Emerald of The Equator: An Indonesian TL

What do you think about this thread?

  • Awesome!!

    Votes: 80 61.5%
  • Okay...

    Votes: 33 25.4%
  • Meh...

    Votes: 12 9.2%
  • It's Bad

    Votes: 5 3.8%

  • Total voters
    130
I just realized by looking on the map also even tho the country based on a pseudo US State-Federal Relations. The population of each State Republics (not looking at each State population within the Provinces/Districts) is essentially should be like double then or even more then each states in US. I mean the State Republic of Nusantara is essentially the combined popultion of Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. Combined with other States. Indonesia should be like one of the largest populated countries in the world if it’s exist IRL rn. Tbh I always felt impressed seeing this TL and how big this Indonesia ( if its in IRL it’s already the biggest Island/Archipelago country in the world) I remember when the Chapter still talks abt the war with the AUS and british it’s still the Nusantara Archipelago proper but slowly it grows to what it became now.
About system of the Federal Gov. From most chapter when I read it seems it’s like a mix of the Westminster Parliamentary system mixed with the IRL French Presidential Republic isn’t it? In particular abt the Premier focuses on domestic affairs (even tho I saw like LKY in the previous chapter seems have a word in some foreign affairs) and the President have particular focus on foreign affairs (even though some chapter also seems Subandrio have a word in some domestic affairs)

Indeed, Indonesia could surpass the US soon in some extent, but the demographics in the 1980s (boom growth hasn't fully kicked in, US still have the some little boost) Indonesia still lagged just behind the US. Probably in the 90s would Indonesia surpass the US.

Even IRL, Indonesia is still the largest archipelago country. This is definitely a wank, some might assume borderline-ASB, but it is still feasible.

About the parliamentary system, you're correct. The latest constitution compels a French-style semi-presidential. Although, as any third country, alterations still happen and the book doesn't always match the field. On the Premier-President relationship, indeed I positooned them as more 'co-op' leader rather than purely Frensh style.
 
About the parliamentary system, you're correct. The latest constitution compels a French-style semi-presidential. Although, as any third country, alterations still happen and the book doesn't always match the field. On the Premier-President relationship, indeed I positooned them as more 'co-op' leader rather than purely Frensh style.
I think at least it’s better that the President have some role rather than only seen as ceremonial like some countries IRL. Sometimes I felt those Republics that have Ceremonial Presidents sometimes can be seen as a waste because they’re existence while I heard can have some powers yet felt kind of useless sometimes because they’re only ceremonial.


Indeed, Indonesia could surpass the US soon in some extent, but the demographics in the 1980s (boom growth hasn't fully kicked in, US still have the some little boost) Indonesia still lagged just behind the US. Probably in the 90s would Indonesia surpass the US.

Even IRL, Indonesia is still the largest archipelago country. This is definitely a wank, some might assume borderline-ASB, but it is still feasible.
IRL is the largest yet in this TL I agree it’s a Wank but feasible.
 
I think at least it’s better that the President have some role rather than only seen as ceremonial like some countries IRL. Sometimes I felt those Republics that have Ceremonial Presidents sometimes can be seen as a waste because they’re existence while I heard can have some powers yet felt kind of useless sometimes because they’re only ceremonial.



IRL is the largest yet in this TL I agree it’s a Wank but feasible.
I think in here they do have some power but mostly its the premier that holds it and maybe the senate
 
The Decay of Stability Part 6: Musa's Early 1987 Actions
The Confrontation

11.00 AM, 19 January 1987
Presidential Palace, Jakarta


Prime Minister James (Jim) Michael Leathes Prior, commonly recognized as Jim Prior, has announced his timed retirement from Parliament by Labour Day. Nearly 13 years of ruling the United Kingdom, fifth-longest by tenure, Jim Prior has transformed Great Britain into an indisputably different nation. The nation has moulded into a hybrid system with socialist characteristics. Uniquely for the Premier, Jim Prior wasn’t nationalist like his party principles. He was ardently conservative with pro-labour economic policy. However, the main reason why has ruled for so long was his enthusiastic imperialist attitudes and brilliant domestic achievements.

For Premier Musa Hitam and his political experts, Jim Prior has mixed plans that captivated what Indonesians thought as two opposite groups of population; the aristocrats and low class. In Britain, low-class craftsmen, labour and farming worker has been benefited by Prior’s planned economy, welfare system, and affordable tax rates that the proletariat disburse. For the aristocrats, the government’s neglect and ‘hands-off’ method were enjoyed. With also relatively low tax rates and little regulation in Britain’s overseas territories, the nobility can savour the previous system in Hong Kong or Malta while having the same welfare benefits from the Unionist system in the Mainland.

Unfortunately, the system Jim Prior has crafted left the middle class the worst. The bourgeoisie was omitted with higher taxes comparing to the lower class with lesser benefits, but also cannot afford to go overseas territories to relish the freedom they once had. This led the remaining 30% of the population to join the Liberal Party, the new opposition for the Unionists.

Premier Musa Hitam had the story heard this morning just before coming to the Presidential Palace. Unrelated to Jim Prior, Premier Musa Hitam had a terrifying ordeal to endure, one which appeasing the President about the one thing he publicly opposed.

“Premier Musa. I have told you that involving in the Vietnam War would only cost us human lives and money. We have no interest over there, much to our promise of neutrality,” the President repeated with slight irritation on his voice.

Premier Musa Hitam sighed on the seat in front of the Presidential desk. This was the first day he wanted the President to discuss the matter, yet he was adamant, quite stubborn in his opinion, about the Vietnamese War that was brewing. Indeed, two unbearable interventions had resisted Subandrio from conducting a third one, the interventions in Africa only made a bad image of Indonesia to those countries. Personally, Premier Musa Hitam couldn’t understand why Indonesia is hated in Africa. We liberated them from Portugal. Despite them later divulge into a civil war, that was not Indonesia’s matter as our main aspiration was to force Portugal to leave its overseas colonies. Yet, both in Africa and Indonesia’s media sources, they depicted the Kopassus and Marinir as warmongering brutes.

“Mr President, South Vietnam is our closest ally, being both in the Spratly League, SEATO and EAC. We are losing the Philippines as we speak, and now South Vietnam could be lost by the Cambodians. Look, Mr President. I understand your ardent intentions of neutrality, but the common prediction is we will lose our precious investments, years of growth and even years of diplomatic relations if South Vietnam should be abandon for the sake of your principles,” Musa lengthy response stunned the President briefly.

“My principles? This is Pancasila, Indonesia’s core principles. You certainly have lost my reliance to assume that it was personally my bizarre liking for neutrality,” the President continued with a deep tone.

This has been the second hour of discussion, neither party compromise. For Musa’s defence, the intervention in Vietnam was the solid choice for securing our partnership that can be beneficial in the long run. Indonesia has been losing allies by the cause of neutrality. It was so naïve for the Premier to make Indonesia the most cordial nation on the planet. Imagine that to be tips of friendship on school for young scholars. No allegiance on any side, just picks the middle ground. Not only you failed to have friends, you will be hated by everyone.

Our industrial strength was sturdy enough that we could expand our national industries to invest there. From noodle to textile manufactures, we have few pioneering industries in South Vietnam that could accumulate large wealth to Indonesia. Not to mention South Vietnam’s high population, thus high consumption especially on food products. National entrepreneurs in the early 1980s have begun entering South Vietnamese markets. Yet, the Indochinese War and subsequent Red scare had forced Indonesian entrepreneurs back to Indonesia. Investment and time spent are futile.

Furthermore, Musa Hitam criticized Pancasila deeply on the principles’ incessant use on Indonesia’s day-to-day basis. Although visionary for our independent struggle, Pancasila has become mere … well, visions. Practically, Pancasila’s five principles would coincide with each other in battle under the political spectrum. Every time the President demanded the government to fulfil those five principles. In another view, Pancasila could improve Indonesia’s political background from radicalism, but It still failed. We still have PPI’s pro-communist, FPI’s rather Islamists and Barisan Pemuda’s rather neo-liberal for Pancasila to allow. [1]

The Premier returned to his office by lunch, determined to find another initiative he could pass without excessive bickering with the President. However, he knew that this battle has not been won, and he would draw an ultimatum for the President should he be too close-minded on the wide perspective.​


Musa’s Second Initiative

1627222541831.png

Musa Hitam in the Indonesian Great Urban Conference, 1987

On Musa’s January and February activities, the public noticed the Premier’s withdrawal from foreign politics. Public speculation concluded that Musa has been confronting the President about South Vietnam’s series of defeats after Cambodia’s counter-offensive. The media inculpated the Premier as ‘silent opposition to the President’s fallout in foreign policy, but some argued the Premier to conduct the job as it is; domestic affairs only with foreign affairs under the president. This would give the 1973 Constitution another heated debate, whether the ambiguity of the clause with no clear analogous to other nation’s system meant Indonesia’s unique identity in the world or just another faulty that the government need revision.

His second initiative derived from the Federal District’s problem coming into the growth of their territories, unplanned housing. The population in dense urban centres was rising beyond the capacity of the government’s plan which eventually paved uncontrolled land usage contractors bought for housing needs. It has not kicked fully yet to witness the mess of zoning, but Musa Hitam understood the critical necessities of urban planning in cities that would expand exponentially for decades ahead. For that reason, he invited a plethora of architects, engineers and city planners to arrive in Indonesia.

The Indonesian Great Urban Conference was held in the old main terminal of Kemayoran Airport, Jakarta. Began on 26 January 1987, the event consisted of daily meetings held by Federal District officials, Federal Governorates and invited foreign specialists on the top floor and public fair on the bottom floor. Indonesian Institute of Architects, led by Achmad Noe’man, host the conference with federal approval. Publicly, the conference was a publicity stunt from invited architects to present their models for public view. It introduced old designs, such as the modernism structure Nasution Era had patronized with grand projects all across Indonesia.
78_Shenton_Sideview-min.jpg

78 Shenton, Singapore. One of the buildings whose blueprints and 3D model was presented at the conference

175.jpg
jengki.jpg

The 1980s and 1990s '
Jengki' style [from term Yankee], a strange architectural design dated from the 60s, was revived from the conference

For the government, the conference was mainly to outline proper instructions of metropolitan zonings, including zoning laws, mass transit proposals, and state-owned recreational construction programs, in Indonesia. Most cabinet members who excelled in economics agreed that single-use zoning in every municipal was one big reason for heavy traffic in streets. It also reduced growth evenly on cities, forming a tiered city that needed a high capacity of connections. In a mountainous region like Padang, the TSIP program was costly on building large pillars of highway roads that LKY ever debated on the return when briefed with the Ministry of Transportation.

Also, in the early 1980s, a growing thirst for identity emerged from many rural arrivers as they endured the cultural shock in most of the Federal District’s open cities. The idea which Indonesian metropolis has been idolizing Western norms was revolting to most traditionalist newcomers. Western buildings, western culture and western traditions crashed into their usual traditional customs with slight Islamic characteristics. By combating this issue, this disillusioned population would wither away, signify with radical youth groups decreasing in multiple demonstrations appeals to the federal parliament.

Another concern was the damage high flux of motorized vehicles in the city. Jakarta has increased car usage by twice in 5 years and quintuple in 7 years, brutal congestions has started to form in inner cities. Also, many of Jakarta and Singapore’s central residential have been extremely annoyed with moped sounds. The number of mopeds inevitably increase as the low-income class on suburbia homes bought themselves mopeds to transport them to inner cities. The federal government worried about private developers that keep adopting pure American-style car neighbourhoods in Indonesia. Unlike the United States, Indonesia lacked the space for sustaining fully motorized connections. For the State Republic of Papua, their low population has eased the government from any fears. But, in Java island, this neighbourhood could bulldoze strategic agrarian lands, reducing our strained food production even lower. For economic reasons, Indonesia has not owned any automotive industry, all of the cars were imported. If car-induced suburbia kept expanding, Indonesia would have to increase imports to Japan. It will reduce foreign exchange, and therefore the state’s strength.
1627224423667.png

Traffic in Tomang, Jakarta. Traffic is another reason for Musa's concern

Musa Hitam’s concerns, truthfully, was when he saw the growing slums of undeserved housing near Jakarta. Cramped, unhygienic and impoverished, this trend of poor housing has sporadically emerged with growing numbers of urbanization. In addition to Indonesia’s growing face on the international stage, the Premier wished to review these piling problems by striking it when it has not yet been massive enough. He feared when dealt with later, the slum problems would be too expensive for any alternatives.

At the conference, ministerial bureaucrat J.B. Sumarlin [2] arrived at the venue. He, with Ginandjar Kartasasmita [3], Y.B. Mangunwijaya, and Adhi Moersid, conversed regarding a few and many of these issues. Intriguingly, they encountered a small group of Californian architects, Larry Beasley and Peter Calthorpe, who envisioned an old yet revolutionary idea that could change how Indonesian cities work. They tried in the United States, a small experiment to create small walkable centres filled with various public transit options. However, J.B. Sumarlin later dumped the proposal as too sociological. Indonesia needed economic efficiency on town planning, this fresh concept was still new. Also, the planning still developed a unitary centre in one town, it will not solve the problem of car crowding in rush hours.

In the fullness of the conference, Sumarlin and Ginandjar finally formed a consensual regulation. It eventually becomes the Sumarlin Regulation, later ratified as the Zoning Law of 1987 by Congress. In the bill, Sumarlin stressed urban planning should involve secondary economic centres of a city to alleviate the burden for the main district. This secondary centre will possess all public transports, from small transit like a city bus, trams or walkable pathways to large transit like the railway, monorail and intercity busses. From this, economic equity shall be distributed evenly on cities, rather than concentrated on one CBD. Between these secondary districts should form a ring connection around the main district. This conveniently put Jakarta’s Ring Road perfectly followed the bill’s regulation, as the destined central business district selected by Sudomo Hendarto would be Grogol, Cawang, Pulogadung and Tanjung Priok, all near the toll roads. [4]


af_wdlhub_1306-min.jpg

Mangsang Transport Hub [Bus terminal with MRT], Batam

orchardrd-min.jpg

Orchard Road, Singapore

0f9e8aefb4e42b6096c448225ee747ea-min.jpg

Suburbia in
Biak

The zoning law also prohibits old-town architecture to bulldoze carelessly for modernism and instead promote them as tourism spots. This was carried from Ginandjar that determined ‘old-time could possess great attraction on tourism, thus diversifying income to alleviate the percentage of nation’s wealth from industry. For example, in Jakarta, the Kota district’s Dutch architectural landscape was maintained by Jakarta’s federal regent. In Malacca City, efforts of rebuilding Malacca’s trading port as it was in the 17th century was conducted by city officials. Nevertheless, the return of these pre-colonial designs in contrast did not anger the populace, it actually reinforces Indonesia’s affirm stance as the world’s trading hub. [5]
kotatua-min.jpg

Kota Tua, Jakarta

Media coverage reported all aspects of the zoning law because the public has eyed them quite specifically. However, Musa Hitam’s great comeback was his constant approach to landscaping urban sprawls with green parks and natural spaces. This caused wide recognition especially from city folks as they criticized the city’s lack of recreation and refreshment with the extremely dense housing construction. Even the poor, which has illegally constructed slums in many parts of the metropolis, agreed also on this matter. They later agreed wholeheartedly after Musa Hitam promised subsidized government housing for the poor slums of federal districts. Despite not carried weight to appease rural dwellers, a small optimism was shown in many urban and suburban citizens, consequentially increase Musa’s popularity.

The conference ended on February 20, 1987, and both politicians and the public approved the results of the event. Musa Hitam’s popularity recovered with media coverage appraised this conference. This would affect Federal District’s the most, as they were Musa Hitam’s only experimental places he can implement the new zoning law. By May 1987, the execution of the zoning law begun taking place, massive infrastructure buildup with many designated structures erected. With the successors of Indonesia’s federal government majorly heavily supportive of this law, the legacy it upholds can be drawn for decades to come.​

[1] This is personally can be how a foreigner (at least non-native Indonesian) think about Pancasila. Based on my own experience, I've encountered few foreigners who commented on this topic.
[2] ITTL J.B. Sumarlin is the head of Bappenas (Badan Perencaan Pembangunan Nasional) which surprisingly isn't on Subandrio's ministerial cabinet position, but mere federal organization.
[3] ITTL Ginandjar is a ministerial position without a portfolio, barely appointed last year before LKY's assassination.
[4]This affected firstly on Federal District since they're fully federal control. For State Republics, they prolonged this effort but later agree to the zoning's appropriation. Furthermore, this would increase the state's own cities competition against federal ones.
EDIT:
[5]This could be said as "old town policy" in Federal Districts. They later became car-free zones with good tram connections.

Overall, the zoning discouraged one CBD in a city, then diversifying multiple districts. It also put public transit as priority number one, as opposed to early car-centric constructions. This would eventually spark the new movement of pedestrian-friendly and bike-friendly districts, and safely we can say Indonesia is Asia's pioneer. This gives an ironic sense that Indonesia is following Netherland's OTL 1980 approach, this is not a coincidence as I will address this in later posts. Quite an environmental chapter, not what I expected last week. The next chapter should focus on another Musa Hitam's policy, this time connecting with Subandrio's earlier reforms. The upcoming post should also open a new problem in Indochina.
 
Last edited:
The Confrontation

11.00 AM, 19 January 1987
Presidential Palace, Jakarta


Prime Minister James (Jim) Michael Leathes Prior, commonly recognized as Jim Prior, has announced his timed retirement from Parliament by Labour Day. Nearly 13 years of ruling the United Kingdom, fifth-longest by tenure, Jim Prior has transformed Great Britain into an indisputably different nation. The nation has moulded into a hybrid system with socialist characteristics. Uniquely for the Premier, Jim Prior wasn’t nationalist like his party principles. He was ardently conservative with pro-labour economic policy. However, the main reason why has ruled for so long was his enthusiastic imperialist attitudes and brilliant domestic achievements.

For Premier Musa Hitam and his political experts, Jim Prior has mixed plans that captivated what Indonesians thought as two opposite groups of population; the aristocrats and low class. In Britain, low-class craftsmen, labour and farming worker has been benefited by Prior’s planned economy, welfare system, and affordable tax rates that the proletariat disburse. For the aristocrats, the government’s neglect and ‘hands-off’ method were enjoyed. With also relatively low tax rates and little regulation in Britain’s overseas territories, the nobility can savour the previous system in Hong Kong or Malta while having the same welfare benefits from the Unionist system in the Mainland.

Unfortunately, the system Jim Prior has crafted left the middle class the worst. The bourgeoisie was omitted with higher taxes comparing to the lower class with lesser benefits, but also cannot afford to go overseas territories to relish the freedom they once had. This led the remaining 30% of the population to join the Liberal Party, the new opposition for the Unionists.

Premier Musa Hitam had the story heard this morning just before coming to the Presidential Palace. Unrelated to Jim Prior, Premier Musa Hitam had a terrifying ordeal to endure, one which appeasing the President about the one thing he publicly opposed.

“Premier Musa. I have told you that involving in the Vietnam War would only cost us human lives and money. We have no interest over there, much to our promise of neutrality,” the President repeated with slight irritation on his voice.

Premier Musa Hitam sighed on the seat in front of the Presidential desk. This was the first day he wanted the President to discuss the matter, yet he was adamant, quite stubborn in his opinion, about the Vietnamese War that was brewing. Indeed, two unbearable interventions had resisted Subandrio from conducting a third one, the interventions in Africa only made a bad image of Indonesia to those countries. Personally, Premier Musa Hitam couldn’t understand why Indonesia is hated in Africa. We liberated them from Portugal. Despite them later divulge into a civil war, that was not Indonesia’s matter as our main aspiration was to force Portugal to leave its overseas colonies. Yet, both in Africa and Indonesia’s media sources, they depicted the Kopassus and Marinir as warmongering brutes.

“Mr President, South Vietnam is our closest ally, being both in the Spratly League, SEATO and EAC. We are losing the Philippines as we speak, and now South Vietnam could be lost by the Cambodians. Look, Mr President. I understand your ardent intentions of neutrality, but the common prediction is we will lose our precious investments, years of growth and even years of diplomatic relations if South Vietnam should be abandon for the sake of your principles,” Musa lengthy response stunned the President briefly.

“My principles? This is Pancasila, Indonesia’s core principles. You certainly have lost my reliance to assume that it was personally my bizarre liking for neutrality,” the President continued with a deep tone.

This has been the second hour of discussion, neither party compromise. For Musa’s defence, the intervention in Vietnam was the solid choice for securing our partnership that can be beneficial in the long run. Indonesia has been losing allies by the cause of neutrality. It was so naïve for the Premier to make Indonesia the most cordial nation on the planet. Imagine that to be tips of friendship on school for young scholars. No allegiance on any side, just picks the middle ground. Not only you failed to have friends, you will be hated by everyone.

Our industrial strength was sturdy enough that we could expand our national industries to invest there. From noodle to textile manufactures, we have few pioneering industries in South Vietnam that could accumulate large wealth to Indonesia. Not to mention South Vietnam’s high population, thus high consumption especially on food products. National entrepreneurs in the early 1980s have begun entering South Vietnamese markets. Yet, the Indochinese War and subsequent Red scare had forced Indonesian entrepreneurs back to Indonesia. Investment and time spent are futile.

Furthermore, Musa Hitam criticized Pancasila deeply on the principles’ incessant use on Indonesia’s day-to-day basis. Although visionary for our independent struggle, Pancasila has become mere … well, visions. Practically, Pancasila’s five principles would coincide with each other in battle under the political spectrum. Every time the President demanded the government to fulfil those five principles. In another view, Pancasila could improve Indonesia’s political background from radicalism, but It still failed. We still have PPI’s pro-communist, FPI’s rather Islamists and Barisan Pemuda’s rather neo-liberal for Pancasila to allow. [1]

The Premier returned to his office by lunch, determined to find another initiative he could pass without excessive bickering with the President. However, he knew that this battle has not been won, and he would draw an ultimatum for the President should he be too close-minded on the wide perspective.​


Musa’s Second Initiative

View attachment 668695
Musa Hitam in the Indonesian Great Urban Conference, 1987

On Musa’s January and February activities, the public noticed the Premier’s withdrawal from foreign politics. Public speculation concluded that Musa has been confronting the President about South Vietnam’s series of defeats after Cambodia’s counter-offensive. The media inculpated the Premier as ‘silent opposition to the President’s fallout in foreign policy, but some argued the Premier to conduct the job as it is; domestic affairs only with foreign affairs under the president. This would give the 1973 Constitution another heated debate, whether the ambiguity of the clause with no clear analogous to other nation’s system meant Indonesia’s unique identity in the world or just another faulty that the government need revision.

His second initiative derived from the Federal District’s problem coming into the growth of their territories, unplanned housing. The population in dense urban centres was rising beyond the capacity of the government’s plan which eventually paved uncontrolled land usage contractors bought for housing needs. It has not kicked fully yet to witness the mess of zoning, but Musa Hitam understood the critical necessities of urban planning in cities that would expand exponentially for decades ahead. For that reason, he invited a plethora of architects, engineers and city planners to arrive in Indonesia.

The Indonesian Great Urban Conference was held in the old main terminal of Kemayoran Airport, Jakarta. Began on 26 January 1987, the event consisted of daily meetings held by Federal District officials, Federal Governorates and invited foreign specialists on the top floor and public fair on the bottom floor. Indonesian Institute of Architects, led by Achmad Noe’man, host the conference with federal approval. Publicly, the conference was a publicity stunt from invited architects to present their models for public view. It introduced old designs, such as the modernism structure Nasution Era had patronized with grand projects all across Indonesia.
View attachment 668698
78 Shenton, Singapore. One of the buildings whose blueprints and 3D model was presented at the conference

View attachment 668699View attachment 668700
The 1980s and 1990s '
Jengki' style [from term Yankee], a strange architectural design dated from the 60s, was revived from the conference

For the government, the conference was mainly to outline proper instructions of metropolitan zonings, including zoning laws, mass transit proposals, and state-owned recreational construction programs, in Indonesia. Most cabinet members who excelled in economics agreed that single-use zoning in every municipal was one big reason for heavy traffic in streets. It also reduced growth evenly on cities, forming a tiered city that needed a high capacity of connections. In a mountainous region like Padang, the TSIP program was costly on building large pillars of highway roads that LKY ever debated on the return when briefed with the Ministry of Transportation.

Also, in the early 1980s, a growing thirst for identity emerged from many rural arrivers as they endured the cultural shock in most of the Federal District’s open cities. The idea which Indonesian metropolis has been idolizing Western norms was revolting to most traditionalist newcomers. Western buildings, western culture and western traditions crashed into their usual traditional customs with slight Islamic characteristics. By combating this issue, this disillusioned population would wither away, signify with radical youth groups decreasing in multiple demonstrations appeals to the federal parliament.

Another concern was the damage high flux of motorized vehicles in the city. Jakarta has increased car usage by twice in 5 years and quintuple in 7 years, brutal congestions has started to form in inner cities. Also, many of Jakarta and Singapore’s central residential have been extremely annoyed with moped sounds. The number of mopeds inevitably increase as the low-income class on suburbia homes bought themselves mopeds to transport them to inner cities. The federal government worried about private developers that keep adopting pure American-style car neighbourhoods in Indonesia. Unlike the United States, Indonesia lacked the space for sustaining fully motorized connections. For the State Republic of Papua, their low population has eased the government from any fears. But, in Java island, this neighbourhood could bulldoze strategic agrarian lands, reducing our strained food production even lower. For economic reasons, Indonesia has not owned any automotive industry, all of the cars were imported. If car-induced suburbia kept expanding, Indonesia would have to increase imports to Japan. It will reduce foreign exchange, and therefore the state’s strength.
View attachment 668697
Traffic in Tomang, Jakarta. Traffic is another reason for Musa's concern

Musa Hitam’s concerns, truthfully, was when he saw the growing slums of undeserved housing near Jakarta. Cramped, unhygienic and impoverished, this trend of poor housing has sporadically emerged with growing numbers of urbanization. In addition to Indonesia’s growing face on the international stage, the Premier wished to review these piling problems by striking it when it has not yet been massive enough. He feared when dealt with later, the slum problems would be too expensive for any alternatives.

At the conference, ministerial bureaucrat J.B. Sumarlin [2] arrived at the venue. He, with Ginandjar Kartasasmita [3], Y.B. Mangunwijaya, and Adhi Moersid, conversed regarding a few and many of these issues. Intriguingly, they encountered a small group of Californian architects, Larry Beasley and Peter Calthorpe, who envisioned an old yet revolutionary idea that could change how Indonesian cities work. They tried in the United States, a small experiment to create small walkable centres filled with various public transit options. However, J.B. Sumarlin later dumped the proposal as too sociological. Indonesia needed economic efficiency on town planning, this fresh concept was still new. Also, the planning still developed a unitary centre in one town, it will not solve the problem of car crowding in rush hours.

In the fullness of the conference, Sumarlin and Ginandjar finally formed a consensual regulation. It eventually becomes the Sumarlin Regulation, later ratified as the Zoning Law of 1987 by Congress. In the bill, Sumarlin stressed urban planning should involve secondary economic centres of a city to alleviate the burden for the main district. This secondary centre will possess all public transports, from small transit like a city bus, trams or walkable pathways to large transit like the railway, monorail and intercity busses. From this, economic equity shall be distributed evenly on cities, rather than concentrated on one CBD. Between these secondary districts should form a ring connection around the main district. This conveniently put Jakarta’s Ring Road perfectly followed the bill’s regulation, as the destined central business district selected by Sudomo Hendarto would be Grogol, Cawang, Pulogadung and Tanjung Priok, all near the toll roads. [4]


View attachment 668703
Mangsang Transport Hub [Bus terminal with MRT], Batam

View attachment 668701
Orchard Road, Singapore

View attachment 668704
Suburbia in
Biak

The zoning law also prohibits old-town architecture to bulldoze carelessly for modernism and instead promote them as tourism spots. This was carried from Ginandjar that determined ‘old-time could possess great attraction on tourism, thus diversifying income to alleviate the percentage of nation’s wealth from industry. For example, in Jakarta, the Kota district’s Dutch architectural landscape was maintained by Jakarta’s federal regent. In Malacca City, efforts of rebuilding Malacca’s trading port as it was in the 17th century was conducted by city officials. Nevertheless, the return of these pre-colonial designs in contrast did not anger the populace, it actually reinforces Indonesia’s affirm stance as the world’s trading hub. [5]
View attachment 668702
Kota Tua, Jakarta

Media coverage reported all aspects of the zoning law because the public has eyed them quite specifically. However, Musa Hitam’s great comeback was his constant approach to landscaping urban sprawls with green parks and natural spaces. This caused wide recognition especially from city folks as they criticized the city’s lack of recreation and refreshment with the extremely dense housing construction. Even the poor, which has illegally constructed slums in many parts of the metropolis, agreed also on this matter. They later agreed wholeheartedly after Musa Hitam promised subsidized government housing for the poor slums of federal districts. Despite not carried weight to appease rural dwellers, a small optimism was shown in many urban and suburban citizens, consequentially increase Musa’s popularity.

The conference ended on February 20, 1987, and both politicians and the public approved the results of the event. Musa Hitam’s popularity recovered with media coverage appraised this conference. This would affect Federal District’s the most, as they were Musa Hitam’s only experimental places he can implement the new zoning law. By May 1987, the execution of the zoning law begun taking place, massive infrastructure buildup with many designated structures erected. With the successors of Indonesia’s federal government majorly heavily supportive of this law, the legacy it upholds can be drawn for decades to come.​

[1] This is personally can be how a foreigner (at least non-native Indonesian) think about Pancasila. Based on my own experience, I've encountered few foreigners who commented on this topic.
[2] ITTL J.B. Sumarlin is the head of Bappenas (Badan Perencaan Pembangunan Nasional) which surprisingly isn't on Subandrio's ministerial cabinet position, but mere federal organization.
[3] ITTL Ginandjar is a ministerial position without a portfolio, barely appointed last year before LKY's assassination.
[4]This affected firstly on Federal District since they're fully federal control. For State Republics, they prolonged this effort but later agree to the zoning's appropriation. Furthermore, this would increase the state's own cities competition against federal ones.

Overall, the zoning discouraged one CBD in a city, instead of diversifying multiple districts. It also put public transit as priority number one, as opposed to early car-centric constructions. This would eventually spark the new movement of pedestrian-friendly and bike-friendly districts, and safely we can say Indonesia is Asia's pioneer. This gives an ironic sense that Indonesia is following Netherland's OTL 1980 approach, this is not a coincidence as I will address this in later posts. Quite an environmental chapter, not what I expected last week. The next chapter should focus on another Musa Hitam's policy, this time connecting with Subandrio's earlier reforms. The upcoming post should also open a new problem in Indochina.
Huh interesting 60s style is making a comeback and btw does musa hitam made any attempt to curb the flood problem in indonesian?
 
Huh interesting 60s style is making a comeback and btw does musa hitam made any attempt to curb the flood problem in indonesian?

Mostly it would be the State Republic's job. Or for the case in Federal District, the District Secretary. Even OTL, personally the central government delegated flood prevention funds to the regional government to allocate it efficiently.

However, BMKG, the federal meteorologist body, would help a lot in disaster alerts, mostly in weather prediction, landslide danger, vulcanic activity and seismic patterns.
 
Mostly it would be the State Republic's job. Or for the case in Federal District, the District Secretary. Even OTL, personally the central government delegated flood prevention funds to the regional government to allocate it efficiently.

However, BMKG, the federal meteorologist body, would help a lot in disaster alerts, mostly in weather prediction, landslide danger, vulcanic activity and seismic patterns.
I see does this mean rivers like citarum and ciliwung is less poluted than otl?
 
The Confrontation

11.00 AM, 19 January 1987
Presidential Palace, Jakarta


Prime Minister James (Jim) Michael Leathes Prior, commonly recognized as Jim Prior, has announced his timed retirement from Parliament by Labour Day. Nearly 13 years of ruling the United Kingdom, fifth-longest by tenure, Jim Prior has transformed Great Britain into an indisputably different nation. The nation has moulded into a hybrid system with socialist characteristics. Uniquely for the Premier, Jim Prior wasn’t nationalist like his party principles. He was ardently conservative with pro-labour economic policy. However, the main reason why has ruled for so long was his enthusiastic imperialist attitudes and brilliant domestic achievements.

For Premier Musa Hitam and his political experts, Jim Prior has mixed plans that captivated what Indonesians thought as two opposite groups of population; the aristocrats and low class. In Britain, low-class craftsmen, labour and farming worker has been benefited by Prior’s planned economy, welfare system, and affordable tax rates that the proletariat disburse. For the aristocrats, the government’s neglect and ‘hands-off’ method were enjoyed. With also relatively low tax rates and little regulation in Britain’s overseas territories, the nobility can savour the previous system in Hong Kong or Malta while having the same welfare benefits from the Unionist system in the Mainland.

Unfortunately, the system Jim Prior has crafted left the middle class the worst. The bourgeoisie was omitted with higher taxes comparing to the lower class with lesser benefits, but also cannot afford to go overseas territories to relish the freedom they once had. This led the remaining 30% of the population to join the Liberal Party, the new opposition for the Unionists.

Premier Musa Hitam had the story heard this morning just before coming to the Presidential Palace. Unrelated to Jim Prior, Premier Musa Hitam had a terrifying ordeal to endure, one which appeasing the President about the one thing he publicly opposed.

“Premier Musa. I have told you that involving in the Vietnam War would only cost us human lives and money. We have no interest over there, much to our promise of neutrality,” the President repeated with slight irritation on his voice.

Premier Musa Hitam sighed on the seat in front of the Presidential desk. This was the first day he wanted the President to discuss the matter, yet he was adamant, quite stubborn in his opinion, about the Vietnamese War that was brewing. Indeed, two unbearable interventions had resisted Subandrio from conducting a third one, the interventions in Africa only made a bad image of Indonesia to those countries. Personally, Premier Musa Hitam couldn’t understand why Indonesia is hated in Africa. We liberated them from Portugal. Despite them later divulge into a civil war, that was not Indonesia’s matter as our main aspiration was to force Portugal to leave its overseas colonies. Yet, both in Africa and Indonesia’s media sources, they depicted the Kopassus and Marinir as warmongering brutes.

“Mr President, South Vietnam is our closest ally, being both in the Spratly League, SEATO and EAC. We are losing the Philippines as we speak, and now South Vietnam could be lost by the Cambodians. Look, Mr President. I understand your ardent intentions of neutrality, but the common prediction is we will lose our precious investments, years of growth and even years of diplomatic relations if South Vietnam should be abandon for the sake of your principles,” Musa lengthy response stunned the President briefly.

“My principles? This is Pancasila, Indonesia’s core principles. You certainly have lost my reliance to assume that it was personally my bizarre liking for neutrality,” the President continued with a deep tone.

This has been the second hour of discussion, neither party compromise. For Musa’s defence, the intervention in Vietnam was the solid choice for securing our partnership that can be beneficial in the long run. Indonesia has been losing allies by the cause of neutrality. It was so naïve for the Premier to make Indonesia the most cordial nation on the planet. Imagine that to be tips of friendship on school for young scholars. No allegiance on any side, just picks the middle ground. Not only you failed to have friends, you will be hated by everyone.

Our industrial strength was sturdy enough that we could expand our national industries to invest there. From noodle to textile manufactures, we have few pioneering industries in South Vietnam that could accumulate large wealth to Indonesia. Not to mention South Vietnam’s high population, thus high consumption especially on food products. National entrepreneurs in the early 1980s have begun entering South Vietnamese markets. Yet, the Indochinese War and subsequent Red scare had forced Indonesian entrepreneurs back to Indonesia. Investment and time spent are futile.

Furthermore, Musa Hitam criticized Pancasila deeply on the principles’ incessant use on Indonesia’s day-to-day basis. Although visionary for our independent struggle, Pancasila has become mere … well, visions. Practically, Pancasila’s five principles would coincide with each other in battle under the political spectrum. Every time the President demanded the government to fulfil those five principles. In another view, Pancasila could improve Indonesia’s political background from radicalism, but It still failed. We still have PPI’s pro-communist, FPI’s rather Islamists and Barisan Pemuda’s rather neo-liberal for Pancasila to allow. [1]

The Premier returned to his office by lunch, determined to find another initiative he could pass without excessive bickering with the President. However, he knew that this battle has not been won, and he would draw an ultimatum for the President should he be too close-minded on the wide perspective.​


Musa’s Second Initiative

View attachment 668695
Musa Hitam in the Indonesian Great Urban Conference, 1987

On Musa’s January and February activities, the public noticed the Premier’s withdrawal from foreign politics. Public speculation concluded that Musa has been confronting the President about South Vietnam’s series of defeats after Cambodia’s counter-offensive. The media inculpated the Premier as ‘silent opposition to the President’s fallout in foreign policy, but some argued the Premier to conduct the job as it is; domestic affairs only with foreign affairs under the president. This would give the 1973 Constitution another heated debate, whether the ambiguity of the clause with no clear analogous to other nation’s system meant Indonesia’s unique identity in the world or just another faulty that the government need revision.

His second initiative derived from the Federal District’s problem coming into the growth of their territories, unplanned housing. The population in dense urban centres was rising beyond the capacity of the government’s plan which eventually paved uncontrolled land usage contractors bought for housing needs. It has not kicked fully yet to witness the mess of zoning, but Musa Hitam understood the critical necessities of urban planning in cities that would expand exponentially for decades ahead. For that reason, he invited a plethora of architects, engineers and city planners to arrive in Indonesia.

The Indonesian Great Urban Conference was held in the old main terminal of Kemayoran Airport, Jakarta. Began on 26 January 1987, the event consisted of daily meetings held by Federal District officials, Federal Governorates and invited foreign specialists on the top floor and public fair on the bottom floor. Indonesian Institute of Architects, led by Achmad Noe’man, host the conference with federal approval. Publicly, the conference was a publicity stunt from invited architects to present their models for public view. It introduced old designs, such as the modernism structure Nasution Era had patronized with grand projects all across Indonesia.
View attachment 668698
78 Shenton, Singapore. One of the buildings whose blueprints and 3D model was presented at the conference

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The 1980s and 1990s '
Jengki' style [from term Yankee], a strange architectural design dated from the 60s, was revived from the conference

For the government, the conference was mainly to outline proper instructions of metropolitan zonings, including zoning laws, mass transit proposals, and state-owned recreational construction programs, in Indonesia. Most cabinet members who excelled in economics agreed that single-use zoning in every municipal was one big reason for heavy traffic in streets. It also reduced growth evenly on cities, forming a tiered city that needed a high capacity of connections. In a mountainous region like Padang, the TSIP program was costly on building large pillars of highway roads that LKY ever debated on the return when briefed with the Ministry of Transportation.

Also, in the early 1980s, a growing thirst for identity emerged from many rural arrivers as they endured the cultural shock in most of the Federal District’s open cities. The idea which Indonesian metropolis has been idolizing Western norms was revolting to most traditionalist newcomers. Western buildings, western culture and western traditions crashed into their usual traditional customs with slight Islamic characteristics. By combating this issue, this disillusioned population would wither away, signify with radical youth groups decreasing in multiple demonstrations appeals to the federal parliament.

Another concern was the damage high flux of motorized vehicles in the city. Jakarta has increased car usage by twice in 5 years and quintuple in 7 years, brutal congestions has started to form in inner cities. Also, many of Jakarta and Singapore’s central residential have been extremely annoyed with moped sounds. The number of mopeds inevitably increase as the low-income class on suburbia homes bought themselves mopeds to transport them to inner cities. The federal government worried about private developers that keep adopting pure American-style car neighbourhoods in Indonesia. Unlike the United States, Indonesia lacked the space for sustaining fully motorized connections. For the State Republic of Papua, their low population has eased the government from any fears. But, in Java island, this neighbourhood could bulldoze strategic agrarian lands, reducing our strained food production even lower. For economic reasons, Indonesia has not owned any automotive industry, all of the cars were imported. If car-induced suburbia kept expanding, Indonesia would have to increase imports to Japan. It will reduce foreign exchange, and therefore the state’s strength.
View attachment 668697
Traffic in Tomang, Jakarta. Traffic is another reason for Musa's concern

Musa Hitam’s concerns, truthfully, was when he saw the growing slums of undeserved housing near Jakarta. Cramped, unhygienic and impoverished, this trend of poor housing has sporadically emerged with growing numbers of urbanization. In addition to Indonesia’s growing face on the international stage, the Premier wished to review these piling problems by striking it when it has not yet been massive enough. He feared when dealt with later, the slum problems would be too expensive for any alternatives.

At the conference, ministerial bureaucrat J.B. Sumarlin [2] arrived at the venue. He, with Ginandjar Kartasasmita [3], Y.B. Mangunwijaya, and Adhi Moersid, conversed regarding a few and many of these issues. Intriguingly, they encountered a small group of Californian architects, Larry Beasley and Peter Calthorpe, who envisioned an old yet revolutionary idea that could change how Indonesian cities work. They tried in the United States, a small experiment to create small walkable centres filled with various public transit options. However, J.B. Sumarlin later dumped the proposal as too sociological. Indonesia needed economic efficiency on town planning, this fresh concept was still new. Also, the planning still developed a unitary centre in one town, it will not solve the problem of car crowding in rush hours.

In the fullness of the conference, Sumarlin and Ginandjar finally formed a consensual regulation. It eventually becomes the Sumarlin Regulation, later ratified as the Zoning Law of 1987 by Congress. In the bill, Sumarlin stressed urban planning should involve secondary economic centres of a city to alleviate the burden for the main district. This secondary centre will possess all public transports, from small transit like a city bus, trams or walkable pathways to large transit like the railway, monorail and intercity busses. From this, economic equity shall be distributed evenly on cities, rather than concentrated on one CBD. Between these secondary districts should form a ring connection around the main district. This conveniently put Jakarta’s Ring Road perfectly followed the bill’s regulation, as the destined central business district selected by Sudomo Hendarto would be Grogol, Cawang, Pulogadung and Tanjung Priok, all near the toll roads. [4]


View attachment 668703
Mangsang Transport Hub [Bus terminal with MRT], Batam

View attachment 668701
Orchard Road, Singapore

View attachment 668704
Suburbia in
Biak

The zoning law also prohibits old-town architecture to bulldoze carelessly for modernism and instead promote them as tourism spots. This was carried from Ginandjar that determined ‘old-time could possess great attraction on tourism, thus diversifying income to alleviate the percentage of nation’s wealth from industry. For example, in Jakarta, the Kota district’s Dutch architectural landscape was maintained by Jakarta’s federal regent. In Malacca City, efforts of rebuilding Malacca’s trading port as it was in the 17th century was conducted by city officials. Nevertheless, the return of these pre-colonial designs in contrast did not anger the populace, it actually reinforces Indonesia’s affirm stance as the world’s trading hub. [5]
View attachment 668702
Kota Tua, Jakarta

Media coverage reported all aspects of the zoning law because the public has eyed them quite specifically. However, Musa Hitam’s great comeback was his constant approach to landscaping urban sprawls with green parks and natural spaces. This caused wide recognition especially from city folks as they criticized the city’s lack of recreation and refreshment with the extremely dense housing construction. Even the poor, which has illegally constructed slums in many parts of the metropolis, agreed also on this matter. They later agreed wholeheartedly after Musa Hitam promised subsidized government housing for the poor slums of federal districts. Despite not carried weight to appease rural dwellers, a small optimism was shown in many urban and suburban citizens, consequentially increase Musa’s popularity.

The conference ended on February 20, 1987, and both politicians and the public approved the results of the event. Musa Hitam’s popularity recovered with media coverage appraised this conference. This would affect Federal District’s the most, as they were Musa Hitam’s only experimental places he can implement the new zoning law. By May 1987, the execution of the zoning law begun taking place, massive infrastructure buildup with many designated structures erected. With the successors of Indonesia’s federal government majorly heavily supportive of this law, the legacy it upholds can be drawn for decades to come.​

[1] This is personally can be how a foreigner (at least non-native Indonesian) think about Pancasila. Based on my own experience, I've encountered few foreigners who commented on this topic.
[2] ITTL J.B. Sumarlin is the head of Bappenas (Badan Perencaan Pembangunan Nasional) which surprisingly isn't on Subandrio's ministerial cabinet position, but mere federal organization.
[3] ITTL Ginandjar is a ministerial position without a portfolio, barely appointed last year before LKY's assassination.
[4]This affected firstly on Federal District since they're fully federal control. For State Republics, they prolonged this effort but later agree to the zoning's appropriation. Furthermore, this would increase the state's own cities competition against federal ones.
EDIT:
[5]This could be said as "old town policy" in Federal Districts. They later became car-free zones with good tram connections.

Overall, the zoning discouraged one CBD in a city, then diversifying multiple districts. It also put public transit as priority number one, as opposed to early car-centric constructions. This would eventually spark the new movement of pedestrian-friendly and bike-friendly districts, and safely we can say Indonesia is Asia's pioneer. This gives an ironic sense that Indonesia is following Netherland's OTL 1980 approach, this is not a coincidence as I will address this in later posts. Quite an environmental chapter, not what I expected last week. The next chapter should focus on another Musa Hitam's policy, this time connecting with Subandrio's earlier reforms. The upcoming post should also open a new problem in Indochina.
I think that type of neutrality could possibly backfired for Indonesia if it keep ignore things that are closer to border. While it is true that it would possibly a controversy to join in and deploy troops there. Yet the consequences from what the Premier said in my opinion is too much to lose. I mean as it said an ally within all organizations that Indonesia part in and moreover the differences with the interventions in Africa and the case with Indochina war is that they are closer to home (the most important State Republics). So being neutral to a conflict that happen close to home would be a huge loss for Indonesia and probably would have a long term consequence.
 
Btw abt the Government system (between the premier and the President) I have some worry if there would be a conflict if they don’t agree to each other so much that something bad would happen if either one of em who failed so much or just generally disagree with each other a lot (for example see what happen in IRL Tunisia at the moment)
 
I see does this mean rivers like citarum and ciliwung is less poluted than otl?

Yes, drastic pollution measures are easily manageable if the Federal District resorted on full authority, but in upstream towns (Bogor, Cileungsi), littering still can happen under State's mismanagement.

I think that type of neutrality could possibly backfired for Indonesia if it keep ignore things that are closer to border. While it is true that it would possibly a controversy to join in and deploy troops there. Yet the consequences from what the Premier said in my opinion is too much to lose. I mean as it said an ally within all organizations that Indonesia part in and moreover the differences with the interventions in Africa and the case with Indochina war is that they are closer to home (the most important State Republics). So being neutral to a conflict that happen close to home would be a huge loss for Indonesia and probably would have a long term consequence.
This has been actually my school thesis during a civic's lesson a few years back. OTL, Indonesia has carefully distanced itself from any defensive alliance (like ASEAN being purely socio-economical, APEC purely economical, etc). This neutrality does help a lot in Indonesia's no enemy posture, but that also meant that regional organizations are essentially useless. I have read many articles regarding ASEAN too weak on China's aggressive OBOR movement and the South China Sea dispute, or even just the current Myanmar Coup Crisis.

We will see Musa and Subandrio clash as these two ideas conflict.

Btw abt the Government system (between the premier and the President) I have some worry if there would be a conflict if they don’t agree to each other so much that something bad would happen if either one of em who failed so much or just generally disagree with each other a lot (for example see what happen in IRL Tunisia at the moment)

Just a little bit spoiler, but what you've said in this paragraph will happen in the near future.
 
This has been actually my school thesis during a civic's lesson a few years back. OTL, Indonesia has carefully distanced itself from any defensive alliance (like ASEAN being purely socio-economical, APEC purely economical, etc). This neutrality does help a lot in Indonesia's no enemy posture, but that also meant that regional organizations are essentially useless. I have read many articles regarding ASEAN too weak on China's aggressive OBOR movement and the South China Sea dispute, or even just the current Myanmar Coup Crisis..
To be honest I agree that the neutrality from the “bebas aktif” even in IRL it probably have helped Indonesia several times because the lack of there of enemies that created from from this neutrality. Yet again even the benefits of neutrality someday I’m gonna bet the country would every now and then choose sides for the sake of country safety or interest. But for the most part even though with my statement I actually more support a strong neutrality through strength under the reasoning that the country is located in essentially a gate way between Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean (with the fact that everything from Western or Eastern Hemisphere usually went through there if they don’t come from the Americas) that being neutral because of this would be economically viable. And a strong military to ensure this neutrality is needed because of our location would be an interest to a lot of country to be allowed to pass the seas around the country.
 
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The Decay of Stability Part 7: Education Overhaul
Saturday, 31st January 1987
Menteng, Jakarta


Chairman of Jakarta Regional Party of Partai Pekerja Indonesia, Guntur Sukarnoputra, turned off the television after hours of watching. The news channel has presented few entertaining sessions for the children, but he preferred the earthly news broadcast. TVNI Evening News has displayed a report about the North's devastating blow to the South’s effort in Vietnam. It is said, this noon, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam has crossed the demilitarization zone, effectively igniting the Vietnamese Civil War. From then on, it seemed Subandrio’s government remained steadfast in neutrality while the cabinet members became restless on the growing circumstance. The military has repetitively demanded intervention in the Southern republic, as it seemed the tides could be changed for the worse.

Njono Prawiro, the Chairman of the PPI, had not given any expression towards the media, but inside our party, he has already shown bright outlines everywhere he goes. As the hardliner of the communist movement, Njono Prawiro was the bulk of communism in Indonesia, especially in the 60s. However, the eternal struggle between him and Late-Suharto compelled Njono to wait furthermore. This current cabinet, Subandrio’s Presidency and Musa’s Premiership, Njono Prawiro reluctantly has to continue cooperating with the government. Yet, that never discontinued Njono’s efforts to retake what was his: his long waited revolution.

PPI’s restless radicals had been stirred with the pro-business government of LKY and Musa Hitam. As a result, in 1982 the PPI had begun to attack the Prosperity Coalition to bolster their swelling opposition to the government. The split by General Untung and pro-Suharto fellows had disabled the PKI into all but name, later the PPI continued as the PKI’s ideological successor. However, PPI’s young politicians soon disputed with the older generation about how communism should operate in the nation, primarily on whether Indonesia’s stance should betray the United States to join with the Comintern, or just found their own future like what President Sukarno initially believed.

The latter had been Guntur, Sukarno’s son, political strife. LKY’s economic miracle has bolstered Indonesia’s confidence internationally. Naturally a trading hub, Indonesia should have maximized its strategic importance, and ironically LKY has utilized that potential. The Federal Districts were Nasution’s brilliant invention and LKY’s great implementation in Guntur’s point-of-view. Due to that, he expressed his own idea, Nusantara Communism [1], to his own party.

Tok,” a familiar voice has called him, “your political manifesto is eerily similar to Nasution back in the 60s.”

Guntur acknowledged his nickname and longed for that calling. His father has called him ‘tok' every time. Now, as Mega spoke that name, it was as if his father had returned.

Mega,” Guntur answered, “PPI should not linger on sticking with China or the Soviets or any communist ideologue for us to copy. We are our own nation, nearly surpassing America in population, just passing India in GDP (PPP). Also, our scientific achievements have surpassed China, the largest in Asia. We should certainly be capable of finding our own communism, not from copying other nation’s struggle.”

In Guntur’s book, Api Indonesia, Guntur acclaimed Indonesia to be sufficiently aware of her future, thus need not rely on adopting any foreign ideologies totally without improvement. He stated that Nusantara Communism was the contemporary form of Marhaenism, an old PNI ideology which his father had introduced. However, instead of rejecting capitalism outright, his book suggested using a ‘controlled’ zone of capitalism as a compromise between Eastern and Western outlooks. He criticized the government’s strong liberalism and individualism efforts that has infiltrated seasonal urban workers in Federal Districts. In the meantime, he remembered to appraise LKY and Musa Hitam for their unrelenting efforts of modernizing Indonesia. His book balanced the communist roots of his party with some democratic ideas of his own, noting them as ‘rapid means of self-sufficiency’. However, his book gained much resentment, shockingly, from the party’s higher-ups, condemning them as unaligned to the party’s ideals.

Published last November, the public in both ideological spectrums gave good reception to his writings. However, some scholars have mentioned that Guntur’s paradigms suited well with Nasution’s practice during his reign. Except for the grave importance of the defence department, Guntur’s policies went hand-in-hand with Nasution’s socio-economic conditions. That, unfortunately, had gained distrust to his own party leaders, stating that maybe his sister was more suitable to the party’s radical platform rather than him. While the party fancied a strong centralistic government with the PPI as their head, Guntur’s book wrote the decentralized autonomy system as a better form of governance as they preserved the locality and traditional identities of Nusantara.

This process of a tug-of-war between Guntur’s view and the party’s officials had begun a few months after his entrance to the party. In between political speeches and campaign endorsements, Guntur would sway the public with his inherited charisma. But, unlike his father, Guntur never preferred the communist wing so much. He chose PPI solely for the party’s proximity to his views, yet that didn’t mean that his views should be the same as the party’s.

“Still,” Mega replied, “our farmers have stagnated through the years. Look at this year’s harvest. It is estimated to drop below sufficient levels. If we continue this kind of system, we will lose our farming capabilities. Indonesia needed an overhaul, and the PPI can give the revolution needed to reform the nation.”

Indeed, Guntur noticed that this year’s crops will shrink by the lack of workers in the farmlands. The industrial was great for modernization but was too quick as it shifted the rural balance in Indonesia. However, this problem wasn’t Indonesia’s systemic issue, this is merely an administrative hiccup. With great balance and determination from every sector, Indonesia can sustain better in 1973 Constitution standards.

“Yes, Mega.” Guntur affirmed the Chairman Party of Central Java, “I am aware of that as well. But that can easily change with a different man in charge. We don’t have to blame the system. LKY was merely too hurried on his plans. Nevertheless, I agree with the late-Premier.”

It seemed that statement caught Megawati Sukarnoputri off guard. For some time, Mega had noticed Guntur be more staunch and passionate about his own views. Inside her deepest of hearts, she cheered for his brother to have such a strong view. But, in her defence, the PPI leaders were also passionate. Frankly, they were stubborn as well. However, as long as the PPI had no other resorts, the Sukarno clan would still dictate the party’s success in the next elections.

As Mega ended the conversation abruptly, Guntur was about to say another thing the party’s objected for. In his book, he also stressed Indonesia’s true calling as Asia’s regional power. Only smaller than China and India, Indonesia could become Asia’s third alternative. Or, as the Americans loved the term, the ‘maritime power of Asia’. From Indonesia’s great Muslim population, he also agreed on the nation becoming a tolerant beacon of Islamic values. For all of that to happen, Indonesia should act on this brewing crisis North of the nation. He had wrapped his mind, that the best outcome of Indonesia’s future was to intervene in the Indochina War, on South Vietnam’s side.


The Reform of 1987: Musa Education Brilliance

As Indonesia Great Urban Conference was held in Kemayoran, the Premier’s activities did not stop there. He contacted Minister of Education Daoed Joesoef, to his Premier Office on 9th February. On Musa’s nearly 10-hour discussion in the room, Daoed also invited a random selection of education scholars, teachers and institutional staff to meet Musa Hitam. The media only comprehended what had actually happened when the gentlemen finally left Musa’s office.
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Economic Minister Daoed Joesoef

Indonesia’s prior education system has always started in January, following the norm first day of school in most Southern Hemisphere nations. However, January had been too close to December, which the government closed their accounting books for budget purposes. The Education Minister was observant of this petite issue that could potentially bring problems if any impending education reform must be made. In addition, the lack of standards from Subandrio’s guidelines only made some schools highly ineffective. For example, Papua schools adopted a replica of American schools while Aceh adopted almost an Islamic one. The guiding unity of the curriculum in these two places was the students studied for 9-years.

In 1981, Subandrio ever attempted a national curriculum on which the State Republics should compel to adopt a universal federal system to the students. Yet, in efforts on quenching down local separatism from Nasution’s leftovers, Subandrio relented that policy, stated that as long as the locals were delighted with the system, they would not have demanded separation. The Premier, meanwhile, had suspected the local teachings to adapt secessionist materials, much of which to indoctrinate kids of anti-federal unity. It has happened, unsurprisingly, in Aceh, where the local teens were agitated on their Islamic identity. These prunes had become the FPI stronghold, much to Musa’s disappointment. [2]

In addition to it, there has been a governmental effort to reorganize the education institute all across Indonesia. For starters, the federal government had allowed sporadic school developments in many places, much of which has developed into an entangled bureaucratic fiasco for the federal government to maintain. In some Americanized schools in the State Republic of Papua, schools may actually start in September, as opposed to Java’s January as the school’s first month. This is also aggravated with Jewish schools in Madagascar, many of whom adopted the old Jewish curriculum from their erased state.

Subandrio, strangely, had expressed no concerns of this despite previously being so heartfelt on educational reform. One political analyst suggested that he intentionally did so to maintain the delicate stability of the Federal Republic. It was proven to be right as from years ahead, many disreputable regional organizations fell threatened by this educational reform.

Three days after the end of the Urban Conference, Musa Hitam introduced the massive 1987 Education Reform to the MPR. Consisted of almost 900 pages, the bill described the massive curriculum change which was implemented next year. Moreover, it also wrote the basic foundation for the modern curriculum of Indonesia in the early 21st century. In the introduction, the bill expressed the value of educational virtue so every Indonesian received notable wisdom, knowledge and information to adapt to the ever-changing world. However, the opening also noted human’s recreational nature, stating that all students can study hard and play hard, and both can be done without reducing the other. After that, the bill opened with a national plan which all Indonesian schools should have a homogenous school calendar.

The school would start in July and ended in June, yet this remained flexible as Eid al-Fitr will change the school calendar every year. Nevertheless, Daoed Joesoef had prepared for such a scenario, which he explained school holidays in advance, giving few basic regulations which schools should follow. Firstly, Eid al-Fitr will have a one-month holiday break, starting from 2.5-weeks before Eid al-Fitr to 1.5-weeks after [3]. This will increase recreational activities a child has and combat the increasing influx of homecoming populace during the Ramadan season. Other series of holiday streaks, like the Easter break [4], Christmas-New Year break [5], and even the Lunar New Year [6] break that the Singaporeans have proposed. Holiday breaks should be given to on every Sunday, while Friday would be a half-day school for many schools. Some other days, like Eid al-Adha, Islamic New Year, Nyepi and Waisak, are commemorated as federal holidays. Independence Day, 17th of August, was commemorated with a school ceremony in the morning. [7]

Disregard all the holiday breaks, the school must at least have a minimum school day of 200 days every year. If the school has satisfied the requirements, they can allocate the remaining days into school extra-curricular activities, midterm breaks, or end term holidays. How the school manage it, was no Musa’s concern as the federation grant full autonomy to schools.

In response to the classification of child education, Indonesia will divide the school into four: kindergarten, elementary, middle and high school. Each school has a range of ages, separate school hours, and a designated curriculum for children to learn. For high school, the government established a distinguished class to divide science, social studies and language enthusiasts. This will represent the child’s specialization of an expertize which could use to work. [8]
053227300_1568699511-sekolah_dulu_5-min.jpg

18 State High School in Bandung, Pasundan State, 1988

There was also a standardized number of lessons and studies for the school to follow in the bill. Each study had a minimum hour to be taught to the students. In particular, the Federal Civics Lesson was introduced so to increase federal unity on school teachings, and English was reinforced as a compulsory language along with Bahasa Indonesia. The State Republics, as compensation, was given a designated hour slot of local studies. In this case, Aceh was allowed on their Arab Language as long as English was still taught.
Seragam-SMA-90an_1990-min.jpg

High school students posing on a blackboard with economic studies, 1988

Then, with many federal guidelines spoken, the bill settled with an autonomous right to every State Republic for their own state holiday and customized curriculum. However, it should guarantee the federal standards, such as the spoken federal holiday rules, minimum school days and the classification of education. For example, the Madagascar State Republic has publicized a state Hanukah holiday to appease Jews, so did the Papua State Republic has publicized Apollo Launch Day as a state holiday. This had not gained too much problem, as many schools in Nusantara and Papua had easily adapted with high support, along with decent nods from Madagascar and Melanesia.
mxMV3eZ8vJNqgyrnjrHg3B-1200-80-min.jpg

Apollo Remembrance Day, celebrating Apollo Launch on March 26, 1971

From an economic perspective, the government regulated that a minimum of 10% of state and federal budget be allocated for education and legalized learning centres. Prior, the federal budget has been quite diverted for repaying loans. Yet, Musa remained optimistic as this is a long term investment for Indonesia.

The MPR was stunned by Musa’s great reform of the educational sector. All factions of the PPP endorsed this bill, the Melayus appraised him to leave the old economic focus of the Malacca Faction, while the Malacca Faction approved the dire need for a new system. The PNI-R heavily supported the bill as a systemic curriculum could increase national unity. The PPP also supported the bill. The NU and Muhammadiyah of the PUI also supported the deal as they too endorsed education as of the utmost importance. Only a few parliament members, most of them hard-core of their own beliefs, denied this bill for the government’s compulsory civics lesson which was deemed ‘brainwash’.

The President, meanwhile, showed a slight sneer to Premier Musa. For most observers agree, this education had always been the President’s sole good factor, it seemed now Musa has taken his good legacy for the Premier’s benefit. Rather than ratified the bill on hopeful sight, he even vetoed the bill for a while, tainting the bill to be tyrannical for minorities. That was not the case as Singaporeans retorted the president’s remarks. In the end, the bill was eventually passed but the President seemed unhappy.

March progressed with great colours for Premier Musa. This would be the highest point of his career, returning popularity to nearly 60% from statewide television polls. However, that would turn a different tone as the President passed his own initiative.

[1] Nusantara Communism, or NusCom for short, is an offshoot to the Thorezian model of communism, but with Western Democracy characteristics. For his confidence, the PPI should be insanely popular by default [from his communist ideas] that they don't have to regulate a one-party state to secure PPI's dominance.
[2] This only applied to troubling states that really hated Federal Indonesia, notable mentions like Aceh. More regions will pop up.
[3] E.g. suppose this year Eid al-Fitr on May 2 and May 3 [Monday and Tuesday]. That means the break starts on 14 April [Wednesday] and ends on 13 May [Thursday]
[4] ITTL, the Easter starts on Wednesday [this year is March 31] before Maundy Thursday and returned to school on Tuesday after Easter [this year is April 19]
[5] The Christmas-New Year break usually coincided with mid-term breaks [between Semester 1 to 2] and starts on 14 December to 4 January, if 4 January is Friday, Saturday or Sunday, moved to the nearest Monday.
[6] Lunar New Year break ITTL starts from D-1 of the first Lunar Day [e.g February 11, 2021] until the 15th day of the Lunar New Year [e.g February 26, 2021]
[7] As Singaporeans are now Indonesian, it is safe to say that their pressure would make Lunar New Year a public holiday, as opposed to OTL being official in GusDur Era.

[8] The high school remained unfree to most scholars, the government only subsidized 9-year. College is still unregulated but most universities adopted American-style studies in this era.

Massive education reform from Musa. The next chapter should be Subandrio's initiative, then slowly progressed for building the 1988 Election.
 
Saturday, 31st January 1987
Menteng, Jakarta


Chairman of Jakarta Regional Party of Partai Pekerja Indonesia, Guntur Sukarnoputra, turned off the television after hours of watching. The news channel has presented few entertaining sessions for the children, but he preferred the earthly news broadcast. TVNI Evening News has displayed a report about the North's devastating blow to the South’s effort in Vietnam. It is said, this noon, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam has crossed the demilitarization zone, effectively igniting the Vietnamese Civil War. From then on, it seemed Subandrio’s government remained steadfast in neutrality while the cabinet members became restless on the growing circumstance. The military has repetitively demanded intervention in the Southern republic, as it seemed the tides could be changed for the worse.

Njono Prawiro, the Chairman of the PPI, had not given any expression towards the media, but inside our party, he has already shown bright outlines everywhere he goes. As the hardliner of the communist movement, Njono Prawiro was the bulk of communism in Indonesia, especially in the 60s. However, the eternal struggle between him and Late-Suharto compelled Njono to wait furthermore. This current cabinet, Subandrio’s Presidency and Musa’s Premiership, Njono Prawiro reluctantly has to continue cooperating with the government. Yet, that never discontinued Njono’s efforts to retake what was his: his long waited revolution.

PPI’s restless radicals had been stirred with the pro-business government of LKY and Musa Hitam. As a result, in 1982 the PPI had begun to attack the Prosperity Coalition to bolster their swelling opposition to the government. The split by General Untung and pro-Suharto fellows had disabled the PKI into all but name, later the PPI continued as the PKI’s ideological successor. However, PPI’s young politicians soon disputed with the older generation about how communism should operate in the nation, primarily on whether Indonesia’s stance should betray the United States to join with the Comintern, or just found their own future like what President Sukarno initially believed.

The latter had been Guntur, Sukarno’s son, political strife. LKY’s economic miracle has bolstered Indonesia’s confidence internationally. Naturally a trading hub, Indonesia should have maximized its strategic importance, and ironically LKY has utilized that potential. The Federal Districts were Nasution’s brilliant invention and LKY’s great implementation in Guntur’s point-of-view. Due to that, he expressed his own idea, Nusantara Communism [1], to his own party.

Tok,” a familiar voice has called him, “your political manifesto is eerily similar to Nasution back in the 60s.”

Guntur acknowledged his nickname and longed for that calling. His father has called him ‘tok' every time. Now, as Mega spoke that name, it was as if his father had returned.

Mega,” Guntur answered, “PPI should not linger on sticking with China or the Soviets or any communist ideologue for us to copy. We are our own nation, nearly surpassing America in population, just passing India in GDP (PPP). Also, our scientific achievements have surpassed China, the largest in Asia. We should certainly be capable of finding our own communism, not from copying other nation’s struggle.”

In Guntur’s book, Api Indonesia, Guntur acclaimed Indonesia to be sufficiently aware of her future, thus need not rely on adopting any foreign ideologies totally without improvement. He stated that Nusantara Communism was the contemporary form of Marhaenism, an old PNI ideology which his father had introduced. However, instead of rejecting capitalism outright, his book suggested using a ‘controlled’ zone of capitalism as a compromise between Eastern and Western outlooks. He criticized the government’s strong liberalism and individualism efforts that has infiltrated seasonal urban workers in Federal Districts. In the meantime, he remembered to appraise LKY and Musa Hitam for their unrelenting efforts of modernizing Indonesia. His book balanced the communist roots of his party with some democratic ideas of his own, noting them as ‘rapid means of self-sufficiency’. However, his book gained much resentment, shockingly, from the party’s higher-ups, condemning them as unaligned to the party’s ideals.

Published last November, the public in both ideological spectrums gave good reception to his writings. However, some scholars have mentioned that Guntur’s paradigms suited well with Nasution’s practice during his reign. Except for the grave importance of the defence department, Guntur’s policies went hand-in-hand with Nasution’s socio-economic conditions. That, unfortunately, had gained distrust to his own party leaders, stating that maybe his sister was more suitable to the party’s radical platform rather than him. While the party fancied a strong centralistic government with the PPI as their head, Guntur’s book wrote the decentralized autonomy system as a better form of governance as they preserved the locality and traditional identities of Nusantara.

This process of a tug-of-war between Guntur’s view and the party’s officials had begun a few months after his entrance to the party. In between political speeches and campaign endorsements, Guntur would sway the public with his inherited charisma. But, unlike his father, Guntur never preferred the communist wing so much. He chose PPI solely for the party’s proximity to his views, yet that didn’t mean that his views should be the same as the party’s.

“Still,” Mega replied, “our farmers have stagnated through the years. Look at this year’s harvest. It is estimated to drop below sufficient levels. If we continue this kind of system, we will lose our farming capabilities. Indonesia needed an overhaul, and the PPI can give the revolution needed to reform the nation.”

Indeed, Guntur noticed that this year’s crops will shrink by the lack of workers in the farmlands. The industrial was great for modernization but was too quick as it shifted the rural balance in Indonesia. However, this problem wasn’t Indonesia’s systemic issue, this is merely an administrative hiccup. With great balance and determination from every sector, Indonesia can sustain better in 1973 Constitution standards.

“Yes, Mega.” Guntur affirmed the Chairman Party of Central Java, “I am aware of that as well. But that can easily change with a different man in charge. We don’t have to blame the system. LKY was merely too hurried on his plans. Nevertheless, I agree with the late-Premier.”

It seemed that statement caught Megawati Sukarnoputri off guard. For some time, Mega had noticed Guntur be more staunch and passionate about his own views. Inside her deepest of hearts, she cheered for his brother to have such a strong view. But, in her defence, the PPI leaders were also passionate. Frankly, they were stubborn as well. However, as long as the PPI had no other resorts, the Sukarno clan would still dictate the party’s success in the next elections.

As Mega ended the conversation abruptly, Guntur was about to say another thing the party’s objected for. In his book, he also stressed Indonesia’s true calling as Asia’s regional power. Only smaller than China and India, Indonesia could become Asia’s third alternative. Or, as the Americans loved the term, the ‘maritime power of Asia’. From Indonesia’s great Muslim population, he also agreed on the nation becoming a tolerant beacon of Islamic values. For all of that to happen, Indonesia should act on this brewing crisis North of the nation. He had wrapped his mind, that the best outcome of Indonesia’s future was to intervene in the Indochina War, on South Vietnam’s side.


The Reform of 1987: Musa Education Brilliance

As Indonesia Great Urban Conference was held in Kemayoran, the Premier’s activities did not stop there. He contacted Minister of Education Daoed Joesoef, to his Premier Office on 9th February. On Musa’s nearly 10-hour discussion in the room, Daoed also invited a random selection of education scholars, teachers and institutional staff to meet Musa Hitam. The media only comprehended what had actually happened when the gentlemen finally left Musa’s office.

Indonesia’s prior education system has always started in January, following the norm first day of school in most Southern Hemisphere nations. However, January had been too close to December, which the government closed their accounting books for budget purposes. The Education Minister was observant of this petite issue that could potentially bring problems if any impending education reform must be made. In addition, the lack of standards from Subandrio’s guidelines only made some schools highly ineffective. For example, Papua schools adopted a replica of American schools while Aceh adopted almost an Islamic one. The guiding unity of the curriculum in these two places was the students studied for 9-years.

In 1981, Subandrio ever attempted a national curriculum on which the State Republics should compel to adopt a universal federal system to the students. Yet, in efforts on quenching down local separatism from Nasution’s leftovers, Subandrio relented that policy, stated that as long as the locals were delighted with the system, they would not have demanded separation. The Premier, meanwhile, had suspected the local teachings to adapt secessionist materials, much of which to indoctrinate kids of anti-federal unity. It has happened, unsurprisingly, in Aceh, where the local teens were agitated on their Islamic identity. These prunes had become the FPI stronghold, much to Musa’s disappointment. [2]

In addition to it, there has been a governmental effort to reorganize the education institute all across Indonesia. For starters, the federal government had allowed sporadic school developments in many places, much of which has developed into an entangled bureaucratic fiasco for the federal government to maintain. In some Americanized schools in the State Republic of Papua, schools may actually start in September, as opposed to Java’s January as the school’s first month. This is also aggravated with Jewish schools in Madagascar, many of whom adopted the old Jewish curriculum from their erased state.

Subandrio, strangely, had expressed no concerns of this despite previously being so heartfelt on educational reform. One political analyst suggested that he intentionally did so to maintain the delicate stability of the Federal Republic. It was proven to be right as from years ahead, many disreputable regional organizations fell threatened by this educational reform.

Three days after the end of the Urban Conference, Musa Hitam introduced the massive 1987 Education Reform to the MPR. Consisted of almost 900 pages, the bill described the massive curriculum change which was implemented next year. Moreover, it also wrote the basic foundation for the modern curriculum of Indonesia in the early 21st century. In the introduction, the bill expressed the value of educational virtue so every Indonesian received notable wisdom, knowledge and information to adapt to the ever-changing world. However, the opening also noted human’s recreational nature, stating that all students can study hard and play hard, and both can be done without reducing the other. After that, the bill opened with a national plan which all Indonesian schools should have a homogenous school calendar.

The school would start in July and ended in June, yet this remained flexible as Eid al-Fitr will change the school calendar every year. Nevertheless, Daoed Joesoef had prepared for such a scenario, which he explained school holidays in advance, giving few basic regulations which schools should follow. Firstly, Eid al-Fitr will have a one-month holiday break, starting from 2.5-weeks before Eid al-Fitr to 1.5-weeks after [3]. This will increase recreational activities a child has and combat the increasing influx of homecoming populace during the Ramadan season. Other series of holiday streaks, like the Easter break [4], Christmas-New Year break [5], and even the Lunar New Year [6] break that the Singaporeans have proposed. Holiday breaks should be given to on every Sunday, while Friday would be a half-day school for many schools. Some other days, like Eid al-Adha, Islamic New Year, Nyepi and Waisak, are commemorated as federal holidays. Independence Day, 17th of August, was commemorated with a school ceremony in the morning. [7]

Disregard all the holiday breaks, the school must at least have a minimum school day of 200 days every year. If the school has satisfied the requirements, they can allocate the remaining days into school extra-curricular activities, midterm breaks, or end term holidays. How the school manage it, was no Musa’s concern as the federation grant full autonomy to schools.

In response to the classification of child education, Indonesia will divide the school into four: kindergarten, elementary, middle and high school. Each school has a range of ages, separate school hours, and a designated curriculum for children to learn. For high school, the government established a distinguished class to divide science, social studies and language enthusiasts. This will represent the child’s specialization of an expertize which could use to work. [8]
View attachment 669960
18 State High School in Bandung, Pasundan State, 1988

There was also a standardized number of lessons and studies for the school to follow in the bill. Each study had a minimum hour to be taught to the students. In particular, the Federal Civics Lesson was introduced so to increase federal unity on school teachings, and English was reinforced as a compulsory language along with Bahasa Indonesia. The State Republics, as compensation, was given a designated hour slot of local studies. In this case, Aceh was allowed on their Arab Language as long as English was still taught.
View attachment 669963
High school students posing on a blackboard with economic studies, 1988

Then, with many federal guidelines spoken, the bill settled with an autonomous right to every State Republic for their own state holiday and customized curriculum. However, it should guarantee the federal standards, such as the spoken federal holiday rules, minimum school days and the classification of education. For example, the Madagascar State Republic has publicized a state Hanukah holiday to appease Jews, so did the Papua State Republic has publicized Apollo Launch Day as a state holiday. This had not gained too much problem, as many schools in Nusantara and Papua had easily adapted with high support, along with decent nods from Madagascar and Melanesia.
View attachment 669962
Apollo Remembrance Day, celebrating Apollo Launch on March 26, 1971

From an economic perspective, the government regulated that a minimum of 10% of state and federal budget be allocated for education and legalized learning centres. Prior, the federal budget has been quite diverted for repaying loans. Yet, Musa remained optimistic as this is a long term investment for Indonesia.

The MPR was stunned by Musa’s great reform of the educational sector. All factions of the PPP endorsed this bill, the Melayus appraised him to leave the old economic focus of the Malacca Faction, while the Malacca Faction approved the dire need for a new system. The PNI-R heavily supported the bill as a systemic curriculum could increase national unity. The PPP also supported the bill. The NU and Muhammadiyah of the PUI also supported the deal as they too endorsed education as of the utmost importance. Only a few parliament members, most of them hard-core of their own beliefs, denied this bill for the government’s compulsory civics lesson which was deemed ‘brainwash’.

The President, meanwhile, showed a slight sneer to Premier Musa. For most observers agree, this education had always been the President’s sole good factor, it seemed now Musa has taken his good legacy for the Premier’s benefit. Rather than ratified the bill on hopeful sight, he even vetoed the bill for a while, tainting the bill to be tyrannical for minorities. That was not the case as Singaporeans retorted the president’s remarks. In the end, the bill was eventually passed but the President seemed unhappy.

March progressed with great colours for Premier Musa. This would be the highest point of his career, returning popularity to nearly 60% from statewide television polls. However, that would turn a different tone as the President passed his own initiative.

[1] Nusantara Communism, or NusCom for short, is an offshoot to the Thorezian model of communism, but with Western Democracy characteristics. For his confidence, the PPI should be insanely popular by default [from his communist ideas] that they don't have to regulate a one-party state to secure PPI's dominance.
[2] This only applied to troubling states that really hated Federal Indonesia, notable mentions like Aceh. More regions will pop up.
[3] E.g. suppose this year Eid al-Fitr on May 2 and May 3 [Monday and Tuesday]. That means the break starts on 14 April [Wednesday] and ends on 13 May [Thursday]
[4] ITTL, the Easter starts on Wednesday [this year is March 31] before Maundy Thursday and returned to school on Tuesday after Easter [this year is April 19]
[5] The Christmas-New Year break usually coincided with mid-term breaks [between Semester 1 to 2] and starts on 14 December to 4 January, if 4 January is Friday, Saturday or Sunday, moved to the nearest Monday.
[6] Lunar New Year break ITTL starts from D-1 of the first Lunar Day [e.g February 11, 2021] until the 15th day of the Lunar New Year [e.g February 26, 2021]
[7] As Singaporeans are now Indonesian, it is safe to say that their pressure would make Lunar New Year a public holiday, as opposed to OTL being official in GusDur Era.

[8] The high school remained unfree to most scholars, the government only subsidized 9-year. College is still unregulated but most universities adopted American-style studies in this era.

Massive education reform from Musa. The next chapter should be Subandrio's initiative, then slowly progressed for building the 1988 Election.
Sometimes I jokingly thought about what is it with Subriando and the Premiers (from LKY to Musa) because he always has some sort of resentment towards the Premiers. But I wonder does the relationship with Musa would became more deteriorating then with LKY.
 
[Second Edition] US Election Since 1960
I have posted alternate US elections since the 1960s (as POD diverges greatly from that), but I incompetently ignore the population of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Panama, all of which as severely unrepresented fairly in this non-American focused TL. I am truly sorry for American readers if that's the case of this TL's absurdity. But here is the entire US Election TL since the 1960s with revisions all across the previous posts regarding this topic.

US Presidential Elections Since 1960 (With Narratives)

1960


The 1960 Election was conveyed with a slightly different perspective ITTL that truly diverged the upcoming Elections comparing to OTL. Indeed, the Cold War and the Sputnik has sprouted the new frontier of the perpetual struggle between two superpowers. Nixon, undoubtedly, was the most experienced candidate, serving 8 years as Vice President. However, his campaign was poorly managed as he injured his knee in North Carolina, conveying a frail posture during the first presidential debate. Kennedy, inexperience in federal office, yet shown great charisma and posture especially in the debates, gaining a 'strong figure' positivism to the national populace.

In this debate, the Civil Rights issue was also addressed. Kennedy pursued a more intense operation of the Space Race, with many think America should retaliate with great strengths to appease the world to the United States. He criticised that the Eisenhower Administration blundered in the Cold War, gaining the Soviets the time for Sputnik and other milestones. Nixon, however, took a more domestic stance, appeasing voters that the 'Eisenhower Era' was greatly admired by the people and he will continue that era of prosperity. This time too, Kennedy announced that Europe should not be exaggeratively sighted by the American people. As any superpower ought to do, we should expand our influence to all continents, especially combating the communist influence in Asia's battleground. Kennedy pursued that the Eisenhower Administration did not do enough against the breakup of Koreans. In defence, Nixon rebutted Kennedy, stating that it would jeopardize a nuclear war.
1960_wikibox.png

1960 was an extremely close election as both candidates showed wonderful campaign promises to the populace. Nevertheless, Senator Kennedy won the popular vote by a slim 0,15% and winning the Electoral College of 294 votes. 23 votes unpledged to Kennedy's victory in those states, and picked the Harry Bryd/Thurmond ticket. 2 Oklahoma electors elected a Bryd/Goldwater ticket as opposed to Nixon/Lodge.

1964

The 1964 Election was Kennedy's second event to continue appeasing the populace to maintain his presidency. The Civil Rights Act, unfortunately, was halted to his promise on the second term, which later proved to be the right choice. He has shown astounding progress in Asia, liberating many 'potential communist nations into staunch American allies. That was not opposed to Europeanist critics, as the newly pro-American Germany has expanded to core Warsaw Pact provinces, therefore killing off debates on that matter. Kennedy's weakness, however, was France, but that never was realized as his campaign propaganda heavily publicised American success in Germany. To combat Kennedy's policies, Goldwater attacked Kennedy on domestic issues, stating that he was 'too involved' in matters outside rather than inside. He also attacked newly created France, but Kennedy responded by saying the French have 'their teenage tantrum' and the infamous 'they will come back' answer. The Goldwater Campaign heavily stressed this Kennedy's snobbish remarks, but that didn't sway enough voters to him, sadly.

Another Kennedy's achievement was the admittance of Puerto Rico and Cuba to statehood. The latter was condemned as a blatant land grab for some American politicians as well as the United Nation, but Kennedy's portrayal of statehood was supported by a 'high' Cuban population wanted to join the Americans. With Castro disposed and killed, Cubans supported Kennedy as Cuba was having a great construction. With the Cuba Referendum in 1963, Puerto Rico was finally admitted as the reasonable choice here. The Kennedy Administration revoked the Permanent Apportionment Act of 1929, changing the seats of Congress and Senate to 441 and 104 respectively.
1964_revised_edited.png

It seemed that foreign policy was enough for Kennedy to win the election. In addition to great achievements in Space Race, Kennedy successfully won many of the populace even with relatively stagnate domestic policies. Of course, with Goldwater, a deeply conservative Republican, as Kennedy's candidate rival, he eventually won the popular vote of 61.37% and a total of 479 electoral votes.


1968

The 1986 Election, as opposed to the previous, was, was fully a domestic issue with Kennedy finally passing the Civil Rights Act. Many conservative Southerners are enraged with a Democratic candidate rallying, not with the original voters, who then gave Wallace's American Independent Party a chance to run and win the Deep South. Nixon, in this matter, returned to the candidacy to retry his shots, but almost withdraw from the Democratic hope of renominating the Kennedy clan into candidacy. However, with Robert Kennedy shockingly assassinated, the Democratic Convention elected McCarthy, a weak but middle candidate, to fight Nixon and Wallace.

McCarthy advocated continuing Kennedycare and revitalizing a welfare state with a good healthcare program. Ironically, Nixon used Kennedy's old tactics, saying that it was time to return to Europe, securing dominance while Asia is secured. Nixon disagreed with Kennedy's erratic Asian Approach, but still congratulated him despite extreme luck. Especially with France as a new communist state, Nixon argued that maybe the President's 'Asian Approach' was not great after all. McCarthy, as an anti-war supporter, opposed the South East Asian wars which indirectly attacked his own party. Nixon won the debate as he was the better candidate in economic plans, therefore securing greater swing voters to his side. Nixon tried for the 'Southern Strategy', but later tossed it with the Deep South too entrenched on Wallace.
1968_revised_edited.png

Nixon managed to secure a sizable victory of 289 electoral votes. Nixon achieved 48.76% in the popular vote, yet he was 1.3% above his contender McCarthy. He successfully appeased Cuban and Puerto Rican voters who were deeply anti-communist from previous endeavours. For Wallace and his party, it was the largest third-party electoral win in history after 1948.

1972

1972 was a complete mess for President Nixon. Firstly, his European Strategy failed at completing his objective, appeasing France back as a friendly European ally. Instead, France has become a contender of the Cold War, a third superpower as one might argue. The United Kingdom, his early target of reconciliation, maintained a distance from the US from their involvement in Indonesia, killing his strategy. He bit his own tongue as he pursued a cordial relation with the People's Republic of China, presenting hypocrisy from the President itself. With popularity shrinking, he finally resorted to his old 'Southern Strategy'. However, he soon finds many problems with his idea.

Firstly, Nixon lost on a superdelegate match in his own Republican Party. As the party lost to Democratic supermajority in 1970 on both chambers, the Republican opposition, the Rockefeller Republicans, finally threw the President under the bus, electing Shafer. Nixon was infuriated, form the Conservative Party with his policies and government become fully-fledged conservative. This elated the Democratic Party, who thought their nominee Sanford would sweep the election with the split Republican vote. But, oh boy, they were very wrong.

In essence, Sanford was not the perfect candidate for this matter because they finally realized that Shafer was more liberal than the Democratic nominee itself. Moreover, Sanford's ascension, as later files were disclosed, was proven as Nixon's strategy to win his second term. Sanford pursued a lack of coherent policy, many considered as the 'unattractive and dull' between the two. The Democrats were also astonished by Shafer's promises.

Shafer pushed for continuing Kennedy's legacy, much to Shafer and Nixon, both neither shown any interest on that matter. He initially criticised the government's involvement in the questionable transition of power in many states, especially Latin America (Banana Wars, and such). In domestic policy, he agreed on many on Kennedy's welfare state but still expressed that his administration would still curb attempts on increasing taxes from the implementation of these programs. In foreign policy, he was the most radical, contemplating that America should stand as the democratic beacon, nothing more and nothing else. No authoritarian regimes should we endorse, but we persuade them to follow American values. As 1972 opened the third televised debate in US history (1968 the candidates did not agree on a debate), Shafer roared superiorly on two delegates, showing that maybe this time, the splintered Republicans actually splinted the Democrats itself. Finally, Sanford transitioned from a candidate attacking the Republican party, to attacking Nixon's Southern Strategy.
1972_revised_edited.png

The election was the most contentious one, with the highest number of candidates written on unpledged electors. 1 DC elector voted for Shirley Chrisholm while two Massachusetts electors vote for Ted Kennedy. Due to the voting system in most of the United States, many of Shafer's acquired states came from the split of Sanford and Nixon's percentage, especially in Puerto Rico, Hawaii, California and New York. With Rockefeller as Shafer's VP, the Republican ticket soared in New England voters. Alas, the incumbent faltered on 134 votes, while the Republican challenger won exactly 280 Electoral votes, the bare minimum. Shafer won 40.35% of the popular vote, but still the highest than Sanford or Nixon. The third-party Conservative managed to receive higher votes than the 1968 American Independent. This was an extreme blow to the Democrats, barely winning Nixon's third party with a 10 EV margin. Nixon's strong third party was mainly from Cuba and Puerto Rico still staunchly anti-communist regions, supporting Nixon fully.

1976

1972's chaos continued to 1976. As the president was assassinated in 1975, the nation was in chaos as Haldeman succeeded with a questionable history. He then resigned due to impending impeachment. That led the Democrat Jimmy Carter, a newly picked moderate candidate to unite the Democrats from a poorly proportion in the House, to lead as the successor of the 1975 chaos. The nation became increasingly polarized by Shafer's stubbornness and Nixon's growth in the conservative group of the United States. This growing splinted did not resurrect the Republicans by absorbing the Conservative, it by contrast divided them poorly. Bush, the Connecticut Senator, was chosen to continue Shafer's legacy. Yet it later changed with concerning issues.

The United States was having the lowest confidence in the government. Not only did the Republican President withdraw all American troops from unnecessary wars, but it also prolonged them greatly to an extent that destroyed the promises of peace. The Indochinese War was one example. In Shafer's Presidency, the Rockefeller Scandal happened which he resigned for Haldeman. During Haldeman as the president, Shafer's policy quickly rotated 180 degrees, showing the inconsistency of the American government. He was also later found guilty for many charges, crippling the GOP popularity. Bush, Shafer's successor intended for a continuation of the predecessor's legacy, but it was trashed with revolutionary forces of third nations taking advantage of the US' anti-pragmatism on foreign policy. With the Soviets fighting back in the Cold War and Space Race, much of the Republicans were losing voters. The anti-communist mob was shifted to Nixon's 'tough on communist' initiative with also 'tough on crime' as the Conservative's campaign promises. Yet, another candidate promised a decent option. Carter promised for resolving the growing Energy Deficit that the US had been increasing, with the more 'environmentalist' promises he wished America to be the new icon of a future world, a promise that enticed much of the voters. Healthcare returned as well, Carter promising a better Kennedycare to finish the ordeal for years. Carter being inside the White House for a few months already showed significant changes that the country needed in malaise.
1976_revised_edited.png

It seemed that Nixon could finally win the race, only to lose with the three newly added states (Panama, Puerto Rico and Cuba) all elected Carter from Bush's split votes. With the save of the newly admitted states, Carter assumed the presidency by 281 electoral votes. Some say that if Bush had been worse, the Conservatives could have won. However, that saying would later mean NY would become blue, which would win Carter the presidency. However, in the midst of this fiasco, Carter soon found himself not as the popular candidate (lower than Nixon-Reagan). One unpledged elector in Washington cast his ballot to Reagan. The election was the first for Maine to have split EV from their congressional district voting system, giving 3 to Bush and 1 to Carter.

1980

Carter withdraws some of the troops from the wars America involved, concealing their defeats by launching many domestic policies in the promise of the 1976 election. He turned the stagnated economy into a national boom with new jobs regarding renewable energy and the new approach of foreign supremacy. He reduces America's reliance on fossil fuels, many of which were owned by American rival spheres. He was the first to open ties with France under the popular Francoise Mitterand. He finally secured Germany and their EA organization as American spheres. Andropov's slight reformation of the country was better for Carter to expand anywhere without threats of losing to the Soviet Union. His small hiccup was Thailand and Myanmar's dictatorship that he acknowledged as irrational, costing him most of Indochina. But, with the First Island Chain secured, Carter was winning both in Europe and Asia. In domestic policy, the Carteraid was beneficial to everyone. The Conservative candidates Nixon and Reagan retired from politics and was desperate to find new successors. Buckley Jr. became the most prominent one that criticised high taxes. However, both Carter and Buckley Jr. evened out in debates that pushed neither to have better chances. Carter, fortunately, retained the Southern voters for much of his liking, giving him the landslide of this term.
1980_revised_edited.png

483 votes were given to Jimmy Carter with the remaining to Buckley Jr. He successfully acquired California, deeply conservative solely from Nixon and Reagan's popularity on the state. 61.32% voted for the incumbent, noting him as one of the successful Democratic presidents of the 20th century.

1984

Carter Era was ending as the most prominent candidate since FDR. Although he struggled in debates, he was at the right time and the right place for the United States to continue the age of supremacy with better technology and pro-environment appraisals. Glenn continued the Carterian policies by granting more pensions for the elderly and increase unemployment relief. Glenn also wished to increase the science spending of NASA, the organization that was slightly stagnating with the politics since the 1970s. Schlesinger opted again for criticising the taxes and a better fight for the communist in the Soviet Union, China, and India. Although the Continental Communist Power was scaring some Americans, it was not enough to gain Schlesinger popularity.
1984_revised_edited.png

As President Carter was still popular after 9 years of presidency, Glenn had used that opportunity to continue Democratic leadership and attract the people. However, Schlesinger was a formidable foe for Glenn during the debates so the election results were more competitive than what they expected. Glenn won with a decent 51.10% of the popular vote. A slight twist was that Schlesinger managed to get Panama flip into blue, a strange occurrence by the migration on those states and Panama itself that hinged on Democratic multicultural fondness.

For additional reference, here are the temporary list of the Presidents of the United States after Eisenhower (POD diverges heavily ITTL after him)

35. Senator John Fitzgerald Kennedy (D-MA) - Senator Lyndon Baines Johnson (D-TX) January 20, 1961 - January 20, 1969
def. 1960 (294-218; 49.67% - 49.52%) Vice President Richard Milhous Nixon (R-CA) - Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R-MA)
def. 1964 (479-69; 61.37% - 36.81%) Senator Barry Morris Goldwater (R-AZ) - Representative William Edward Miller (R-NY)

36. Governor Richard Milhous Nixon (R-CA) - Governor Spiro Agnew (R-MD) January 20, 1969 - January 20, 1973
def. 1968 (289-197-62; 43.76% - 42.31% - 13.49%) Senator Eugene Joseph McCarthy (D-MN) - Senator Stephen Marvin Young (D-OH); Governor George C. Wallace Jr. (AI-GA) - General Curtis E. LeMay
37. Governor Raymond Philip "Ray" Shafer (R-PA) - Governor Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (R-NY) [1] January 20, 1973- April 15, 1974
def. 1972 (280-141-134; 40.35% - 32.59% -26.41%) Fmr. Governor James Terry Sanford (D-NC) - Senator Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson (D-WA); President Richard Milhous Nixon (C-CA) - Sec. of Treasury John Bowden Connally Jr. (C-NJ)
37. Governor Raymond Philip "Ray" Shafer (R-PA) - VACANT April 15, 1974 -July 15, 1974
37. Governor Raymond Philip "Ray" Shafer (R-PA) ✞[2] - Fmr. Chief of Staff Harry Robbins "Bob" Haldeman (R-CA) July 15, 1974 - January 31, 1975
38. Vice President Harry Robbins "Bob" Haldeman (R-CA) [3] - VACANT January 31, 1975 - November 21, 1975
39. Speaker James Earl Carter (D-GA) - VACANT November 21, 1975 - January 20, 1977
39. President James Earl Carter (D-GA) - Senator Frank Forrester Church III (D-ID) ✞[4] January 20, 1977 - July 15, 1981

def. 1976 (281-219-57; 37.36% - 39.93% - 22.31%) Fmr. President Richard Milhous Nixon (C-CA) - Governor Ronald Wilson Reagan (C-CA); Representative George H. W. Bush (R-CT) - Governor Andrew Lamar Alexander Jr. (R-TN)
def. 1980 (483-75; 61.32% - 37.93%) Governor William Frank Buckley Jr. (C-CT) - Representative Donald Henry Rumsfeld (C-IL) [5]

39. President James Earl Carter (D-GA) - VACANT July 15, 1981 - October 15, 1981
39. President James Earl Carter (D-GA) - Senator John Herschel Glenn Jr. (D-OH) October 15, 1981 - January 20, 1985
40. Vice President John Herschel Glenn Jr. (D-OH) - Former World Bank President Robert Strange McNamara (D-CA) January 20, 1985 - TBA

def. 1984 (366-192; 53.10% - 46.74%) Senator James Rodney Schlesinger (C-RI) - Representative Robert Joseph "Bob" Dole (C-KS)

[1] Resigned due to tax fraud allegations which made the Representatives passed an impeachment proceeding.
[2] Assassinated
[3] Resigned due to being impeached for the Langley Scandal.
[4] Died of pancreatic cancer.
[5] After the death of the Republican Party, the Conservatives adopted the blue colour as their own.


Puerto Rico and Cuba were admitted before the 1964 Election as part of Kennedy's policy, while Nixon tried to copy by admitting Panama in the 70s. Consequently, the 70s went an overhaul on apportionment, increasing the Senate and House seats to 106 and 449 respectively. The total was fixated in 558 Electoral Votes.​

If you guys want to know where I got the calculations from. Here it is.
 
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Pin of Shame: Revisions of this TL
This post is used personally as identification of all inconsistencies from my past self, as well as reduce it for the future. My hope is as this post is thread-marked, readers will have a better cohesive TL while I will improve my writing. In this post, I will pinpoint my revision of this TL, the date of revision, as well as the linked post of where I decided to change.

March 31, 2021
1. Richard Charles Edmonds is not the previous Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1972,1974 from the Unionist party, it will be Kenneth Arthur Chesterton. The reason of which was Edmonds was too unlikely as PM from his youth and inexperience. The post is here.

Btw, one major change that I do ITTL for the sake of not becoming ASB and more realistic is changing the 1972-1974 British Prime Minister from Richard Charles Edmonds to Arthur Kenneth Chesterton. The reason is that Chesterton was definitely the more mature right-wing politician than Edmonds, and certainly would be the pick. The stretch is that ITTL, Chesterton lives longer than OTL, thus him in 74 becoming the Prime Minister. He will die shortly after his resignation from ITTL in 1976 at age 77.

2. Previously, Kissinger was the VP elected to as President of the United States of Shafer in (1974-1975) after Rockefeller's resignation, I change it to Haldeman later on. The reason because Kissinger was not born a US citizen, thus illegitimate for him to hold presidential office. The post is here.

Hello everyone, part of my 'reviewing my TL' moment. I decide to change a great event. Kissinger after revision will not be the 'appointed president' after the death of Shafer. Instead, Haldeman will. Haldeman's backstory of the Langley Scandal will unfold slightly different than Kissinger. So sorry for this change, but I hope this would make the TL better.

August 3, 2021

3. The entire US Election from 1960 to 1984 was altered on the post here. This was due to the miscalculation of the Apportionment of the states including Cuba, Puerto Rico and Panama as the 3 newly admitted states of 1960-1970.
 
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Sometimes I jokingly thought about what is it with Subriando and the Premiers (from LKY to Musa) because he always has some sort of resentment towards the Premiers. But I wonder does the relationship with Musa would became more deteriorating then with LKY.
You'll see why :))
 
The Decay of Stability Part 8: Another Subandrio's Speech
23rd February 1987
Potsdam City Palace, Germany
Potsdam_Stadtschloss_07-20172.jpg
Retired Air Marshall Ashadi Tjahjadi is the current Ambassador to Germany since 1982. Frankly, he was planned to be relieved this year, but the President’s agreement with the PRD compelled him to stay for another year. He is not sorrowful, as he was intrigued with Germany and the culture, he merely misses his wife and daughters. Luckily, he was never bored nor burdened, as on many occasions he would be invited for a guest appearance in the Hohenzollerns.

In 1984, the German Electors voted for Charles VIII from Wurttemberg as the new German monarch. He was to replace the Hapsburgs and maintain the rotation of kingdoms selected as Germany’s head of state. The Parliament suggested this to increase democratic values to every German citizen, and increase the federation’s legitimacy as a liberal, Western state. Still, when there’s an election, parties or factions should evolve, Germany was no exception.

The Hohenzollerns supported conservative norms and wished for greater authority on the monarchy. That meant the royal electors granted immunity to certain issues. One of which, was Helmut Schmidt’s Right to Audit Law which permits government officials to monitor and examine families’ financial records including assets. Moreover, the Right to Audit Law also allowed a questionable influx of money to be asked in a parliamentary session. The Hohenzollerns, as well as the Hapsburgs, felt unorthodox of royal families to congregate on a legislative body. Personally, Ashadi thought the royal families were just inept to change.

However, despite many issues the royal families opposed or support each other, they had created blocs according to their religious preference. Likewise, to any nation, many divide themselves into religious sects, but Germany was entangled with pockets of Lutheran, Catholics and Other Christians since the Reformation began. The Prussian Bloc, allying with Hannover, are the North companions that are partly more conservative, Protestant and authoritarian from their origins. The Austrian Bloc, the Hapsburgs with Wurttemberg, are South kingdoms that tended to Catholic, liberal values and more democratic forms. The kingdoms usually debated on the Parliament, picking sides likewise a football match especially during election season. The Wittelsbach House retained neutrality on the bloc thus remained less observant on political identities.

However, despite the house as the current elected monarch or not, any Elector has full autonomy over any actions especially outside the realm of crown responsibility. The House of Hohenzollern, rested without a crown for decades, had resorted to other types of activities, many of which involved investments and potential profits. Although the Hapsburgs and the Hannover were undertaking similar measures, Indonesia had close ties specifically to these royals.

The PRD party, especially the Golkar Faction, has opened military ties to the kingdom for being noble investors for Indonesia’s Arms Industry. PT Pindad’s small arms manufacturing has constantly been funded by the German government, along with excess capital from Germany’s surviving junkers. The Hohenzollerns, currently, is Indonesia’s main communicator and investor. In another perspective, President Subandrio has been inching for the service of the remaining established Kingdoms and Sultanates in Indonesia. These, as he declared, would even out relation towards equivalent monarchies in the Middle East and Europe, to increase relations with those necessarily.

The Ambassador, for the record, was not in the PRD party, he was aligned to Nasution’s PNI-R platform under the new Nusantara Faction. He was accompanied by the Head of Nurtanio Habibie with also the current Chief of Staff of the Air Force Oetomo in this royal palace. Ashadi's presence is merely symbolic, an ambassador to chaperone these gentlemen with his experienced German language. Understandably, Habibie was fluent in the language too as he studied in Aachen. Still, any minister must abide by the diplomatic rules of Indonesia, an ambassador must specifically attend to important matters of the state between two officials, especially this event since it was not one, but many.

Firstly, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) is an aerospace company from Germany famous for helicopters and airline components and infamous for those WWII jets Nazi Germany launched during their struggle. Indonesia needed substantial helicopters for short-term travels and rapid on-site exploration. As Premier Musa Hitam ordered Blok Cepu as an exploitable oil region in East Java, they needed a few of MBB’s helicopters as they are the most efficient of all designs. Secondly, Habibie is here to appease the regents to increase investments in Nurtanio. It was a high fantasy for a ten-years younger Habibie should a prototype of jet planes be created in his company. But, with help from refuging Israeli engineers along with help from American scholars, the Nurtanio was planning on its first jet plane. To succeed, Habibie demanded more funding as suggested by the Premier himself, the President has no permission to divert the budget to the company.

Second, MBB also conducted business with the military, unsurprising to anyone. As part of Try's initiative, all four branches of the military is out of date. In efforts to revitalizing several of the equipment, The Defense Minister plead with Subandrio for another modernizing effort of the Armed Forces. No surprise to anyone, the plea was responded with long, delayed and reluctant answers from the President, which finally gave minute sums exclusively for certain appliances. The Air Force, in this case, needed helicopters and few machines from the MBB.

“The MBB representatives will be here, Sir,” Oetomo sensed Habibie's fidget on the chair beside him.
1628325936129.png

Air Marshall Oetomo

“My worries are not that, Air Marshall. I felt quite concerning with these discreet schemes we have been doing on his backs,” Habibie replied.

Everyone understood the engineer’s term of ‘he’ in the statement. In fact, these gentlemen arrived here more than the President’s instructions. Ambassador Ashadi Tjahjadi had discovered Habibie had been using the government’s money for buying license production of AGMs, a big no-no for the President. These AGMs was required by the Navy for their efforts on increasing naval supremacy on Indonesian waters. Habibie's company, although common belief of the company unrelated to naval equipment, is also responsible for any flying objects, missiles being one of them. If possible, he could buy the license in an effort on creating a custom Indonesian missile invention, also prohibited by the President. Even this initiative, or any conversation of it, was prohibited by Subandrio after his peace speech, so Habibie established secretive deals with the German monarchy. As a result, the money given to Habibie can be used for other stuff, most of them adhering to any of the President's wishes. Should the ambassador be surprised with unexpected guests from MTU or Dornier, he would anticipate well. This is the third occasion he with Habibie in Germany, the previous two entered many backroom deals the ambassador fully acknowledge. Sometimes, it has become a norm for some national enterprises to have disclosed deals, the President is simply too emotional for any of them.

A similar case also came to Air Marshall Oetomo, only worse catastrophe occur should this will get exposed. The PRD Party has extensive money from Cendana’s great business empire. After the Premier’s demise, his children alleviate themselves into cunning businesspeople, his daughter Mbak Tutut in particular, has bought Astra Indonesia, the main dealer and third-party seller of Honda and Toyota. The Armed Forces Holding Cooperative[1] was Suharto’s creation of enterprise specifically to fund extra money for the soldiers. PT Pindad is partly military-owned and the LKY Premiership has allowed them to use their portion of the money as the army pleased. However, to increase the army’s significance and power, these companies should own the incentives to produce more guns. Especially with Musa Hitam had a different reason yet support South Vietnam, the PRD Golkar Faction had grown strongly enthusiastic about military intervention.

To reduce the military’s strong will of aiding South Vietnam, Subandrio possessed a trick of his own. He had been infiltrating the military to root out pro-war personals. It has been his campaign as South Vietnam’s condition had worsened. As Try Sutrisno tread between his own agenda and the president’s, the dread rumour which Subandrio would ‘reshuffle’ the military is increasing day by day. To do his scheme, he needed eyes inside the military. General Susilo Sudarman, the Secretary-General of Defense, was one notable recent aide to the President. The Defense Minister had no idea how endangered he was. For the PRD party, that meant extremely discreet communication amongst aligned followers, therefore suspicion between military personnel has risen substantially. The military in Nusantara Faction, one aligned with the Ambassador and the engineer, also expressed similar opposition towards Subandrio and this new ‘military faction’, neither of them are jovial on that matter. So, because of a single individual, the old PNI-R military seemed to ‘unify’ itself against a common enemy.

“Mr Habibie, the concerns of you is the concerns of all of us present. We are all culprits of a crime committed against our President. Yet, as sinful as one might have seen, our grounds of this conspiracy is not entirely avarice nor federal domination. We are genetically merchants, after all, the history and culture ingrained in our blood that purely ideological struggle our President is trying to instil won’t work to most of us,” the ambassador copied his words from a previous encounter with a Polynesian professor. He, as far he remembered, was an American Samoan, he studied Austronesian history. The professor lectured Ashadi Tjahjadi that Indonesian are never culturally fervent, disciplinary nor detailed. We, the Indonesians, as he said, are resilient and resourceful, yet also pragmatic and poise, ironic since the latter two traits are derived from the Dutch personality.

The tense conversation between the three parties ended when the royal assistant ushered the gentlemen to the regent’s room. In that place, they witnessed a great conference of gentlemen with some familiarly significant faces. For Ambassador Ashadi, this surprised him on not who are those people, but how many of them.


The Correct Step? Or Grotesque Insult?

Upon ending the second month of the year, the Premier must be both stunned and amazed at how the President should be the antipode. Not only he has criticized Musa’s educational improvement on his previous policy, he backtracked several of his own ideas just to appease the other side of Musa’s spectrum. Indeed, Aceh and Minang have expressed small rebellions after English has been widely reinforced to their provincial populace, but Mohammad Rahmet agrees on imposing strict education measures. Surely, the Premier has slowly thought the President is opposing him just because.

The President announced an entirely new foreign policy to add insult to injury, radically different to what he and Late-Premier had agreed upon. On the 25th of February, 1987, he announced his national speech, akin to his neutrality speech nearly a year before, to the televised nation.
Bismillahirrahmanirrahim

My brothers and sister who currently attend this press conference, and to all of the people who watch this broadcast.

Assalamualaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh

Today, I have a slight tendency of heart, to confess with the entire nation of Indonesia, about our direction in foreign relations. In these minutes, I intend to express many of my thoughts, wishes, and the path to which I think is the most correct to Indonesia.

Barely twenty years ago, the people had rallied on a war against annihilation, to which President Sukarno ardently persuade the people not all hope has been lost and the people’s nation shall endure. We do endure, graciously and proudly, a victory so great that the idea of Western nations interfering on our matters are minimal, all matters has given completely to our hands and ours only. We were proud, patriotic and successful Indonesians, strongly stated to everyone that a third nation can still achieve victory. Even now, I can sense that our people has this heart of passion, the idea of which imperialism is inherently evil and the people deserve their own voice on their own region. For that record, I believe that we have successfully prove and persuade the world into that direction.

Still, as we have seen in the recent time, our sovereignty has been tarnished with another form of unquestionable oppression. This newly shaped threat has been looming closely on our doorstep, the small hiccup on 1986 was one of them. We, my dear Indonesians, have found a new form of imperialism, a neo-imperialism, on basis not by bayonets, cannons and power, but by money, business and economic growth.

Indeed, the economic recession in the United States has suffered our nation costly for economic growth. It has truly concerned me to the upmost degree. Not only the economic system of the establishment proved to be slight faulty, fate has presented us exactly what the fault could entail. I want to say to the Indonesian people, that our entire economy could shut down by the basic interests of other, and by default it is damaging for us and dependent. This should be contradictory to our initial values, independence and maturity.

These principles aforementioned, denotes why I have invested a portion of my months into silence. Indeed, I oppose all wars, and the condition of South Vietnam will not change. Notwithstanding, I believe that our current dynamic has not on our benefit.

As a result, I wish to register my new better direction in foreign policy. I have recently been in touch with an Arabian and Yugoslavian representative, the two distinctively unique nations whom our first President has great interest on. We have conjured an agreement that the world is currently turning for a serious aggression and there should be a counter to how we can control world peace. Indonesia has been a neutrality nation and we should maintain that positive trait on all cause.

That’s why, I intend to revive the Non Aligned Movement, invented by Sukarno back in the 50s, to be reestablished once more for our struggle for neutrality. I am certain that our past mistakes with African nations has kept a bit of grudge, thus we should befriend them rather than insult their lack of understanding to our current situation.

Therefore, the Presidency shall open of a second meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement in Bandung for reestablishing the Asia-Africa Conference into full swing. We are a third world nation and naturally should we become their leader on neutrality and not siding with other powers.

I thank the people of Indonesia to stay by me until the end of this speech. We will give more information after the foreign ministry restructured their syllabus. Thank you for your attention, and we will see you soon.

Live and yet Live, Indonesia!
Assalamualaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh

Instantly after the public announcement, the Premier and the entire cabinet all expressed mixed attitudes towards the President, most of them being entirely unsettled by the current administration. Not long after, the foreign ministry receives calls of condemnation especially from the United States’ representative, claiming that Indonesia had been very ungrateful to all of the subsidies the nation had given. Trihandoko and his entire BUMN Ministry all shown frustration and disbelief, as the President’s announcement has halted all future investments from foreign nations solely from his decision.

For the people, the Federal Districts had turned their backs towards the President and veraciously condemn him for undermining every legacy the previous establishment had brought for the prosperity of the people. Cries of resignation and public humiliation have been aimed at the President, many of them viciously spat on any presidential photo the mass could find. Consequentially, the Federal District would be impacted greatly as these areas are most vulnerable under a deficit in investment growth.

Understandably, rural voters had no opposition to the President but appraised him for becoming the ‘strongman’. The voter blocs of mostly PPI and PRD has increased exponentially, especially with the nationalist rhetoric the nation has endured for decades. The media has noticed the President’s change of behaviour on his transition of beliefs. Formerly a pro-LKY supporter, he had turned for the countryside and national farmers, possible siding with the similar opinion of the Melayu Bersatu Faction led by Mahathir Mohamad. The Premier, increasingly infuriated by the president’s action, wished to meet the President officially on the Palace.​


By the kind creators from @Rfl23 and @Marc Pasquin, I presented the updated flags of the Federal Kingdoms of Germany. I thank these members who had their time to invent these wonderful designs and not just these. There are a few I hide for future posts.

flag_germany_1.png
flag_germany_3.jpg
flag_germany_6.jpg
flag_germany_7.jpg
flag_germany_4.jpg
round_germany.png
germancoatofarms.png
[1] This Cooperative is real and established under OTL Suharto's New Order. However, I've cited the real version of just the Army while ITTL this is for the entire Armed Forces, meaning Navy, Air Force and Coast Guard included too.

Quite a late chapter, I've been lagging on some other issues. Nonetheless, the next post will cover what is inside Subandrio's mind, and what will the implication be especially on the US and Japan. Also, it should cover whether this NAM revival idea is great for the States, or just another failure.
 
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23rd February 1987
Potsdam City Palace, Germany
Retired Air Marshall Ashadi Tjahjadi is the current Ambassador to Germany since 1982. Frankly, he was planned to be relieved this year, but the President’s agreement with the PRD compelled him to stay for another year. He is not sorrowful, as he was intrigued with Germany and the culture, he merely misses his wife and daughters. Luckily, he was never bored nor burdened, as on many occasions he would be invited for a guest appearance in the Hohenzollerns.

In 1984, the German Electors voted for Charles VIII from Wurttemberg as the new German monarch. He was to replace the Hapsburgs and maintain the rotation of kingdoms selected as Germany’s head of state. The Parliament suggested this to increase democratic values to every German citizen, and increase the federation’s legitimacy as a liberal, Western state. Still, when there’s an election, parties or factions should evolve, Germany was no exception.

The Hohenzollerns supported conservative norms and wished for greater authority on the monarchy. That meant the royal electors granted immunity to certain issues. One of which, was Helmut Schmidt’s Right to Audit Law which permits government officials to monitor and examine families’ financial records including assets. Moreover, the Right to Audit Law also allowed a questionable influx of money to be asked in a parliamentary session. The Hohenzollerns, as well as the Hapsburgs, felt unorthodox of royal families to congregate on a legislative body. Personally, Ashadi thought the royal families were just inept to change.

However, despite many issues the royal families opposed or support each other, they had created blocs according to their religious preference. Likewise, to any nation, many divide themselves into religious sects, but Germany was entangled with pockets of Lutheran, Catholics and Other Christians since the Reformation began. The Prussian Bloc, allying with Hannover, are the North companions that are partly more conservative, Protestant and authoritarian from their origins. The Austrian Bloc, the Hapsburgs with Wurttemberg, are South kingdoms that tended to Catholic, liberal values and more democratic forms. The kingdoms usually debated on the Parliament, picking sides likewise a football match especially during election season. The Wittelsbach House retained neutrality on the bloc thus remained less observant on political identities.

However, despite the house as the current elected monarch or not, any Elector has full autonomy over any actions especially outside the realm of crown responsibility. The House of Hohenzollern, rested without a crown for decades, had resorted to other types of activities, many of which involved investments and potential profits. Although the Hapsburgs and the Hannover were undertaking similar measures, Indonesia had close ties specifically to these royals.

The PRD party, especially the Golkar Faction, has opened military ties to the kingdom for being noble investors for Indonesia’s Arms Industry. PT Pindad’s small arms manufacturing has constantly been funded by the German government, along with excess capital from Germany’s surviving junkers. The Hohenzollerns, currently, is Indonesia’s main communicator and investor. In another perspective, President Subandrio has been inching for the service of the remaining established Kingdoms and Sultanates in Indonesia. These, as he declared, would even out relation towards equivalent monarchies in the Middle East and Europe, to increase relations with those necessarily.

The Ambassador, for the record, was not in the PRD party, he was aligned to Nasution’s PNI-R platform under the new Nusantara Faction. He was accompanied by the Head of Nurtanio Habibie with also the current Chief of Staff of the Air Force Oetomo in this royal palace. Ashadi's presence is merely symbolic, an ambassador to chaperone these gentlemen with his experienced German language. Understandably, Habibie was fluent in the language too as he studied in Aachen. Still, any minister must abide by the diplomatic rules of Indonesia, an ambassador must specifically attend to important matters of the state between two officials, especially this event since it was not one, but many.

Firstly, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) is an aerospace company from Germany famous for helicopters and airline components and infamous for those WWII jets Nazi Germany launched during their struggle. Indonesia needed substantial helicopters for short-term travels and rapid on-site exploration. As Premier Musa Hitam ordered Blok Cepu as an exploitable oil region in East Java, they needed a few of MBB’s helicopters as they are the most efficient of all designs. Secondly, Habibie is here to appease the regents to increase investments in Nurtanio. It was a high fantasy for a ten-years younger Habibie should a prototype of jet planes be created in his company. But, with help from refuging Israeli engineers along with help from American scholars, the Nurtanio was planning on its first jet plane. To succeed, Habibie demanded more funding as suggested by the Premier himself, the President has no permission to divert the budget to the company.

Second, MBB also conducted business with the military, unsurprising to anyone. As part of Try's initiative, all five branches of the military is out of date. In efforts to revitalizing several of the equipment, The Defense Minister plead with Subandrio for another modernizing effort of the Armed Forces. No surprise to anyone, the plea was responded with long, delayed and reluctant answers from the President, which finally gave minute sums exclusively for certain appliances. The Air Force, in this case, needed helicopters and few machines from the MBB.

“The MBB representatives will be here, Sir,” Oetomo sensed Habibie's fidget on the chair beside him.
View attachment 671361
Air Marshall Oetomo

“My worries are not that, Air Marshall. I felt quite concerning with these discreet schemes we have been doing on his backs,” Habibie replied.

Everyone understood the engineer’s term of ‘he’ in the statement. In fact, these gentlemen arrived here more than the President’s instructions. Ambassador Ashadi Tjahjadi had discovered Habibie had been using the government’s money for buying license production of AGMs, a big no-no for the President. These AGMs was required by the Navy for their efforts on increasing naval supremacy on Indonesian waters. Habibie's company, although common belief of the company unrelated to naval equipment, is also responsible for any flying objects, missiles being one of them. If possible, he could buy the license in an effort on creating a custom Indonesian missile invention, also prohibited by the President. Even this initiative, or any conversation of it, was prohibited by Subandrio after his peace speech, so Habibie established secretive deals with the German monarchy. As a result, the money given to Habibie can be used for other stuff, most of them adhering to any of the President's wishes. Should the ambassador be surprised with unexpected guests from MTU or Dornier, he would anticipate well. This is the third occasion he with Habibie in Germany, the previous two entered many backroom deals the ambassador fully acknowledge. Sometimes, it has become a norm for some national enterprises to have disclosed deals, the President is simply too emotional for any of them.

A similar case also came to Air Marshall Oetomo, only worse catastrophe occur should this will get exposed. The PRD Party has extensive money from Cendana’s great business empire. After the Premier’s demise, his children alleviate themselves into cunning businesspeople, his daughter Mbak Tutut in particular, has bought Astra Indonesia, the main dealer and third-party seller of Honda and Toyota. The Armed Forces Holding Cooperative[1] was Suharto’s creation of enterprise specifically to fund extra money for the soldiers. PT Pindad is partly military-owned and the LKY Premiership has allowed them to use their portion of the money as the army pleased. However, to increase the army’s significance and power, these companies should own the incentives to produce more guns. Especially with Musa Hitam had a different reason yet support South Vietnam, the PRD Golkar Faction had grown strongly enthusiastic about military intervention.

To reduce the military’s strong will of aiding South Vietnam, Subandrio possessed a trick of his own. He had been infiltrating the military to root out pro-war personals. It has been his campaign as South Vietnam’s condition had worsened. As Try Sutrisno tread between his own agenda and the president’s, the dread rumour which Subandrio would ‘reshuffle’ the military is increasing day by day. To do his scheme, he needed eyes inside the military. General Susilo Sudarman, the Secretary-General of Defense, was one notable recent aide to the President. The Defense Minister had no idea how endangered he was. For the PRD party, that meant extremely discreet communication amongst aligned followers, therefore suspicion between military personnel has risen substantially. The military in Nusantara Faction, one aligned with the Ambassador and the engineer, also expressed similar opposition towards Subandrio and this new ‘military faction’, neither of them are jovial on that matter. So, because of a single individual, the old PNI-R military seemed to ‘unify’ itself against a common enemy.

“Mr Habibie, the concerns of you is the concerns of all of us present. We are all culprits of a crime committed against our President. Yet, as sinful as one might have seen, our grounds of this conspiracy is not entirely avarice nor federal domination. We are genetically merchants, after all, the history and culture ingrained in our blood that purely ideological struggle our President is trying to instil won’t work to most of us,” the ambassador copied his words from a previous encounter with a Polynesian professor. He, as far he remembered, was an American Samoan, he studied Austronesian history. The professor lectured Ashadi Tjahjadi that Indonesian are never culturally fervent, disciplinary nor detailed. We, the Indonesians, as he said, are resilient and resourceful, yet also pragmatic and poise, ironic since the latter two traits are derived from the Dutch personality.

The tense conversation between the three parties ended when the royal assistant ushered the gentlemen to the regent’s room. In that place, they witnessed a great conference of gentlemen with some familiarly significant faces. For Ambassador Ashadi, this surprised him on not who are those people, but how many of them.


The Correct Step? Or Grotesque Insult?

Upon ending the second month of the year, the Premier must be both stunned and amazed at how the President should be the antipode. Not only he has criticized Musa’s educational improvement on his previous policy, he backtracked several of his own ideas just to appease the other side of Musa’s spectrum. Indeed, Aceh and Minang have expressed small rebellions after English has been widely reinforced to their provincial populace, but Mohammad Rahmet agrees on imposing strict education measures. Surely, the Premier has slowly thought the President is opposing him just because.

The President announced an entirely new foreign policy to add insult to injury, radically different to what he and Late-Premier had agreed upon. On the 25th of February, 1987, he announced his national speech, akin to his neutrality speech nearly a year before, to the televised nation.



Instantly after the public announcement, the Premier and the entire cabinet all expressed mixed attitudes towards the President, most of them being entirely unsettled by the current administration. Not long after, the foreign ministry receives calls of condemnation especially from the United States’ representative, claiming that Indonesia had been very ungrateful to all of the subsidies the nation had given. Trihandoko and his entire BUMN Ministry all shown frustration and disbelief, as the President’s announcement has halted all future investments from foreign nations solely from his decision.

For the people, the Federal Districts had turned their backs towards the President and veraciously condemn him for undermining every legacy the previous establishment had brought for the prosperity of the people. Cries of resignation and public humiliation have been aimed at the President, many of them viciously spat on any presidential photo the mass could find. Consequentially, the Federal District would be impacted greatly as these areas are most vulnerable under a deficit in investment growth.

Understandably, rural voters had no opposition to the President but appraised him for becoming the ‘strongman’. The voter blocs of mostly PPI and PRD has increased exponentially, especially with the nationalist rhetoric the nation has endured for decades. The media has noticed the President’s change of behaviour on his transition of beliefs. Formerly a pro-LKY supporter, he had turned for the countryside and national farmers, possible siding with the similar opinion of the Melayu Bersatu Faction led by Mahathir Mohamad. The Premier, increasingly infuriated by the president’s action, wished to meet the President officially on the Palace.​


By the kind creators from @Rfl23 and @Marc Pasquin, I presented the updated flags of the Federal Kingdoms of Germany. I thank these members who had their time to invent these wonderful designs and not just these. There are a few I hide for future posts.

[1] This Cooperative is real and established under OTL Suharto's New Order. However, I've cited the real version of just the Army while ITTL this is for the entire Armed Forces, meaning Navy, Air Force and Coast Guard included too.

Quite a late chapter, I've been lagging on some other issues. Nonetheless, the next post will cover what is inside Subandrio's mind, and what will the implication be especially on the US and Japan. Also, it should cover whether this NAM revival idea is great for the States, or just another failure.
Ah thanks and also speaking of nurtanio will they br able to produce a locally produced fighter jets in the future? Be it only license built or even a new localy made design one
 
23rd February 1987
Potsdam City Palace, Germany
Retired Air Marshall Ashadi Tjahjadi is the current Ambassador to Germany since 1982. Frankly, he was planned to be relieved this year, but the President’s agreement with the PRD compelled him to stay for another year. He is not sorrowful, as he was intrigued with Germany and the culture, he merely misses his wife and daughters. Luckily, he was never bored nor burdened, as on many occasions he would be invited for a guest appearance in the Hohenzollerns.

In 1984, the German Electors voted for Charles VIII from Wurttemberg as the new German monarch. He was to replace the Hapsburgs and maintain the rotation of kingdoms selected as Germany’s head of state. The Parliament suggested this to increase democratic values to every German citizen, and increase the federation’s legitimacy as a liberal, Western state. Still, when there’s an election, parties or factions should evolve, Germany was no exception.

The Hohenzollerns supported conservative norms and wished for greater authority on the monarchy. That meant the royal electors granted immunity to certain issues. One of which, was Helmut Schmidt’s Right to Audit Law which permits government officials to monitor and examine families’ financial records including assets. Moreover, the Right to Audit Law also allowed a questionable influx of money to be asked in a parliamentary session. The Hohenzollerns, as well as the Hapsburgs, felt unorthodox of royal families to congregate on a legislative body. Personally, Ashadi thought the royal families were just inept to change.

However, despite many issues the royal families opposed or support each other, they had created blocs according to their religious preference. Likewise, to any nation, many divide themselves into religious sects, but Germany was entangled with pockets of Lutheran, Catholics and Other Christians since the Reformation began. The Prussian Bloc, allying with Hannover, are the North companions that are partly more conservative, Protestant and authoritarian from their origins. The Austrian Bloc, the Hapsburgs with Wurttemberg, are South kingdoms that tended to Catholic, liberal values and more democratic forms. The kingdoms usually debated on the Parliament, picking sides likewise a football match especially during election season. The Wittelsbach House retained neutrality on the bloc thus remained less observant on political identities.

However, despite the house as the current elected monarch or not, any Elector has full autonomy over any actions especially outside the realm of crown responsibility. The House of Hohenzollern, rested without a crown for decades, had resorted to other types of activities, many of which involved investments and potential profits. Although the Hapsburgs and the Hannover were undertaking similar measures, Indonesia had close ties specifically to these royals.

The PRD party, especially the Golkar Faction, has opened military ties to the kingdom for being noble investors for Indonesia’s Arms Industry. PT Pindad’s small arms manufacturing has constantly been funded by the German government, along with excess capital from Germany’s surviving junkers. The Hohenzollerns, currently, is Indonesia’s main communicator and investor. In another perspective, President Subandrio has been inching for the service of the remaining established Kingdoms and Sultanates in Indonesia. These, as he declared, would even out relation towards equivalent monarchies in the Middle East and Europe, to increase relations with those necessarily.

The Ambassador, for the record, was not in the PRD party, he was aligned to Nasution’s PNI-R platform under the new Nusantara Faction. He was accompanied by the Head of Nurtanio Habibie with also the current Chief of Staff of the Air Force Oetomo in this royal palace. Ashadi's presence is merely symbolic, an ambassador to chaperone these gentlemen with his experienced German language. Understandably, Habibie was fluent in the language too as he studied in Aachen. Still, any minister must abide by the diplomatic rules of Indonesia, an ambassador must specifically attend to important matters of the state between two officials, especially this event since it was not one, but many.

Firstly, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) is an aerospace company from Germany famous for helicopters and airline components and infamous for those WWII jets Nazi Germany launched during their struggle. Indonesia needed substantial helicopters for short-term travels and rapid on-site exploration. As Premier Musa Hitam ordered Blok Cepu as an exploitable oil region in East Java, they needed a few of MBB’s helicopters as they are the most efficient of all designs. Secondly, Habibie is here to appease the regents to increase investments in Nurtanio. It was a high fantasy for a ten-years younger Habibie should a prototype of jet planes be created in his company. But, with help from refuging Israeli engineers along with help from American scholars, the Nurtanio was planning on its first jet plane. To succeed, Habibie demanded more funding as suggested by the Premier himself, the President has no permission to divert the budget to the company.

Second, MBB also conducted business with the military, unsurprising to anyone. As part of Try's initiative, all five branches of the military is out of date. In efforts to revitalizing several of the equipment, The Defense Minister plead with Subandrio for another modernizing effort of the Armed Forces. No surprise to anyone, the plea was responded with long, delayed and reluctant answers from the President, which finally gave minute sums exclusively for certain appliances. The Air Force, in this case, needed helicopters and few machines from the MBB.

“The MBB representatives will be here, Sir,” Oetomo sensed Habibie's fidget on the chair beside him.
View attachment 671361
Air Marshall Oetomo

“My worries are not that, Air Marshall. I felt quite concerning with these discreet schemes we have been doing on his backs,” Habibie replied.

Everyone understood the engineer’s term of ‘he’ in the statement. In fact, these gentlemen arrived here more than the President’s instructions. Ambassador Ashadi Tjahjadi had discovered Habibie had been using the government’s money for buying license production of AGMs, a big no-no for the President. These AGMs was required by the Navy for their efforts on increasing naval supremacy on Indonesian waters. Habibie's company, although common belief of the company unrelated to naval equipment, is also responsible for any flying objects, missiles being one of them. If possible, he could buy the license in an effort on creating a custom Indonesian missile invention, also prohibited by the President. Even this initiative, or any conversation of it, was prohibited by Subandrio after his peace speech, so Habibie established secretive deals with the German monarchy. As a result, the money given to Habibie can be used for other stuff, most of them adhering to any of the President's wishes. Should the ambassador be surprised with unexpected guests from MTU or Dornier, he would anticipate well. This is the third occasion he with Habibie in Germany, the previous two entered many backroom deals the ambassador fully acknowledge. Sometimes, it has become a norm for some national enterprises to have disclosed deals, the President is simply too emotional for any of them.

A similar case also came to Air Marshall Oetomo, only worse catastrophe occur should this will get exposed. The PRD Party has extensive money from Cendana’s great business empire. After the Premier’s demise, his children alleviate themselves into cunning businesspeople, his daughter Mbak Tutut in particular, has bought Astra Indonesia, the main dealer and third-party seller of Honda and Toyota. The Armed Forces Holding Cooperative[1] was Suharto’s creation of enterprise specifically to fund extra money for the soldiers. PT Pindad is partly military-owned and the LKY Premiership has allowed them to use their portion of the money as the army pleased. However, to increase the army’s significance and power, these companies should own the incentives to produce more guns. Especially with Musa Hitam had a different reason yet support South Vietnam, the PRD Golkar Faction had grown strongly enthusiastic about military intervention.

To reduce the military’s strong will of aiding South Vietnam, Subandrio possessed a trick of his own. He had been infiltrating the military to root out pro-war personals. It has been his campaign as South Vietnam’s condition had worsened. As Try Sutrisno tread between his own agenda and the president’s, the dread rumour which Subandrio would ‘reshuffle’ the military is increasing day by day. To do his scheme, he needed eyes inside the military. General Susilo Sudarman, the Secretary-General of Defense, was one notable recent aide to the President. The Defense Minister had no idea how endangered he was. For the PRD party, that meant extremely discreet communication amongst aligned followers, therefore suspicion between military personnel has risen substantially. The military in Nusantara Faction, one aligned with the Ambassador and the engineer, also expressed similar opposition towards Subandrio and this new ‘military faction’, neither of them are jovial on that matter. So, because of a single individual, the old PNI-R military seemed to ‘unify’ itself against a common enemy.

“Mr Habibie, the concerns of you is the concerns of all of us present. We are all culprits of a crime committed against our President. Yet, as sinful as one might have seen, our grounds of this conspiracy is not entirely avarice nor federal domination. We are genetically merchants, after all, the history and culture ingrained in our blood that purely ideological struggle our President is trying to instil won’t work to most of us,” the ambassador copied his words from a previous encounter with a Polynesian professor. He, as far he remembered, was an American Samoan, he studied Austronesian history. The professor lectured Ashadi Tjahjadi that Indonesian are never culturally fervent, disciplinary nor detailed. We, the Indonesians, as he said, are resilient and resourceful, yet also pragmatic and poise, ironic since the latter two traits are derived from the Dutch personality.

The tense conversation between the three parties ended when the royal assistant ushered the gentlemen to the regent’s room. In that place, they witnessed a great conference of gentlemen with some familiarly significant faces. For Ambassador Ashadi, this surprised him on not who are those people, but how many of them.


The Correct Step? Or Grotesque Insult?

Upon ending the second month of the year, the Premier must be both stunned and amazed at how the President should be the antipode. Not only he has criticized Musa’s educational improvement on his previous policy, he backtracked several of his own ideas just to appease the other side of Musa’s spectrum. Indeed, Aceh and Minang have expressed small rebellions after English has been widely reinforced to their provincial populace, but Mohammad Rahmet agrees on imposing strict education measures. Surely, the Premier has slowly thought the President is opposing him just because.

The President announced an entirely new foreign policy to add insult to injury, radically different to what he and Late-Premier had agreed upon. On the 25th of February, 1987, he announced his national speech, akin to his neutrality speech nearly a year before, to the televised nation.



Instantly after the public announcement, the Premier and the entire cabinet all expressed mixed attitudes towards the President, most of them being entirely unsettled by the current administration. Not long after, the foreign ministry receives calls of condemnation especially from the United States’ representative, claiming that Indonesia had been very ungrateful to all of the subsidies the nation had given. Trihandoko and his entire BUMN Ministry all shown frustration and disbelief, as the President’s announcement has halted all future investments from foreign nations solely from his decision.

For the people, the Federal Districts had turned their backs towards the President and veraciously condemn him for undermining every legacy the previous establishment had brought for the prosperity of the people. Cries of resignation and public humiliation have been aimed at the President, many of them viciously spat on any presidential photo the mass could find. Consequentially, the Federal District would be impacted greatly as these areas are most vulnerable under a deficit in investment growth.

Understandably, rural voters had no opposition to the President but appraised him for becoming the ‘strongman’. The voter blocs of mostly PPI and PRD has increased exponentially, especially with the nationalist rhetoric the nation has endured for decades. The media has noticed the President’s change of behaviour on his transition of beliefs. Formerly a pro-LKY supporter, he had turned for the countryside and national farmers, possible siding with the similar opinion of the Melayu Bersatu Faction led by Mahathir Mohamad. The Premier, increasingly infuriated by the president’s action, wished to meet the President officially on the Palace.​


By the kind creators from @Rfl23 and @Marc Pasquin, I presented the updated flags of the Federal Kingdoms of Germany. I thank these members who had their time to invent these wonderful designs and not just these. There are a few I hide for future posts.

[1] This Cooperative is real and established under OTL Suharto's New Order. However, I've cited the real version of just the Army while ITTL this is for the entire Armed Forces, meaning Navy, Air Force and Coast Guard included too.

Quite a late chapter, I've been lagging on some other issues. Nonetheless, the next post will cover what is inside Subandrio's mind, and what will the implication be especially on the US and Japan. Also, it should cover whether this NAM revival idea is great for the States, or just another failure.
I can see by what you mean from the last post that you said “more to come”. And to be honest even tho it’s not real just an AU I felt so infuriated by what Subandrio said. I mean neutrality is pretty much good for the safety of the state yet this is essentially could backtracking what the country have achieve. And sometimes I kinda thought that the decisions that he made is just for his personal gains rather then the country just to make sure he stay in power for himself (like critisizing Musa Hitam educational program or maybe purposely trying to under arm and under equip the armed forces). Maybe good tho in a way to prove that the country is neutral yet its just felt what Subandrio has done would backtrack a lot the country power and influence. And maybe have the indirect effect that made other countries thought that Indonesia is an ignorant country. I felt I’m too demonizing Subandrio a lot but actually his reasons in my opinion are quite noble I guess to make the country neutral and not aligned yet it felt his decisions could backtrack what have been achieve so much and could make other countries dislike Indonesia because possibility that other country would see Indonesian Neutrality as an ignorance towards international stage.

And btw cool designs for the German flags and symbols. Especially for the Navy and Army you can obviously see the Prussian influence to it and I like the fact that it still mix up with the IRL german flag tbh at least it can be seen as a reflect in the AU that it is still an Empire like before yet still have differences that make it different from the old Empire (especially different from Nazi German)
 
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Ah thanks and also speaking of nurtanio will they br able to produce a locally produced fighter jets in the future? Be it only license built or even a new localy made design one
Maybe we can take designs from IRL and make it as a joint program or license build with Euros for the fighter designs. Such as Tornado fighters or the Typhoons.
 
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