Emerald of The Equator: An Indonesian TL

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Strengthening Within. Part 3: A New Year Early Update
Modernist Architecture: Hatta’s Tribute to Sukarno, A Story of Jakarta’s Classical Era

Taufik Darmawan, 2000


The Old was a term for colonial buildings. Dutch architecture, and also Chinese, survived for hundreds of years. Floods, quakes, age and bombs even partly failed in wiping them off. Kota Tua remains a colonial-esque city. Small streets with low-rises shaped the old Jakarta. Besides Kota Tua, Gambir and Jatinegara also have the same architecture. Sukarno before hated this building, condemned it as sufferings of the past’. However, considering the far future, he opted to actually improve it as Districts. He thought that European cities like Hamburg preserved Medieval structures. Moreover, history is not something Sukarno’s may erase, as they themselves carved our future.

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Pre-Colonial Trams, still be used even until 21st Century, with modifications surely.

The Old Architecture is mainly located mostly in Kota Tua, Gambir and Jatinegara. Although all of them includes modern styles, like Metro Stations, all of these city districts have trams. Bambang’s 1971 Law for Public Transportation allows trams to survive in these places. It would form a sort of loop around the area, especially Kota Tua where various museums are established. The other landmark this District has is its crowded transfer stations. Beos, Senen and Jatinegara Stations are expanded in such a way that Metro and Commuter Line with also tram tracks to transfer each other. In Gambir, the station is completely modified to become Jakarta’s Metro Hub.

Old train tracks of Jakarta, especially the one that crosses Gambir, was majorly disassembled, while new routes planned by the Jakarta Reconstruction Committee was drawn. The JRC was partly influenced by the American style of infrastructure, so we could see the Grid Patterns in Old and New.

The New Architecture is a brand-new design plotted by modernist architects. Broad buildings with wide broadways become their special characteristics. Also, large sidewalks and separate bike lanes become viral, although we can see bike lanes in Old Architecture. The most iconic of them all is majestic interchanges, like Semanggi Interchange and Kuningan Interchange, with Cloverleaf Junctions as their systems. This type of Architecture lingered in Jakarta History for the rest of the century, declined where Fungsionalism and Glass Architecture also modified New Architecture began in the 1980s.
American investors build many of Jakarta’s classical skyscrapers. It icons the Economic Boost happen in the nation for the next ten years, with Post-War Boom, Carter Plan and Arms Boom in Indonesia. Sadly, good news must end when at the start of the 1990s, an Oil Embargo happened.

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Monas or Monument Nasional is a monument designed by Indonesian-American Architect Robert Simangunsong. 156 meters tall, the tower remained the tallest in Indonesian history until BNI 46 overthrew it in 1974, for 241 meters.


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Bundaran HI, the 1970s. In the 1980s, the majority of these complexes is enhanced with large buildings and Metro Stations.

This new stage of Indonesia’s city architecture spread to other cities like Surabaya, Semarang, Bandung and Bogor. Outside of Java, this broad style of the building did not thrive as exponentially as cities in Java does.

Another special trait of this new plan is mostly the Highways. Highways, or Toll-ways in the Indonesian context, expand dramatically in this era. Especially after America gives her Wallace Plan, Java would construct its Trans-Highway starting from the 70s, starting with Jakarta Inner Ring Road as a start. The plan would be constructed in 1971, finished in 1999.

Note:

1964 is the start of Indonesia’s Modern Architecture Era. IOTL, Sukarno already boosted this type of design around the 1950s and began thriving in 1960. HI Roundabout, Sarinah, Semanggi Interchange, OTL DPR Building are examples.

IOTL, Modern Development were mainly linear, focusing on OTL Sudirman-Thamrin Road, and parts of OTL Gatot Subroto Road. ITTL, Modern Architecture revolves linear on Thamrin Road. Thamrin is almost like OTL. Menteng still exist ITTL, except the elite-esque housing is far bigger, covering everything until East Cikini Road, even goes South to Ciliwung Border near OTL Manggarai Station. Manggarai ITTL exists as a Metro Hub, Station becomes many stacks of Subway tracks.

But, in the South of the West Flood Canal, Modern Architecture follows a Grid Pattern from Dukuh Atas to Setiabudi, and OTL Prof. Dr Satrio becomes the border in the South. Everything in between is given to high rises similar to New York’s Midtown. The area was enormous, the whole zone was completely built only after the 21st Century. Furthermore, American investors were agitated about building a Green Belt as a border between Kebayoran and Jakarta-proper.

IOTL, Sukarno tried to make Kebayoran Baru molded into Jakarta. ITTL, Kebayoran Baru was still considered a separate city, even until the 2000s, although the relation of Jakarta-Kebajoran is similar to Bandung-Cimahi OTL.

OTL, Jakarta Inner Ring Road of the West Sector is from Cawang to Pluit. It passes Semanggi Interchange, Slipi. ITTL, JIRR passes even smaller rings. On the Western side, it goes on the outer side of the West Flood Canal, so ITTL, JIRR passes Dukuh Atas, Tanah Abang, and Tomang. So, the Flood Canal would be enclosed with train tracks like OTL and Toll Roads. The OTL JIIR, become ITTL Jakarta Outer Ring Road. ITTL, there is no road parallel to toll-like OTL. So, it would look like the Western part of OTL Jakarta Harbor Toll Road.
ITTL, there is no direct connection to Tanjung Priok for JIRR. JIRR in the North is denoted as part of Tran-Java Highway, from Merak to Banyuwangi.
 
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Strengthening Within: 1964 Elections
People's Representative Council of Indonesia (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Indonesia)


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320 Seats

Party of Greater Indonesia - Partai Indonesia Raya - 124 Seats, 38.75% (96 Popular, 28 Constituency) (+77)

Progressive Union Party - Partai Persatuan Perubahan - 99 Seats, 30.94% (74 Popular, 25 Constituency) (+65)

Indonesia National Party - Partai Nasional Indonesia - 66 Seats, 20.63% (49 Popular, 17 Constituency) (+1)

Indonesia Communist Party - Partai Komunis Indonesia - 31 Seats, 9.68% (21 Popular, 10 Constituency) (-1)


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People's Representative Council of [West] Papua Special Administrative Region (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Admnistrasi Khusus Papua [Barat])



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50 Seats

Party of Greater Indonesia - Partai Indonesia Raya - 33 Seats, 66.55%

Eastern Coalition Front - Front Gabungan Daerah Timur - 17 Seats, 33.45%
 
Strengthening Within: 1964 Government Term
1964 Administration

President:
Gen. Abdul Haris Nasution (PGI)
Vice President: Let. Gen TB Simatupang (PGI)


Prime Minister: Mohammad Hatta (PUP)

Indonesia Strong Cabinet

Minister of Foreign Affairs: Maj. Gen. Suharto (PGI)
Minister of Interior: Mukarto (PNI)
Minister of Defense: Gen. Ahmad Yani (PGI-Affiliated)
Minister of Justice: Umar Wirahadikusumah (PGI)
Minister of Information: Muhammad Yamin (PNI)
Minister of Finance: Ong Eng Die (PNI)
Minister of Agrarian Affairs: Chairul Saleh (PUP)
Minister of Trade Affairs: Sumanang (PUP)
Ministry of Industrial Affairs: Adam Malik (PUP)
Minister of Transportation: Djuanda (PUP)
Minister of Public Works: Djuanda (PUP)
Minister of Social Affairs: Fajar Lubis (PNI)
Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs: Muhammad Yamin (PNI)
Minister of Religion: Sul. Hamengkubuwono IX
Minister of Health: Dr. F.L. Tobing (PUP)
 
Strengthening Within. Part 4: National Rearmament
2045: 100 years of Indonesia. By Prasetyo Subagio

Nasution was inaugurated as President, along with many elected officials, at 6 January 1965. It marked a new Era, Post Sukarno Era or Reconstruction. This era will marked of its strong Armed Forces, ABRI in Indonesian perspective. Indonesia then would experience the greatest ever awakening in Asian history. It’s rise depicted similar to Japan in the 20th Century. When this era ends, the Reconstruction Era (1964-1992), Indonesia’s military presence was head to head with China.

Until this day, experts cannot agree whether Indonesia during the era is a ‘military junta’ or not. America’s New Pax Americana Policy, since Kennedy Administration, had involved in rise of ‘military junta’ in South America. America feared South America’s thick roots on Socialism, which would lean themselves to France, or even worse, the Soviet Union. Especially after Cuba’s ‘democratic annexation’ to the United States, many of Red militias across South America were hardened and radicalized. The fall of Castro, in their eyes, become a call of martyrdom. As a result, we would see Central American nations fall under dictatorship, and likewise fates in South American nations.

Indonesia, however, was a peculiar case. Indeed, Indonesia’s Armed Forces expanded greatly during the rule. Indonesia is also involved in many of America’s conflicts, especially in South East Asia, South America and Korea. One of Indonesia’s most controversial intervention, the “Indian Intervention” on the region’s longest continuous conflict, would later sparked Fundamentalism in Indonesia.

The 1959 Constitution does not help either. Presidential status as Head of States is written in the Consitution. However, there are many flaws of this. The President can involve in government matters, and may dissolve the Assembly if they failed on governing the nation. The Assembly, however is unable to impeach or step down a President, only the Senate can. In addition to it, President powers above all of Indonesia, which includes the SARs. The Assembly, meanwhile, is excluded to SARs, as they have their own Assembly. The Senate comprises of all regions, including the SAR.

The meaning of the above paragraph is Prime Minister’s powers only reigns in proper Indonesia only, and had no constitutional power in removing the President. The President however, can remove Prime Minister, and end even removing the Assembly. The only power that checked the President is only the Senate. This, by far, resulted the President as the highest power in Indonesia.

Nasution knew this, and easily benefited from this situation. The PGI may only hold few government seats, but they are vital. The Presidency is theirs, and Foreign relations is also theirs. Because of this, the PGI can curb any opposition from the established Coalition. As a result, their brilliant strategy created INP as their ‘puppet’ or PGI’s boy even though INP is older and more established.

Nasution first action was the Enlargement of the Army. During the Australia Aggression, the Armed Forces did expanded. From bamboos to bombers, the Air Force of Indonesia quintupled. Suryadarma, the incumbent Air Marshall, had helped this section of the Armed Forces from mere formalities into formidable forces. Indeed, the Air Force personnel exceeded even the Army and the Navy.

Coast Guard was the second largest in the Armed Forces department. Although their duties is to patrol, the aggression war shaped the Coast Guard into a second Navy. Their boats, patrol boats, had been fully equipped with weapons. Enlists were fully trained for difficult combats. The Coast Guard had become an elite, modern literation of a Navy.

The fundamental two faction of the Armed Forces, the Army and the Navy were the ones weakened and stagnated during the war. It was only after the Cendrawasih Offensive that both could show their strengths, and that even were shadowed by the success of the Air Force. The Army had lost half of its former men, only to move into the Air Force. The Navy also, moved to the Coast Guards.

Nasution, as a army officer, was not pleased by this. Nearly all sovereign nations upheld the Navy and especially the Army as their fore powers. How in Indonesia they became obsoletes? Therefore, he negotiated with PM about this matter, and Hatta agreed. A government policy called ‘National Rearmament’ was programmed in 1965. The content of the policy was developing the Army and the Navy unto a Secondary Power level. This task was arduous, and would need time to complete. But, this would be necessary, for the Adventurism Indonesia would have in their jingoistic era.
 
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This is a nice timeline. I'm Indonesian myself, so this is intriguing.

Is there going to be a map? Looks like there's some noticeable changes.
 
Strengthening Within. Part 5: Peace With Victory
Contemporary History of Indonesia
By I Made Abi Krisnawijaya


1965 had meant one thing for the British, their inevitable doom. Their war effort was crippled by the Behemoth Blues (USA), with their ally-puppet Indonesia. The joint forces had reached Port Moresby, and even land in Darwin. The Royal Air Force presence in the Far East had been eliminated. It seemed that Britain soon be forced to meet their terms.

In the end, it did. The Treaty of Darwin concluded in July 1965. A peace deal between two opposing sides had reached a destructive end. Britain had forced a withdrawal of every overseas possessions in Indian and Pacific Ocean, and also Bermuda. The British West Pacific Territories, an astonishing large swaths sparse islands, except decent size of Solomon Islands and Fiji, was split by Indonesia and the States. Indonesia would take the Solomon Islands only, while America took the rest. As the Americas wanted a peaceful reconciliation with the Australians, Australia would held a referendum of leaving the Commonwealth, and finally reached her independent status. However, Australia’s transition of status would left a huge pile of mess to come.

Diego Garcia, part of British Indian Overseas Territories was gifted to Indonesia. Indonesia as to vindicate their friendship alliance with the whites, allow America to have presence in the island for another 100 years. Diego Garcia would then become a joint military base, a Indo-American base. Apart from Bermuda, the British islands in the Atlantic were relatively untouched. Even Canada were untouched either. Kennedy, on that time, restrained the US to go overboard, so America’s image stayed good internationally.

In Indonesia, this peace deal confirmed a great victory for the Republicans of Nusantara. The PGI acclaimed this as ‘Indonesia’s Greatest Win’ against the brute Europeans. Their once nation divided, had fully united once more. Now, Malayunesia has united under the glorious Federal Republic of Indonesia. For Hatta Cabinet, these new swaths of land had given them new problems, how to administrate them.

British Malaya had comprised of Sultanates, most of them hated the Republic. Only a few, like Johor and Brunei, were willing to synchronize themselves as similarly as Jogja or Solo. Furthermore, their administrative divisions was definitely differ from us. If we implemented British Malaya’s style of demographic administration, Indonesia now would have more than a hundred states. So, a simplification, or merging of Malayan States, must be done.

The next problem for Hatta was, in fact, the Singaporean Question. Singapore had been an alien to British Malaya, their ethic composition of Chinese and Tamils had become a red in blue sea. This matter if not dealt properly, would resulted a separatism in Singapore, which Indonesia feared of. In the other hand, Indonesia keened on keeping Singapore, as means of boosting Indonesia’s GDP. Singapore, until the others can overtake, would become the largest contributor to Indonesia’s economy. In fact, their little presence also prevented many Indonesia’s crisis from falling into recessions. Hatta thought about this, and come up with a careful solution.

Penang, Labuan, Malaka and Singapore will be given their SER status. Johor, Perak and Brunei, part of Indonesia’s return of favor, are allowed to maintain their kingdom. The British Borneo, was divided accordingly before, Sarawak and Sabah. But, parts of Sarawak was given to Brunei as gifts. In the Peninsula, Johor and Perak were given additional territories. The rest were unified as one Federal State of Malaysia.

In Papua, both ends united. East and West finally reconciled as one. The Papua SAR was finally whole. Different from Indonesia proper, Papua may had a distinct administrative divisions that was entirely more represented than Indonesia-proper. The current leader of Papua SAR, Captain Johannes Abraham Dimara preferred a more geographical division, rather than the usual demographic one. To diminish the strong presence of the former division, no provincial borders passed the 141° East Line, the former line that divides the island. To ease tensions among the diverse Austronesian tribes in Papua, no ethnic terms is used for provincial names. Instead, cardinal points are used. North, South, East and West Papua was created. Solomon Islands were incorporated to Papua, and joined with Bougainville to form a Melanesia SAR. And with that, the East is settled and cleared.

As constituted, an Amendment was specifically given for the new SAR, and things were fine. West of Aceh, those micro-islands were also being dealt with, as the British Indian Territories at first had been transformed into Indonesia Indian Ocean Territories. However, afraid dissented the Creoles, Indonesia rather gave them another SAR for them, dubbed Mauritius SAR. The Chagos Archipelago, the one with Diego Garcia as one of them, maintained by Indonesia as part of Overseas Territories, and would be used mainly by the US to ‘patrol’ political situations in India or the Middle East. In the end of 1965, the Republic would stand with pride as the 2nd nation, after Japan, that had Overseas Teritories. Although this expansion was domestically despised by Indonesian citizens, Nasution’s rule stayed strong for the next five years.

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This damn forum update is giving me more mess than benefits... :)

I guarantee a map in the next post.
 
why did Indonesian citizen dispised the arrangment?

Sukarno is still a main political force in Indonesia, although his quiet Presidency and humiliating resignation. His views is always uniting Malay, but nothing else. The new government, Nasution's, annex everything Indonesia could grab.

Edit: Btw, pseudo-imperialism of Indonesia is only supported by PGI faction. Nevertheless, Nasution knew this would happen, and already prepared for.
 
Strengthening Within. Part 6: Britain and Egypt Update
The Sun Finally Sets on the British Empire
John Cradford, 2010


The year 1966 was nearing to a multipolar world once again. Capitalism and Socialism were divided yet into two factions each, resembling the radical and the moderates. The United States had become the moderate liberal. Self explanatory, America’s stances for civil rights and the spectacular victorious ventures in South East Asia had strengthened their core Constitutional values. It became highly unpopular for White-Supremacist, especially with America’s new ally, is in fact, everything but white related.

Britain became the more radical version of the States, especially the right wing. The failures of Conservative Party let this new movement, Unitist movement, to rise as the new Tories. Evolve under racism, patriotism and nationalism, the party became resounding imperialist, even fascist to some extend. Also, this new shift had strengthened Royal Powers, as the new growing party, the British Unionist Party, gave support for again, a British Empire. This exclamation was fulfilled when a snap election held in 1966, immediately after the war.

In the eyes of the Labours, this unitary left wing convinced for a victory. No wonder, Conservatives were doomed. Their stubborn war hawks humiliated Britain to the greatest extend. If only the US relations in the 30s, we surely would lost everything but Africa. But then, their hopes of becoming the largest in Britain was in danger, as a overwhelming 30% goes for a new party, the BUP. The BUP, under highlighted John Bean, a rightist activist. He managed to rally with the Scottish National Party, and also Welsh Cymru Party. The party based on rural regions of Scotland and Wales, with some enclaves in Southern England also.

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John Bean in a campaign

This BUP had also rose into prominence because of one thing, British Africa Implosion. During the election, the Parliament had already suffered major problems. Unemployment, rising inflation and economic downfall had been the better of terms. The worst of them were the revolts happening in Africa. Since the Aggression, UK had tighten its grip on her colonies. Rather than the old plan of decolonization, the Brits prefer total assimilation to the Empire. However, that meant various African tribes to stay within the Commonwealth hold, which was already loosening.

The first fire had commenced in British vexatious colony, Egypt, it spread to the Continent, and start of the African Rebel Era.

Egypt is truly the gift of the Nile. Large streams of water fertilizing the desert gave Egypt an oasis in the middle of drylands. With also geopolitical importance, like the Isthmus of Suez, supply the trade influx from Africa to Europe and Asia, and since the Canal completed, connect Europe and Asia with better and faster sea lanes. In geographical stance, this nation has every potential to become a superpower. Sinai in the West protects any foreign invasion with rough topography. Sahara envelops the region isolated Egypt from raids and bandits. But, despite all the benefits Egypt could reap, this nation never exploited his own, rather others did.

Since the Roman, Egypt had been under several empires, such as Byzantium, Ottoman and now the British. Particularly the British Empire, Arabs in Egypt became a British Protectorate and assisted Britain in both World Wars. In 1952, a British Promise gave them independence. Under an ambitious king, Faroukh I, the Kingdom rose as one industrial nation in the Middle East. The Kingdom grew as a young learner. Although independent, Britain’s influence still existed, mostly in Suez Canal. However, there were flaws in this new Kingdom, one of them was the Islamic Question.

Since the British Era, the Kingdom of Egypt sided mostly to secularism. As once a believer of Egyptian Gods, Coptic, Christian, then finally Islam, various faiths evolved inside. This was not an issue, until Jews arrived in Palestine. The Islamic majority sown discontent to the new nation in the Middle East. ‘Invasion’, as some might had said. As Israel was a British and American ally, Egypt too become cordial allies. By that reason, in the 50s, public resentment grew as the Kingdom stayed friendly with them albeit the people said no. Egypt was so close to fully become a regional power of the Middle East, almost surpassed Iran and Saudi Arabia. However, the Kingdom shattered, and revolt.

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Egyptian Revolt 1956


Hence, the 1956 Egyptian Revolution abdicated the Sultan, and gave way for a authoritarian republic under Abdel Hakim Amer. Abdel Hakim Amer, born in Samalut, was a religious man. In fact, his faith convinced him to become Egpyt’s number one. For him, his faith had become the oppressed, although its majority. For the Kingdom, peace was the main priority, and peace threatened Arab existence on the Palestinian lands. He decides to take initiative, and with his military power as Liutenant General, he launched a coup. His new creation, a Republic of Egypt, was mainly a mixture between theocracy and military junta. They want their neighbor, Israel, must die. In addition to it, Faroukh abdication led the British to fully take Suez as theirs, which was outrageous for Egypt. The rest became history as we knew.

In the first war, Egypt managed to reclaim Suez, and even push Israel back to 1948 Partition Plan. The new republic had great win in the region. However, the Empire stroke back in 1960s, and return the Dynasty as British Protectorate, again. Heavy patrol followed suit, and the idea of theocracy failed in Egypt, which ascended a much more threat, a red Egypt. In 1966, Abdul Nasser, a communist politician, declared Socialist Republic of Egypt, the whole of Africa started to crumble.

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Abdul Nasser, Egyptian Premier until 1988


Pax Britannia was deteriorating, and massive instability erupted throughout the continent. Even the French colonies, also a Socialist leaning, were slightly hit by this. Since the Red Revolution of 1966, the Empire constantly under attack. Tribes would revolt, like in Nigeria, Kenya and Rhodesia. Especially with the short-lived French Civil War, which ensued the Francophone intact, Britain stood in a hard place, and would struggle throughout the century.

In the end, what Africa had became was the largest proxy war in this new stage of Cold War. British dominance reduced to loyal dominions, like Canada and South Africa. After that, dominions gained more power in British Politics. Soviet Union, fortunetely, was far from having an ally inside the Continent. The great powers capable to compete in Africa were France and the US. France, yet experience damages of a civil war, had recognized Africa long to quickly regain supremacy, but America used an ally who ever reigned in these lands, and that ally was the Federal Kingdom of Germany.

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Genocide of Congo Basin, the largest genocide in world history. Formerly a proxy battle between France and US, the region worsened to become tribal killings. Tribes killed each other from 1970 to 2000s, only to fully pacified by Congo National Army in 2002.

By this tactic, although not as optimal as it may had become, still stemmed French influence for overrunning the Continent. Africa’s Rebel Era, as Indonesian might say, is one of the most unique events in history. The main objective of the revolution was to bring Socialism to Africa. Meanwhile, when the Era ended, most of the rebelled regions later became mostly colonized again, with a new master in crown. The French were one master. Still, few regions, mainly in the Horn, became so violent, that anarchy became the government’s system.

Egypt, later under Abdul Nasser, had become a French ally, and also succeeded in assisting Yugoslavia to formalize a treaty of friendship with France. The socialist world, it seemed, had evolved to become a contending fight between two lefts, France and Soviet Union. It was not in the 70s, when China also attempted to enter the stage.

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Notes:

Since the American shift to the Pacific, and not so in Europe. The US interestingly created something they would have never anticipated, a divided Red. France and the Soviet Union, was similar to Sino-Soviet Split OTL, but much stronger. In the end, the entire strategy of the US is stated on one idiom.

"One must comes down to go up. One must bank left to turn right. One must defeat a Commie with another Commie. Use other's hand to punch your enemy."
 
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