnamese armed by the French had been raiding villages. Because of this, it sparked the start of the Second Indochina War. The peace however had gained the Monarchists a traction. Although Bảo Đại was a French sympathizer, he too analyzed the situation that ruling the nation as an independent sovereignty would give him more power on the Empire, thus by the end of 1957 he started revolting and fight against France.

    indochina_2.jpg

    The Parade of Saigon in 1957, showing power especially to Western Media, that Republic of Indochina (this time the Republican faction still fought against the Communist and the Monarchists) was not only a minor rebellious force.

    The Second Indochina War was a long one, and was divided into two separate stages. The first stage was believed to be the most devastated war in South East Asian history. From 1955 to 1961, the war ended up as an arena of four factions. In one side, the fragile rule of the French was better in equipment, experience and technology. However, this positive factors were outmatched as they were overwhelmed with the driving spirit of each Indochinese factions during the war. In the end of the War, they would be humiliated badly as ‘the one at the wrong place and time’. The three other factions, however, were tough calls, as neither of them willing to give in and fought mercilessly. The miracle of Ban Ban, North of Indochina, reinforced a Monarchist control on North-West portion of the region. With another miracle of Ha Tinh, the forced of Bảo Đại had secured center of Annam from other faction’s control.

    After Wilopo’s encouraging negotiation about a ‘compromise’, the three factions finally cooperated and form a ‘unity coalition’ against France. From then one, the withdrawal of France in Indochina seemed like a clockwork. A French defeat was confirmed in 1961, and the Treaty of Bangkok secured Indochina from any French presence. By the start of 1962, Kingdom of Vietnam had been established.

    The glorious victory of Indochina was followed with a political chaos, as the Communist Party of Indochina (formerly Viet Minh) declined to collaborate in any of the new Kingdom. Partly as anti-Monarchists, the party demanded to form a republic, rather than a kingdom. Still, the first stage of Second Indochina War was mostly won by the Monarchist, so the Kingdom rejected her dissolution. Also, the Republicans sided with the Monarchists. Ho Chi Minh, infuriated with his status as the opposition, ultimately leave the coalition to restart the war. Not just six months of establishment, the nation was in shambles.

    The second stage of the Second Indochina War, in the bigger picture, was a military mess. Three factions restarted the war, and neither would team up anymore. The Communist faction, primarily supported by the Chinese and the USSR, regain most of Tonkin. The Republican faction, aided by America and partly Indonesia, control the Mekong Delta and most of South regions. The Monarchist faction, the largest of them all, resided in everything center of Indochina, Cambodia and the north-west region of Lao tribes. In 1965, a despicable event of assassination by the Communists would kill Bảo Đại during the war, and Bảo Long was crowned as successor. Bảo Long, unlike his father, was not charismatic. His sever tantrum and ego would micro-manage most of the royal army, and failed. In addition to it, his alcoholic attitude would ruin Monarchist-Republican relations, thus the worst political disaster for Kingdom of Indochina. In the end, what was once the greatest victor of the war, ended up as the loser.

    The atrocities all sides had made, and America’s nuisance to just leave the war, birthed the Kuala Lumpur Conference.

    The Kuala Lumpur Conference was a conference involving several nations that took place in Kuala Lumpur, Indonesia from April 26 – July 20, 1965. It was intended to settle outstanding issues resulting from the Korean War and the Second Indochina War. The Kuala Lumpur Accords that dealt with the dismantling of Kingdom of Indochina proved to have long-lasting repercussions, however. The crumbling of the divided Kingdom would create the eventual states of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the State of Vietnam (the future Republic of Vietnam / South Vietnam), and the Kingdom of Laos.
    indochina_3.jpg

    The Kuala Lumpur Accords in camera, negotiate a peace deal regarding the perpetual Indochina and Korean Tension. Ended up as peaceful as possible, the Accords was a turning factor for America's 'virtual' decline in world stage, especially after Kennedy's sudden NATO disbandment.

    The Accords were between the Royals, the Communist Party of Indochina, the Democratic Party of Indochina, the USSR, the PRC, the US, the FRI (Federal Republic of Indonesia), and the future states being made from Indochina. The agreement temporarily separated Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone to be governed by the CPI, and a southern zone to be governed by the DPI, then headed by Ngô Đình Diệm. In addition, three separate ceasefire accords, covering Laos, and Two Vietnams, were signed at the conference.
    indochina_4.png

    Indochina at the end of 1966. Orange-yellow for Kingdom of Laos (Or Exiled-Kingdom of Indochina), Red for Socialist Republic of Indochina (mainly nicknamed North Indochina), dark-cyan for Federal Republic of Indochina (mainly nicknamed South Indochina)
     
    Baffled Decade Part 3: China
  • The East is Red
    china_1.jpg
    When it comes to history, China have already in the pages even before Christ. The five thousand years of history, as stated by Taiwanese historian, had shaped China as it is. However, China has gone a comprehensive transformation in the 20th Century.

    In the early 20th Century, China was on the brink of revolution. The Manchurian Dynasty ruled China in humiliation. Nearly all profitable coastal cities leased or stolen by Europeans. China was put as inferior of the human species, subjugated to European influence. After the Xinhai Revolution, China liberated itself to become a democratic republic. But, heavens forbid, Yuan Shi Kai devolved China as another Empire, and crippled China into the Warlord Eras. The Warlord Eras, ended with Chiang’s success of Northern Expedition, marked the Nanking Decade. But again, a bad luck, Japan screw China and once again the region experienced warfare into the extreme violence.

    After the WW2, CCP decided to develop the situation of China after Japanese surrender, and start a war with the KMT. A battle between red and blue, left and right, was ended with blood and death. Since then, China was divided. Mainland China is controlled under the Maoist rule, while Taiwan, or Formosa, was governed by the KMT-exiles. After Mao Ze Dong had secured China, he campaigned land reform to the peasants. From 1947 to 1951, landlords were brutally killed. And millions of hectares were redistributed to the farmers. Land seized from Landlords was brought under collective ownership resulting in the creation of "Agricultural production cooperatives". After the land reform, Mao introduced a new program, the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries. This campaign was mainly to eradicate any KMT presence in mainland China. The campaign was implemented as a response to the rebellions that were commonplace in the early years of the People's Republic of China. Those targeted during the campaign in were thereafter labeled as ‘counter-revolutionaries’, and were publicly denounced in mass trials. Large numbers of ‘counter-revolutionaries’ were arrested and executed and even more sentenced to ‘labor reform’.

    china_2.jpg

    China's land reform, performed successfully for Great Leap Forward. However, many land-owners died during this implementation.

    There were other campaigns promoted by Chairman Mao during the 50s, such as Three-Antis and Five-Antis Campaign or New Democracy plea, but most of them were only campaigned for strengthening the CCP in China. The Hundred Flowers campaign, which was promoted to moralize intellectuals that was silenced during the CCP era, sheered as CCP’s method or killing rightists. By the completion of the first 5-year Economic Plan in 1957, Mao had come to doubt that the path to socialism that had been taken by the Soviet Union was appropriate for China. He was critical of Khrushchev's reversal of Stalinist policies and alarmed by the uprisings that had taken place in East Germany, Poland and Hungary, and the perception that the USSR was seeking "peaceful coexistence" with the Western powers. Mao had become convinced that China should follow its own path to communism. According to Jonathan Mirsky, a historian and journalist specializing in Chinese affairs, China's isolation from most of the rest of the world, along with the Korean War, had accelerated Mao's attacks on his perceived domestic enemies. It led him to accelerate his designs to develop an economy where the regime would get maximum benefit from rural taxation.

    The Second 5-year Economic Plan for China was about agrarian and food production. According to Mao, series of devastating war, and war on counter-revolutionaries, fester farmers and peasants from harvesting more. The conditions were quite problematic, as consumption outran production and sooner or later, China would have a famine. Inspired by Khrushchev quotes about surpassing USA in 15 years, Mao tried something similar. The central idea behind the Great Leap was that rapid development of China's agricultural and industrial sectors should take place in order respectively. The hope was to industrialize by improving the agriculture to a maximum extent for simple machinery, them start to build complex tools. The government also sought to avoid both social stratification and technical bottlenecks involved in the Soviet model of development. Interestingly, they sought technical solutions to do so. Mao and the party gave the Plan to several trustworthy experts, while also inducing political elements. Mao meanwhile advocated that a further round of collectivization modeled on the USSR's "Third Period" was necessary in the countryside where the existing collectives would be merged into huge People's Communes.
    china_3.jpg

    Great Leap Forward depicted by Mao, proved as the most successful programs in Mao's historical rule. However, the Great Leap Forwards may also be Mao's decline, as factions were growing radically against Mao's leadership.

    As Mao understand the impossibilities of a perfect progress, he accepts official reports on unsuccessful quotas, and promote each commune to work harder with his astounding speeches. Mao hoped that by working together in a harmonious society transformed China into a better place, and possibly transformed the world’s view on communism. By this procedure, he has created a symbiotic cycle between the government and the communes. However, there were still maltreatments throughout the implementation. For farmers which never reached the promises thrice, CCP will kill the farmer and the family, and publicly condemn them so others would not follow. Any collectivists who owns better tools than his commune, are executed immediately and his tools are seized for government research.

    Looking at the bigger picture, it seems that the CCP has cut some slacks after the anti-right campaign. Mao has reviewed his political plan, and tossed it for an economic one. In 1967, after the Third Economic Plan was announced to continue the Great Leap Forward, China has become a great agrarian producer. However, this initiative was resulted the anxiety of The Gang of Four. The group was led by Jiang Qing, and consisted of three of her close associates, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen. This member criticizes Mao’s soft stance, although the Great Leap Forward has opened the world’s view about a working people’s communal system. They want to implement a harsher political policy, once again strengthening the communist hold in mainland China. It was called the Cultural Revolution. Although Mao’s Great Leap Forward success diminished any importance of this policy, in 1968 several CPC members already requested Mao in applying it.

    China’s domestic policy has been a great triumph for communism with Asian characteristics. Inside the nation, communes hailed Mao. Meanwhile, foreign policy is bitter for China. After the Korean War, China’s power was scorned in the international stage. Their struggle to threw men at the Korean Front ended fruitless, as the Korean War ended the border to move 175 kilometers North. Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea, had become South Korea. The border of the North-South division was from Pyongwon to Wonsan. Leaving North Korea, the rural mountainous regions. China’s second attempt was on Vietnam. After the Second Indochinese Civil War, China assisted the reds to betray their ‘united front’ compromise. The Viet Cong, as a result, start another Civil War. Once again, the battle ends in an Indochinese partition. Following the creation of North-South Vietnam, China’s foreign policy once again humiliated as the communist North fell to the capitalist South. China’s last hope was the growing divide of India and Pakistan. The CPC favored Pakistan, as allying Pakistan curb Soviet’s expansion to India. However, Gopalkrishna Gandhi, grandson of Mahatma Gandhi, has an increasing fond towards communism. The CPC and Mao enforced each other to persuade him to a communist path.
     
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    Baffled Decade Part 5: Korean War
  • “Hold on to your hats, Korea is a land of surprises”
    ― Don Oberdorfer, The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History

    “Eventually the Korean War will be understood as one of the most destructive and one of the most important wars of the twentieth century.”

    ― Bruce Cumings, The Korean War: A History


    Indochina Wars was one of the most confusing warfare in the history of mankind. Literally, all types of warfare could be observed. However ridiculous the battle might have seemed, Indochina shaped the latter half of the 20th Century. The perpetual guerilla warfare, scorched-earth policy, and extensive intervention by diverse nations coronate Indochina Wars as the deadliest battle in post-WW2 history. In the other hand, ‘jungle-diplomacy’ and the aftermath throne the war as one of the most decisive war in modern politics. The other aggression that was also called as one of the most decisive war, were Korean War.

    The Korean Peninsula, in the start of the 20th Century, was in Japanese hands. Nippon’s strict control over the region may have caused notable obscene crimes in history. The height of World War 2 erupted the Peninsula’s deep hatred towards Japanese, and maybe will not be gone in the far future either. After Japanese defeat, the Peninsula was divided into two occupational zones, one for the US and one for the Soviet Union. They formerly established the 38th parallel as the division, separating the Korean people into two distinct ideological sphere of influence.

    In the North, Provisional People’s Committee of North Korea has been given the mandate by the Soviet Union to form a centralized, communist nation for Korea. Kim Il-Sung, the chairman, lead the committee to later become the chairman of Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The Soviets withdrew from North Korea in 1948, a year before the American withdrew from South Korea. During that year, Ambassador Shtykov suspected Rhee was planning to invade the North and was sympathetic to Kim's goal of Korean unification under socialism. The two successfully lobbied Joseph Stalin to support a quick war against the South, which culminated in the outbreak of the Korean War.

    kor_7.jpg
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    (Kim Il-Sung during his visit to a random KPA division; An English version of North Korean Propaganda, translated and published in India as part of regional Communist propaganda)

    When the North declare war to the South, Seoul were unprepared. South Korea’s government was originated from Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the exiled government when the Japanese occupied Korea. Since its establishment in 1919, the provincial government worked mainly in various China cities, waiting for the perfect time to return. After the Americans ended their occupational zones, Sygnman Rhee lead the Southern Korea, form the First Republic of Korea.


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    Rhee awarding a medal to U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Ralph A. Ofstie during the Korean War in 1952

    At dawn on Sunday, 25 June 1950, the KPA crossed the 38th Parallel behind artillery fire. The KPA justified its assault with the claim that ROK troops attacked first and that the KPA were aiming to arrest and execute the "bandit traitor Syngman Rhee". Fighting began on Ongjin Peninsula in the west. On 27 June, Rhee evacuated from Seoul with some of the government officials. Within a few months, the Republic of Korea had been left with Pusan as their last remaining land against the marching North. The communists rolled the ROK army, even humiliating the Americans with several victories. With panic, the United States requested an UN Intervention regarding this war, and as many nations still despised communism, they unanimously accepted. Kim Il-Sung had anticipated a downright victory, and a peace deal for unification of Korea.

    Meanwhile, to relieve the Pusan Perimeter, General MacArthur recommended an amphibious landing at Incheon, near Seoul and well over 160 km (100 mi) behind the KPA lines. The Landing produced a massive blow to the Communist. The Northern military barely withstand what had come next. In swift and apt strategy, MacArthur almost encircled the entire KPA in the South Korean pocket. By December, DPRK was pushed back to the Baekdu Regions.

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    A South Korean propaganda against the North Koreans
    That was when China decided to intervene. After secretly crossing the Yalu River on 19 October, the PVA 13th Army Group launched the First Phase Offensive on 25 October, attacking the advancing UN forces near the Sino-Korean border. The UN Command, however, were unconvinced that the Chinese had openly intervened because of the sudden PVA withdrawal after their surprise attack. So the Americans must invigorate herself to repel these attacks. It was not until 1951 when the UN Command finally noticed an influx of forces in the communist nation, that they judged it as a Chinese intervention. The war evolved to become a tug-of-war brawl, now fought mainly on the pre-existing 38th parallel.

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    Infamous Yalu River Crossing by the PLA (Chinese People's Liberation Army) during the Battle of Chongju (30-31 October 1950)

    In 1955, the Americans finally regained power to push forwards once again, re-entering Pyongyang for the second time in 1956. Even with the Chinese intervention, KPA failed to hold on. In 13th October 1956, North Korea requested an armistice with the South. The plead resulted with Korean Armistice Agreement of 1957, which moves the parallel to the 39th, and left North Korea barred with Pyongyang just miles from the De-Militarize Zone (DMZ). After the armistice, Kim’s popularity plummeted. From the eyes of a North Korean, Kim was a traitor who diminish the nation’s greatness. From the eyes of China or Soviet Union, North Korea was a failed experiment, ready to be forsaken. Kim Il-Sung, burdened with such mortification, determined to impose an ‘isolationist’ policy towards North Korea. His hasty maneuver of restoring his image inside North Korea resulted a decline of livelihood as a whole, stagnating the nation further similarly like Qing or the Ottoman during their last years of reign.

    For Rhee, and the Southern part of Korea, it was quite a celebration. Although not eliminating his Northern nemesis, Rhee secured South Korea with moving the border one degree northern. In before, Seoul was threatened with possible KPA artillery fire from the border. After the ratification of the new status quo, South Korea may easily threatened Pyongyang with a cakewalk. With the increasing popularity of Rhee in Republic of Korea, he had become increasingly authoritarian. Nearing the end of the baffled 60s, the Korean Peninsula lived two ironically similar dictators. In the north was the humiliated, socialist Kim Il-Sung. In the south lived the liberalist, war hero Syngman Rhee.

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    Map of the Korean Peninsula: Red as North Korea, Blue as South Korea, with their superimposed borders indicating their claims on each other

    After the Korean War, the United States continued on giving an economic and military aid to South Korea, mainly to prevent further rapid agression by the North. Indonesia were still reluctant to participate in the Peninsula. For Japan, the peninsula was a high factor of defending home island from further communist threat. Luckily, both Soviet Union and China looked elsewhere for influence, that North Korea become increasingly neglected and isolated.
     
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    Baffled Decade Part 6: India
  • “Truthfully, only two Asian nations are prominent enough to change the world even in their lowest times. Those are China, and India.”
    Jean Louis-Picard, President of the French Sixth Republic


    India: A Sub-Continent History

    India is truly a Jewel for its owner. The subcontinent holds a great number of population. And with the abundance of crop-fields and tea plantation, the region became famous and rich from it. Nevertheless, the rags and riches were never truly felt by Indians during the British rule. After WW2, Britain was weakened by the casualties of war, and incapable of securing the region from pro-independence separatist. That was when the British decided to just go away from the continent and let the Indians rule India. The sub-continent was given a rough post-independence when the Partition of India was put into effect in 1947. Massive exodus of minority tribes on the two nations fled to each other. Muslim citizens flocked to nearby Pakistan, whether the East or the West, while Hindus and Sikhs citizens emigrated to the new Republic of India. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948 was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948, as part of the first results of partition. Since then on, religious divided gradually, each culminated into a point when war erupts.

    After Gandhi’s assassination, the politics of Republic of India mainly revolved onto his political apprentice, Nehru. As prime minister, he passed reforms about woman suffrage, secularism and socialist model. Five-Year Plans were shaped by the Soviet model based on centralized and integrated national economic programs. No taxation was demanded for Indian farmers, minimum wage and benefits for blue-collar workers, and the nationalization of heavy industries such as steel, aviation, shipping, electricity, and mining. Village common lands were seized, and an extensive public works and industrialization campaign resulted in the construction of major dams, irrigation canals, roads, thermal and hydroelectric power stations, and many more.

    Nehru implemented leftist policy, but that did not mean that India was a communist nation (by far). According to its foreign policy, India was a non-aligned nation until Nehru’s death. Especially on the 1950s, India was particularly accompanied with many non-aligned nations. Indonesia, Egypt and Yugoslavia was three of them. However, since the start of 1960s, all of these nations changed dramatically. Indonesia since America’s NATO withdrawal, had been inclined closer. Egypt, after the quick re-colonization by Britain, joined France’s side. Yugoslavia, albeit technically non-aligned, had leaned closer to France also.

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    (Nehru during one of his road trip throughout India, 1954; an average Indian farmer in 1950s)

    In 1960s, the situation summed up as follows. India had emerged as the largest democratic nation in the world. Inhabiting nearly half a billion in its nation, India established the largest democratic election in the world. Yet, despite being the largest democratic nation in the world, India was largely influenced by one party only, the Indian National Congress. The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. In its growth, the independence movement has transformed into a big tent for center-left voters. The party advocate social democracy, and a slice of liberalism. During Nehru’s administration, however, liberalism was partly curbed by extensive mixed economy regulation and land reform redistribution.

    Ironically, and presumed, Nehru’s government policy had fostered the other party, a more radical left, the Communist Party of India. Supporter of Marxism-Leninism, and later Maoism, the party had several base here and there especially in Indus Valley, where a multitude of farmers, and labors lived. Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad, popularly EMS, would rise from Kerala to national India, speaking blaring words about the Great Leap Forward’s success in their big neighbor, and stating that India can also follow. For the time being, the INC allied with the CPI, holding a great majority in the Lok Shaba.

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    (Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad during his exclusive interview in 1963)

    While the left controlled the government, the right controlled the opposition. For nearly three decades, Janata Party, a party that sheltered the right wing, continue to criticise the government’s socialist outlook. Several demonstrations had been held by Janata Party regarding it, in 1949, 1954 and 1963. Nearly all of them, were forsaken by the government, and their voices were relatively unheard. They decided to must be heard at the fourth time, and violence was the only way.

    Meanwhile, India had carried out two wars in Pakistan, mainly ended with a stalemate. None of them succeeded in winning any of the disputed given. Luckily, in 1960, Mao relinquished China’s claims on Jammu-Kashmir region, which improved their relations significantly. With Pakistan, on the other hand, they were determined that this crisis would end up in more wars in the near future, and nothing could ever resolve the issue.

    The protests erupted Southern India, where former princely-states government during British India. At first, the people there, mostly Dravidian, had felt neglected with the massive development of the north. While cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Calcutta prospered, not so much when it went South. In addition to it, with fertile lands mainly up North, subsidies for farmers and industries mainly given there. In mountainous South, only road infrastructures were planned, and many of them left stalled. Although in national scale, India was growing. It was only the northern parts, while the south stagnated. Began in 1966, the ‘Princely Protests’, stated by Indian newspapers, spread sproradically in those Southern areas. It once was a protest against India’s negligence on Southern people. But, with some infiltration by Pakistan, the protests demanded an even forceful requirement, a Dravidian Republic. Even the protests also arrived in Sri Lanka, where British rule still existed. As Janata Party held these revolted provinces, the party showed as yet a rebellious force, similar to what Communist Party of Indochina did to Indochina.

    As protests rose in the South, the North became extremely furious about the government. Even Indira Gandhi, a relative to the hero Mahatma Gandhi, ignored this discrimination. As a result, the CPI gained much more momentum. In promise, the party requested a reconciliation with the southern states, and vowed to construct the nation equally. In addition to it, they would promote total equality to everyone on India, something that the INC never thought of.

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    (Indira Gandhi when public protests in New Delhi demanded her resignation from the southern protests)

    The 4th Lok Shaba, elected in February 1967, quickly became a Communist win. Albeit their percentage was only slightly higher than the INC, the Communist managed to gather a coalition to overcome the predecessor. With slight help of China’s volunteers, the Communist party crack down the entire sub-continent, purged the Janata Party’s holdings, and everything pro-right. For southern states, however, the communist government apologized to the apparent inequality, and fulfilled its promise with the creation of the Indian Belt, a national highway project constructed to circle the whole nation.

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    The first ever public violence against the police in 1966, in Hyderabad
     
    Baffled Decade Part 7: Kennedy and 1968
  • "Those who dare to fail miserably can achieve greatly."
    “Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.”
    “Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable.”
    "What we need in the United States is not division; what we need in the United States is not hatred; what we need in the United States is not violence or lawlessness; but love and wisdom, and compassion toward one another, and a feeling of justice toward those who still suffer within our country."


    - John F. Kennedy

    John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, on May 29, 1917. He was born on a bourgeois family, home to Joseph P. Kennedy, a man with great ambitions. He lived in a Catholic community, thus baptized at a young age. In September 1935, Kennedy made his first trip abroad when he travelled to London with his parents and his sister Kathleen. After living his childhood, he went to Harvard for college. After that, the war began. With his lack of health requirements, he failed to enrol in the Army’s, Officer Cadet School. Then he was enlisted as a Navy Reserve, where he had his short military career. After the war, his father urged him to become a politician, which he did start in 1947.

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    Kennedy on his youth

    A long story short, his rise into politics was a spectacular one. He defeated his opponents in almost every fight. Although with health problems along with the war, Kennedy remained popular and charismatics for the people and his great charisma and value climaxed at his inauguration on January 20, 1961.

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    In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility--I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it--and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.

    And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country.

    My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.

    His 100 days of the presidency was called ‘America’s realignment to a freer, better and equal world’. Kennedy had noticed atrocities happened in South Africa, practising ‘Apartheid’ onto their own men. As a leader for a civil and just world, he condemned the United Kingdom, although situations back then were friendly. Also, Europe under the new order, NATO and Warsaw Pact as opposite sides, caused not only another fright of another war but also the return of imperialism. This time, however, imperialism had a new meaning. ‘Neo-Imperialism’, practised by both France and Britain, contributed greatly in securing their colonies, which America had demanded them to be freed. While Algeria under the new program was flooded with French influence. Britain had fixed her eyes on South Africa, and Rhodesia.

    Besides his pragmatic stance on civil rights, Kennedy supported Martin Luther King Jr. Albeit the difficulties in passing the Civil Rights Act, Kennedy still advocated these views. After the Act, Kennedy solidified his presidency with the help of VP Lyndon B. Johnson. Yet, with all the success noted, Kennedy’s era was an era of civil violence. Where white-supremacist publicly announced segregation in many southern states, many acts of arson had been conducted. Nearing the end of Kennedy's reign, violence increased due to certain circumstances.

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    Segregation in buses in South Carolina, whites at the front while blacks were seated at the back

    A piece of controversial news regarding Camelot was Marilyn Monroe. Having met at a dinner party held in his honour in New York at the beginning of 1962, Kennedy invited Monroe to a weekend in Bing Crosby's house in Palm Springs the following month, where they were not joined by his wife Jackie. This weekend is said to have been the extent of the affair but that didn’t mean Monroe didn’t want it to continue, allegedly seeing herself becoming Jack’s second First lady and even calling Jackie Kennedy to tell her so. This affair had become public as Monroe’s Affair of 1967, five years after Marilyn Monroe’s death of overdose. The posted affair was relatively unheard of when the situation in 1967 was full of what happened in Europe and Africa.

    Negativities aside, Kennedy was loved by his people. His popularity never plummeted below half, and mainly his presidency was relatively supported. His first success was the reunification of Germany, which was praised as Kennedy’s initial triumph in foreign policy.

    “Jetzt sind wir in einer Situation, in der wieder zusammenwächst, was zusammengehört.“
    ("Now we are in a situation where what belongs together, will grow back together.")

    ― Willy Brandt

    The next success was winning the Indochinese War from France, and thus liberating Indochina as a friendly republic. Nonetheless, the backlash to Kennedy occurred when Indochina returned to a state of civil war. Fortunately, Kennedy was able to divert his strategical error as ‘the red menace’ and American’s support returned shortly. Cuba was another victory. The Bay of Pigs invasion dissuaded further communist movements in Central America. The admission of Puerto Rico and Cuba as the 51st and the 52nd State of America even insured America’s heterogeneous society in the international platform.

    One of his greatest achievements during his presidency was the Treaty of Darwin. The peace deal confirmed and strengthen America’s stronghold in Asia (Japan and Indonesia as allied states). Equally important, it also kicked imperialistic remnants in America and East Asia, despite not being so favourable for the latter. Another suggested accomplishment was the save of Germany, although foes in two decades ago, unfolded as one of America’s partners in monitoring the Red’s influence in Europe.

    As more performance than errors, Democratic Party ruled unmatched in all of American politics, both local and national politics. However, as the Twenty-Second Amendment has ratified, no individual shall exceed the two-term limit on the number of times an individual is eligible for election to the office of President of the United States. As a result, the Party relatively sought another Kennedy miracle, which promised to put Robert Kennedy in the presidency. Notwithstanding, several political figures also contested for the presidency, like VP Johnson, McCarthy, and Humphrey. Devastatingly, days before the convention night, Robert Kennedy had an attempt by Jack Leon Ruby, hospitalized, and remained in a state of emergency for a few hours, until died of blood loss in hospital. Jack Leon Ruby was a segregationist Carolinian, struggling as a middle-class person to maintain white supremacy in his own neighbourhood. He suffered relative losses after the act had passed on, and he went ballistic after he saw that another Kennedy would rule the nation again.

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    The assassination of Robert Kennedy

    The Democratic partly faltered on reinventing another ‘Kennedy Miracle’ and proceeded with the McCarthy-Humphrey ticket. The devastating news for the Democratic Party meant otherwise for the Republican party, especially to figures like Richard Nixon, a former political rival of John F. Kennedy. Although were displeased by the news, the assassination may have given him a chance of presidency, which it did. The next assassination, this time to Martin Luther King Jr., shaped the nearing end of Kennedy’s era as a tumultuous one. Although Jack had requested his people to remain tolerant and peaceful, growing factionalism between blacks and whites in the south grew. Once again, the Southern region returned to political chaos. Nixon ran on a campaign that promised to restore law and order to the nation's cities and provide new leadership in the perpetual Indochina War. A year later, he would popularize the term "silent majority" to describe those he viewed as being his target voters. Together with Everett Dirksen, he won the 1968 election with a small majority.

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    After Kennedy, it was Nixon time.

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    ========================================================================================================================
    That's the end of Baffled Decade, next up we will refocus things on the 1969 Indonesian election, and what had happened in Indonesia for the past years. As usual, feel free to criticize or comment on any flaws made in this TL, besides I am learning.
     
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