Emerald of The Equator: An Indonesian TL

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Realpolitik Part 5: Sukarno-ism
Sukarno-ism and the Fall of Islamism

The world is chaos in 1960s. Europe is steps away from conflict. Soviet Union is seemingly winning, and the United States seems to do nothing about it. However, due to the circumstances, situation in Indonesia have become rather peaceful.

As expected 1960 elections were halted due to Australia that has occupied Papua. In the meantime, if Indonesia still manages to hold an election by that year, it could be said that Islam as an ideology would have fallen faster than it was.

There were always two ideologies that rebels against the government. The first was the communist. The Indonesia Communist Party was dissected into three eras.

The first one was the Internationale Era, where basic Leninism and Marxism was the party’s major vision. It was called ISDV. ISDV rebelled against the colonial Dutch forces, and was banned after.

The second revival of the communist party, was the First PKI. The first PKI implemented Stalinism or Communism with Russian characteristics. Like the old, the new revolt as Soviet Republic of Indonesia, and involved in a complete annihilation by Siliwangi Forces of Republic of Indonesia and minor Allied troops. Although not banned, the PKI shrank drastically into mere minor.

The third revival, the current one, is a party based on Maoism or Communism with Chinese characteristics. Led by Aidit, the party struggles to resurrect itself after twice of failure. As the predecessors did, this new party had rumored to may rebel in the near future. But, lack of supportes may make them scratch those plans.

Indonesia Communist Party is still influential, although followers tend to alienate towards the now center Nationalist Party. The ICP is still the largest hard left party in Indonesia, and the third largest party in the world, under Russia and China. The Dmitrov doctrine still glues to the Communist Party. But, rather than Fascism, the ICP had its new enemy, the imperialist militarist Party of Greater Indonesia. ICP was heavily inclined to ruin its nemesis that its old enemy, the Islamist, conjured as allies against PGI.

The Communists and Islamists in Indonexia both have the most nauseous similarities, their tend to rebel.

The Islamists, mainly regional Islamists, have for years maintained insurgence in major Islamic stronghold, like Aceh, West Java and parts of West Sumatra. NU was once part of this front, but left due to unamendable conflict back in 1955. Now, the NU’s Islam mainly focused on education, while political ideas tend to support the PGI.

Five years of coalition and holding the Presidency, but this Islamo-Socialism still never settled. When an agreement was made, two new problems would emerge, and it seems eternity would even never resolved them. By 1960, the TUF selfishly left the coalition, and with changing names for some tries, the party maintain to be ‘third-power radical force’.

The Communist, however, had Sukarno. Sukarno himself already survived the Communist. Therefore, with five years with Sukarno, a new faction emerged in the party, called Sukarno-ism.

Sukarno-ism is an ideology of Sukarno during his old age. As he got older, he thought that Indonesia have been more sympathetic towards the West, and Indonesia should be a neutral Third Force nation. In 1963, after he resigned as President due to Natsir’s sudden demise, Indonesia never left US grip, but the Communist Party carried the struggle of him, becoming the Fourth Era of the party, especially after China falls after the Tianjin Youth Massacre. This new ideology is mainly pacifism on foreign policy, but extremenly hard left in domestic policy. The ideology promotes equality, labor goverment, centralism and strong government.

As a result, Islamist has gone as ants while the Communist still lives on. The Second Party System will happen in the 1970s, as the system evolves again into two party system of Jingoism or Pacifism.

In 1960, the nation was still at war. The British menace was lurking out from all sides, probably waiting for the perfect moment. At least, the Malayas have come into their senses, and declare support towards a unified, democratic, free Indonesia. 1962 was the year Malaya was fully liberated from Britain. The new region immediately joins the Republic, and many Sultans in the Peninsula was abolished. In British Borneo, situations were also fairly good. Brunei has joined us, and not long after the Peninsula folded, so does the whole Borneo.

In the West Front, Indonesia was winning with no resistance, but the East was still out of reach.

United Kingdom had not given up, and still pursue a war. Although back in England, people were starting to riot for an Anti-War Movement, Selwyn Lloyd has not budged.

No bloody hell I would let the Kingdom surrender to those filthy Malays.

Selwyn Lloyd, infuriated after Malaya defeat.

Meanwhile, American intervention has arrived since 1961. But they decided to make plans for a possible strikethrough. The US Armed Forces deliberately stall the war progress due to plan political and war tactics.

Back then, the CIA needs two things. One, completely isolate Britain in sea. Britain , even after partial decolonization, still hold territories in every continent. This once was a good thing for America. But after Kennedy sudden turn, this must change. Two, own the Pacific. By that, the answer must be obvious. Either puppet Australia and New Zealand, or puppet New Zealand but block Australia with Indonesia. And CIA choses the latter. In 1962, they have readied for an assault, and that happened on Biak, July 1963.
 
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So the government would split between the pacifist left and pan-austronesian nationalist right.

Australia's gonna lose a lot of Pacific Islands to the US by the looks of it.
 
Realpolitik Part 6: Resignation
Regensburg, Hawaii Pact and the Post-Bismark Pragmatism; John Smith, 1998

Kennedy’s first term was not the best a president could do. He was prejudiced as a Soviet helper, the president that destroy NATO, which was seen as the last bastion against communism. In America, the Democrats had threatened him that, if Europe was not overrun by the Soviets by 1962, any hopes of candidacy would be gone. Kennedy knew this dearly, and really hoped that this German Referendum could save his presidency, which shockingly did.

The events around the Iron Curtain was a great gamble for Kennedy. He bet like his own life was at stake, and even with all possibilities, his winning chance was low. Nonetheless, he succeeded. And with the Miracle of the Rhine had secured him for the new presidency. In reality, two events shaped the course for the start of Kennedy Dynasty. One was the war in Indonesia, other was in Europe. Kennedy Dynasty was also another reason why Indonesia continued to flourish with an American friendship.

===

In Indonesia, the first offensive of reclaiming Papua began on July 1963. Biak, as their last stronghold, had become their main base. During the retreat times, Indonesia completely left the island. But, with the help of the American Air Force, and the Pacific Fleet, Biak was able to hold throughout the war, possibly as the ‘Last Stand against Southern Britons’. Biak, before a short-lived WW2 airbase for American planes, have expanded becoming the largest airport in the whole West Pacific. Its airplane capacity could hold more airplane than three of Indonesia’s own airbase of Halim Perdana Kusuma. The island had completely become a military fort, jokingly stated that even a nuke would not be enough to annihilate the base. As a result, no Britain or Australian aircraft ever neared the base.

In 1959, 200 planes had been sent to bomb the base, only 2 return. But, as the coalition only pursue defense, not offense, no extensive bombardment had commenced to any Australian bases in Papua. The dark side of this do was Australia carpet-bombed everything West of Papua, including Jakarta, Bandung and Surabaya.

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100 Days of Surabaya; the whole central city decimated by the bombings

The stalemate occurred during the war have crippled any administrative measures. Weirdly enough, enemy’s main objective was not military or industrial, rather attacking main government buildings with also civilian casualties. So, by this case, a ironic version of “Bombing of Dresden” happened in Indonesia, with several cities as targets. One great example was Jakarta.

Jakarta was a thriving city before the war. The Old Town on the North with Chinatown had become a bustling commerce. A few miles South, Gambir become the nation’s central capital, with Ikada Field as the center of it. Another bustling district was Meester Cornelis, or Jatinegara, but it is located further Southeast.

These mentioned, were all destroyed during Australia’s bombings. Especially Gambir, where Sukarno and all ministers must congregate at underground bunkers, live on without sun rays for some time. The bombings of Jakarta, in August 1963, killed Natsir and injured Sukarno. Natsir who was running to the bunkers short on arriving, when the bomb blew off the entrance, throwing him to the river, and hit the hard road curb when he land. Sukarno, meanwhile, got lucky, and had been trown to the bunker safely. He had broken back, hospitalized, and cannot stand after the blast.

For nearly 50 years of Indonesia’s existence, the only official who have died in office was Natsir. By rarity, this unsuspected actions also ignite Sukarno's down attitude with unexpected broadcast.

In the name of God the All-Mighty,
Fellow members of the nation and the motherland,
Assalamualaikum Warrachmatullahi Wabarakatu,

During these recent times, I have been following carefully the development of our national situation, especially the aspirations of the people for reaching freedom and the victorious end of this continuous war.

Yesterday, our beloved Vice President, Muhammad Natsir, have ascended to Allah after the menace of the Down Under’s bombing routine to our beloved nation. I was there with him before he was thrown out by the blasts, and it seems my mind can't forget it.

Weeks before he died, he addressed the Assembly, prying for the war to stop, as conditions like the deceased have already happened to millions of Indonesia out there.

I, myself, as President of the Federative Republic of Indonesia, had envisioned a war to ended way before now. My predetermined hopes of possible Malayan unification has faded with this war that I pray to stop. My current mind has come to reached that a peace negotiation must be confirmed immediately.

My fellow Indonesians, we are currently winning, but I can't seem to feel that way. The whole Peninsula and Borneo will now be rightfully our. In the East, we are pushing back with the help of America. We are one step away to achieve that, but my own conscience is against that.

Dear brothers and sisters, for years I have lived under the bunker, reflecting the damage of each bombs shook the ceilings. I have ended myself to the stage that I want these to be over, no more war, just peace.

When I supported this to the Assembly, I was immediately kicked away. No wonder, we are winning, but why bother a peace deal. I cannot blame them either. But I hope, my people would understand me in my current circumstances.

Considering the above development, I am of the opinion that it would be very difficult for me to implement in a good manner, duties in governing the state and in development.

Therefore, in line with article 8 of the 1959 Constitution and after earnestly taking into consideration the views of the leadership of People's Representatives Council (parliament) and the leadership of the factions in it, I have decided to declare that I have ceased to be the president of the Republic of Indonesia as of the time I read this on this day, Wednesday, August 21, 1963.

I have conveyed this statement, about me stepping down from the post of president of the Republic of Indonesia, to you, leaders of the People's Representatives Council who are also the leaders of the People's Consultative Assembly, during the opportunity for a meeting. In line with article 9 of the 1959 constitution, the Prime Minister will momentarily hold the Presidency and its tasks until the People’s Representative Council decides.

For the assistance and support of the people while I led the nation and state of Indonesia, I express my thanks and I seek forgiveness if there was any mistakes and shortcomings.

May the Indonesian nation remain victorious with Pancasila and the 1959 constitution.

Sukarno then left the presidency, and retired entirely from politics. Except giving minor guidance to Sukarno-ism’s young followers, Sukarno never returned to any public life until his death in 1974.

1963 became a confusing year for Indonesia. The President resigns and the Vice President dies. This new deal was never anticipated in this new Constitution, so in 1964, the First Amendment was created. It cleared any further confusions regarding successions, elections and army administrations.

1963 would be the start of a new prosperous greater Indonesia, this is when the mighty forces of Indonesia and America have united and invade Papua from Kotabaru. Second situation is in Germany, exactly the Referendum.
 
Realpolitik Part 7: Saar
Surprise, surprise. Love, France.

After Kennedy’s announcement about whole American withdrawal from West Germany. Other parties must in the end follow the same retreat. By January 1962, all Allied troops had been withdrawn, except French troops in Saar.

sarr.jpg

Saar Protectorate Physical Map, notice the names are still in German

The Saar annexation followed France-ification of the lands. Cities renamed French and French language were subjected as primary lesson in all stage of education. It was planned to be returned to West Germany on 1960s, but was changed after recent drift of events. The Saar annexation left Germany into a deep hatred towards the French, and indirectly pester the whole left in West and East Germany, including the Soviet’s difficult struggle for a German Socialist Republic.

Meanwhile, the Fifth French Republic had resolved her issues regarding a weak government. The Thorez administration prioritized the centralization of French Metropolitan, which was French Mainland, Corsica, Algeria and several islands. The rest of the Empire, was granted extended autonomy, which more or less satisfied everyone. Several republics have been made to this day, existing ones like Republic of Central Africa, Cameroon, Republic of Upper Volta, Republic of West Africa, and Republic of Benin were several of many republics made. However, one party were upset about this change entirely, and the party was RFP, or Rally of the French People.

RFP was a third party, comprising the right wing of the spectrum. The party was established within the basis of true nationalism of the French. This party was the largest party to hold numeral defunct Free France members during WW2, one of them famously called De Gaulle.


De Gaulle despised Communism, but also upset with America’s sudden ‘back stab’. De Gaulle also hated the Brits because they have abandoned the French with total retreat and left France on German occupation for more than 5 years. So, with those ground, he decided to become the next ultra-nationalist podium, unite the whole Francophone countries under one name, the Third French Empire.

With the presence of De Gaulle, the party become authoritarian nationalists. The party mission-ed for France to be once again an Empire. Living over the shadows of lavish Bourbon’s imperium or Napoleon’s grand Continental. With republican characteristics, this new France De Gaulle imagined would be true and great.

In 1962, after the French legislative election. The PCF became the largest opposition party against the Communist, with a whopping 30% of the vote. The republic since then become more instable, as revolutionary riots from radical pro-PCF organizations start to terrorize the government.

The Saar annexation to France helped the Communist into combating this opposition's rising popularity, despite PCF’s yet great opposition. The left Coalition, as other methods of combating this RFP, has decided to form a union party, named the French Social Workers Party. The coalition, already holding 56% from the recent 1962 election, had become the largest party in France the whole time. In history of legislative seats, no sole party has ever reached this stage due to cracks and splits.

In East Germany, the recent Saar annexation has made Walter Ulbricht arrived to Moscow with a plan of combating public drastic resentment against the left.

We still do not know whether Ulbricht was -as rumored- a US spy or the situations was perfect for us. But he propose that Prussia must be reborn. Khrushchev was surprised enough until he nearly sent him to gulag. However, regarding happenstance before, the plan was perfect.

Otto von Hapsburg

The German Democratic Republic, Ulbricht said, must acquire more population.

"We cannot risk West Germany’s left supports to help us. We need our loyal subjects."

Khrushchev asked what territories do you want.

He answered either the whole Silesia, or the whole Polish Pre-Prussia coasts.

Both leaders argued on those options, and Khrushchev chose the latter. The events after that was named the Polish Seizure.

new germany.png

Old border in black, new border in brown. The Northern States given to East Germany as West and East Prussian Province. The South was given to Soviet Union as Poland SSR.​

Polish Seizure is a seizure of land of Northern Poland, former states of Western Pomerania, Pomerania and the whole former East Prussia, includes the Kaliningrad Oblast Soviet Union have gifted them. In Labor Day of 1962, weeks before referendum, East German and Soviet troops marched to Warsaw, and dissolved the state of Poland as a whole, and the rest of Poland was acquired as one of Soviet’s Socialist Republics. This resulted a direct border of Soviet Union to proper Czechs, and minor expansion of the Russians. Although it was destined to increase Soviet's influence in Europe. The effects were the exact opposite, and this led to the infamous Domino Effect, and the Germans betrayed them after the 1963 Bonn Bombings.

Wikipedia

The reborn of Prussia was passed by the United Nations, after three of the Big Five Security Council has voted agree. The annexation of Poland ,as expected, gain media attention. Everyone had thought Europe is lost to the Reds. Red French in the West and Red Russia in the East, oh how red the Continent was. Britain gave a hard stance, but could not dare to send an ultimatum. The United States, meanwhile, had waited for this, as CIA would launch its last ‘dirty domino’ schemes for Germany.

As expected, the nation will unify because of a majority of 60% have voted on unify. By February 1963, all political parties once again were all legal, as the new German state held an election. This election marked the post noon of the Soviet Union in Europe, as Kennedy have insanely able to secure Germany from Khrushchev.

===

Summary:

The Saar annexation was a PCF reaction against the incoming friction against RFP. The RFP were mainly pan-nationalists. So, any enlargement of Metropolitan France enabled a little bit of 'stealing' RFP supportes. As a result, RFP supporters declined with a small margin, but enough to reduce their power in opposition.

West and East Germany before the Saar Annexation had one true similarities, which is their fond towards this new French Republic. The new French Republic was a great example for a unification compromise, as the French Republic can had a republican characteristic with a communist party as leading faction.

After the Saar Annexation. Everyone, including the East Germans, had started questioned socialism. As the lefts were 'nicking' Germany's 'ability to recover'. As a result, the Soviet Union made this "Polish Seizure" as part of their hasty strategies. And, hasty strategies is what the Americans had wanted.

===

The next thread will finish the chapter of realpolitik, and the next will have a little bit of narrative reformatting.
 
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Realpolitik Part 8: Jammu-Kashmir & Germany
This will be the last chapter of Realpolitik, chapter 6c

Regensburg, Hawaii Pact and the Post-Bismarck Pragmatism; John Smith, 1998

1963 progressed slowly during that certain time, as the German General Election happened. For the world, the German General Election had been their finest decision. The decisive battle, the one true event that will change us all. Tensions of the Cold War, although already creating sub-factions in both contesting parties, had been an all-time high.

The show-down in Germany have been reduced to two simple factions. The right and the left. The right was a Coalition of CDU and DP (All German Party). The left was the coalition of CSU and KPD. CDU or Christian Democratic Union is a Christian Democratic, Liberal-Conservative party of Germany. This faction during that time holds the largest portion of Western Germany and became an ally for the Americans. The DP is a fully Monarchist party. The party holds dearly for the restoration of a German Monarch into the throne. This party was supported by the British, especially the British House of Windsor. The CSU or Christian Social Union is mainly a socialist party with democratic tendencies. It became a friend of the French and immediately shifted as Bavarian’s regional party after the Saar Annexation. Its populace in other provinces was immediately disappeared after the despicable event. Last but not least, the KPD or Communist Party of Germany held the largest portion in newly enlarged East Germany, and also hold significant ‘snitches’ of the CSU.

As factions of four had been grouped into two. The situation in Germany was extremely tense. Debates among the contesting powers would frequently result in a brawl. Nearly every time a political debate ensued, an army of policemen must ready for the immediate aftermath. Moreover, on some occasions even police force was obsolete, and anarchy had erupted.

As the 1963 Election was getting close, so do tensions rise.

The situation in other nation, like India, was more chaotic.

Since 1961, the government of India had issued an attack towards Pakistan, thus beginning the Second Indo-Pakistani War. Worryingly, this type of aggression between two states has become a routine, a seasonal clash between two powers of the subcontinent. Furthermore, even their casus belli was always the same -Kashmir Region.

Jammu-Kashmir Region is a region located north of the Indian subcontinent. Once a princely federation, the British withdrawal of India has let this region become a land dispute among three powers, China, India and Pakistan. India had been the most vocal for the region, claiming it fully as legally Indian. Pakistan and China, however, cooperated with a deal and decided to split the region according to people living there. In the Pakistani terms, India would still get a part, only the Hindu-majority ones.
jammukashmir.jpg

In every war between two third-world nations, so does a proxy war involved between major powers. However, the major involved is not simple the US vs the Soviet Union. Presumably, after the intense rising of new ideological powers, more and more nations stood up against the two hegemony. Britain, France and China had braved up to help without any orders from them. Situations in the subcontinent were so messy that the war of aggression had ultimately become a war between themselves.

Pakistan had a trustworthy friend of China. Albeit an Islamic nation, Pakistan had been shifting gradually towards the wisdom of Mao. Especially after the Great Leap Forwards, where Mao’s economical fantasy actually did come true and the People’s Republic of China experienced the 70s as ‘Economic Boom’. A secret alliance had been signed by those two, guarantee each other for assisting in case one side gets troubled.

India, as a result, must find another ally besides China. Russia is no answer, because of similar ideologies with India’s enemy’s friend, and also the Soviet Union’s assistance to Pakistan. The United States is not going to bother either. Their ongoing war in Vietnam, Indonesia and preparation against Korea had kept them busy for the time being. The United Kingdom was an obvious no. How could the nation cooperate with their former colonist? The answer was left with one nation, the Fifth Republic of France.

Despite the French being socialist, the nation is on the opposite with the Soviet Union, thus also with China. Also, France had, even until now, no interests in reclaiming any of their Indian ports, thus exhilarate India as well. First negotiations of a friendship had started days after the war started. Hence, what is happening in the subcontinent for the next two years of aggression is dubbed “Proto-French-Soviet Proxy War”. This war would become the start of a proxy war between France and the Soviet Union to determine which one is the better socialist nation.

Back in Germany, situations are still uptight. There is no clear victory between two competing factions, and even within each faction holds a fragile alliance which can break handily. Still and all, an incident in May 1963 changed the course of German history.

On Labor Day of 1963, a rally of socialist and communist supporter was assembling onto streets in parts of Rhineland. As the largest industrial region in Germany, Rhineland, of course, owned many labours. These labours were friends of the left and primarily would vote for them. As the labours were celebrating their day, a provocative action, presumably conducted by radical labours, attacked the police force that was patrolling. After that, what was called the “Night of the Wretched Wrenches”. This night was purposely reflected the “Night of the Long Knives”. On that night, radical labours occupy major government building in the region, and declare a silly ultimatum to the government that “Socialism or a Rhenish Independence”. Everywhere in Germany, the folks were boiling, and in retaliation burn every socialist campaign poster in streets.
riotgermany.jpg
The Soviet Union were extremely furious. The French have done an unexplained stupid move. Even their once ally Eastern Germany had already dejected their former masters. France, pointed to the Soviets, even failed to apprehend the situation. France in any way is absurd if such actions were being done. Thus, France was the first party to notice that there was another third party involved in the depths of this movement, and they realized the United States had something to do with this. They did not know how, but they sensed it. It remained a mystery until the Papadopoulos Leaks divulged this unresolved piece of history.

---

A CIA operative, codenamed the Blue Valkyrie, was an operation approved by Kennedy to infiltrated the core members of radical socialist labors. Play a savage plot involving the labors, they will attack government vital assets, but unnecessarily endanger their lives. Names like Rudolf Wegner will be used as an undercover. So, in the end, people of Germany pin-point the lefts for this barbarity.

Richard Papadopoulos

---

Surely, in the 1963 election. Votes for the left plummeted to an all-time low of only 10%. That even included the portion of CSU and KPD, with CSU being the lowest of only 2%. The Democratic party of CDU gained the most votes in Germany, with the DP as the runner up. Immediately, a new unified Germany will be managed, and a new constitution will be drafted.

As the secret agreement held between CDU and DP, the agreement must be fulfilled. Each German states shall be given a monarchy referendum, stating that each state will become a kingdom or just a democratic state. Aside from Lower Saxony, Bavaria, Baden-Wurttemberg and Prussia, the nations have voted for a republic nature. Each province will have their historical powers of Kingdom of Hannover, Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Swabia and Kingdom of Prussia. Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen become a federal city.

In 1964, the Federal Kingdom of Germany is being created under the manner of the elective monarchy of every five years. In a parliamentary monarchy, Chancellor shall become the head of government and non-affiliated towards any monarch. But, the agreement seemed to be uncompleted. It is because we forgot one last kingdom of Germany, the Austrian Hapsburgs.

In 1955, the state of Austria was just unified as the Second Austrian Republic. However, the charismatic figure of Otto von Hapsburgs had led the people thought monarchy is still a good thing. Otto would rally with democratic figures of Austria, saying that ‘Old Authoritarian of the Hapsburgs’ must be replaced with the new ‘Democratic Characteristics’. In 1960, the nation had become monarchy once again, a Kingdom of Austria. All seems so surreal, that in 1964, Germany ‘Anschluss’ Austria again, as put the Hapsburgs as one of the elective monarchies.

The situation in Germany could not be so unearthly if all powers were not so busy with their own wars. In fact, the 1960s was nicknamed the Promiscuous Decade.
 
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You forgot to threadmark
Thanks for the chapter, did the rhineland got their independence?
Did they get seperated from prussia? Otherwise, prussia would still dominate germany.
 
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You forgot to threadmark
Thanks for the chapter, did the rhineland got their independence?
Did they get seperated from prussia? Otherwise, prussia would still dominate germany.

Rhineland remains German.

Prussia only holds the West Prussia and East Prussia province roundly acquired from the Polish Seizure. Berlin and Brandenburg region remain a federal state.

Yes, we still could see a Hohenzollern domination in Germany. But, because Germany became like Malaysia OTL, we can see other houses gain prominence.

Besides, Hannover is revived, so we could see some old rivalry.

Edit: After certain researches, I just realize that Hannover had a Prussian lineage. So yeah, Prussia will still dominated Germany.

Edit 2: I realize again thay my destined monarch for Baden-Wurttemburg is actually relative to the Hapsburgs...

Damn, Royals are not a simple play.
 
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Strengthening Within. Part 1: Resignation & 1st Amendment
At last, we return to our wonderful nation. This chapter is written with determination for our homeland only. I predict it will discuss things during the 1960s and maybe 1970s. Especially after the war, where a Marshall Plan-esque will happen to Indonesia. Enjoy!

Garuda Spreads her Wings: How Indonesia become a great power of the century; Jonathan Trihandoko

Things that happened in 1963 may have disrupted the nation badly. No wonder, Vice President died and President resigned, this is something Indonesia can be ashamed for. Other nations would stand until the end, while our dear proclamator left politics because of his emotions. People mildly became upset of him during that time. ‘Coward’ and ‘Loser’ are some words he was described by the folks. In the eyes of us -officials- however, it was the right move.

During that era of turbulence, Indonesia was desperately need of a characteristic. A new nation just born after the gifts of World War 2, is far fragile. We had witnessed many of Third World Nations, particularly the ones who declared itself a nation after the WW2, descended into colonialism once more or fell at least once under a ruthless dictator. We, Indonesia, are literally the only third nation survived and move up as significant role in the world. Many other predicted nations that had a better future than us, met their poor fates. Indonesia once almost tilted itself towards dictatorship, under the nose of Sukarno.

Since the beginning, Sukarno was not an enthusiast for liberal-parliamentary democracy. He always hoped a strong-presidential Indonesia. Furthermore, his approach with the Indonesia Communist Party have tilted himself into believing that Parliament is a waste of democracy. If Sukarno had reigned a few more years, we could see the ICP establishing a coup. Indonesia, then, would become the communist nation America had afraid for. America, as always, prepared a back-up plan in case this happens. And boy, we definitely would not want to go that path.

Surely, America was not a perfect ally of Indonesia then. Her eyes had always been Papua and Papua only. The islands that embody a large spoils of minerals, particularly uranium and gold, have gain great interests in Washington. They weren’t keen on Jakarta, but they had to due to political circumstances. The resignation of Sukarno let this wrong type of assistance as mutual. Indonesia’s soft stance with America had successfully stirred the nation into “Asian America”. So, instead of the nightmares that may come. Sukarno had done what was the best ever option, resigning. His resignation rooted out all any possibilities of a totalitarian rule, especially by power- thirsty Communists. Also, his resignation marked the end of that hapless Islamic-Left Coalition. And marked the start of 2nd longer Party System. A system that lingers around the center of ‘War’ or ‘Peace’.

In just a week, Indonesia had lost two of its leaders. The Constitution never had anticipated this outcome, so they gather again and form an Amendment.

Firstly, the nation never anticipated the loss of two leaders in a row, especially when the vice president was first to fall. There were no succession laws on this occasion. So, the Assembly made one. Because of this peculiar event, the Assembly will hold a snap-election in 1964. Hoping all of Indonesian core territories will be liberated (which surprisingly did happen, under the glorious assistance of the States). And then, a new succession law is being made.

If somehow a President left office due to any circumstances, Vice President will replace the President. If the Vice President replace the President, and still have more than two and a half years to govern, the new President will appoint a Vice President of the Assembly’s choice, after a voting procedure. If somehow, both of them left, the Parliament will take over and appoint a President of Choice immediately.

Different case happens in Prime Ministry. The Prime Minister, if leaves office, the governing party or coalition must appoint a new Prime Minister of choice. Therefore, Deputy Prime Minister seat will be erased. A Vote of No Confidence can still be given by the majority of the Assembly and Senate or the President itself.

Second, national Administration, or simply Indonesia’s regional composition was altered. The extensive exclusion granted for diverse types of regional government has finally confused the government. Especially when Malaya decides to join Indonesia, the snowball was just get bigger. The old one, giving levels of autonomy didn’t help. With the Amir’s Region (See SEZ) in table, things get extremely nauseous.

The Assembly decided to finish this knotty link, with a thorough explanation in this Amendment. Initially, the region will be separated into two equal systems.

The first one is the usual Federal State. The Governor will lead each state, has its own Legislative Body, and contribute seats in the bicameral bodies of the National Assembly.

The second one, is the Federal Kingdom. Differ than the regular Federal States, a Federal Kingdom has an exception of a monarch as Governor, and also send royals too as Regional Representatives (or simply the Senate). Popular Representatives (or in here the Assembly) still exists identical to Federal States, but royals are not allowed to place a seat. These regions don’t recognize any exclusive rights or grants given than the existing Constitution chapter.

Next, the Federative Republic of Indonesia aside from two equal systems, has three level systems.

The first one, and the lowest is the Federal State/Kingdom Branch. The details already stated in the previous chapter.

The second level is the Special Economic Regions (SER). The SER has his rights on bicameral legislatives, but it also possesses several exclusive claims, especially on economic sector. For example, the law given in the Region is highly pro-investor, and because of that capitalism exclusively rules in these places.

The last and the highest autonomy gained is the Special Administrative Regions (SAR). These regions have their own Assembly secluded from Indonesia’s National Assembly, full autonomy and exclusive legal system. The last and highest tier of Indonesia’s administrative system, the Special Administrative Region is fabricated in such a way that including one SAR involves creating a new Amendment itself. Therefore, there are a few more Amendments made in Indonesia because of the SAR.

Lastly, is this. Election, or mostly the Electoral System, is primarily discussed. The voting system pre-Amendment – albeit clear – still failed to compensate several typical likelihoods. On that account, in this Amendment, the Electoral System is significantly explained. The Assembly, or People’s Representative Council, is elected every five years on a general election. It will involve all parties eligible for election, but regional parties are not allowed to participate in the Assembly. The Assembly will use proportional system; vote depends on the populace. The Assembly voting procedure is also divided into two methods. The first two thirds is elected by proportional, means by election polls. The last third is electef by Constituency. Similar to US Electoral College, this ‘Constituency’ conduct similar way. The People’s Regional Council, or Senate, is elected two in every states, except the SER, that receive three rather than four. The SAR don’t receive seats, as they have separate Parliament.

So, the new Electoral System can give a proportional representation of the people, also alleviating the demands of the local regions, so minority does not seemed to be repressed.
 
Strengthening Within. Part 2: 1964 Election Narrative
2045: 100 years of Indonesia. By Prasetyo Subagio

Post-Sukarno Presidency is always considered as a new era. A new page of Indonesian history, which is when foreign incursions to our land literally ended. Although Papua is still occupied by the time Sukarno resign. It is not so far when in 1964, West Papua has been liberated and three months later, so does the East.

The successful Operation Cendrawasih, Liutenant General Suharto and Air Marshall Suryadarma as mastermind, liberated Papua in swift action. The extensive knowledge of the terrain and America’s superior fire power knocked off any Commonwealth presence in Papua. As Papua has been freed by March 1965, the entire Australian Occupation in Sulawesi, Maluku, and Lesser Sundas had also collapsed and liberated way before. Therefore, Nusantara conveniently held election with all her people.

1964 Election is held in October, for Legislative, and in November, the Executive. The Election was quite expected, as the People’s Coalition faltered in pieces, with the ICP still stands. The jingoistic PGI was the clear winner of the election, achieving more than anyone else, a staggering 39%. The PUP lags behind, as Hatta made a resounding campaign to increase popularity to 31%. The INP, senior to others, stagnant in its previous mark, even declines slightly. The opposition completely falters, as the TUF is implicitly reduced by the government due to the Aceh Scandal, also a Kedah Scandal which involves a scheme for a Indonesian Caliphate, which leaked by local newspapers. TUF then disbanded harshly, which caused 1964 Election as the only election not to have a Islamic Party participate.

The SPI, socialist party, also falls by lack of leadership, and many of the members fled for the PUP. As a result, by the 1964 Election ISP was completely absorbed to the PUP. The ICP is the only opposition holding, the ECF, a regional party of the East, has similar fate of the TUF, and decided to just dissolve in history. For conservationist however, especially fundamentalist, a small and trivial United Development Party (UDP) is built under the ashes of TUF an partly ECF members. A West Papuan’s ECF splinter however, become one of Papua’s Regional Parties that legally participate exclusively in Papua SAR.

The 1964 Election Results marked the start for the PUP-PGI domination. Their Coalition, National Coalition became the largest ruling coalition ever in Indonesian history, a staggering 90% of votes. Their tasks are also perfectly fit as PUP keens on domestic policy and PGI focuses on foreign issues. In 1965, a new Administration begins with Hatta as Prime Minister. Notable members in PGI stole the most ministerial seats in Hatta’s 1st Administration.

In Papua, Legislative Election was slightly different, because of its SAR status. Regional parties are allowed in SAR, but Papua didn’t relish those exception. Instead, the PGI and ECF competed for majority. This trend continues for the rest of the century. A clash between pro-immigration PGI and pro-conservationist ECF persisted as the longest debate in Papuan History. PGI won in 60% portion, in the end.

The Presidential Election, regardless of the nominee, will be won by the Coalition. The only opposition left, the ICP, was impossible to compete such a supermajority. In the end, Aidit, ICP Nominee, only achieve barely 20% of the vote. While Coalition Nominee, General Nasution, won the rest although he never politically campaigned in the streets. He only used his generalship as his promotion.

Nasution become the nation’s 2nd President.
330px-AH_Nasution,_Jalesveva_Jayamahe,_p11.jpg
Nasution’s first moves was demanding on most of British or Australian Islands in Indian Ocean. Nasution put tremendous efforts to the US by telling them that most of the islands must be traded either to US or to Indonesia. America firstly declined, thinking that maybe in this mess, Australia may still be friendly towards the US. However, with Australia’s surprise attack to America’s Mariana Islands, added with East Coast raid by the British, America surely was mad.

These attacks was done to say that British and Australian forces still existed. Canada, Britain’s Dominion who was so frightened to battle America that they did not join the war, by 1965 had increase troops along the border. America sure knew this, and also prepare for the ultimate liberation of the Northern Brother. Bermuda, which shockingly still British during the war, managed to become Britain’s radar outpost for America’s movements. Weirdly enough, East Coast was silent, so Britain foolishly decided to anger the American mob. Cities in Cheapskate Bay are raided.

The raids on the East Coast become one of the worst defense failure in American history. The American Navy that surely was distracted in the Pacific, left their ‘front door’ opened to the enemies. What then happened was literally the destruction of Bermuda, and British islands in Caribbean are all surrounded by America. In Britain, a Vote of No Confidence was given to the current government, due to incompetence. A new PM was appointed, a certain Peter Thorneycroft. Thorneycroft searched for a better peace deal for the Kingdom. Naturally, former PMs orders for raiding the East Coast hardened for peace deals. America wished for everything from Caribbean Islands, Indian Ocean Territories and British Islands in the Pacific to be in the peace deal. Thorneycroft, elegantly, declined such shameful surrender, and carry on with the war. What he didn’t expect is in early 1966, an civil war of a certain Western nation imploded British Africa into a bloodbath of tribal and colonial warfare.

Back to Indonesia, the PUP spoke for National Re-adjustment, a domestic mega-project to shape Indonesia’s post-war Era. Major cities ruined because of this conflict, mainly due to extensive bombings led by Australia from Christmas Island. However, after recent push in Papua, the attacks subsided. Hatta, former ally, then rival, then reconciled friend of Sukarno, plan to develop Jakarta as Sukarno’s legacy. This process is called as “Sukarno-ification” which also occurred in Papua, as some cities are renamed with ‘Sukarno’ essence. Sukarno’s plan for Jakarta was a modernist architecture, reform Jakarta as ‘Old and New’.

Notes:
I am on my vacation today, since it's New Year's Eve. Because of that, I post this by mobile. I sadly must postponed those maps like 1955 ones.

And for the New Year Special, I decided to post the next chapter much sooner. Rather than on 1st January, time is rather difficult for me so I rather post it sometime later.
 
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