Emerald of The Equator: An Indonesian TL

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10.1. Apex of Chaos: US, Men and the Rise of Southern Juntas
US, Men and the Rise of Southern Juntas

South America had been sparse in eventful news, much of it was boring and hollow. In World War II, those nations contributed in several Allied victories, but much of it greatly out shadowed by the United States. After the war, however, the Latino world emerged intriguing, especially after the rise of the military in Argentina. The 2nd World War succumbed Argentina into a military dictatorship, as the Infamous Decade must be ended. The fraudulent presidency of Ramón Castillo caused several military officers to merged as combative politicians. General Arturo Rawson and General Edelmiro Farrell were one of those people, emerging to be one of many presidents of unstable Argentina.

After the 2nd World War, the Argentine nation had finally come to peace and progress, after Lieutenant General Juan Perón had been elected as president. When Perón became president on 4 June 1946, his two stated goals were social justice and economic independence. These two goals avoided Cold War entanglements from choosing between capitalism and socialism, but he had no concrete means to achieve those goals. Perón instructed his economic advisers to develop a five-year plan with the goals of increasing workers' pay, achieving full employment, stimulating industrial growth of over 40% while diversifying the sector (then dominated by food processing) and greatly improving transportation, communication, energy and social infrastructure (in the private, as well as public, sectors).

In foreign policy, Perón first articulated his foreign policy, the "Third Way", in 1949. This policy was developed to avoid the binary Cold War divisions and keep other world powers, such as the United States and the Soviet Union, as allies rather than enemies. He restored diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, severed since the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, and opened grain sales to the shortage-stricken Soviets.

In 1955, an attempt-coup by Lieutenant General Eduardo Lonardi ended up a failure, and Perón’s power had been significantly increased. More attempt assassination, coups and overthrows in 1957, 1958, 1959, 1961, and 1963 had always ended up Perón’s popularity to keep rising against the vilified military. As they had tried so much and ended up nothing, the military instead tried to muster some alliances and the first they had come up to is the United States of America.


Perón in 1964

In 1965, the military government had reached Kennedy for assistance. In Camelot, the new order in Argentina was quite troubling, but Kennedy had announced that as long as Argentina honoured Pax American -which Kennedy meant not tilting more into the Soviet Union, France or China- were all acceptable and unopposed to the United States’ foreign strategies. But then, in 1968, the conditions significantly changed, as Nixon at that time was extremely eager of ousting every left-regime left in this western side of the world.

The Republican, later Conservative, administration, completely funded the military to plot a coup that finally succeeds. In 12th of August 1970, Argentina launched its first-ever military coup against the government. Unfortunately, due to logistics and language problems, the military coup ended up in a stalemate rebellion, and thus started the Argentine Civil War.

As the Civil War erupts, a fight between Perón’s loyal militias and the current government. The United States did not wait for the result to finally do a proper transfer of power. Argentina’s neighbour, Chile, was also on America’s watch list. President Salvador Allende was a friendly communist and tried to reach the Soviet Union and France. The nationalization of several American companies in Chile also added salt into the wound. Therefore, the United States contacted Divisional General Carlos Prats González to stage a coup, and the General accepts. In 1971, Chile was first to fall into a military dictatorship, with Argentina falls immediately after the Civil War ended in 1972.


Divisional General Carlos Prats González

In another area of Panama, the Canal Zone became a hotbed in American politics, as the new regime questioned American sovereignty in the Panama Canal. University students protested in the Canal, with the republican government supporting it. Manuel Noriega was informed by the United States’ government to maybe assist the nation a bit. What the American wants to be another military regime in Latin America. Noriega, the one failed in 1963 and 1968, accepted. And by July 1972, Panama had a coup.

The coup instated Noriega as the highest power in the nation, but his rise meant nothing to the Americans. Shortly after, Noriega seized the Panama Canal from the United States. Much of the United States anger, they declared war and immediately overwhelmed Panamas. As the peace treaty was to be signed, Nixon reminded of Kennedy’s successful policy of integrating Cuba and Puerto Rico. Much to a surprise, both of these predicted left-leaning rebellious states were relatively peaceful to the other 50 states, and even left influence were decreasing. So, at the start of 1973, the United States annexed Panama as the fifty-third states of America.


American invasion to Panama, 1972

The United State's Flag, 1973

The charm did not work this time, as entire Central America condemned America’s new wave of imperialism. Kennedy was a bad figure among those nations, and Nixon became its successor. So, with the Soviet Union just give slight help to left-militias, those movements punched a great deal into America, and one of them became the Nicaraguan Sandinistas.

1973 was marked as the end of an economic miracle for the South Americans, as the oil embargo of Saudi Arabia to the United States created a massive domino-effect to the world. While the United States’ economy enfeebled, Belgian’s, Netherland’s and even several Scandinavians’ crumpled. What’s called the Belgian Fall, the state divulged into massive chaos and maybe had to wreck Western Europe’s economy.

The economic downturn, militias emerging, and a significantly large left camp in the world meant one thing for most of the South American countries, the start of a communist rebellion. Nations like Brazil started to worry about the effects like Nicaragua might happen in the country, and more military was trying to restore the hope of a peaceful future.

That certain hope had become the fundamental weapon of junta’s in South America. As markets slowed down, more labourer protested throughout South America. Chile and Argentina had shown better after the military coup. However drastic measures they had drawn, the military control was effective to prevent a major decline rather than the democratic ones. Swift and harsh actions had become a vital survival for those two nations. As that happened, more of the nations followed suit.

In 1973, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador staged a coup against its governments, this marked the start of Junta Decade in South America. They had worried about the destabilization the 1973 Oil Crisis may have given them. Besides, there was a scare on the other side of the world, where one nation shockingly evolved to become an anarcho-socialist state.
South America just become their thing

What is interesting is effect of butterflying Cuba, there will no state that will challenge US in America.
10.2. Apex of Chaos: Troubles of Europe I
European Troubles (Part 1)

Western Europe returned to its sick natural divide. In the continental, the central force of the Germans meets the French, totally happening even before the World Wars. Even though the trend was so after the 1960s, before that there was a sincere trial for a settlement, which that happened in Belgium around 1957.

After the abdication of Leopold III, Badouin reigned in Belgium. Badouin was given a nation in turmoil, divided between the socialist Walloons and the pro-monarchist Flanders. He was heckled by a socialist republican at his swearing-in ceremony on July 17, 1951, but was determined to do his duty even while resenting the way his father had been forced aside by political pressure and the bully-tactics of the mob. The beginning of the reign of the fifth King of the Belgians could hardly be called auspicious.


King Badouin of Belgium

During his first decade of reign, he was particularly troubled by the two aggressive fronts. The first of it was the fight between Christian Socials and Socialists. The two major parties in the country provoked a non-active civil war in Belgium. It was called the School War. Pierre Harmel increased the wages of teachers in private schools and introduced laws linking the subsidies for private schools to the number of pupils. When the 1954 elections brought to power a coalition of Socialists and Liberals, the new Education Minister, Leo Collard, immediately set out to reverse the measures taken by his predecessor, founding a large number of secular schools and only permitting teachers with a diploma, forcing many priests out of the profession. These measures sparked mass protests from the Catholic bloc.

The second fight was against the revolutionaries in Belgian Congo. Patrice Lumumba had emerged as an independent activist in Congo, keep pushing for Belgians out of the continent. King Baudouin visited the vast central African colony in 1955 and was given a very warm and enthusiastic welcome by huge crowds of Congolese people who spoke of him adoringly as the “handsome young man” who was very concerned with their wellbeing and progress. At a similar time, rabble-rousers in the Belgian Congo just kept rising, and Badouin already knew that this region will inevitable free away. In this context, he just wants to postpone the breakup as long as possible.

As the king’s popularity increased gradually over the decade, the crisis immediately spawned up after 1960, especially about Kennedy’s withdrawal and disbandment of NATO. King Badouin had secured the State’s promise of safeguarding Belgium in the Den Haag Agreement, as luck would have it. But, the rise of the French Communist Party, eventually become the French Fifth Republic, upset the balance the crown. As the natural laws abide, the rise of large communist power in the south of Belgium caused the rise of the Belgian Communist Party itself.

In the Belgian Parliament, the decade in the 1950s and 1960s had become a fragile yet stable contest between the conservative Christian Socials and the liberal Socialist-Liberal Coalition. The School Wars had just contrasted the opposing sides, but both had agreed on closing the dilating abyss of the political spectrum. Both agreed on one creation, which was European Economic Commerce.

The predecessor, the European Coal and Steel Community, was established in the Treaty of Paris. The ECSC was first proposed by French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950 as a way to prevent further war between France and Germany. He declared he aimed to "make war not only unthinkable but materially impossible" which was to be achieved by regional integration, of which the ECSC was the first step. The Treaty would create a common market for coal and steel among its member states which served to neutralise competition between European nations over natural resources, particularly in the Ruhr.

The resources community eventually upgraded in Brussels in the Treaty of Antwerp, 1957. The Community's initial aim was to bring about economic integration, including a common market and customs union, among its six founding members: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany. It was envisaged to be the next stage of European integration, and reject regionalism like what had happened throughout the centuries. However, NATO dissolution happened.

The NATO dissolution caused France to erupted as a new communist nation, and open up a new chapter of communism in the world. It was still debatable that which one comes first, Maoism or Thorezism. But in the 1960s, the world’s communism was shaping to be a fragmented world, worse than the liberal United States’ bloc. Nevertheless, France left the EEC, leaving the organization completely German-centric. Furthermore, the Saar annexation had opened more wounds in the past, almost severing all reconciliations happening in the last decade. Belgium, from being protected by the giants of Europe, had now faced a threat of one giant of Europe. Miserably, the same nation also instigated the Walloons into another stage of cultural conflict.

André Gillard is the leader of the first general strike in 1963. The Wallonian demanded federalism and complete structural reforms in the government. But, in the crowd of the strike itself, André was considered as a moderate in the ranks. There was another protester that intrigued the mobs, and that was Charles Cuvelier.


General Strike in 1961, marked a new stage of Belgium

Charles Cuvelier, unlike the mature Gillard, was a pretty fresh activist in the Belgian labour unions. His inspiration had largely originated from the squashed CNT-FAI anarcho-socialists who failed in Barcelona. Many of the exiles fled to France and Belgium, along with small others to Portugal. 1961 had become his stage, as his fiery speeches of the Strike not only demanded Wallonia to be independent but also reinstating anarcho-socialism in the history of Belgium. However, André Gillard rose into political ranks, high enough to contest the Belgian Election as Prime Minister in 1969. The Strike ended with more promises of federalism. But as promises were promises, never of those emerged in reality. Even during the Gillard's rule as Prime Minister of Belgium, nearly nothing had done for federalism. Meanwhile, the Belgians were uncertain of anarchy can benefit to the labours. They ended up dissuade him for at least a decade until 1973 happened.

In 1973, the condition of the Belgian Kingdom had slightly changed. Now, the kingdom had a better EEC, this time with the Scandinavians and the United Kingdom involved. The British Unionist Party had negotiated with the CDU for potential integration of Europe but also vilified the French. The government in Berlin was not going for that option. France was still foes with the Soviet Union. The Yugoslavian dilemma, Communist Portuguese instability, and the UASR alignment to France were angering the Soviet Union. Germany wanted to maintain these enemies, so both of them could not agree on invading the region that disconnects them.

However, the stronger the EEC had become, the EEC had a major flaw, it was the dependency on the United States’ economy. Especially for the Low Countries, EEC economy was mainly driven by American corporations and later the American government after the Nixon Administration. As the Oil Crisis came by, the economy beyond the Atlantic halted, but the effects were direr in Europe.

Belgium, under the constant threat of division, had been situated King Badouin to spend more. The government had not had a huge help, as the Prime Minister always advised the king about anything. The dependency was so influential that the decline of a few percentages in America caused a total breakdown in the Belgian shares. In the economical context, Belgium by May 1963 was bankrupted.

After the bankruptcy, everyone miraculously reminded of Cuvelier’s anarchy promise, especially fellow Walloons. By the start of 1974, the Belgian state crumpled into a political turmoil. As the economy was blamed, Wallonia opted for independence. As a result, Curvelier’s anarchical speech has declared a state as by June 25th 1974, the Regional Defense Council of Wallonia was established, declaring war on the Belgian Kingdom.


The first flag of the Regional Defense Council of Wallonia
Oh this will be interesting, with leftist france in the west and the resentfull german to the east then add with cold war climate.
Now what will Soviet reaction to this? They certainly didn't France to replace their eminence in the comunist world
10.3. Apex of Chaos : Libya and France
European Troubles (Part 2)

The Regional Defense Council of Wallonia was proven to be a major issue to the stability in Europe. To make things worse, the anarchist labours sought the French Fifth Republic for assistance. As the nearest red nation in Europe, the French Fifth Republic was a viable option for keeping the revolution alive. However, regardless of the necessities France need for another minor ally, Georges Marchais was treading on dangerous grounds.

A national memorandum was held in 1971 when President Maurice Thorez had died in his sleep. After his rule of almost ten years in one of the remaining colonial powers, if not the last, in the world. He transformed France from one of the many colonial oppressors into equals with Africans. The changes were so drastic that France was a different nation in the 1970s. The Equality Act guaranteed all Africans as equal as their European counterparts and was praised as the saviour of all the centuries of pain inflicted by discrimination.

The other accomplishment President Maurice Thorez had done was revitalizing the nation’s connectivity with trains and cars. As Africa was wanted to be equal, one of the conditions was to build infrastructure akin to French Metropolitan. As a start, Thorez ordered numerous specialist in redesign Trans-Saharan Railway. Before the general construction happened, Algeria, Senegal, and other parts had a portion of disconnected railways, even West of French Sudan, there was a minimum of roads and not a single railway. The plan to track the Sahara failed due to lack of financial support. Vichy France was the nation that firstly grounded this, so historical issues must also be noted.

In the newly revised plan, the Trans-Sahara Railway would connect Algiers to Dakar bypassing Timbuktu. The branch from Timbuktu to Dahomey or Benin region was halted as of Operation Joan of Arc. However, the plan was later cancelled, due to a new toy France had seen from Japan, the High-Speed Train.

After Japan had begun construction of the Shinkansen (also known as the "bullet train") in 1957, the idea of the TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse) was first proposed in the 1960s. President Thorez extremely favoured new technology, exploring the production of hovercraft and the Aérotrain air-cushion vehicle. Simultaneously, the SNCF began researching high-speed trains on conventional tracks.


TGV 001, the first High-Speed Train in France (1968)

The construction of this ambitious project had cost the money needed for further expansion of the unfinished road and rail construction in the southeastern part of French West Africa. Therefore, some places, like Benin, Niger, Ivory Coast, and the Upper Volta region express criticism on the Thorezian government. However, he had calculated his moves, that this bold advancement, similar to the moon landing by the United States, later Soviet Union, must be done to show dominance as a power need not underestimating.

The other classified manoeuvres of the French Fifth Republic political adventures was influencing their eastern neighbour in North Africa, Libya. After Egypt declared its independence, Libya was completely deserted by the British government to maintain order in other parts of their African holdings. As a result, the Senussi Order claimed the government. King Idris I was crowned. However, the crown spontaneously bombarded with protests. British rule in the region was short but already proven to be disastrous for Libyans. In everything a nation could, Britain had soaked the oil resources from them and still kept attaining them after their independence in 1966. Even with an indigenous leader, the oil resources were still British. In addition to it, corruption and entrenched systems of patronage were widespread throughout the oil industry. The labour in the oil wells knew that Libya’s greatest profit came from the oil they had in their lands. Therefore, underground militants were emerging, and it climaxed on the coup Thorez and Nasser instigated in 1968.


Gaddafi in 1972

Once Gaddafi removed the monarchical government, he proclaimed the foundation of the Libyan Arab Republic. Addressing the populace by radio, he announced an end to the "reactionary and corrupt" government, "the stench of which has sickened and disgusted Libyans all". Due to the coup's bloodless nature, it was initially called as "Pink Revolution", although was later renamed the "One September Revolution" after the date on which it occurred. Gaddafi insisted that the Free Officers' coup represented a revolution, marking the start of widespread change in the socio-economic and political nature of Libya. He proclaimed that the revolution meant "freedom, socialism, and unity", and over the coming years fulfilled measures to achieve this.

The rise of Gaddafi meant that France had one more companion of his ideological group, a communist yet liberal government. Indeed, the militarist rule, unlike those in South Africa, adopted just rights and laws. Also, the government was decentralized so to improve each an ever sub-region in Libya. However, in 1970, the government must impose stricter laws restricting Libyan Jews, as the UASR declared the Jews as ‘enemies of a unified Arabia’, and spread among Pan-Arabism. During this stage, the pan-nationalism in the Arab world was characterized a liberal-communist one, an equal people and weaker government. Although the term weaker was subjective even until this point.

After Thorez’s death, France underwent a massive political crisis of succession. There were two opposing factions inside the PCF. The first was the Union of the Left faction under François Mitterrand. Mitterrand had a more moderate view towards Thorezian communism and publicly stated that ‘Communism in France isn’t communism, is social democracy’. He was a diplomatic person, wished to exert France abroad as the third option for the two contesting powers. Even as France was the largest power in Western Europe, collate with the Soviet Union and the United States were powered much humongous than the Republic. Fortunately, Thorez had made the initial steps of becoming one, and Mitterrand acknowledged the 70s and abroad as France time to shine.

The other faction, the Fraternity of Pure France faction, more or less advocated a very much isolationist one. Under Georges Marchais, the successful revolution of a better form of communism had to root deeply into every Frenchmen, and that hadn’t happened as optimal as it was. Therefore, it was time to reform France more, keep building inside so France would be prepared to fight in the world stage. Virtually, they were a bit more radical than the former faction.

As Operation Joan of Arc, as France called as the First African Aggression war, the conflict lost France clay and prestige. Much to all equal French citizens, they all preferred the second faction of Marchais’. Therefore, by 1971, Georges Marchais was elected as the new President of the French Fifth Republic.


Georges Marchais in 1972

But then, as the Belgian Crisis sparked into the world stage, Georges Marchais immediately sent in supplies to the Anarchic Walloon government, pretty much deny the promises he had made in 1971. The Union of the Left criticizes liability of the holder, accusing them of lying to the French people. In addition to it, more of French citizens prefer France to not involved in Belgium, especially backing a violent government that advocated ‘World Revolution, Now or Never’, indicating their goals of creating a Global Defense Council.

Meanwhile, Marchais had a better plan, and the plan unfolded when Charles Cuvelier was assassinated on September 18th 1973, so his rival and successor will continue the war, which was André Gillard.
Is this fance federal state? Otherwise I can't see how they will be able to keep their African territories.
Is this fance federal state? Otherwise I can't see how they will be able to keep their African territories.

This time I take the Spanish Communities as the example in France, not the USA.

In a long story, France is still a unified country, but extremely autonomous. The federal government is very weak/ only commanded foreign policies. Everything domestic is handed over to every region France has.
10.4. Apex of Chaos: Troubles of Europe II
The Soviet Union through the 60s

The oldest communist nation was still one of the greatest power in the world. Yet, the increasing trend towards multipolar was concerning the Soviet Union, especially how the third power was a confrontation of another communism, something very insulting for them.

After Stalin died in 1953, the Soviet Union conducted Destalinization with Khrushchev. Also, Khrushchev implemented extensive agricultural reforms that probably appeased Ukrainians and parts of the Volga Region. The other reform was to utilize Siberia into a defence scheme, in case Europe decided to invade Russia, again.

It is here that Stalin showed in a whole series of cases his intolerance, his brutality, and his abuse of power ... he often chose the path of repression and physical annihilation, not only against actual enemies but also against individuals who had not committed any crimes against the party or the Soviet Government.

However, his rule was not a smooth one, as parts of the Party criticized him of being too liberal, and also anti-Stalin, was in that time Stalin was still famous. Khrushchev only silenced this criticism after the Space Program began, and the Space Race after. In addition to it, the Berlin Crisis weakened the Soviet Union as Kaliningrad had reclaimed not only in German hands but also renamed it to Konigsberg, completely joked at the Soviet’s struggle in the victory against the Axis.


Nikita Khrushchev
First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1953 - 1962)

His political struggle ended in 1962 when the inevitable party dispute ended up the moderate politician to be toppled by his comrade, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov. Molotov was the principal Soviet signatory of the German-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939 (also known as the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact), whose most important provisions were added in the form of a secret protocol that stipulated an invasion of Poland and partition of its territory between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. Stalin ever ousted him in 1949 and lost favours, but that didn’t stop Molotov to continue to support his policies.

When Molotov became the successor of the filthy Khrushchev, as what he thought about the man, Molotov re-implemented Stalinist policies, such as the gulag, and a possible cultural revolution. He intended to wipe out any remaining liberal opposition, completely foreshadowing what Khrushchev had done. But, his harsh throwbacks resulted in him to being assassinated just a few months after, in October 1962.


Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov
First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1962)

It was a helicopter crash somewhere from Moscow to a classified KGB station near the city, but there was sabotage done involving the pilots. The KGB announced no involvement in this incident, but several links were connecting to the new KGB leader, Boris Kapustin. Nevertheless, Molotov’s successor was Nikolai Ignatov according to the Communist Party. Nikolai was a pragmatic and compromise individual. With these traits, he succeeded in mending all ends and reuniting the party again as a whole. Conveniently, his rise also caused the silent but deadly rise of the Comintern. Ignatov, especially after 1965, had already made contacts with former NATO member Turkey, promising great friendship for better Bosporus Strait access. Ignatov was also repairing Soviet’s relation with Tito’s Yugoslavia, and possibly attracting the Balkan hegemon back as Slavic brothers, although France was playing it difficult.


Nikolai Ignatov
First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1962-1969)

In addition to it, Ignatov surprisingly opened relations to the fundamentalist absolute monarchy of Saudi Arabia, and also many Horn of African countries. As Britain had withdrawn from former Italian colonies since 1955, there were independent nations willingly to side with emerging blocs, the Soviet Union as one of them. Ignatov’s other completion, other than politics, was improving the Space Race as a neck-to-neck battle, constantly giving the Americans a threat that the Soviet Union would win. There were substantial wins, as the first probe to the moon, the first animal in space, and the first-ever satellite tracking program, much of it would become the GPS as in the 21st century.

Ignatov’s golden age ended when he died unsuspectedly of heart failure in 1969. Much of the nation’s shock, Ignatov was given a proper burial and sanctified as one of the martyrs of true communism, and a hero the Soviet Union deserved. Ignatov, before his death, had appointed his heir, and the man was Yuri Andropov.


Yuri Andropov
First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1969- TBA)

After former KGB reigned in 1969, Andropov only wanted to continue Ignatov’s legacy, and just go with the flow. In 1971, as the United States landed on the Moon, the Soviet Union quickly regained its feet from disdain and launched Cosmos-14 on April 4th, 1972. Yuri had stressed to the superpower of the Atlantic that Russia will not succumb to the capitalist win in any way, and will continue to fight. His move strengthened communist revolutions abroad, such as in Congo, divided yet still flamed on, in Nicaragua, where the Sandinistas continue to repel American forces from Panama. In East Asia however, the seizure of Mongolia devastated the Sino-Soviet friendship, and start the split. India was still a confused child between supporting China or the Soviet Union. Also, the Soviet Union was watching on Iran as well, as the kingdom had a Pakistani friend, and closing with the United States.

Outside of the Soviet Union, the Warsaw Pact was relatively peaceful even in turbulent moments in Moscow. There was minor insurgence in Hungary and Romania, both ended up with a quick stomp-down. But, looking in the inside, Poland, part of the Soviet Union, was staging a national rebellion. The nation had a humiliating partition for the most time in history, and the people were fed up either by the federal kingdom or the communist power. In the meantime, the Polish populace was also divided into two, the first side was a pro-German option, particularly in Poznan and Silesia, mainly because of German propaganda. The Prussian region, the one cutting Poland into the Baltic Sea, was Polish mainly, and yet having a major development rather than the oppressed Soviet parts.

After the Belgian Anarchist Resurgence, Poland had a new platform to fight for, and immediately just follow with it. the labours enacted a strike in Warsaw, and start the Vistula Spring, or in some cases the Dark Vistula Movement. The separatist manages to retake the entire Warsaw city, and push even until Katowice, and the Soviet Union counter attacked.

A long story short, the counter-attack ended up in a failure, as the Bug River proved to be the perfect defence the rebels had from the Soviet Union. The terrain Poland had was not capable enough of thwarting the Polish separatist. In 1974, the Polish Liberation Forces called the United Nation for a peaceful resolution, ended up in rejection due to angering the Soviet posture.

The terrible weakness the Soviet Union had shown after Poland had surprisingly held on had destabilized the Warsaw Pact as a whole. There was another wave of uprisings in Hungary, Romania, and now even Bulgaria included. Andropov laughed at a surrender option but considering he had plans elsewhere, Poland had become a ruckus for Soviet’s continuation. The Khrushchev’s plan of partition Poland had become a rough homework for the leader after. It was extremely positive that the Polish people hated the Soviet Union, and the decades of the direct rule only worsen the conditions. The people slyly worked underground and spewed up when the timing was right.

Andropov was also considering ally with the devil (the Germans), as Poland was assisted by French diplomatically. That pesky nation was attempting to change communism as their hands. Everything was chaotic on every side of the world, and nothing was certain.


After this, we would see France attempts to enter the Cold War, becoming a Tripartite Cold War. A battle between the capitalist United States, pseudo-liberal communism (maybe social-democracy) France, and authoritarian communism Soviet Union. All I can say that Africa, Middle East, and Latin America would be contested grounds, while Asia, particularly East Asia, was having a surprise on its own.

Next chapter would summarize the end of the crises in Europe, and maybe marked a new stage of the Cold War.
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Finlandization of warsaw pact is the better way for SU to maintain their position without wasting their resources.
And also

Indonesian Leaders
The Leadership of Indonesia (1945-...)

Presidents and Vice Presidents of Indonesia

NoPresidentPartyTermVice PresidentPartyTerm
1SoekarnoPartai Nasional Indonesia18 August 1945 – 13 July 1949 (Arrested by the Dutch since 19 December 1948)Mohammad HattaPartai Nasional Indonesia18 August 1945 – 13 July 1949 (Arrested by the Dutch since 19 December 1948)
(Emergency Government of Indonesia)
Syafruddin PrawiranegaraPartai Nasional Indonesia19 December 1948 – 13 July 1949Vacant--
1aSoekarnoPartai Nasional Indonesia13 July 1949 – 27 December 1949Mohammad HattaPartai Nasional Indonesia13 July 1949 – 27 December 1949
1b (United States of Indonesia)SoekarnoPartai Nasional Indonesia27 December 1949 – 15 August 1950Vacant--
1c (Unitary Republic, later Federal Republic of Indonesia)SoekarnoPartai Nasional Indonesia17 August 1950 – 1 June 1955Mohammad HattaIndependent (Later Partai Persatuan Pembangunan)17 August 1950 – 1 June 1955
1dSoekarnoPartai Komunis Indonesia1 December 1955 - 1 September 1963 (resigned)Muhammad NatsirFront Persatuan Kaum Turban1 June 1955 - 21 August 1963 (died)
2 (Interim Government)WilopoPartai Nasional Indonesia1 September 1963 - 6 January 1964Vacant--
3 (1964 Constitution)Abdul Harris NasutionPartai Indonesia Raya6 January 1964 - 6 January 1969Jenderal Tahi Bonar SimatupangPartai Indonesia Raya6 January 1964 - 6 January 1969
3aAbdul Harris NasutionPartai Indonesia Raya6 January 1969 - 20 October 1973Dr. KH. Idham ChalidPartai Nasional Indonesia6 January 1969 - 20 October 1973
3b (1973 Constitution)Abdul Harris NasutionPartai Nasional IndonesiaRaya20 October 1973 - 20 October 1978Seat Abolished--
4SoebandrioPartai Persatuan Pembangunan20 October 1978 - 20 October 1988---
5Soesilo SoedarmanPartai Persatuan Pembangunan20 October 1988-...---

Prime Ministers / Premiers of Indonesia

NoPrime Minister / PremierPartyTermDeputy Prime Minister / Vice PremierPartyTerm
1Sutan SjahrirPartai Sosialis IndonesiaI (14 November 1945 - 12 Maret 1946)
II (12 Maret 1946 - 2 Oktober 1946)
III (2 Oktober 1946 - 3 Juli 1947)
2Amir SjariffoedinPartai Sosialis IndonesiaI (3 Juli 1947 - 11 November 1947)
II ( 11 November 1947 -29 January 1948)
I (Adenan Kapau Gani,
Setyadjit Soegondo )
II (Adenan Kapau Gani
Setyadjit Soegondo
Raden Sjamsoedin
Independent (Gani)
Partai Sosialis Indonesia (Soegondo)
Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia (Sjamsoedin, Wondoamiseno)

I (3 Juli 1947 - 11 November 1947)
II ( 11 November 1947 -29 January 1948)
3 (United States of Indonesia)Drs. Mohammad HattaPartai Nasional Indonesia29 Januari 1948 - 6 September 1950Syariffudin PrawiranegaraPartai Sosialis Indonesia4 Agustus 1949 - 20 December 1949
4WilopoPartai Nasional IndonesiaI (27 January 1951 - 1 June 1955)
II (1 June 1955 - 6 January 1964)
I (Sukarni)
II (Hatta)
Murba (Sukarni)
Hatta (Partai Persatuan Pembangunan)
I (27 January 1951 - 1 June 1955)
II (1 June 1955 - 6 January 1964)
3b (Changed into Premier)Drs. Mohammad HattaPartai Persatuan Pembangunan6 January 1964 - 6 January 1970Seat Abolished--
5Letjen SoehartoPartai Indonesia Raya6 January 1970 - 20 October 1973Seat Abolished--
6SubandrioPartai Persatuan Pembangunan20 October 1973 - 20 October 1978Muhammad Ibrahim DjoyoputroPartai Persatuan Pembangunan20 October 1973 - 20 October 1978
7Lee Kuan YewPartai Persatuan Pembangunan20 October 1978-15 August 1986Musa HitamPartai Persatuan Pembangunan20 October 1978-15 August 1986
8Musa HitamPartai Persatuan Pembangunan15 August 1986-16 October 1987I Muhammad Soerya
II Mahatir Mohammad
Partai Persatuan PembangunanI 15 August 1986-27 June 1987
II 27 June 1987-16 October 1987
9Mahatir MohammadPartai Persatuan Pembangunan16 October 1987-...I Heru HendrawanPartai Persatuan Pembangunan16 October 1987-...
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10.5. Apex of Chaos: Stories
23rd December 1973

For Dean Rusk, the instance the Wallonia Socialist Republic was declared, the situation was evolving into another proxy war. Georges Marchais, according to every French an isolationist, was not portrayed as such. The United Nations immediately intervened for peaceful negotiations. To worsen things, the Walloons were winning and demanded their status of independence. Giving Wallonia their freedom meant a complete dissolution of the country that had been liberated centuries before, Belgium would cease to exist. And also, in case of that, the German Speaking Community of Wallonia would demand separation as well, maybe joining their larger brother.

In Poland, things had gone very sour as well. The Soviet Union, after annexing the bunch at May 1st 1962, the hatred had fired as revolution, and the anarchist ideology was used as only for freedom purposes. Khrushchev’s failed attempt on making Germany a socialist republic cost his leadership and possible would also to current Andropov. Hungary and Romania were revolting again, and if only the madness stopped, there was nothing the Soviet Union could go without chaos.

With that reason also, the Soviet Union sought the United Nation to interfere with the problems in Europe, possible ending them with a better truce. The United Nations was also busy, as the Cypriot Crisis was still a deadlock and Israel’s exodus was still a thing. Nicaragua was fighting the United States as well, but the US obstructed the organization for further involvement, saying that it was ‘their backyard to solve’.

Today, the first-ever conference would be held in Luxembourg for the Belgian Crisis, which was meant to be a middle ground between EEC-led Germany and France. Although EEC was an economic-based regional organization, most of its members had sent troops to help to pacify the Walloon rebels.

A month later, another conference would be held in the Czechoslovakian nation of Ostrava city. Possibly, if not hopefully, the Poland Crisis would end there.

Dean Rusk sighed, so much for world peace.


Central America, Europe and Africa were burning with their wars. South America was transforming into a military continent. The only seemed peaceful was only East Asia, as everything West of India was brewing a greater religious and interest of conflicts. China, and India, and even the split nations of Korea and Indochina, was eerily peaceful.

It was not the long-lasting calm as anyone dared to hope. Especially Indochina and Korea, those were extremely tense. A short but annoying conflict by North and South Indochina in 1972 resulted with 17th Parallel as the nation’s demilitarized zone. The standoff had gotten interesting as the Kingdom of Indochina, literally now Laos, had been having an unpleasant coup ended up incorporated by the Hanoi government. The situation was also deteriorating as China allows North Indochina to be inside its camp, forming some sort of a pact.

North Korea, however, was so destroyed by the latest Korean War that maybe with Kim Il Sung’s death, his son would not enjoy his reign anymore. As Pyongyang had become South Korea, the Hermit Kingdom had nothing to support on, populously, geographically and politically outnumbered by Seoul. China was not holding North Korea as well, as they had a new toy of Mongolia, and was trying the huge game with Myanmar, so then they could strengthen ties with India.

In August 1972, the inevitable had happened to North Korea, Kim Jong Il was overthrown by General Park Song Chul, which unanimously transferred the government to the South, which was a state of the junta by Park Chung Hee. Similar to what had happened in Germany, Korea had become unified again, and the winners of the unification once again were their capitalist liberal counterparts.

Upon seeing this, North Indochina had commenced numerous reforms for fighting against the South. As the trends had spoken, the communist party intended to not restart the nature in North of Indochina. Tôn Đức Thắng, the successor of Ho Chi Minh, had maybe begun the Cultural Revolution, killing every right-wing supporter and anti-government supporters, and giving a cult of personality for the party. Millions of alleged traitors were killed and buried massively in a mass burial, possible on Lao Region.

North Indochina was also attempting to just be under China’s armpit, as South Indochina was trying to secure its United States’ dependency. North Indochina must fear Indonesia however, as few turns of events trying to isolate them.

Nasution, after approval from their Indonesian Senate, had approved a possible South East Asian organization to be established. Manai Sophiaan and Adam Malik were invited to Manila’s government of a possible economic and defensive pact. In November 1973, Manila had agreed on forming that, and next year, they would be going to Thailand. The Indonesians were not closing to South Indochina, as that would increase the ongoing straw between two nations, possibly inviting China, something Indonesia did not want.

The South was industrializing also, as the agrarian sector was helped by problems in India. Gandhi had requested much South-East Asian rice because of a deadly flood inflicting damage on the fertile Indus Valley. The Indian General Disaster of 1972 inflicting both ends of India. The North had a huge flood that killed the food production, while in Chennai a heavy cyclone stroke and end the vibrancy of the city. Although the government had mitigated successfully, food remained scarce and needed to import.

With that, Saigon had satisfied with their rice sustainability and was shifting their eyes into industrialization. The North, however, was trying to secure power.

That what was in the minds of Lee Kwan Yew, who had become the governor for Federal District of Singapore.
It seem strange that SU will call UN aid to solve the union "internal" problem

It is connected with problems in Belgium.

I would agree that SU would just take matters in their own hands, but the SU wants the UN to maybe interfere more on the fiasco in Europe, maybe, let's say, to neglect on other parts of the world?
It is connected with problems in Belgium.

I would agree that SU would just take matters in their own hands, but the SU wants the UN to maybe interfere more on the fiasco in Europe, maybe, let's say, to neglect on other parts of the world?
Now that clear thing ups, I thought SU want the UN to solve Poland and Romanian issue
11.1. Rivalry: A Review of Nasution's Presidency So Far
1973: The Beginning of the PPP-(PNI-R) Tug-of-War Part 1

To visualize what the hell Nasution did in the third term, we must take notice of his terms before. His terms before were not enclosing his area of work because of Parindra's steering most of Indonesia's both foreign and domestic policies. Therefore, Nasution was a democratic dictator then.

The first term was the infrastructure period, a reconstruction program. Nasution allocated a massive percentage of the national budget into building roads and rails. He was inspired by Eisenhower’s Highway and intended to copy that in Indonesia. As a result, he started the Trans-Java Infrastructure Program (TJIP). TJIP was a combined infrastructure program that was been building on the island of Java. TJIP was designed to connect Jakarta and Surabaya, both ends of Java. The project was divided into several stages. Firstly, the entire Java must be connected with railways and highways. The railways, so far already had a two-way one rail track, which was expanded into one-way two rail tracks. The highway, or a toll road, as Nasution wanted a fee entry, would be a two-way two-lane road.


The TSIP near Padang, 1990

The next project was the Trans-Sumatra Infrastructure Program, which was TJIP with the location not in Java, but in Sumatra. Nasution wanted to improve Sumatra and Java into a better, sophisticated island, with better living conditions and life expectancy. Nasution also proposed building a Trans-Papua Infrastructure Program, but the funds were driven full for the first two projects that TPIP was eventually neglected. Building TJIP and TSIP was not a cheap outline, as the government had tried their best, they need to still split the budget so to keep other sectors running. Therefore, Nasution had sought investors, domestic and foreign, into building the roads.

There were other events in the first term besides building roads and rails. At that time, Nasution empowered an expansion of the Armed Forces. Although the intervention was not likeable in Indonesia, Nasution was trying to encourage militarist actions abroad. With simple argumentation, the war brings jobs, especially when the war did not come to the homeland. War production on helping the ideological cause could boost more of the economy Indonesia need for exponential growth.

The second term was literally how Nasution tried to empower the military, and also promoting Suharto’s Blue Revolution. Blue Revolution was all but another name for the predecessor’s Green Revolution. Suharto spoke for an expansion of the Indonesian Armed Forces, firstly the Navy and the Army, so the expanding national extent could be protected. Secondly, Jakarta was still struggling to patrol the Malaccan Straits.

Other projects, exotic ones as Nasution thought, was confidential even to the highest levels of the government. Only some remained known about the Sabuk Biru project, especially in Pulau Lingga and Pulau Bangka. The project would remain off the Assembly tables until 1977 and half of completion.

In his second term also, with the help of Suharto, the DPR passed the Cendana Grants Bill. Originated from Nasution talks with Suharto at the latter’s house in Cendana, the bill simplified major regulations needed for corporations, and also giving them fewer tax compulsories. Companies like Berdikari, Samudera Indonesia, and Nusantara Jaya had evolved as contesting giants. All three of them stood out as the Indonesian companies of the 1970s because of textile industries.

Berdikari, established by the Sjahsono Brothers, was initially a family business from the streets in Daan Mogot, Cengkareng. In 1960, Sjahsono owned a significant amount of land in Cengkareng and leased it to foreign investments for creating a textile company. As the first-ever established textile factory, Berdikari expanded to create one complex of manufacturing industry, creating clothes, beds, and other fabrics. The dangerous bargain had become a humongous profit for them.


Berdikari Branch in Solo, 1970


One of Berdikari's textile industries, Cengkareng, 1977

Samudera Indonesia was a shipment industry, Soedarpo Sastrosatomo created the company back in 1966, during the Nasution’s first term. The company started transporting two routes: Jakarta-Surabaya and Jakarta-Malaka. But, in 1970, the company immediately had a very strategic shipping lane, which was Madagaskar. Fortunately for Indonesia, Madagaskar had more rice production than the island needs, so it may ship more rice to the much larger Republik Nusantara, as a result, these federal states announced their bilateral agreement, on giving rice for the industry. Samudera Indonesia became their primary artery of transportation, providing ship lanes directly to Madagaskar and vice-versa.

Nusantara Jaya, unlike the previous two, had a more ambitious and controversial sector. The company held massive palm oil plantations that were ready to be extracted. Starting in 1971, the new company grew exponentially as they found a place in Sumatra that palm oil loved to grow. Remained the only palm oil corporation, Nusantara Jaya remained as profitable as palm oil could be. Nasution’s second term was full of corporatist expansion, and more on monopolistic trading. The result of it was a worrying growth of corruption inside the system, in the Assembly with businessmen. However, that disadvantage was later curbed by Subandrio’s first term.

As Nasution won the election the third time, his policies were becoming more foreign-driven. As the first two was mainly building the interior, in the third term he wanted Indonesia to be more of a major player in the world. At first and second, he only wished for America’s backing and stayed in the comfort zone. On this occasion, however, he sought for changes.

Nasution had remembered himself to have not another Madagaskar problem. So, he intended to withdraw more friendship to France and instead tried curbing French influence by giving their rivals entry to Indonesia, which was the Federal Kingdom of Germany. Elected King of Germany, King Albrect I, or Duke of Bavaria, had informed an informal yet knowing alliance with the United States. With that, Germany formed the Berlin Pact, which was NATO without Britain and France. The United States agreed to form this military pact because of the impending threat both east and west for Germany. Furthermore, Germany thrived at inviting neutral Scandinavians in the fold, something that Shafer found amusing.


King Albrecht I (III if you count the HRE's elected kings)
Elected King of Germany (1969-1974)

Having more ties with Germany will ultimately lead to more Dutch associations, which still had a bad memory in many Indonesians. Also, the United Kingdom was rumoured to be part of this, something the entire nation completely objected to. Therefore, he devised two alternate plans, which was Iran and Argentina. Argentina was chosen ultimately because of its proximity. Madagaskar is Indonesian, and Africa was not ready to do serious business with Indonesia. The perpetual warfare, crisis, and political standoff had prevented them from even having prominence. South Africa was so far the most stable, but it was because of the genocide happening in the region. So, Argentina was their nearest choice, also suitable for connecting with the United States more.

Unfortunately, there was nothing that Indonesia could bargain with Argentina other than just good names. But, Nasution and Videla were friends, and they intended to apply it to the whole nation. In 1975, all both of the governments can deal upon was a joint-research agreement for biotechnology and astronomy, which was still at a minimum.

Iran, on the other hand, was entirely political. India and Saudi Arabia was threatening the United States and must have immediate counters. Iran was a suitable candidate, and Iran was also allying with Pakistan, which made things more interesting. Starting in 1974, Indonesia offered cultural sharing with their Iranians. Although the Shia-Sunni rivalry was still prominent, both nations relinquished their simple mindset for their survival.

Nasution, in the third term, was more of ranking up to the next level from a rather boring presidency. In addition to it, Subandrio had also spice things up, with several of his ambitious plans.


The next chapter would be about a shocking situation in America. But before that, I would like to give you the 1972 elections first.


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