What do you think about this thread?

  • Awesome!!

    Votes: 52 63.4%
  • Okay...

    Votes: 24 29.3%
  • Meh...

    Votes: 4 4.9%
  • It's Bad

    Votes: 2 2.4%

  • Total voters
    82
Opening Post
  • [Taken from the Election Game of the same title, aside from several edits]

    Emerald of the Equator: An Indonesian TL


    After a series of devastating colonial rule, with Japan the most current, and another Allied invasion who tried to restore the Dutch East Indies. Indonesia can finally relax, and its independence is finally undisturbed for years to come. However, this nation also evolves around fragile unity. The young nation, only five years of age, has already fought two major rebellions, one the extinguished Communist and the ongoing Islamic revolt. The struggle is real for Indonesia and will be for years to come. Once the nation ever became a federation, but today will be no more.

    The dissolution of the United States of Indonesia gave way for once more, a unitary state of Indonesia. But despite returning its unitary form, Indonesia implements a parliamentary republic, to adopt a more democratic approach. Sukarno condemns this type of government, criticise as “bourgeois selfish plan on owning the striving society” and “Western methods destroying people’s will”. If this parliament disappointed him, he probably could disband it once and for eternity, which would result in him as a sole dictator. However, by this parliament also, is the only era where Indonesia has ever had pure democracy, and its dissolution OTL led into the death of freedom of opinion for decades to come.

    As an outsider, Indonesia is seen as a pariah nation. Only the South East Asian region would have noticed this nation, as everyone is seemingly focused on the ongoing Korean War. But then, there are several cases and figures stated that someday, somewhen, the nation suppressed by centuries of colonial oppression, could be a new power, considering population-wise and land wise.

    As stated in the Election Game, 1950-1955 underwent a major reconstruction in physical infrastructure and political stability. Which Indonesian people called it as "Reconstruction Era". The Wilopo Administration has succeeded in infrastructure, agrarian and political policies, and also winning in gaining a major status in the tensed world. Although the military is highly problematic during his term, Wilopo has slight success in the sea, forming the Coast Guard and manage to reduce piracy. In this year, 1955, the nation will hold a general election and also a Non-Block Summit.

    As comparing with OTL, this decade, the 50s, was the worst ever decade Indonesia would ever have had. The decade of political coups, throwbacks and resistance all over the place, and a stagnation in all aspects. However, how will you all contribute to the future of this nation? Would Indonesia become a resounding regional power? Or it will become another battleground on the seemingly frightful Cold War?

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Welcome to Emerald of The Equator Timeline, a continuation of an unsuccessful Election Game of the same title. The starting date would be 6th of January 1955, day of the election. I'm SkylineDreamer. the creator of this thread, I have many ideas for this but certainly expecting mistakes and proceed with this thread by experience and sturdiness.

    In this thread, I intend to have a certain finish line, as a never-ending timeline never receive the love more than not. Besides, I'd get bored of the Timeline, and maybe stop before it finished, which usually irritates my inner traits of always having a job finished. My finish line for this thread is either Indonesia became a great power, which I will plan it around the 2100 year.

    Mistakes will surely happen, although I'll try hard in reducing it.

    If you want to know about the 1950-1955 year, check out on the Election Game.

    However, before my timeline begin. I'll surely start with a prelude to 1955.

    I'll post weekly, although maybe I'll not be punctual due to some work here and there.
     
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    1955 Prelude
  • It's 1955, five years after we implement the Parliamentary Democracy for Indonesia. We had become the Federal Republic of Indonesia, now comprises of 12 states (Aceh, Batak, Banjar, Banyumas, Mataram, Demak, Maluku, Palembang, Majapahit, Dayak, Pasundan and Irian Jaya). In these 5 years, the Assembly has worked hard into finishing the Constitution draft into enactment. After the dissolution of the Dutch-invention of United States of Indonesia. The archipelago nation has progressed rapidly. What once a crippled nation due to years of war and resistance has finally stood firm. In addition to it, the nation was so firm that rice self-sufficient may be fulfilled this year.

    indonesiapre1955map.png

    [Indonesia Map]​

    This year there are two long term programs conducted by the program, the first was "Be Dependent to Stand at Our Own Feet" or in Indonesian it was called Berdikari. After the Assembly rejected an Independent economic policy, which will surely be the end of Indonesia. The Assembly vote yes of Independent political policy granted Indonesia to not being screwed by two great opposite powers, United States and the Soviet Union. In addition to it, Berdikari gave nearly half of the budget into building roads, which now the Jakarta Ring Road is being built.

    In the next program, the military program was not so successful, the "Reaffirm the National Strength" had been a controversial program, as it seems only the Coast Guards have the high tide, while the rest suffered setbacks. Two continuous projects, the Suwiryo and Wardoyo, had caused the rice production to grow rapidly and resurfacing the plantation in line. Education has also improved slightly, although still far from enough literacy rate.

    One thing that the nation is hyped at is the Election of 1955. Labelled as the first-ever direct election to the people, the 1955 election was the first ever that people of Indonesia can vote for their leaders. The election had been done in 1950, but it was done only around the cities and certain uptown regions. Nevertheless, now the election will be held nationally, and 7 parties are contesting the election, which is: [Taking from the old thread]

    Indonesia National Party
    Indonesia Communist Party
    Progressive Union Party
    Socialist Party of Indonesia
    Turban Unity Front
    Party of Greater Indonesia
    Eastern Coalition Front

    Indonesia National Party (INP)

    Indonesian National Party is one of the oldest and largest parties in Indonesia, with the Communist Party in second. The National Party promoted Pancasila as their highest ideology, although they tend to lean towards secularism and pure-nationalism. Surprisingly, this right-wing party is tolerant of all races and religions. The party is led by Wilopo, and a certain co-tender calls Sijik Djojosukarto will maybe claim the throne.

    Indonesia Communist Party (ICP)
    Indonesian Communist Party is the second-largest left-wing party in Indonesia. The party held communist ideas base of China's Mao, and greatly influence many farmers and workers in Java. They promote secularism and internationalism. It is not a surprise that the party is the largest radical left party in Indonesia, only fails to surpass the big Socialist Party of Indonesia. Aidit is the sole leader of this party due to its flaring speech.

    Progressive Union Party (PUP)
    Progressive Union Party is a new party established by Indonesian who has studied abroad. This party bases of intellects are mainly inspired by Theodore Roosevelt. The party support Progressivism, although they usually support anything about infrastructure and science. The party held a great majority of scholars and teachers, especially in major cities and post-Jogja territories. Led by Hatta, the party is predicted to have a significant portion later.

    Socialist Party of Indonesia (SPI)
    The Socialist Party of Indonesia is a merger from itself and Murba Party, the party famous for Tan Malaka. The party encourage socialism but despise communism. In industrial regions, this party usually made provoke by the Communist, and often fight ensues. The now largest left-wing in Indonesia has great support in the middle class, and struggle in the prols due to the presence of the Communist Party. The party is led by Adam Malik.

    Turban Unity Front (TUF)
    Sees their failures in the 1950 election, all the conservative ulamas form a united front. The name "Turban" get associated because they used it in every conference. A fragile coalition by Muhammadiyah and Nahdatul Ulama, the TUF struggle for Islamism and Conservatism, and greatly influence major Islamic strongholds in Eastern Java. The leader for this front is Mohammad Natsir.

    [Second] Party of Greater Indonesia (PGI)
    This party although the name is the same as the former Party of Greater Indonesia, a splinter of PNI in the 1920s. This new party is formed as a counter to the TUF. The Protestants, Catholics and Chinese minorities joined hands into forming this party. The party strangely advance ultra-nationalism, racial and faith equalism and even recommend imperialism. This party has influence regions with a large minority like Moluccas, North Sumatra and Central Java. The party is led by a charismatic Ignatius Joseph Kasimo Hendrowahyono, and after the miraculous Christian victory in 1950, he will try for a second trial.

    Eastern Coalition Front (ECF)

    As a compromise to the Eastern peace, this regionalist party holds a great factor in Eastern Indonesia. They encompass the whole Eastern Region, although only the Moluccan Muslims supported there, as the Christians mainly support the PGI. Led by the defunct Tidorean Sultanate Zainal Abidin Syah, the party will try for national status.

    The Indonesian region is widely split. In Sumatra, the winners would mainly be the INP, while there will be a little portion of PUP and TUF, although with Aceh stripped off its political rights would weaken the TUF. But then we would also expect a PGI base in Medan and Batam regions. In Java, the voters get very diverse. In a more educated metropolis like Bogor, Bandung and Jogja will be a PUP stronghold, while the much larger ones like Surabaya, Semarang and Jakarta would mainly split between INP, ICP and SPI. It would be even chaotic in the rural, as it would be a four side battle, between INP, ICP, SPI and TUF. Bali and Lesser Sundas would mainly support the PGI with little ECF voters. Borneo is a boring island, as it would be an INP undisputed island, while Celebes would be a split between ECF, PGI and INP battle, and lastly the ECF and PGI battle in Moluccas and Papua.

    In the presidential candidate, Sukarno stays high above all of its opponents. His popularity is undisputed in the region and maybe increase more. However, his leaning towards Communism has led the majority of the parties upset, except the PCI of course. He need not give a flaring speech or so because his heroic stances during the Revolutionary War had given him the public he needs.

    sukarno.jpg

    [Sukarno during his visit to Paris, it's just a friendship meeting that led nowhere]

    However, his fatal flaw of siding more and more into the Communists led Hatta to reject his vice-presidency to Sukarno and make his move, rising to the presidency. This Sumatran man would discern his old friend as "getting redder than ever" and this Communist Phobia has become his main campaign. He would go into major religious regions like Western Sumatra, Mataram and East Indonesia to say that Communism has become a threat of Indonesia's democracy, and someday those reds could staged a coup and kill democracy one and for all.

    hatta.jpg

    [Hatta in his house, discussing the 'Red Menace']

    There should be the third candidate of Wilopo. His good term as Prime Minister causes him to think more into rising into Presidential status but step down instantly as the news stated that many of left-leaning parties had voted for Sukarno, which endangers INP too.

    Speaking, the General Election will be held on the 6th of January and 6th of March, while all inauguration ceremonies will be held on the 22nd of June each election year. 6th of January will be a legislative election. 6th of March will be the presidential election. The new year has passed, it is only five days until the election. Surely, they are prepared.
     
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    1955 Election Part 1: Narrative
  • Actually, my guess is the Nahdatul Ulama did this on purpose. I'll never trust those guys again!!!
    -Mohammad Natsir-

    I really got lucky this time, first time into politics and my party gets third.
    -Retired Major General Bambang Soegeng-


    The 1955 Legislative Election really went off from the expectations. As we see a great victory from the Party of Greater Indonesia. The youngest party made by only a fuse of minorities gained even more during the election, surpassing both the Communists and Socialists but fall slim to the Turban majority. Officially the third largest party in Indonesia, the PGI would be nicknamed as the "Rocket Party", derived from its rocket rise. The party would become a great annoyance especially to the Communists, as the fundamental ideas of the PGI really negates the Marxist-Leninist and the Communists value the ICP has.

    The Indonesian National Party, gaining slim quarter of the nation, has become the largest party in Indonesia. The Wilopo administration has helped greatly to increase party popularity, especially in the Java regions, where infrastructure building are tense. Held a majority in major Banyumas regions, the INP still held their breath as their rival, the TUF does came in 2nd.

    Turban Front has had high expectations. The leader, Natsir, had hoped that the party should gain both the East and West of Java, and the entirely of South Sulawesi and West Sumatra. However, what they see is a complete disaster. West Sumatra is overran by the Progressives and the Socialists. South Sulawesi is nowhere near, as the Socialists gain a massive victory there. INP is still gaining a few regions in West and East Java, while the PGI really crushed any dreams of gaining Majapahit majority.

    I guess the rest gets slim on around 10%, the ICP, SPI and the PUP gain similar seats, with PUP, SPI and ICP in seat count order. Although different in few seats, three of these parties will gain major attention throughout the 50s.

    The ECF, predictable, only gain seats around the Eastern Borders, thus gaining the least seats of the rest. They won't get any seats in Jakarta, but they'll gain many seats in their majority regions.

    1955 Results:

    Total Votes : 38,403,569 voters


    Indonesia National Party - 9,646,957 votes - 25,12%
    Indonesia Communist Party - 4,662,175 - 12,14%
    Progressive Union Party - 4,965,564 - 12,93%
    Socialist Party of Indonesia - 4,727,463 - 12,31%
    Turban Unity Front - 7,192,972 votes - 18,73%
    Party of Greater Indonesia - 6,939,506 votes - 18,07%
    Eastern Coalition Front - 268,932 votes - 0,70%


    The Legislatives are over, now it's time to form the Assembly and Konstituante.

    1955 Election (3).png
    indonesiae1955map.png
     
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    1955 Election Part 2: TUF
  • By the end of January. The TUF party had certainly failed to reach its initial expectations. What was the only party based by Islam, the religion that ruled Indonesia, failed to even reach higher than 20% of the vote. In addition to it, the TUF has its tails bitten by none other than the PGI, a party that was based on Christianity, a minority. The failures TUF has done is mainly about two events.

    ONE

    The party had always had clashed between its Traditionalist and Purist wings. The Traditionalists, led mainly by the NU (Nahdatul Ulama)s, consists of Ulamas strived for Islam a-la Indonesia. They viewed Indonesia diverse cultures with thick Hindu and Buddhism influence. Therefore, an Islam that suitable for this nation is an Islam that both belief in Muhammad and respects older cultures that already thrived here.

    images.jpeg.jpg

    NU talks in Jombang

    In the other end, we have the Purist. Purist are those who demand Islam as it is in The Middle East, which means the older cultures that have evolved in Indonesia must be eradicated and erased, and the culture of the Middle East must thrive. In West Sumatra, people call these Purists as Paderi. However, in Java, they called themselves as Muhammadiyah. The purists, know that they can’t persuade the older generation, decide to assert influence by educating the young generation.

    images.jpeg-1.jpg

    Muhammadiyah gatherings in Jakarta. Some people say that Muhammadiyah presence in Masyumi is so great that we could say that Muhammadiyah is Mayumi.

    Both NU and Muhammadiyah established in the Dutch era, but with cunning strategies of Muhammadiyah, they had twice of more followers than the NU. Nevertheless, NU still had a great influence on Eastern Java, as Jombang is its base. The Communist rebellion in Madiun1948 had also led NU into growing more influence in the region.

    For years, purist has tried to convince Eastern Java. Alas, they had a hard time, and it gets even harder.

    On 13 November of 1954, the TUF had held its Extraordinary Congress in Bandung. Congress mainly discuss the party’s future visions. Although it started peacefully, Congress took a dark turn when a certain former Masyumi declared a provocative speech.

    “Friends of Islam, the 1955 Election must be in our hands. We, based on Islam, must certainly reach a level of fighting against the INP. However, I intend to declare something to you all. In last September, the leader of the NU had contacted the PGI. They said that the NU will cooperate and joining the coalition of Christianity to fight this radical mena…”

    Before he could finish his sentence. TUF Congress has sparked into riots. NU fights against the Masyumi for declaring such falsehood. The TUF was clearly in disarray. Scholars still didn’t know if the statement is true, or it is just pure provocation. Nevertheless, the dye is cast.

    NU abandoned the TUF, left Eastern Java and Borneo with no political party. NU couldn’t be qualified into the election, as it would be held in two months. The leader KH Abdul Wahab Chasbullah declared that NU partisans may vote other parties of choice, except the TUF. The Kalimantan Nus have great leniency towards PNI and PSI, while the PGI had infiltrated in Eastern Java. Although the Easternmost of Java remained voting TUF, NU didn’t express any hatred towards the voters, as KH Abdul Wahas Chasbullah said, “We have destroyed TUF enough, let them have a piece of klappertart.” He later regrets this as many votes in Kalimantan and Sulawesi shifted to SPI, who became another TUF ally. But he was grateful that his base in Eastern Java loves PGI and INP.
    During December, TUF supporters would incite several raids, terrorism and exodus to communities with NU allegiance. Situations are so dire that the authorities set up a curfew on West Java. Cities like Bandung and Bogor are heavily militarized.

    images.jpeg-2.jpg

    Siliwangi Division march up in Subang, they were called by Wilopo to guard Bandung

    After that, the TUF left by Purists in Sumatra, Maluku and West Java. It is still quite a large percentage, and still enough voters to manage a fight. However, things do darken during a special visit.

    TWO

    It’s 4 December 1954, and President Sukarno decided to pay a visit to Bandung. During the visit, Sukarno had explicitly stated that he wanted TUF in supporting him. His old party, INP, has rejected his request, throwing him out with calling him ‘red traitor’. Incidentally, it was in Bandung also. In his visit, he requests the TUF to support him. The TUF unanimously accept this offer, but Sukarno wasn’t finished. He gave a condition that the TUF must cooperate with the lefts, like the Socialists and the Communist.

    This spark another chaos especially in Sumatra, as none of them wants to cooperate with leftist, moreover the Communist. The TUF, like it or not, accept this offer. By the new year, Sumatra has shifted mostly into voting the PUP or INP, although the TUF still clinging on a few provinces.

    As promised, the TUF, SPI and ICP has formed a coalition, named the People Coalition. They support Sukarno ‘s re-nomination as President. The opposition parties, PUP, PGI and INP form the National Democratic Coalition. The opposition parties lead the Assembly with a majority vote. They nominate Hatta as president. Now, it is time for campaign and consolidation.
     
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    1955 Election Part 3: PGI
  • Cited from: 2045: 100 years of Indonesia. By Prasetyo Subagio

    Tensions rose after the election. The TUF followed an Islamic ideology mixed with Socialist views. Headquartered in Bogor, the party would ally itself with the Socialist prior to Presidential Election, as they have predicted that Sukarno would win the election. However, they forgot about the Rocket Party which held one more surprise up in their sleeve.

    The Party of Greater Indonesia or abbreviated Parindra Baru in Indonesia had a plan. Holding a decent 18% of Indonesia population, Party of Greater Indonesia had resumed a bang with its own slogan. The slogan would be used as a battle-cry among Indonesians. Furthermore, the slogan also led Indonesia into direct war against the Red Albion.

    The party’s aggressive views of Indonesia’s greatness really appealed the Armed Forces in Indonesia. Many retired commissioned Indonesian officers, which retired due to health decline and direct order of the higher power, eventually join the party. As a result, the party became aligned to the Armed Forces, especially the Army. The Army had never expanded widely as the Navy and the Coast Guards were. Their only development made was upgrading an infantry template into a more structural organization, rather than the former militant style. With the Armed Forces led by Lieutenant General TB Simatupang, an army officer, the TNI or the National Armed Forces of Indonesia become mainly upset with the Assembly, particularly the opposition of the Communist Party, which had been building an army of their own. The Coast Guard, had been stamped by the other Armed Forces as the spoilt child, became the only ones who leaned themselves to the ICP.

    Suryadarma.jpg

    Suyadarma, the Head of the Air Force before joining the party.

    In 15th of February 1955, the PGI publicized its national slogan, “ For the Greater Glory of Indonesia” or “Demi Indonesia Raya”. The party slogan had several key points.

    First, the party will support the total achievement of Greater Indonesia, which is all of the Malayan Archipelago, that includes Malaya and Papua as a whole. The key points later on described by more radicals to include also Madagascar and Suriname. Secondly, Indonesia will militarize herself, as to prevent any foreign power, either great or minor, into ever stepping Indonesian soil. Lastly, Indonesian citizens will be guaranteed pure Democracy. Pure Democracy which means that any ideology, from left to right, is allowed in Indonesia, as long as the ideology reflects the fundamental principles of Pancasila.

    images.jpeg-1.jpg

    Party propaganda, which linked the Anthem Indonesia Raya

    The slogan reached the whole of Indonesia, excite the public. In villages across Indonesia, sympathizers increased significantly. In addition to it, regions near the Papuan borders had undergone a massive increase in border fights, as a means of liberating their Eastern brothers. Not long, the Australian government knew about this and spread to the International media.

    In Western media, the slogan was condemned as Neo-Fascism and demand the retraction of the statement. The Commonwealth pleaded the United States to intervene. But the Stars and Stripes declined of intervention due to increasing tension in Berlin. Japan, however, had mixed views. The Parliament condemned the slogan, while the Emperor stays silent, secretly admired their nationalism.

    In the other hand, the Comintern never really be anxious about this. They had fought Fascism once, they thought maybe let ICP would handle the problem easily. Besides, the Communist needs to fight against NATO. They mainly focused on regions like the Middle East and Europe, with South East Asia left on Chinese hands. The Chinese never really cared about it either, as they were busy in Vietnam.

    The PGI would greatly influenced the nation for long. During the next few decades, Indonesia’s politics is greatly influenced by this party. Because of this party too, Indonesia will finally progress into the First Party System Era, which proceeded for decades.

    By end of February, each side of the Assembly had their own pair. Sukarno teamed up with Natsir as running mate, while Hatta brought up Ali Sastroamidjojo as his vice president. The people of Indonesia were not certain who would win the election. Even until the polls had closed, the people of Indonesia still had no clue who won until the announcement was made.

    natsir.jpg

    Natsir
    ali.jpg

    Ali
     
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    1955 Election Part 4: Presidential Election
  • "The 1955 Election was anti-climatic, but it made us into establishing the First Party System and the Constitution we all knew."
    Teungku Abdul Suryadharma Ali, an Aceh Party Politician

    Uniquely, nothing special really happened during the Election period. All parties campaign in harmony and riots were infrequent except the ongoing Muhammadiyah and Nahdatul Ulama. At one time, people have thought violence ended, and peace within Nusantara would last long. Outside areas of that certain conflict, less people get annoyed with rivals. INP and ICP supportes lived with harmony, PGI and TUF also able to make peaceful coexistence.

    Prior to the election, Sukarno had made a charismatic campaign on all of Indonesia. With his fine speech skills, and also diplomatic strategies. Bung Karno convinced many into supporting him, even those who vote for the National Democratic Coalition. Dubbed as "The Long Trail", Sukarno made great followers in Java, especially in West and Central Java. Nonetheless, he failed to convince East Java, as the hard-lined PGI supporters already satisfy them with Hatta.

    Talking about Hatta, meanwhile, never get the fame as Sukarno did. His speeches were sound, but mediocre. Besides, his weapon, which is antagonizing Sukarno as a commie, has lost its effectiveness. Again, people were assured with Sukarno, and that was final after the election.

    Election Results:

    Total Votes : 38,403,569 voters
    Sukarno-Sukiman : 20,358,298 voters - 53,01%
    Hatta-Ali : 18,045,271 voters - 46,99%


    indonesiae1955president.png


    Election is over. People celebrated democratically. Now, Indonesia is a divided government. The foreign section is led by People's Coalition while the domestic section is led by the National Democratic Coalition.

    ----------------------------
    That's for the election part, the era from 1948 onwards, like OTL, is called "Liberal Democracy Era". I intend to prolong this Era until the 70s. Or at least after Kennedy (You'll know which one) is in power.

    This post's a bit short, I say. But it is necessary for me to proceed into a new period of Indonesia. Btw, please also comment for my content-building and for improving my writing skills.
     
    Era of Hardships Part 1: War
  • The Resurrection of Nusantara: How Indonesia Rose from Ashes of Colonialism
    Chapter 1



    The 1955 Election has ended. Sukarno has won the Presidency. The Parliament have selected their leader for Prime Minister, which is Wilopo, again. Few months after post inauguration, Sukarno and Natsir did the Foreign relations, while Wilopo, this time, interestingly, Hatta is his deputy. Both pairs cooperated quite synchronized, aside from several clashes and debates. However, there was one thing they were afraid of.

    On 31st of September 1955, the Australian government requested the government of Indonesia to conduct talks regarding the Papua Issue. It was held in Dili, part of former Portuguese East Indies. Sukarno appointed Adam Malik, a journalist and a politician, to represent Indonesia with H.V Evatts with Norman Makin as Australia’s representative.

    The negotiation was a disaster. The Australian government strongly demanded Indonesia to withdraw any assistance for the Papuan separatists in the Eastern side, while the Indonesian denied such actions. Disagreement turned to brawls, and both went home with pique. This also gave attention to the international world. The United Nations had suggested this matters to take in New York. Still, none of the parties would open themselves up.

    The next week, Australia government decided with their international broadcast to condemn Indonesia. Along with lines as ‘Fascist Scoundrels’ and ‘War hawks’, they humiliated Indonesia in front of the world. By then, tensions rise exponentially, and both sides knew that only one action would absolutely lead to war.

    Indonesians by this time knew war is inevitable, and losing side is not what they want. Sukarno had thought about this for a while, reflecting from moments during Independence War. He then found out a solution, and notify the whole nation with a sudden radio broadcast in 30th of November 1955.

    Assalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

    Fellow Indonesians,

    Indonesia is a young democratic nation, and we all adore her.

    By all the hard work we have had, our feet on the road to democracy has begun, and we have made a good start. But we will not deceive ourselves with the false illusion that we have traversed the full extent of the road to democracy, if indeed any end there be.

    The secret ballot, the free press, the freedom of belief, the votings in parliaments - these are all merely expressions of democracy. Freedom of expression has a guardian in a certain measure of prosperity, the achievement of freedom from want.

    For us then, democratic principles are not simply an aim. The expression of desire inherent in human nature, they are also a means of providing our people with reasonable standard of living. The freedom of expression and the freedom of wants are indivisible, two interdependent souls in our body.

    As with all other freedoms, freedom of expression is no absolute, its indiscriminate and unrestrained exercise could hamper harmonious growth of other freedoms, could hamper the harmonious growth from want, and thus sow the seed for the destruction of the fundamentals of human freedom itself.

    To the famished man democracy can never be more than a slogan. What can a vote mean to a woman worn out by toll, whose children fret and all with the fever of malaria? Democracy is not merely government by the people, democracy is also government for the people.

    In my opinion, democracy in Indonesia is as perfect as it can be. But different can we see from the eyes of the World.

    Our confrontations with Australia has led us isolated, secluded, removed from the progress of the world. They may seem like a sheep, but they are wolves in sheep skin. Little by little, our beloved nation is antagonized. No harm is done now, but it will years from now.

    I, as President of this brilliant nation, will not let our beloved country ruined by these rascals. They have tarnished our great nation for centuries, and we will not be tarnished once again.

    I, your appointed President, has invited Wilopo into this serious issue. We discuss about things to revert this damage, and we have discovered one outstanding solution.

    I hereby declare the Presidential Decree of 30th of November 1955

    First, I, by the power as the President of the Federal Republic of Indonesia, will invoke the Assembly to revise the Constitution of Indonesia. We shall officially be a Parliamentary Republic. All state affairs shall be given to the Assembly, while I and Natsir will still a national symbol.

    Second, I, by the power as the President of the Federal Republic of Indonesia, will invoke the Assembly to finish the Constitution in 6 months. The statehood appliance must be finished as well.

    Third, I, by the power as the President of the Federal Republic of Indonesia, hereby declare the state of Indonesia under a partial mobilization. Conscription shall be enacted, and the Armed Forces shall be expanded.

    By this decree, I hope the people of Indonesia will cooperate to fight against tyranny, oppression and intimidation from the Down Under.

    Live Indonesia! Live and yet Live!

    Assalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
    After the broadcast, millions queued for drafting into the military. What was once hoped for a pacifist nation, now preparing for war. Still, Indonesians never complained about that, as they rallied on the battle-cry of Sukarno.

    Inside the Assembly, night-hours is being established. Many representatives have decided to stay on the Konstituante Building for a night. It is located in Bandung, initially used for the Asia-Africa Conference. Representatives have worked up to the limit, and it is paid off.

    On 4th of April 1956, the finish draft, the National Constitution of Indonesia Year 1956 is being ratified. The whole world now knows that Indonesia is serious about democracy. Yet, good news is futile, as the powderkeg have already happened in exactly the previous month, March 4th 1956.

    Edit:
    The exact year of ratification is 1956, but after that many many amendments have been created within a three-year span that Legislates decided to change the Constitution entirely in 1959. In addition to it, many of the 1956 contents were Neutral-policy which harm the building Indo-American relations.

    Yes, Indonesia have already been a parliamentary republic since 1956, but the real legal system and all of the others put into effect after 1959.
     
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    Era of Hardships Part 2: Papua
  • Papua: The Island that Shifts the Down Under

    Papua, or internationally called New Guinea, is the second largest island in the world, falling behind of Greenland. Yet, however large it may seem, it was neglected by all foreign powers. Home to the aboriginal Austronesian tribes, Papua prior to World War 1 is divided into three. The Western half is given to the Dutch East Indies, the Eastern half was further divided into two, German and British. After the World War, the British acquired the German part, and in some time later handed over to the Australian Dominion based on 1905 Papua Act. During World War 2, Papua was partly occupied by Japanese forces. After Japanese capitulation, it was returned to Dutch and Australian hands. Finally, Indonesian efforts on Papuan Question make way for Western Half to be in Indonesian territories.

    During these time of shifting occupants and colonists, Papua was never regulated. Remote tribes live freely deep within the jungle, crossing the border for maybe dozen of times. The Australians have knew of this, of course, but it was so irrelevant that they decided to leave that aside. Before 1952 arrived, Papua had have a relatively harmonic coexistence from each holders. But, that would change… Since 1952, Indonesians have put efforts in reclaiming Papua back into their hands. As a result, they conduct several classified operations. One of them is Operation Dwikora.

    Named by Sukarno itself, Dwikora had two objectives. First, Indonesia must make peaceful non-coercive actions that Papua should be in Indonesia’s hands. Next, Indonesia must equip Papuans with basic defense to fight potential colonial oppressions. The last objective was the main reason why Australia-Indonesian relations deteriorated.

    After the World War. The Bunning Brothers, an Australian sawmill company had its eyes towards the density of Papuan rainforest. One could not argue the wealth they can extracted from there. Unfortunately, money spawn greed. Not long, several rumors about mistreatment spread out. “One tree toppled, one Papuan oppressed”, said natives. They grew in wealth, but Papuans grew in hatred.

    The Bunning Brothers, surprisingly became one of the fundraisers for the Australian Labor Party. A significant percentage of Labor’s campaign come from the sawmill production, and led them to victory. Another reason the Bunning Brothers was used is the rising Labor sentiment due to possible ties with the Communist. The Bunning Brothers hated communist, but not hated enough to radicalized themselves against Labor’s ideologies. This tactics proved not enough for the party to swing voters especially to win the 1954 Election. However, Ric Throssel had a sly plan.

    Just weeks before the voting commenced, he leaked classified data from an informant. The Sydney Morning Herald publish those data on 20th May 1954. The data really shifted voter to Labor, and it involved Indonesia.

    The Coalition government never really desired Papua to be Australian forever. The literacy of Papua was so low that Australia must granted these people further education. They have to do this because sooner or later, Australia’s ownership of Papua would be decried.

    The world is changing. Few decades ago, having an extra bit of land would have our nation adored and glorified by the international community. In a few years time, having an extra bit of land, territory in particular, would let our nation remembered as oppressors and conquerors against freedom of govern to those people.
    Harold Holt

    Plus, Australia is somewhat an isolationist nation. For decades they resist on opening borders as broad as their American friend. Immigration was held tight, and regulations were applied. Illegal immigration to Papua Island, then to Australia, had been the worst nags of Australian border control in history. Protect the Down Under is easy, but protecting the Northern Island, not so much. They needed a solution for the current and possible upcoming problems. That is why Sir Robert Menzies decided to contact Wilopo by phone. They discussed for a solid three and a half hours regarding this issue, and they signed a deal. By the year 1960, Australia will granted a referendum to people of New Guinea Territories. However, in their referendum there will be an option of whether the territory want to join up Indonesia, thus uniting the island once again. Indonesia in return would give special port acess to Australia for full 50 years. They secretly signed this deal, in Kupang, which now known as the Kupang Secret Agreement”

    After the press leaked this to the people, they were upset with the government. Being lied by their own selected representative was not their expectations. As a result, the Coalition declined, declined enough to make the Labors a win in 1954.

    Soon, the Labor won the government. And immediately tension rose on day one. Australia publicize the secret agreement, and criticize the old administration’s agreement as a humiliation to the Australian people. They affirmed that ‘Not an inch will be given’ to Indonesia or Papuans themselves. After that, insurgency in Papua rises exponentially. More and more attacks happened towards any Australian people in New Guinea Territories, military or not. In the end, Australia had enough on 3rd March 1956.

    An Indonesian squad was just having their weekly patrol when suddenly three Papuans ran for the checkpoint. Australian army men follow soon after with shots fired. The escapers were able to cross the border, and knelt down to the Indonesian squad for help. Budi Setiawan, Lieutenant, felt pity for them, and decided to hear the natives. The Australians in the other side demanded to return those escapers immediately. Budi was just stalling time when they shot him and his squad, but a private, Joko Suwardi, managed to flee and rush for the army command in Kota Baru.

    The news reached Army High Command in Jakarta, and they are furious. In three days, Indonesia gave an ultimatum to the Australian government, that the shooters must be trialed and sentenced according to Indonesia law by a week. Australia, as expected, neglected the ultimatum. Indonesia then declared war to Australia on March 17th, and the fighting starts.
     
    Era of Hardships Part 3: Stalemate
  • Sukarno was sitting on his rattan chair, slouching with his usual peci slanted. He examined the gentlemen before him, all were busy on insulting each other.

    “This act of war is ridiculous! How can we get away with this without Indonesia becoming a British Dominion?” Natsir shouted.

    “Don’t exaggerate Natsir. There is no way the British would be able to do such thing,” Wilopo back-fired.

    “Wilopo, Dominions aside, I agree with Natsir. We are in no shape of fighting Australia,” a gentleman in the opposite of Sukarno, said.

    Debate resumes, and Sukarno decided not to listen any of it. However, a few minutes later, Colonel Ahmad Yani entered the Secret Room with a news to tell. He entered with saluting all of the members inside the room. Only Nasution saluted back.

    “General, We’ve lost at Arafura Sea. Four ships sunk against one Australian,” he reported.

    “Thank You, Colonel. You may dismiss,” General Nasution answered.

    “See? It will be just months before our god damn Navy get sunk!” Natsir commented.

    “Oh, save yourself with all your pessimistic thoughts,” Hatta returned.

    Sukarno was really disturbed with the increasing tension within the chamber. His head was now spinning comparing to his minor aching a few minutes ago. He drank his coffee, not easing any of his mind. He riveted his head on this right hand. He was getting more and more anxious.

    He really hated disputes. He had experienced many faults happened because of discord. For example, he really hated when he was threatened to proclaim the independence. Sukarno groaned, he despised that memory to resurface again.

    Just as Wilopo was offending about Natsir pro stances towards Kartosuwiryo. Sukarno had enough. He throwed his hand up, and slammed it to the table. The meeting went quiet.

    “We have agreed on this. Me, you, you, and everyone here had already agreed on this. Freedom of Papua can only be acclaim by declaring war on Australia. And by that, we are the ones who declare on them, not them. The Labors were stupid enough to wage war to Indonesia, and we have planned to utilize this as not only Papua, but also Malaya.

    Just six months ago. SIX MONTHS AGO! We sat down on this exact table, all unified in one voice. ‘This is our chance; we can achieve everything in this one moment.’ Now, where are we? We succumb into disarray.

    No more fighting ourselves, please. In this time of needs, we must unite, not divide. Let them see our revolutionary spirit once more, hungry for liberty and freedom from Western bullies! We have won the World in Round Table Conference, we will win again after this war. ”

    The meeting became speechless. Several sneers from both sides were given, but never went anywhere
    .

    The War of Australian Aggression was supposed to be a quick war for the Australians. Indeed, they won in every aspect, except population. The Down Under had a decent navy. Alas, no one predicted that it would last for ten years and two months. The final battle for this war would be the Battle of Diego Garcia on Labor Day of 1966.

    The early stages of the war, was a disaster to Indonesia. Australia occupied most of Papua Islands, and only left Biak as a tiny Indonesian stronghold. Once an US occupied region for WW2 effort, the islands had a substantial but abandoned air field. Alex Evert Kawilarang, the Regional Commander of Dwikora Region, preserve the resistance there. But then, the returned leader of the Air Force, Suryadi Suryadharma, saw this island as a potential. Australia neglected this island, which soon will become her [1] fatal mistake. In naval superiority, Indonesia definitely fails. Arafura Sea became an Australian playground, and she expands her domain to Banda Sea. The British, after joined the war on April, had completely secure the Malaccan Straits, and heading South for the capital. Reached Jakarta on July, after sinking more Indonesian vessels, the Royal Navy sieged Jakarta with her ships.

    Col_Kawilarang,_Kenang-Kenangan_Pada_Panglima_Besar_Letnan_Djenderal_Soedirman,_p27.jpg

    Colonel Alex Evert Kawilarang, OTL rebelled against Indonesia in Permesta Rebelion, butterflied the rebelion with this.

    The first few years of the war was merely Indonesia versus Australia and Great Britain. New Zealand and the rest of the Queen’s Dominions never being called, thus never joined the war. Despite not the whole gang, the Red Albion already did major damages to Indonesia. Experts had predicted that Indonesia would soon fall by 1957, but boy they were wrong.

    The war of attrition, embarked by the Royal Navy, never really starved Indonesia even a single bowl short. They never attacked the countryside, thus food production had little changes. A significant effect can only be observed on imports, but food had been managed surprisingly well. The Suez Crisis also caused the 1957 recession in Britain. The Suez Canal Crisis, a ten months’ warfare from 1956-1957, crippled any British involvement anywhere farther than Egypt. Ended with an Egyptian victory, the Suez Canal was inaccessible for the British. Anthony Eden resigned from office. Political chaos in Britain began and mistakes begin to make.

    Christopher H. Hutchinson, the Far East Fleet, made their own move. They would summon troops from Australia to naval invade parts of Indonesia. He devised a D-Day style invasion plan to the East Java, from Madura to south on Gempol. He summoned 50.000 men and land to Sidoarjo at 2nd September 1957. This was rated a historical deja-vu when Allied troops entered Surabaya twelve years prior. His organized plot birthed results, but he led to his ill-fated end. People of East Java, radicalized with the PGI’s propaganda and slogan, fought every inch of their land to not being step by foreign power. The Invasion of Sidoarjo end up with 20.000 personnel dead, and another 5.000 personnel in captive. The rest lived on by retreating to Darwin. Hutchinson was utterly devastated. His unlucky gamble let him to resign his post, and left for a peaceful life in Scotland.

    large_000000.jpg

    Christopher H. Hutchinson, this was purely altered
    Once again, Indonesia’s spirit was blazing fire. The nation was able to repel the Europeans, again. International media once again took noticed on this nation, a vigorous nation of the third world. In addition to leaked tapes of Papuan harassment in Australia, more nations took side with Indonesia. One of them, intriguingly, was the United States of America.

    [1] I start using 'her' as pronoun for nations.
     
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    Era of Hardships Part 4: Vietnam
  • Based on:

    The Hawaii Pact Book One: The Great Allied War

    1958 was the beginning for the 2nd stage of the war, which is pseudo-armistice.

    The Gift of the Nile, the Egyptian Republic, had just won its war against two colonial powers, France and Britain in the Suez Crisis. Charismatic General Abdul Nasser had swept up Israeli lands up until devastation, kneeling them into peace deal. They negotiated at Jerusalem, The Holy City, thus names the Treaty of Jerusalem. The treaty was humiliating for the colonial powers, thus mark their end.

    Egyptian nationalization on the canal shall be valid and shall not be disturbed

    These foreign powers on three-year time are restricted on the Canal until further negotiations ensues:

    Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    Republic of France

    Republic of Israel

    Israel must withdraw all her troops to the 1948 Partition Plan of Palestine Border

    The Gaza Territories shall be inserted to the Republic of Egypt

    The Arab State in Acre and Palestine shall be liberated as Republic of Palestine

    After the war, the British government had very difficult access to the Far East. Every communication and supply line from Far East to the Homeland shall be diverted to South Africa, which take additional weeks. Thus, the situation in Australian Aggression became fairly quiet. War activities lessens in the 2nd stage of the war. Australia, still dependent on the Throne, had less independent efforts on fighting against Indonesia. Because of that, this stage was used fully by Indonesia as ‘prepare to fight back’. From 1958 to 1960, war production increased quadrupled. Divisions became more fully-equipped and experienced. Eastern Indonesia was still owned by Australia minus Biak, but liberation would soon be at hand.

    Another reason Indonesia managed to hold a resistance is none other than the United States. The CIA files proven that in Papua had been discovered massive gold and uranium deposits, beneficial for the Cold War. Eisenhower took noticed. He tried to gain benefits while still allying Britain, so he gave supplies such as AK-47 from Iran. Giving US weapons would immediately be being suspected by Britain, so by this tactic it would not be found out. In addition to it, US military personnel volunteered working with Indonesia. This was proven with Alan Lawrence Pope fighting with Indonesia on his plane. In return, Indonesia must give that specific 'area' into the hands of US mining company, with 25% of the income given to Indonesia in return. Sukarno, yet hated this kind of colonialism, must accept due to war measures.

    Eisenhower had been cautious with the situation in Indonesia. He, persuaded by the CIA, grew into giving support for the Emerald of the Equator. But, he would not want Britain to notice it. His administration would only give limited assistance to Indonesia. Helping the nation long enough until the next administration blatantly announce his support of Indonesia.

    In addition to it, in order to anticipate US withdrawal if ever they betrayed Indonesia, Jakarta had another backup plan.

    In December 1958, Wilopo visited Hanoi. In Hanoi, he meet up with all the disputed powers in the region. Bảo Đại, Ngô Đình Diệm and Hồ Chí Minh with Wilopo all sat down in Hanoi on a possible peace deal by these three factions. These three leader were enraged with each other, constantly on the edge of killing themselves. However, Wilopo had made just a crucial point for them.

    Fellow Gentlemen of Indochina. For nearly forty years of serving Indonesia, I had learned a significant lesson.

    I have fought my nation's Revolutionary wars, once fought alongside Sudirman, whose tactics had been admired by Mr. Hồ Chí Minh himself. I have participated in the making of Pancasila, my country's ideology. Pancasila, along with liberal infuse, also satisfied Mr. Ngô Đình Diệm as well. I have also participate many, many political debates among my Communists, Islam Fundamentalists and Naitionalists have given me a great lesson. My lesson learned is that, ideology, is not Indonesia's driving factor, but belief. We, from the rise of Budi Utomo, have believed for a united Indonesia. Belief for a better nation under our own government. A belief, that someday, somehow, we would be free from slavery and oppression. Our believe, dear friends, let us to our independence, and the struggle after that. Although we hated each other because of the political ideologies being differ, none of them, including me, will ever do anything to harm our beloved Indonesia.

    So, dear gentlemen, you may noticed that two of three of the warring sides have at least one reason why they loved Indonesia. Ideology is not a problem for a nation, but it would be when it is not reconciled. My nation, particularly, united with different ideologies. Communism, Nationalism and Liberalism all can sit on the same chamber of the Assembly. In fact, if you could consider, Pancasila consists of five different ideologies on my view. Conservatism, Socialism, Nationalism, Liberalism and Social Democracy. These five distinct ideologies, merged into one, has made a great union to my people, Indonesia. And why it still works? Because we have two main rally to consider.

    One, our nation was constantly downtrodden by the ruthless European powers. Our infamous Force Plantation Program by the Dutch slaughtered our nation like the Devil itself. The Dutch Aggression manipulated us into dividing ourselves. And know, the Australian Aggression coerced us into bowing on the Anglos. You, fellow gentlemen, have experienced the same fate. The French have killing most of your monks and populations. Discrimination, suffering and poverty all around the nation. In these circumstances, all elements must unite.

    The second reason, I believe, is our hope for a better nation. History have made us the black horse. Our abundant wealth all but exploited for the greed of Europeans. For years and years we have only created wealth for them but not us. You also do consider those, right?

    So, fellow friends of South East Asia. I requested you all to unite in a national coalition. Not against each other, but against a farther larger threat, the French. Based on your explanations, the French forces have increases substantially. It is only time before you divided brothers all may succumb to the European, which I fear the most. For that, let us cooperate and fight for the hope for a better future!

    Well, that leaves the Monarchist to settle. Your Highness, my nation had several setbacks when it is about monarchy. You have seen my nation disbanded the friendly monarchy Jogja and Solo into ashes. But mark my words, the new Constitution will benefit the Monarchist. I can assure you that Jogja and Solo will be back from the dead, and shall be given certain autonomy. If you don't trust it, then wait until next year.
    -Wilopo, secret record from Kingdom of Vietnam national files

    The meeting went up great for the warring factions in Vietnam. For once, the communists and the liberals can work together and form up some sort of coalition, albeit how fragile it is. It is left for the Monarchist to decide, and they did after the New Constitution is being ratified in Indonesia.

    In foreign stance, Indonesia was winning, the prolonged war make the British people demanded peace, creating conflict with the Australian government. Furthermore, it would make way for instability with the Empire. The United States was also leaning for Indonesia, leaving Britain with France as benefactor. The Soviet Union was still quiet of response. However, in domestic stance, Indonesia is changing.
     
    Era of Hardships Part 5: Constitution
  • Based on:

    The Birth of 1959 Constitution by Sukiman Wirahadi Kusumaningrat (2100)

    In 1959, Indonesia had finally announced her newest Constitution. The representatives have had months of overtime within the Assembly in Bandung. People from all ideological backgrounds all work together to form the Constitution. In the end, by March 1959, the Constitution is being set.

    This is based on an interview with President Jonathan Trihandoko (2050) about government bodies and administrative regions:

    The 1959 Constitution is based on the mixture between the existing 1950 Momentary Constitution and adaptation from the United States. The President is being voted by the nation by a direct election, and only functions as head of state. The Prime Minister is often voted by the winning coalition, voted by the people in an electorate election. The executive election always being held repetitively every five years. Meanwhile, the legislative election will be held in every five years, except the President dissolves the Parliament earlier than the term.

    The Executive Chamber lives on the Presidential Palace in 45th Sukarno Street. While the Legislative Chamber assembles on the DPR Building in 55th Amir Street. The Executives only consists of the President, Vice President and its fellow Advisors. The President is a ceremonial figure with limited executive powers. Most of them are ‘reserved powers’ as example, the 2019 Dissolution. Another executive powers a President hold is mainly function similarly to a Commissar in a company. It will not do the daily activities of a nation, but will supervise the Prime Minister. The election would be held on the first week of March every five years. If the President failed to do its duty, the Vice President will take office, and the Vice President Seat will be vacant until the next election comes.

    The Prime Minister will be elected in a Legislative Election after the Public Legislative Election in early January. The Prime Minister is the head of government, leading many duties regarding nation issues. The Parliament, if dislike the Prime Minister, can enact a motion of No Confidence. Prime Minister is able to form its own administration, or cabinet. Foreign Department, Treasury Department, Defense Department, Justice Department, Interior Department, Agriculture Department, Commerce Department, Labor Department, Health and Human Services Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Transportation Department, Energy Department, Education Department all adapted from the United States own Presidential Cabinet. The Industrial Department, Environment and Forestry Department, State-Owned Enterprise Department, Maritime and Fisheries Department, and Administration and National Development Department are added corresponding to the former Constitution. The Cabinet level officials are Attorney General Office, National Armed Forces, National Police, Secretary of Cabinet, State Intelligence Agency, and Joint Executive Staff Officials. That makes us in 18 Ministerial Office and 6 Cabinet level officials. Ministerial Offices are controlled by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet level officials are controlled by the Prime Minister but led by the President himself.

    Presidential Elections are proportional majority election voted by the people. The Prime Minister’s Election, on the other hand, has two stages. The first stage is the voting of the parliament constituency and regional constituency. The parliament constituency is a fixed and drawn according to the population census and state borders. The parliament constituency, is fixed on 650 seats, will be distributed evenly on population wise, except special autonomous grants. The Regional constituency, is fixed on 4 every state, except special autonomous grants. These special autonomous grants, we will get into that later.

    Those are the first two of five government bodies ratified by the Constitution. The last three were the Judicial Body, Control Body and the Monetary Body. The Judicial Body interprets and applies the law. The Control Body supervises all four of the bodies. The Monetary Body focuses on stabilizing Rupiah.

    Let us get back on the administrative divisions. After the 7th Amendment, Indonesia grants four types of special autonomous level. The first is “Special Administrative Regions”. Special Administrative Regions are states that were granted two powers. The first is an ability to have its own Congress and President of choice, and granted autonomy to everything except national defense (even in some extent, regional paramilitary forces are allowed, so do domestic police), foreign policies and currencies. These are applied in Suriname, Papua and Madagascar. This autonomous level is higher than the rest. The second type is “Autonomous Region”. Autonomous Region are states that were granted only one power, which is the ability to own its independent Congress. It is granted autonomy except national defense, foreign policies, currencies and laws. Yet the leader of the state remains a Governor. This was a modern adjustment with Amir’s Special Economic Region, so it gains more economic freedom than everywhere else. This status is applied for many regions, notably Singapore, Batam-Bintan, Walini City, Jakarta Coastal City, Bali, Labuan, Penang and Malacca. The third autonomous level is “Kingdom” which only grants their head of state to be a Sultan or similar status. These states are Jogjakarta, Surakarta, Brunei, Johor, and Perak. The lowest level of them all is “Territories” which all are small sparsely populated islands like Keeling, Diego Garcia and Christmas Islands.
    After the publication of the Constitution to the International Media, positive responses were received. The Constitution immediately put into effect on the 1960 Election and much more Amendments would be made, total 10 until now. In addition to it, the forming of the 1959 Constitution make way for the second stage of the Great Allied War, which was "Escalation"
     
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    Era of Hardships Part 6: Kennedy
  • Martin Jacques, 2010 in How the Red Tide nearly won.

    The Escalation of the Indonesian War paved way for the NATO Schism, which does disrupt the balance in Europe once more.
    Jonathan Fenby, 2014 in How the Pacific becomes an American Lake

    The reason why America dare to leave Europe is because Europe had been the powder keg for every World War. In addition to it, both United Kingdom and France repressively maintain their control for mainland Africa. Even they brought up the Fourth Reich into participation! The US sees her new friend in Far East, called Indonesia, and until now, the Equator Empire never sell out Uncle Sam.
    Andrew Narawangsa, 2033 in The Rise of the Second Majapahit Empire

    Indonesia, in every way, must thank the Americans. Because without them, the Emerald of the Equator would become nothing like now.

    Nearing 1959’s end, something unexpectedly happened in Egypt. Selwyn Lloyd, after winning the 1959 election, rose up as Prime Minister. After entering 10 Downing Street. His first action was to try and retake the Suez Canal. After the humiliating Treaty of Jerusalem resulted Britain must reroute all supply lines to the Cape. So, every war activity in Indonesia especially was considerably impeded. He does not want Indonesia to have more time, so he was eager on secure the Canal once more. And by Christmas Day, it seems God had given him the answer.

    On 25th December 1959, a naval accident happened just offshore of Cyprus. The footling Egyptian Navy fortuitously attack a British Submarine. Casualties were nil, only damages done to the submarine itself. However, the British government opted to milk this opportunity with a declaration of war. By new year, both nations once again were at war. In three months, the Suez Canal had been retaken. With combined Israeli and French forces, the Second Anglo-Egyptian War ended up similarly like the first. When Egypt’s status had returned as British colony, more reinforcements arrived in Malaya, and their arrival is not what they had expected.

    Conditions in Malaya had not been at its finest. The British decolonization since the war had acutely halted. Indeed, even the Federation of Malaya was rumored to not being granted independence at all.

    Ismail al-Khalidi, a Johor Sultan, started to reign on May 1959. He was a staunch pro-Indonesia, especially after recent intensity of British discrimination towards the Malays. Born indigenous in his homeland, he was a charismatic Sultan. He was often told to wander across his citizens, hearing aspirations from his own people. Interestingly, his people were all chanted in one voice, “Join Indonesia, please!!”.

    When he firmly decided to join Indonesia, he would not want to join alone. He needed other kingdoms in Malaya to accompany him as well. Unfortunately, nearly all kingdoms rejected his offer, except Perak. Fortunately, British Colonies in Penang and Malacca, and also British Borneo and Sarawak agreed to him. The coalition formed the Malayan Liberation Front, and immediately allied with Indonesia. So, the war that once only fires in Indonesian soil, had extensively expanded to a British control protectorate.

    In 1960, Indonesia’s northern engaged friend, Vietnam, had a wonderful news. The three local factions: Republicans, Monarchists, and Communist have decided to coalesce each other, and form the Democratic Kingdom of Vietnam. The Kingdom was a parliamentary monarchy, with parties consists of the Democratic Party and the Communist Party. This fragile coalition happened to succeed only on war moments, as immediately after, the nation turmoil heavily enough until civil war occurred.

    escalation 1.png

    Kingdom of Vietnam Flag (1960-1967)
    On the other side of the globe, a new era was starting. John Fitzgerald Kennedy had become 35th President of the United States after an undisputed Eisenhower’s two terms. Narrowing defeated Nixon, Kennedy had become the youngest president to be elected in office. His views in the recent years have become rather anti-establishment, and seek to find a new ally rather than the old kingdoms of Europe. Especially since Britain and France had become more apartheid in the recent years.

    escalation2.jpeg

    'Jack' Kennedy Portrait

    escalation3.png

    Remastered 1960 Presidential Election Results​

    On February 1960, just months after his inauguration, he would give his famous speech with the beginning of this:

    "My fellow Americans, with a heavy heart, and in necessary fulfillment of my oath of office, I have ordered -- and the United States Air Force has now carried out -- military operations with conventional weapons only, to remove British presence from the soil of Indonesia and to remove French domination from Vietnam heartland,"
    The speech mainly conversed about the increasing rise of 'neo-nationalism' at European soil, especially in France and Britain. For years and years, this nation that we once protected them from fascism, had becoming one. Not a surprise, South Africa’s discrimination towards Black-Africans had reached the stage of concerning, Ulster’s Irishmen had been discriminated from British pubs and clubs. In France, Arabs in Algeria and Tunisia had lost their homes, and relocated to the vastly dry Saharan Regions. in addition to it, the Korean War had never ended, even after five years of fighting, and another five years of tense armistice, no peace deal had ever been negotiated. Kennedy showed this anxiety of peace in Korea, and by peace he meant a unified Republic of Korea. In the end, he bombed the whole nation with one sentence, that literally shocked the world.

    “And I must say to the people of USA and abroad, that the United States of America shall withdraw from NATO and all military activities regarding NATO and its members shall cease within American soil.”
    In mid-1960, the US had left NATO, and decided to help Indonesia and Vietnam with an extensive intervention. The 2nd Stage of Korean War had also begun. The world in 1960 had descended into chaos once more.
     
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    Realpolitik Part 1: Berlin Fiasco
  • In one moment, the world has thought Kennedy was the worst US president of all time. Oh, how wrong they were.
    “Richard Nixon”


    Kennedy is my friend. And I can assure you, his political actions may differ from others, but his results would always be astonishing.
    “Sukarno”


    Oh, baby. His presidency was never boring. Hell, my whole time as Vice President really never thought a young boy like him would ever think of that.
    “Lyndon B. Johnson”

    It is only the beginning of 60-s decade, but the world has started another crisis identity. Europe and America once again in haughty relations with the old continent. However, unlike 1814, the United States of America decided to go expansionist, and establish her own bloc with her own rules. Europe consistently under conflict. Just a decade of peace seems to be very difficult to maintain inside the continent. And oddly enough, the Reich, already fallen three times, have risen for the fourth time.

    In November 1961, Berlin Ultimatum was given to allied states, from Nikita Khrushchev.

    That Soviet Premier issued the Western powers an ultimatum to withdraw from Berlin within six months and make it a free, demilitarized city. Khrushchev declared that, at the end of that period, the Soviet Union would turn over control of all lines of communication with West Berlin to East Germany, meaning the western powers would have access to West Berlin only when East Germany permitted it. In response, the United States, United Kingdom, and France clearly expressed their strong determination to remain in, and maintain their legal right of free access to, West Berlin. [1]

    That ultimatum, viewed by Western European states, as imminent communist expansion. The Warsaw Pact [2], could get a unified German Socialist Republic on their hands. In addition to it, communism is on the rise as Soviet Union is able to launch the first ever man-made satellite to space, Sputnik 1, on 15 October 1957, and gain more communist supporters afterwards. Even in France, the PCF, France Stalinist Party, is gaining influence.

    sputnik.jpg

    Sputnik 1​

    However, the United States of America have a few tricks up in her sleeve, and one of them includes a specific tour into West Germany.

    JFK: It seems that the sudden meeting in this town of Regensburg have conflicted you all, Sir, if I may. This town of Regensburg was chosen by me because of its significant German history. For centuries, this town, had been home to Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. The First Reich, the Reich for a Thousand Years, lived on with the help of this city.

    LF: I know, Mr. President. In fact, we all know. But, I can’t seem to understand the meaning of today’s meeting, especially with my fellow royals from the other house.

    JFK: Your Imperial and Royal Highness, your kingdom who is abolished for now, have created one men of my idol. I reckon you knew about Otto von Bismarck?

    LF: Yes, Mr. President. Pardon me, you have not answer my question.

    JFK: Otto von Bismarck acknowledges me about Realpolitik. Rather than ideology, Realpolitik offers political strategies regarding circumstances and situations. And with Realpolitik, he manages to unite Germany.

    A: What is the point, Mr. President, in inviting me here when...

    JFK: I am sorry to interrupt Duke Albert. But I insist for patience for five more minutes. Let me continue first.

    For around twenty years in politics, I have always use my ideological basis. I promote democracy against communism and absolutism. I am very keen on promoting Civil Rights, while continuing my nation’s Manifest Destiny. However, after rising into presidency, I see all those visions blurred away. When my visions are put forwards, I gain even more enemies. But hell, even my popularity is being damaged by my own views. So I decided to turn on one flawless strategy, pragmatism and realpolitik.

    So, I decided to come here for a proposition. That, in just my presidency’s end, I can give you the Federal Kingdom of Germany.

    OvH, LF, A, FJ: Excuse me?

    JFK: Yes, you can hear me.

    FJ: Wait, but how?

    JFK: That’s why you all must follow these steps. I myself was advised by Henry Kissinger, a conservatism politician. So, here is how.

    My political analysts have predicted that Soviet Union will do something regarding the division of Germany, and it will have happened at least before the year turns. My nations withdrawal from NATO completely surprised the communes, and it went a good way. France and Britain are being expected to re-militarize and ‘defend itself’ with increasing military power. The only way they can achieve that is by maintaining Africa. However, two problems are emerging. One, Africa is getting harder to control, as the world progress, so do technology, and people’s conscience of freedom. Africa for two nations is extremely hard, and they must seek for other powers. Portugal is gone, now red. Italy is a lost state. The Netherlands, still kicking, may able to get some in this ‘new Colonization’ game, but still not enough. Two, the Soviet Union is agitated on unifying Germany, with socialism as their main ideology. Right there, is enough to scared whole of Europe. But, my advisers had a plan.

    The files turn extensively black, due to tapes given. But, we could connect the dots.

    The Berlin Ultimatum was taken with resistance by the West. Indeed, even the Americans counter-attack.

    The Berlin Ultimatum is immoral, especially to the divided Germany. The United States recognizes Soviet Union's historical concerns about their security in central and eastern Europe. We seek peace, but we shall not surrender. Instead, we shall offer a Berlin Compromise which says as follows:

    All Allied forces within Western Germany must withdraw by 1962. As also with Soviet forces in East Germany. The state of East and West Germany must be void of allied presence within, both NATO and Warsaw Pact. In return, West and East Germany will establish a referendum in July 1962, which states a possibility of a German reunification. For a fair deal, all parties of East and West Germany may participate for this referendum, and may decide the path they will choose.
    "John F. Kennedy"

    In national television, the British crowds went livid. Germany’s biggest allied occupant, the United States, decided to do such careless actions. The French, however, underwent a national commotion. Everywhere across the world, they have judged Kennedy as ‘worst presidents of all time’. Yet, in the United States, popularity in the states have been higher, as American troops once again may send back to home after seemingly eternity of needless occupational spending.

    The Soviets thought this as a great opportunity. Indeed, East Germany had decent amount of population. If the West wants to reunify, certainly the left-wing would flourish. However, Andrei Gromyko have sceptical views about this. And decided to plan something crazy, called ‘Polish Seizure’, which did happened, in January 1962.

    [1] Taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Crisis_of_1961 with ITTL correspondence

    [2] Warsaw Pact, or the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, is still happened ITTL, but formed a bit later, in October 1958.
     
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    Realpolitik Part 2: Europe
  • LIFE, November 30, 1961

    Europe is still in ruins. The devastating war that ended 15 years ago have not recovered until today. Marshall Plan has significantly restored the economy of a few countries, but never to fully returned to its pre-war era. Across the Old World, major changes are happening. With the NATO Schism, even more countries decided to shift allegiance, particularly to the left.

    The first major country which is affected dearly is France. The French Fourth Republic is mainly a parliamentary nation, which government is not strengthened by one person, but a group, likewise a party. In 1951, elections were held, and the SFIO-led Coalition won on about 60%, saved from potential snap-elections. Although SFIO only held 18,75% of the vote, lacking behind from PCF and RPF, still the party managed to allied with few other parties, like CNIP, MRP, and Rally of the Republican-Lefts. The downfall is imminent, as even for another election and ten years, war in Vietnam is yet not won.

    SFIO, the prominent Socialist Party in France, was -and still is- an American sympathizer. Many, domestic and foreign, policies were all pleasing the States. Moreover, the SFIO supports NATO. The party would risk anything to keep NATO intact, and that is what they failed at 1960.

    Guy Mollet, SFIO leader, is a pro-imperialism politician. He really seeks France to maintain her colonial imperium, and possibly expand a little bit. Unstable regions, like Indochina, was seen as ‘lessons for an empire’ and he would stay sending troops to the jungles of Vietnam. Besides, Indochina have been France’s top producers of coffee, which is still sought after the world. Jean Étienne Valluy, would be France’s spoiled child, as Indochina was continuously suppressed by him.

    download.jpeg.jpg

    Jean Étienne Valluy
    In 1960, immediately after Kennedy’s announcement, France underwent a big political turmoil. Immediately, SFIO felt betrayed by the Americans. Indeed, France had committed loyalty to United States, but what is returned? The National Assembly, unsatisfied with the government, decided to conduct a snap-election in France. And 1960 was a Communist win. The fragile republic, with astonishing 19 overlapped prime ministers, with Guy Mollet as the longest one, have let the Commies won.

    However, the PCF win was not satisfying for the greatest communist country in the world, the Soviet Union. Thorezism, a new communist ideology, is emerging in France. Thorezism is a derivative from Libertarian Marxism, a scope which reduces the authoritarianism of a Marxist. Rosa Luxemburg was one follower, and also became one of Maurice Thorez’s icon for the new branch of Communism. Because of that, the Communist Party may also ally with other parties, thus breaking the opposition for decades in France. In 1960, the Assembly propose a referendum, reinstating the Presidential seat once more. In less than two months, the nation immediately become the Fifth Republic of France, and establish Maurice Thorez as President of France.

    images.jpeg.jpg

    President Maurice Thorez, during a speech
    Thorez as President of France would mean one thing for Britain, leaving NATO. As expected, France immediately leaves NATO. Nonetheless, Red France have decided to form the URFN which abbreviates United Republics of Francophone Nations. Similar to the Commonwealth, the URFN encompasses all French colonies, protectorates and territories, except Indochina which France have decided to negotiate a peace deal with the Americans by 1961. (EDIT) Because of the more just policy especially towards no-Europeans, Algeria, the very jewel of France that once rebel from 1957 to 1958, turned silent. France attempt to form a mix between Soviet Union's relation with the other SSRs and Yugoslavia's peace in diversity. It is not a surprise that a few years after Red France establishment, the newly remastered nation would seek ties with Yugoslavia.

    In Britain, situations immediately got out of hand. Two of their best companions, the United States and France, immediately became Britain’s pseudo-nemesis. Conditions in East Indies is also not helping for the party governing Britain, Conservative Party. Since the Australian Aggression, and the US sudden departure from friendship, Britain’s enduring majority party, the Conservatives, have been struggling greatly. If the government cannot win the war in Indonesia, the Tories would certainly have doomed. As a result, Labour would be the new government party. As about the contesting opposition, experts think of one.

    images.jpeg-1.jpg

    Labor strikes about equality movement, largely discriminize due to South Africa's 'successful' Apartheid, but still a major force in 60s Britain
    No, the experts are not thinking about a possible Communist rise, but literally the opposite, a possible British National Party. In 1960, we saw the rise of it with Plaid Cymru and SNP coalition with the BNP and form the British Unionist Party. The Unionist, their nickname, is dubbed as the New Right contesting the Conservatives. Although the party is a populist, its policies are mainly British nationalism and mainly hard-imperialists. With the slogan “For Greater Britannia”, the party uniquely gain supporters from British minorities, like Scottish and Welsh, but still fall behind from the majors. What is concerning about this party is they are moderately anti-Semitism and anti-immigration. If the party wins, we will see a possible deportation of Jews to Israel and banning immigration.

    In addition to it, Britain's relations with her Dominions are worsening. After five years of stalemate with ridiculously weak Indonesia, Dominions have shifted and formed new parties. The first ever Nationalist-total win, was South Africa. Because of that, South Africa starting 1959 has begun the worst ever discrimination in world history, the Apartheid.

    Relations in Canada, Albion's best ever dominion, remained relatively stable. Canada remained loyal to Britain, and the stable Conservative rule have stayed on Britain's course. In the near future, Britain would not worried about Canada.

    Situations in Iberia, meanwhile is deeply divided. The Nationalist Republic of Spain is on the brink of a crisis with People’s Republic of Portugal. Both ends of the political spectrum rests here on the same sub-continent. 1953 was a successful coup for the Communist, and Álvaro Cunhal has led the Socialist Republic until now. The nation in 1955 joined the Warsaw Pact, and rises tensions straight away with Spain, an isolationist fascist republic.

    images.jpeg-2.jpg

    Álvaro Cunhal​

    In Italy, politics are relatively normal in the region. The Socialist Party lost seats on the 1958 election, and Christian Democracy reigns Italy once again. It is reasonable to say that the rise of communism in France led to this counter-actions in Italy. The peninsular nation currently seeks more ties with Britain, and possibly West Germany and the Low Nations.

    Speaking of West Germany, the nation has never been more tumultuous. Indeed, by 1962, the nation divided would perhaps united again, but the question is, would be whose leaning? Since the Soviet Union has agreed with the referendum proposal, both nations have campaigned hard to promote each of their ideologies. The 1961 elections, West Germany has proven to be another CDU coalition winning Konrad Adenauer. The runner-up would be the SPD as usual. But the third is a new party allying the CDU, the All-German Party. The All German Party have risen as a monarchist party since 1953. The DP (All-German Party) manages to expand from less than 1% until significant 16% in 1957. It reaches 22% in 1961.

    East Germany, is quite -communist. The nation after approximately fifteen years under the Soviets, German Democratic Republic have stagnated in economy and social affairs. However, communist popularity remained high (read: threatened), as East Germany was given a special duty in helping the Soviet Union in space affairs. Sputnik 2, and so on, is a joint German-Soviet space program, interestingly. One space program, in East Germany alone, has maintained the popularity high, even rises a few. But, German unification could let the Soviets lose their best satellite, and one solution they could offer is increase in population, with land seizure.

    Analyst have predicted that, in order to maintain Germany's allegiance to the Soviet Union -possible a junior partner-, East Germany must accept more immigrants. Immigration in East Germany is fairly nothing, barely someone crosses the Polish border to East Germany. Plus, more Germans also prefer to live in capitalist Germany, thus deceasing even more.

    So, to sum up. Situations in Europe have been shifting to the left. Soviet Union was winning in this Cold War. And it seems Kennedy has a reason why.
     
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    Realpolitik Part 3: America
  • In Europe, the word was change. In America, the world was flourish.

    Post War America had been quite an astonishing era. Business flourished, society improved and basic needs advanced. In every way, the life of an American citizen was upgraded. Eisenhower’s Interstate Highway System eased the means of transportation. Marshall Plan boosted productivity in the States, and so on. If the Soviets were not around, the US would be said to have her golden era.

    Although prosper it may seem, the United States had troubling neighbors. Cuba, just south of Louisiana and Texas state, was the worst. Under Fidel Castro, Cuba had become the most prominent Communist state within America. As Cuba quests for Soviet relation, the US must do something first, which she did, in 17 April 1961.

    After Kennedy approved this CIA operative, the Bay of Pigs Invasion was launched. The invasion lasts for three days, with a resounding US victory. The first day secured the bay completely. The second day was the wipe out of all forces during US Army’s march towards Havana. The third, and the climax, was the assassination of Fidel Castro, Che Guevara and other communist activists. The invasion was too short to gain Soviet’s attention, and when they do, it was too late.

    Just moments after Cuba’s democratic victory, Kennedy decided to declare a speech towards the American public.


    “The President of a great democracy such as ours, and the editors of great newspapers such as yours, owe a common obligation to the people: an obligation to present the facts, to present them with candor, and to present them in perspective. It is with that obligation in mind that I have decided in the last 24 hours to discuss happily at this time the recent events in Cuba.

    On that once unhappy island, as in so many other areas of the contest for freedom, the news has grown better. I have emphasized before that this was a struggle of Cuban patriots against a Cuban dictator. While we could not be expected to lend our sympathies, we made it repeatedly clear that the armed forces of this country would not intervene in any way.

    It is not the first time that Communist tanks have rolled over gallant men and women fighting to redeem the independence of their homeland. Nor is it by any means the final episode in the eternal struggle of liberty against tyranny, anywhere on the face of the globe, including Cuba itself. But, however successful attempts of these Communist wave. The true independence of men and women have been redeemed.

    Our brave forces, our own children, have liberated Cuba from these authoritarian oppressors. Forces of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara have been arrested for subtle charges against humanity. Cuba has been liberated with the help of US, the truly republic of the world.

    This newly establish nation, a nation now free from oppression, tyranny and intimidation, may now go forward and find its true course for freedom. The former Republic of Cuba was no republic. This republic does.

    The message of Cuba, of Laos, of the rising din of Communist voices in Asia and Latin America – these messages are all the same. The complacent, the self-indulgent, the soft societies are about to be swept away with the debris of history. Only the strong, only the industrious, only the determined, only the courageous, only the visionary who determine the real nature of our struggle can possibly survive.

    We shall become the beacon for all hope in the world. By this liberation, we have brightened our beacon, and we are a mile closer to a just, free and happy world.”
    [1]

    Interestingly, the new Republic of Cuba voted for a unified course, that by 1965 they want to be part of the United States. In 1970s, the United States would admit two more states into the Union, Cuba and Puerto Rico, as 51st and 52nd States of America.

    [1] Almost copied from the Bay of Pigs Briefing
     
    Realpolitik Part 4: Civil Rights
  • War after war, the United States is always on the victory side. Vietnamese intervention resulted in French negotiations by 1962. The Cuban War was quick and decisive win for the Americans. Her prestige was all time high. They seemed to be the chosen Republic, chosen by GOD to liberate the world, and it was good. However, good on the outside, but not so in the inside.

    Abraham Lincoln has assisted non-Europeans to set free from slavery. But they were yet unfree from civil and racial discrimination with the whites. Segregation evolves after abolishment of slavery. Toilets would be separated, town hall would be differed and even shops were exclusive for certain colors.

    The Civil Rights Movement was the result of America’s negligence to further equality. Birthed since the 1950s, the CRM have expanded since and rally most of the Southern states, the region where most discrimination is taking place.

    images.jpg

    Taken from Wikipedia, the Civil Rights Movement [1]

    For a period, African Americans voted and held political office, but they were increasingly deprived of civil rights, often under Jim Crow laws, and subjected to discrimination and sustained violence by whites in the South. Over the following century, various efforts were made by African Americans to secure their legal rights. In 1954, the separate but equal policy which aided the enforcement of Jim Crows laws was weakened with the United States Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education ruling and other subsequent rulings which followed.

    Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations, which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans across the country. The lynching of Chicago teenager Bennett Tull in Mississippi, and the outrage generated by seeing how he had been abused, when his mother decided to have an open-casket funeral, mobilized the African-American community nationwide. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery bus boycott (1955–56) in Alabama; "sit-ins" such as the Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina and successful Nashville sit-ins in Tennessee; marches, such as the 1963 Birmingham Children's Crusade and 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.
    Movement expanded greatly, until its climax in 1965 Civil Rights Act, pushed by Kennedy after his second secured presidency. Civil Rights figures like Martin Luther King Jr. and other notable figures rises as heroes of equality. Some of them even acquired Nobel Peace Prizes. Since then, the movement slowly eroded in history, as this movement in the near future will be out-shadowed by another one.

    I still have a dream, a dream deeply rooted in the American dream – one day this nation will rise up and live up to its creed, "We hold these truths to be self evident: that all men are created equal." I have a dream ...
    —Martin Luther King Jr. (1963)

    Civil Rights happen almost happen as OTL, with difference of being a bit later due to Kennedy’s pragmatic views in his first term.

    Meanwhile, something is happening somewhere in America…

    “Unknown shift adrift in 070°,” sounded the radio, “roger that,” replied Alexander. Alexander Burton is the commanding patrol ship of the US Coast Guard, 30 miles South East of US Virgin Island. He is now a commanding Captain, decorated due to his astounding duty as saving 50 Americans that was shipwrecked by human error. Shipwreck is rare these days, modern navigation and better hull. But hose guys, so foolish of they.

    “Captain, we have confirmed it as a French Fishing Vessel.” A Frenchie, what are they doing here? This is more than 100 clicks from Montserrat. Everything near here is either those Fascist Briton or us, so why though? Sure, the new United Nations Law have expanded each nation’s fishing grounds into more than 200 miles except a foreign border before. Yet this vessel should not have come here. Suddenly, it moves in full speed. Everyone went on ready station, as this ship might be escaping from American patrol.

    “This is the American Coast Guard. You are in American Territory. Turn off your ship’s engine or we will open fire!”

    Still, the ship keeps sailing North-West, probably to the British Virgin Islands, which is what Captain Alexander have feared for. Relations between Old and New England have never been better after recent NATO splits. If an American armed ship wanders inside a British border, that will cause unnecessary disputes.

    “Captain! We are losing them! Our ships are not capable of reaching them, they are too fast!”, Lieutenant Commander Sandler exclaimed.

    Damn they! Our ships should be the fastest in these waters. Years of service as a Coast Guard, Alexander always optimize that 20 knots speed is something the Caribbean must fright for. L’Hexagone must have better ships, way better that even a fishing vessel beat us.

    Tailing the ship is in vain. The ship more and more further away to the horizon. Alexander then called it quits.

    “Well then. Maybe we intercept their signals, perhaps.”

    Alexander commanded the recon squad to intercept their communication lines. With a new machine, unbeknownst by Alexander, is guaranteed to get a thing or two about their coms.

    The squad manage to receive certain French words from the ship. The talks there resembling a conflict ongoing, particularly between two angry man. However, it seems that there was a third party, a British man.

    “Well, Gentleman. If you cannot agree with yourselves, then I can assure you that the King will not be involve in this such perilous actions. Immediately land to the islands and we will talk there. End line.”

    An abrupt end is heard.

    “Anyone in here can understand what the Frenchies are saying?”

    “A few, captain. I can hear, ‘weapons, ‘party’, and … ‘revolt’?”

    Upon returning to the Keys, Alexander immediately informed to the high military officials. If it is what Alexander think it is, then Britain is really up to something.

    [1] Copied from OTL, with extremely minor changes, like names
     
    Realpolitik Part 5: Sukarno-ism
  • Sukarno-ism and the Fall of Islamism

    The world is chaos in 1960s. Europe is steps away from conflict. Soviet Union is seemingly winning, and the United States seems to do nothing about it. However, due to the circumstances, situation in Indonesia have become rather peaceful.

    As expected 1960 elections were halted due to Australia that has occupied Papua. In the meantime, if Indonesia still manages to hold an election by that year, it could be said that Islam as an ideology would have fallen faster than it was.

    There were always two ideologies that rebels against the government. The first was the communist. The Indonesia Communist Party was dissected into three eras.

    The first one was the Internationale Era, where basic Leninism and Marxism was the party’s major vision. It was called ISDV. ISDV rebelled against the colonial Dutch forces, and was banned after.

    The second revival of the communist party, was the First PKI. The first PKI implemented Stalinism or Communism with Russian characteristics. Like the old, the new revolt as Soviet Republic of Indonesia, and involved in a complete annihilation by Siliwangi Forces of Republic of Indonesia and minor Allied troops. Although not banned, the PKI shrank drastically into mere minor.

    The third revival, the current one, is a party based on Maoism or Communism with Chinese characteristics. Led by Aidit, the party struggles to resurrect itself after twice of failure. As the predecessors did, this new party had rumored to may rebel in the near future. But, lack of supportes may make them scratch those plans.

    Indonesia Communist Party is still influential, although followers tend to alienate towards the now center Nationalist Party. The ICP is still the largest hard left party in Indonesia, and the third largest party in the world, under Russia and China. The Dmitrov doctrine still glues to the Communist Party. But, rather than Fascism, the ICP had its new enemy, the imperialist militarist Party of Greater Indonesia. ICP was heavily inclined to ruin its nemesis that its old enemy, the Islamist, conjured as allies against PGI.

    The Communists and Islamists in Indonexia both have the most nauseous similarities, their tend to rebel.

    The Islamists, mainly regional Islamists, have for years maintained insurgence in major Islamic stronghold, like Aceh, West Java and parts of West Sumatra. NU was once part of this front, but left due to unamendable conflict back in 1955. Now, the NU’s Islam mainly focused on education, while political ideas tend to support the PGI.

    Five years of coalition and holding the Presidency, but this Islamo-Socialism still never settled. When an agreement was made, two new problems would emerge, and it seems eternity would even never resolved them. By 1960, the TUF selfishly left the coalition, and with changing names for some tries, the party maintain to be ‘third-power radical force’.

    The Communist, however, had Sukarno. Sukarno himself already survived the Communist. Therefore, with five years with Sukarno, a new faction emerged in the party, called Sukarno-ism.

    Sukarno-ism is an ideology of Sukarno during his old age. As he got older, he thought that Indonesia have been more sympathetic towards the West, and Indonesia should be a neutral Third Force nation. In 1963, after he resigned as President due to Natsir’s sudden demise, Indonesia never left US grip, but the Communist Party carried the struggle of him, becoming the Fourth Era of the party, especially after China falls after the Tianjin Youth Massacre. This new ideology is mainly pacifism on foreign policy, but extremenly hard left in domestic policy. The ideology promotes equality, labor goverment, centralism and strong government.
    As a result, Islamist has gone as ants while the Communist still lives on. The Second Party System will happen in the 1970s, as the system evolves again into two party system of Jingoism or Pacifism.

    In 1960, the nation was still at war. The British menace was lurking out from all sides, probably waiting for the perfect moment. At least, the Malayas have come into their senses, and declare support towards a unified, democratic, free Indonesia. 1962 was the year Malaya was fully liberated from Britain. The new region immediately joins the Republic, and many Sultans in the Peninsula was abolished. In British Borneo, situations were also fairly good. Brunei has joined us, and not long after the Peninsula folded, so does the whole Borneo.

    In the West Front, Indonesia was winning with no resistance, but the East was still out of reach.

    United Kingdom had not given up, and still pursue a war. Although back in England, people were starting to riot for an Anti-War Movement, Selwyn Lloyd has not budged.

    No bloody hell I would let the Kingdom surrender to those filthy Malays.
    Selwyn Lloyd, infuriated after Malaya defeat.

    Meanwhile, American intervention has arrived since 1961. But they decided to make plans for a possible strikethrough. The US Armed Forces deliberately stall the war progress due to plan political and war tactics.

    Back then, the CIA needs two things. One, completely isolate Britain in sea. Britain , even after partial decolonization, still hold territories in every continent. This once was a good thing for America. But after Kennedy sudden turn, this must change. Two, own the Pacific. By that, the answer must be obvious. Either puppet Australia and New Zealand, or puppet New Zealand but block Australia with Indonesia. And CIA choses the latter. In 1962, they have readied for an assault, and that happened on Biak, July 1963.
     
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    Realpolitik Part 6: Resignation
  • Regensburg, Hawaii Pact and the Post-Bismark Pragmatism; John Smith, 1998

    Kennedy’s first term was not the best a president could do. He was prejudiced as a Soviet helper, the president that destroy NATO, which was seen as the last bastion against communism. In America, the Democrats had threatened him that, if Europe was not overrun by the Soviets by 1962, any hopes of candidacy would be gone. Kennedy knew this dearly, and really hoped that this German Referendum could save his presidency, which shockingly did.

    The events around the Iron Curtain was a great gamble for Kennedy. He bet like his own life was at stake, and even with all possibilities, his winning chance was low. Nonetheless, he succeeded. And with the Miracle of the Rhine had secured him for the new presidency. In reality, two events shaped the course for the start of Kennedy Dynasty. One was the war in Indonesia, other was in Europe. Kennedy Dynasty was also another reason why Indonesia continued to flourish with an American friendship.

    ===

    In Indonesia, the first offensive of reclaiming Papua began on July 1963. Biak, as their last stronghold, had become their main base. During the retreat times, Indonesia completely left the island. But, with the help of the American Air Force, and the Pacific Fleet, Biak was able to hold throughout the war, possibly as the ‘Last Stand against Southern Britons’. Biak, before a short-lived WW2 airbase for American planes, have expanded becoming the largest airport in the whole West Pacific. Its airplane capacity could hold more airplane than three of Indonesia’s own airbase of Halim Perdana Kusuma. The island had completely become a military fort, jokingly stated that even a nuke would not be enough to annihilate the base. As a result, no Britain or Australian aircraft ever neared the base.

    In 1959, 200 planes had been sent to bomb the base, only 2 return. But, as the coalition only pursue defense, not offense, no extensive bombardment had commenced to any Australian bases in Papua. The dark side of this do was Australia carpet-bombed everything West of Papua, including Jakarta, Bandung and Surabaya.

    images.jpeg.jpg

    100 Days of Surabaya; the whole central city decimated by the bombings

    The stalemate occurred during the war have crippled any administrative measures. Weirdly enough, enemy’s main objective was not military or industrial, rather attacking main government buildings with also civilian casualties. So, by this case, a ironic version of “Bombing of Dresden” happened in Indonesia, with several cities as targets. One great example was Jakarta.

    Jakarta was a thriving city before the war. The Old Town on the North with Chinatown had become a bustling commerce. A few miles South, Gambir become the nation’s central capital, with Ikada Field as the center of it. Another bustling district was Meester Cornelis, or Jatinegara, but it is located further Southeast.

    These mentioned, were all destroyed during Australia’s bombings. Especially Gambir, where Sukarno and all ministers must congregate at underground bunkers, live on without sun rays for some time. The bombings of Jakarta, in August 1963, killed Natsir and injured Sukarno. Natsir who was running to the bunkers short on arriving, when the bomb blew off the entrance, throwing him to the river, and hit the hard road curb when he land. Sukarno, meanwhile, got lucky, and had been trown to the bunker safely. He had broken back, hospitalized, and cannot stand after the blast.

    For nearly 50 years of Indonesia’s existence, the only official who have died in office was Natsir. By rarity, this unsuspected actions also ignite Sukarno's down attitude with unexpected broadcast.

    In the name of God the All-Mighty,
    Fellow members of the nation and the motherland,
    Assalamualaikum Warrachmatullahi Wabarakatu,

    During these recent times, I have been following carefully the development of our national situation, especially the aspirations of the people for reaching freedom and the victorious end of this continuous war.

    Yesterday, our beloved Vice President, Muhammad Natsir, have ascended to Allah after the menace of the Down Under’s bombing routine to our beloved nation. I was there with him before he was thrown out by the blasts, and it seems my mind can't forget it.

    Weeks before he died, he addressed the Assembly, prying for the war to stop, as conditions like the deceased have already happened to millions of Indonesia out there.

    I, myself, as President of the Federative Republic of Indonesia, had envisioned a war to ended way before now. My predetermined hopes of possible Malayan unification has faded with this war that I pray to stop. My current mind has come to reached that a peace negotiation must be confirmed immediately.

    My fellow Indonesians, we are currently winning, but I can't seem to feel that way. The whole Peninsula and Borneo will now be rightfully our. In the East, we are pushing back with the help of America. We are one step away to achieve that, but my own conscience is against that.

    Dear brothers and sisters, for years I have lived under the bunker, reflecting the damage of each bombs shook the ceilings. I have ended myself to the stage that I want these to be over, no more war, just peace.

    When I supported this to the Assembly, I was immediately kicked away. No wonder, we are winning, but why bother a peace deal. I cannot blame them either. But I hope, my people would understand me in my current circumstances.

    Considering the above development, I am of the opinion that it would be very difficult for me to implement in a good manner, duties in governing the state and in development.

    Therefore, in line with article 8 of the 1959 Constitution and after earnestly taking into consideration the views of the leadership of People's Representatives Council (parliament) and the leadership of the factions in it, I have decided to declare that I have ceased to be the president of the Republic of Indonesia as of the time I read this on this day, Wednesday, August 21, 1963.

    I have conveyed this statement, about me stepping down from the post of president of the Republic of Indonesia, to you, leaders of the People's Representatives Council who are also the leaders of the People's Consultative Assembly, during the opportunity for a meeting. In line with article 9 of the 1959 constitution, the Prime Minister will momentarily hold the Presidency and its tasks until the People’s Representative Council decides.

    For the assistance and support of the people while I led the nation and state of Indonesia, I express my thanks and I seek forgiveness if there was any mistakes and shortcomings.

    May the Indonesian nation remain victorious with Pancasila and the 1959 constitution.

    Sukarno then left the presidency, and retired entirely from politics. Except giving minor guidance to Sukarno-ism’s young followers, Sukarno never returned to any public life until his death in 1974.

    1963 became a confusing year for Indonesia. The President resigns and the Vice President dies. This new deal was never anticipated in this new Constitution, so in 1964, the First Amendment was created. It cleared any further confusions regarding successions, elections and army administrations.

    1963 would be the start of a new prosperous greater Indonesia, this is when the mighty forces of Indonesia and America have united and invade Papua from Kotabaru. Second situation is in Germany, exactly the Referendum.
     
    Realpolitik Part 7: Saar
  • Surprise, surprise. Love, France.

    After Kennedy’s announcement about whole American withdrawal from West Germany. Other parties must in the end follow the same retreat. By January 1962, all Allied troops had been withdrawn, except French troops in Saar.

    sarr.jpg

    Saar Protectorate Physical Map, notice the names are still in German

    The Saar annexation followed France-ification of the lands. Cities renamed French and French language were subjected as primary lesson in all stage of education. It was planned to be returned to West Germany on 1960s, but was changed after recent drift of events. The Saar annexation left Germany into a deep hatred towards the French, and indirectly pester the whole left in West and East Germany, including the Soviet’s difficult struggle for a German Socialist Republic.

    Meanwhile, the Fifth French Republic had resolved her issues regarding a weak government. The Thorez administration prioritized the centralization of French Metropolitan, which was French Mainland, Corsica, Algeria and several islands. The rest of the Empire, was granted extended autonomy, which more or less satisfied everyone. Several republics have been made to this day, existing ones like Republic of Central Africa, Cameroon, Republic of Upper Volta, Republic of West Africa, and Republic of Benin were several of many republics made. However, one party were upset about this change entirely, and the party was RFP, or Rally of the French People.

    RFP was a third party, comprising the right wing of the spectrum. The party was established within the basis of true nationalism of the French. This party was the largest party to hold numeral defunct Free France members during WW2, one of them famously called De Gaulle.


    De Gaulle despised Communism, but also upset with America’s sudden ‘back stab’. De Gaulle also hated the Brits because they have abandoned the French with total retreat and left France on German occupation for more than 5 years. So, with those ground, he decided to become the next ultra-nationalist podium, unite the whole Francophone countries under one name, the Third French Empire.

    With the presence of De Gaulle, the party become authoritarian nationalists. The party mission-ed for France to be once again an Empire. Living over the shadows of lavish Bourbon’s imperium or Napoleon’s grand Continental. With republican characteristics, this new France De Gaulle imagined would be true and great.

    In 1962, after the French legislative election. The PCF became the largest opposition party against the Communist, with a whopping 30% of the vote. The republic since then become more instable, as revolutionary riots from radical pro-PCF organizations start to terrorize the government.

    The Saar annexation to France helped the Communist into combating this opposition's rising popularity, despite PCF’s yet great opposition. The left Coalition, as other methods of combating this RFP, has decided to form a union party, named the French Social Workers Party. The coalition, already holding 56% from the recent 1962 election, had become the largest party in France the whole time. In history of legislative seats, no sole party has ever reached this stage due to cracks and splits.

    In East Germany, the recent Saar annexation has made Walter Ulbricht arrived to Moscow with a plan of combating public drastic resentment against the left.

    We still do not know whether Ulbricht was -as rumored- a US spy or the situations was perfect for us. But he propose that Prussia must be reborn. Khrushchev was surprised enough until he nearly sent him to gulag. However, regarding happenstance before, the plan was perfect.

    Otto von Hapsburg
    The German Democratic Republic, Ulbricht said, must acquire more population.

    "We cannot risk West Germany’s left supports to help us. We need our loyal subjects."
    Khrushchev asked what territories do you want.

    He answered either the whole Silesia, or the whole Polish Pre-Prussia coasts.

    Both leaders argued on those options, and Khrushchev chose the latter. The events after that was named the Polish Seizure.

    new germany.png

    Old border in black, new border in brown. The Northern States given to East Germany as West and East Prussian Province. The South was given to Soviet Union as Poland SSR.​

    Polish Seizure is a seizure of land of Northern Poland, former states of Western Pomerania, Pomerania and the whole former East Prussia, includes the Kaliningrad Oblast Soviet Union have gifted them. In Labor Day of 1962, weeks before referendum, East German and Soviet troops marched to Warsaw, and dissolved the state of Poland as a whole, and the rest of Poland was acquired as one of Soviet’s Socialist Republics. This resulted a direct border of Soviet Union to proper Czechs, and minor expansion of the Russians. Although it was destined to increase Soviet's influence in Europe. The effects were the exact opposite, and this led to the infamous Domino Effect, and the Germans betrayed them after the 1963 Bonn Bombings.

    Wikipedia
    The reborn of Prussia was passed by the United Nations, after three of the Big Five Security Council has voted agree. The annexation of Poland ,as expected, gain media attention. Everyone had thought Europe is lost to the Reds. Red French in the West and Red Russia in the East, oh how red the Continent was. Britain gave a hard stance, but could not dare to send an ultimatum. The United States, meanwhile, had waited for this, as CIA would launch its last ‘dirty domino’ schemes for Germany.

    As expected, the nation will unify because of a majority of 60% have voted on unify. By February 1963, all political parties once again were all legal, as the new German state held an election. This election marked the post noon of the Soviet Union in Europe, as Kennedy have insanely able to secure Germany from Khrushchev.

    ===

    Summary:

    The Saar annexation was a PCF reaction against the incoming friction against RFP. The RFP were mainly pan-nationalists. So, any enlargement of Metropolitan France enabled a little bit of 'stealing' RFP supportes. As a result, RFP supporters declined with a small margin, but enough to reduce their power in opposition.

    West and East Germany before the Saar Annexation had one true similarities, which is their fond towards this new French Republic. The new French Republic was a great example for a unification compromise, as the French Republic can had a republican characteristic with a communist party as leading faction.

    After the Saar Annexation. Everyone, including the East Germans, had started questioned socialism. As the lefts were 'nicking' Germany's 'ability to recover'. As a result, the Soviet Union made this "Polish Seizure" as part of their hasty strategies. And, hasty strategies is what the Americans had wanted.

    ===

    The next thread will finish the chapter of realpolitik, and the next will have a little bit of narrative reformatting.
     
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    Realpolitik Part 8: Jammu-Kashmir & Germany
  • This will be the last chapter of Realpolitik, chapter 6c

    Regensburg, Hawaii Pact and the Post-Bismarck Pragmatism; John Smith, 1998

    1963 progressed slowly during that certain time, as the German General Election happened. For the world, the German General Election had been their finest decision. The decisive battle, the one true even that will changes us all. Tensions of the Cold War, although already creating sub-factions in both contesting parties, had been all time high.

    The show-down in Germany have been reduced to two simple factions. The right and the left. The right were a Coalition of CDU and DP (All German Party). The left were the coalition of CSU and KPD. CDU or Christian Democratic Union is a Christian Democratic, Liberal Conservative party of Germany. This faction during that time holds the largest portion of Western Germany, and became an ally for the Americans. The DP is a fully Monarchist party. The party holds dearly for restoration of a German Monarch into the throne. This party was supported by the British, especiall British House of Windsor. The CSU or Christian Social Union is mainly a socialist party with democratic tendencies. It became a friend of the French, and immediately shifted as Bavarian’s regional party after the Saar Annexation. Its populace in other provinces were immediately dissappeared after the despicable event. Last but not least, the KPD or Communist Party of Germany held the largest portion in newly enlarged East Germany, and also hold significant ‘snitches’ of the CSU.

    As factions of four had been grouped into two. The situation in Germany were extremely tense. Debates among the contesting powers would frequently resulted in brawl. Nearly every time a political debate ensued, an army of policemen must ready for immediate aftermath. Moreover, in some occasions even police force was obsolete, and anarchy had erupted.

    As the 1963 Election was getting close, so do tensions rise.

    Situation in other nation, like India, was more chaotic.

    Since 1961, the government of India had issued an attack towards Pakistan, thus beginning the Second Indo-Pakistani War. Worryingly, this type of aggression between two states have become a regular routine, a seasonal clash between two powers of the subcontinent. Furthermore, even their casus belli was always the same -Kashmir Region.

    Jammu-Kashmir Region is region located North of the Indian subcontinent. Once a princely federation, the British withdrawal of India has let this region become a land dispute among three powers, China, India and Pakistan. India had been the most vocal for the region, claiming it fully as legally Indian. Pakistan and China however, cooperated with a deal, and decided to split the region according to people living there. In the Pakistani terms, India would still get a part, only the Hindu-majority ones.
    jammukashmir.jpg

    In every war between two third-world nations, so does a proxy war involved between major powers. However, the major involved is not simple the US vs the Soviet Union. Presumably after the intense rising of new ideological powers, more and more nations stood up against the two hegemony. Britain, France and China had braved up to helped without any orders from them. Situations in the subcontinent, was so messy that the war of aggression had ultimately become a war between themselves.

    Pakistan had a trustworthy friend of China. Albeit an Islamic nation, Pakistan had been shifting gradually towards the wisdom of Mao. Especially after the Great Leap Forwards, where Mao’s economical fantasy actually did come true and the People’s Republic of China experienced the 70s as ‘Economic Boom’. A secret alliance had been signed by those two, guarantee each other for giving assistance in case one side gets troubled.

    India, as a result, must find another ally besides China. Russia is no answer, because similar ideologies with India’s enemy’s friend, and also Soviet Union’s assistance to Pakistan. The United States is not going to bother either. Their ongoing war in Vietnam, Indonesia and a preparation against Korea had kept them busy for the time being. United Kingdom was an obvious no. How could the nation could cooperate with their former colonist? The answer was left with one nation, the Fifth Republic of France.

    Despite the French being socialist, the nation is on opposite with Soviet Union, thus also with China. Also, France had, even until now, no interests of reclaiming any of their Indian ports, thus exhilarate India as well. First negotiations of a friendship had started days after the war started. Hence, what is happening in the subcontinent for the next two years of aggression is dubbed “Proto-French-Soviet Proxy War”. This war would become the start of a proxy war among France and the Soviet Union to determine which one is the better socialist nation.

    Back to Germany, situations is still uptight. There is no clear victory between two competing factions, and even within each faction holds a fragile alliance which can break handily. Still and all, an incident in May 1963 changed the course of German history.

    In Labor Day of 1963, a rally of socialist and communist supporter were assembling onto streets in parts of Rhineland. As the largest industrial region in Germany, Rhineland of course owned many labors. These labors were friends of the left, and primarily would vote for them. As the labors were celebrating their day, a provocative action, presumably conducted by radical labors, attacked the police force that was patrolling. After that, what was called the “Night of the Wretched Wrenches”. This night was purposely reflected the “Night of the Long Knives”. In that night, radical labors occupy major government building in the region, and declare a silly ultimatum to the government that “Socialism or a Rhenish Independence”. Everywhere in Germany, the folks were boiling, and in retaliation burn every socialist campaign poster in streets.
    riotgermany.jpg
    The Soviet Union were extremely furious. The French have done an unexplained stupid move. Even their once ally Eastern Germany had already dejected their former masters. France, pointed the Soviets, even failed to apprehend the situation. France in anyway is absurd if such actions was being done. Thus, France was the first party to notice that there was another third party involved to the depths of this movement, and they realized the United States had something to do with this. They did not know how, but they sensed it. It remained a mystery until the Papadopoulos Leaks divulged this unresolved piece of history.

    ---

    A CIA operative, codenamed the Blue Valkyrie, was an operation approved by Kennedy to infiltrated the core members of radical socialist labors. Play a savage plot involving the labors, they will attack government vital assets, but unnecessarily endanger their lives. Names like Rudolf Wegner will be used as an undercover. So, in the end, people of Germany pin-point the lefts for this barbarity.

    Richard Papadopoulos
    ---

    Surely, in the 1963 election. Votes for the left plummeted into an all-time low of only 10%. That even included the portion of CSU and KPD, with CSU being the lowest of only 2%. The Democratic party of CDU gained the most votes in Germany, with the DP as the runner up. Immediately, a new unified Germany will be managed, and a new Constitution will be drafted.

    As the secret agreement held between CDU and DP, the agreement must be fulfilled. Each German states shall be given a monarchy referendum, stating that each states will become a kingdom or just a democratic state. Aside from Lower Saxony, Bavaria, Baden-Wurttemberg and Prussia, the nations have voted for a republic nature. Each province will have their historical powers of Kingdom of Hannover, Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Swabia and Kingdom of Prussia. Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen become a federal city.

    In 1964, the Federal Kingdom of Germany is being created under the manner of elective monarchy of every five years. A parliamentary monarchy, Chancellor shall become the head of government and non-affiliated towards any monarch. But, the agreement seemed to be uncompleted. It is because we forgot one last kingdom of Germany, the Austrian Hapsburgs.

    In 1955, the state of Austria was just unified as Second Austrian Republic. However, the charismatic figure of Otto von Hapsburgs had led the people thought monarchy is still a good thing. Otto would rally with democratic figures of Austria, saying that ‘Old Authoritarian of the Hapsburgs’ must be replaced with the new ‘Democratic Characteristics’. In 1960, the nation had become monarchy once again, a Kingdom of Austria. All seems so surreal, that in 1964, Germany ‘Anschluss’ Austria again, as put the Hapsburgs as one of the elective monarchies.

    The situation in Germany could not be so unearthly, if all powers were not so busy with their own wars. In fact, the 1960s was nicknames the Promiscuous Decade.
     
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