What do you think about this thread?

  • Awesome!!

    Votes: 49 62.8%
  • Okay...

    Votes: 23 29.5%
  • Meh...

    Votes: 4 5.1%
  • It's Bad

    Votes: 2 2.6%

  • Total voters
    78
Opening Post
[Taken from the Election Game of the same title, aside from several edits]

Emerald of the Equator: An Indonesian TL


After a series of devastating colonial rule, with Japan the most current, and another Allied invasion who tried to restore the Dutch East Indies. Indonesia can finally relax, and its independence is finally undisturbed for years to come. However, this nation also evolves around fragile unity. The young nation, only five years of age, has already fought two major rebellions, one the extinguished Communist and the ongoing Islamic revolt. The struggle is real for Indonesia and will be for years to come. Once the nation ever became a federation, but today will be no more.

The dissolution of the United States of Indonesia gave way for once more, a unitary state of Indonesia. But despite returning its unitary form, Indonesia implements a parliamentary republic, to adopt a more democratic approach. Sukarno condemns this type of government, criticise as “bourgeois selfish plan on owning the striving society” and “Western methods destroying people’s will”. If this parliament disappointed him, he probably could disband it once and for eternity, which would result in him as a sole dictator. However, by this parliament also, is the only era where Indonesia has ever had pure democracy, and its dissolution OTL led into the death of freedom of opinion for decades to come.

As an outsider, Indonesia is seen as a pariah nation. Only the South East Asian region would have noticed this nation, as everyone is seemingly focused on the ongoing Korean War. But then, there are several cases and figures stated that someday, somewhen, the nation suppressed by centuries of colonial oppression, could be a new power, considering population-wise and land wise.

As stated in the Election Game, 1950-1955 underwent a major reconstruction in physical infrastructure and political stability. Which Indonesian people called it as "Reconstruction Era". The Wilopo Administration has succeeded in infrastructure, agrarian and political policies, and also winning in gaining a major status in the tensed world. Although the military is highly problematic during his term, Wilopo has slight success in the sea, forming the Coast Guard and manage to reduce piracy. In this year, 1955, the nation will hold a general election and also a Non-Block Summit.

As comparing with OTL, this decade, the 50s, was the worst ever decade Indonesia would ever have had. The decade of political coups, throwbacks and resistance all over the place, and a stagnation in all aspects. However, how will you all contribute to the future of this nation? Would Indonesia become a resounding regional power? Or it will become another battleground on the seemingly frightful Cold War?

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Welcome to Emerald of The Equator Timeline, a continuation of an unsuccessful Election Game of the same title. The starting date would be 6th of January 1955, day of the election. I'm SkylineDreamer. the creator of this thread, I have many ideas for this but certainly expecting mistakes and proceed with this thread by experience and sturdiness.

In this thread, I intend to have a certain finish line, as a never-ending timeline never receive the love more than not. Besides, I'd get bored of the Timeline, and maybe stop before it finished, which usually irritates my inner traits of always having a job finished. My finish line for this thread is either Indonesia became a great power, which I will plan it around the 2100 year.

Mistakes will surely happen, although I'll try hard in reducing it.

If you want to know about the 1950-1955 year, check out on the Election Game.

However, before my timeline begin. I'll surely start with a prelude to 1955.

I'll post weekly, although maybe I'll not be punctual due to some work here and there.
 
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1955 Prelude
It's 1955, five years after we implement the Parliamentary Democracy for Indonesia. We had become the Federal Republic of Indonesia, now comprises of 12 states (Aceh, Batak, Banjar, Banyumas, Mataram, Demak, Maluku, Palembang, Majapahit, Dayak, Pasundan and Irian Jaya). In these 5 years, the Assembly has worked hard into finishing the Constitution draft into enactment. After the dissolution of the Dutch-invention of United States of Indonesia. The archipelago nation has progressed rapidly. What once a crippled nation due to years of war and resistance has finally stood firm. In addition to it, the nation was so firm that rice self-sufficient may be fulfilled this year.

indonesiapre1955map.png

[Indonesia Map]​

This year there are two long term programs conducted by the program, the first was "Be Dependent to Stand at Our Own Feet" or in Indonesian it was called Berdikari. After the Assembly rejected an Independent economic policy, which will surely be the end of Indonesia. The Assembly vote yes of Independent political policy granted Indonesia to not being screwed by two great opposite powers, United States and the Soviet Union. In addition to it, Berdikari gave nearly half of the budget into building roads, which now the Jakarta Ring Road is being built.

In the next program, the military program was not so successful, the "Reaffirm the National Strength" had been a controversial program, as it seems only the Coast Guards have the high tide, while the rest suffered setbacks. Two continuous projects, the Suwiryo and Wardoyo, had caused the rice production to grow rapidly and resurfacing the plantation in line. Education has also improved slightly, although still far from enough literacy rate.

One thing that the nation is hyped at is the Election of 1955. Labelled as the first-ever direct election to the people, the 1955 election was the first ever that people of Indonesia can vote for their leaders. The election had been done in 1950, but it was done only around the cities and certain uptown regions. Nevertheless, now the election will be held nationally, and 7 parties are contesting the election, which is: [Taking from the old thread]

Indonesia National Party
Indonesia Communist Party
Progressive Union Party
Socialist Party of Indonesia
Turban Unity Front
Party of Greater Indonesia
Eastern Coalition Front

Indonesia National Party (INP)

Indonesian National Party is one of the oldest and largest parties in Indonesia, with the Communist Party in second. The National Party promoted Pancasila as their highest ideology, although they tend to lean towards secularism and pure-nationalism. Surprisingly, this right-wing party is tolerant of all races and religions. The party is led by Wilopo, and a certain co-tender calls Sijik Djojosukarto will maybe claim the throne.

Indonesia Communist Party (ICP)
Indonesian Communist Party is the second-largest left-wing party in Indonesia. The party held communist ideas base of China's Mao, and greatly influence many farmers and workers in Java. They promote secularism and internationalism. It is not a surprise that the party is the largest radical left party in Indonesia, only fails to surpass the big Socialist Party of Indonesia. Aidit is the sole leader of this party due to its flaring speech.

Progressive Union Party (PUP)
Progressive Union Party is a new party established by Indonesian who has studied abroad. This party bases of intellects are mainly inspired by Theodore Roosevelt. The party support Progressivism, although they usually support anything about infrastructure and science. The party held a great majority of scholars and teachers, especially in major cities and post-Jogja territories. Led by Hatta, the party is predicted to have a significant portion later.

Socialist Party of Indonesia (SPI)
The Socialist Party of Indonesia is a merger from itself and Murba Party, the party famous for Tan Malaka. The party encourage socialism but despise communism. In industrial regions, this party usually made provoke by the Communist, and often fight ensues. The now largest left-wing in Indonesia has great support in the middle class, and struggle in the prols due to the presence of the Communist Party. The party is led by Adam Malik.

Turban Unity Front (TUF)
Sees their failures in the 1950 election, all the conservative ulamas form a united front. The name "Turban" get associated because they used it in every conference. A fragile coalition by Muhammadiyah and Nahdatul Ulama, the TUF struggle for Islamism and Conservatism, and greatly influence major Islamic strongholds in Eastern Java. The leader for this front is Mohammad Natsir.

[Second] Party of Greater Indonesia (PGI)
This party although the name is the same as the former Party of Greater Indonesia, a splinter of PNI in the 1920s. This new party is formed as a counter to the TUF. The Protestants, Catholics and Chinese minorities joined hands into forming this party. The party strangely advance ultra-nationalism, racial and faith equalism and even recommend imperialism. This party has influence regions with a large minority like Moluccas, North Sumatra and Central Java. The party is led by a charismatic Ignatius Joseph Kasimo Hendrowahyono, and after the miraculous Christian victory in 1950, he will try for a second trial.

Eastern Coalition Front (ECF)

As a compromise to the Eastern peace, this regionalist party holds a great factor in Eastern Indonesia. They encompass the whole Eastern Region, although only the Moluccan Muslims supported there, as the Christians mainly support the PGI. Led by the defunct Tidorean Sultanate Zainal Abidin Syah, the party will try for national status.

The Indonesian region is widely split. In Sumatra, the winners would mainly be the INP, while there will be a little portion of PUP and TUF, although with Aceh stripped off its political rights would weaken the TUF. But then we would also expect a PGI base in Medan and Batam regions. In Java, the voters get very diverse. In a more educated metropolis like Bogor, Bandung and Jogja will be a PUP stronghold, while the much larger ones like Surabaya, Semarang and Jakarta would mainly split between INP, ICP and SPI. It would be even chaotic in the rural, as it would be a four side battle, between INP, ICP, SPI and TUF. Bali and Lesser Sundas would mainly support the PGI with little ECF voters. Borneo is a boring island, as it would be an INP undisputed island, while Celebes would be a split between ECF, PGI and INP battle, and lastly the ECF and PGI battle in Moluccas and Papua.

In the presidential candidate, Sukarno stays high above all of its opponents. His popularity is undisputed in the region and maybe increase more. However, his leaning towards Communism has led the majority of the parties upset, except the PCI of course. He need not give a flaring speech or so because his heroic stances during the Revolutionary War had given him the public he needs.

sukarno.jpg

[Sukarno during his visit to Paris, it's just a friendship meeting that led nowhere]

However, his fatal flaw of siding more and more into the Communists led Hatta to reject his vice-presidency to Sukarno and make his move, rising to the presidency. This Sumatran man would discern his old friend as "getting redder than ever" and this Communist Phobia has become his main campaign. He would go into major religious regions like Western Sumatra, Mataram and East Indonesia to say that Communism has become a threat of Indonesia's democracy, and someday those reds could staged a coup and kill democracy one and for all.

hatta.jpg

[Hatta in his house, discussing the 'Red Menace']

There should be the third candidate of Wilopo. His good term as Prime Minister causes him to think more into rising into Presidential status but step down instantly as the news stated that many of left-leaning parties had voted for Sukarno, which endangers INP too.

Speaking, the General Election will be held on the 6th of January and 6th of March, while all inauguration ceremonies will be held on the 22nd of June each election year. 6th of January will be a legislative election. 6th of March will be the presidential election. The new year has passed, it is only five days until the election. Surely, they are prepared.
 
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I don't think I ever tell you about this. But I purposedly diminished so to reduce chances of being monstrously big in the thread.

It is some kind a new feature to me, but you can enlarge the picture by clicking it.
 
You know. It's kind of weird to have one minister in 50-55 term. IOTL, it's four.

EDIT:

And btw, Indonesia will have its own Vietnam War.
 
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1955 Election Part 1: Narrative
Actually, my guess is the Nahdatul Ulama did this on purpose. I'll never trust those guys again!!!
-Mohammad Natsir-

I really got lucky this time, first time into politics and my party gets third.
-Retired Major General Bambang Soegeng-


The 1955 Legislative Election really went off from the expectations. As we see a great victory from the Party of Greater Indonesia. The youngest party made by only a fuse of minorities gained even more during the election, surpassing both the Communists and Socialists but fall slim to the Turban majority. Officially the third largest party in Indonesia, the PGI would be nicknamed as the "Rocket Party", derived from its rocket rise. The party would become a great annoyance especially to the Communists, as the fundamental ideas of the PGI really negates the Marxist-Leninist and the Communists value the ICP has.

The Indonesian National Party, gaining slim quarter of the nation, has become the largest party in Indonesia. The Wilopo administration has helped greatly to increase party popularity, especially in the Java regions, where infrastructure building are tense. Held a majority in major Banyumas regions, the INP still held their breath as their rival, the TUF does came in 2nd.

Turban Front has had high expectations. The leader, Natsir, had hoped that the party should gain both the East and West of Java, and the entirely of South Sulawesi and West Sumatra. However, what they see is a complete disaster. West Sumatra is overran by the Progressives and the Socialists. South Sulawesi is nowhere near, as the Socialists gain a massive victory there. INP is still gaining a few regions in West and East Java, while the PGI really crushed any dreams of gaining Majapahit majority.

I guess the rest gets slim on around 10%, the ICP, SPI and the PUP gain similar seats, with PUP, SPI and ICP in seat count order. Although different in few seats, three of these parties will gain major attention throughout the 50s.

The ECF, predictable, only gain seats around the Eastern Borders, thus gaining the least seats of the rest. They won't get any seats in Jakarta, but they'll gain many seats in their majority regions.

1955 Results:

Total Votes : 38,403,569 voters


Indonesia National Party - 9,646,957 votes - 25,12%
Indonesia Communist Party - 4,662,175 - 12,14%
Progressive Union Party - 4,965,564 - 12,93%
Socialist Party of Indonesia - 4,727,463 - 12,31%
Turban Unity Front - 7,192,972 votes - 18,73%
Party of Greater Indonesia - 6,939,506 votes - 18,07%
Eastern Coalition Front - 268,932 votes - 0,70%


The Legislatives are over, now it's time to form the Assembly and Konstituante.

1955 Election (3).png
indonesiae1955map.png
 
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1955 Election Part 2: TUF
By the end of January. The TUF party had certainly failed to reach its initial expectations. What was the only party based by Islam, the religion that ruled Indonesia, failed to even reach higher than 20% of the vote. In addition to it, the TUF has its tails bitten by none other than the PGI, a party that was based on Christianity, a minority. The failures TUF has done is mainly about two events.

ONE

The party had always had clashed between its Traditionalist and Purist wings. The Traditionalists, led mainly by the NU (Nahdatul Ulama)s, consists of Ulamas strived for Islam a-la Indonesia. They viewed Indonesia diverse cultures with thick Hindu and Buddhism influence. Therefore, an Islam that suitable for this nation is an Islam that both belief in Muhammad and respects older cultures that already thrived here.

images.jpeg.jpg

NU talks in Jombang

In the other end, we have the Purist. Purist are those who demand Islam as it is in The Middle East, which means the older cultures that have evolved in Indonesia must be eradicated and erased, and the culture of the Middle East must thrive. In West Sumatra, people call these Purists as Paderi. However, in Java, they called themselves as Muhammadiyah. The purists, know that they can’t persuade the older generation, decide to assert influence by educating the young generation.

images.jpeg-1.jpg

Muhammadiyah gatherings in Jakarta. Some people say that Muhammadiyah presence in Masyumi is so great that we could say that Muhammadiyah is Mayumi.

Both NU and Muhammadiyah established in the Dutch era, but with cunning strategies of Muhammadiyah, they had twice of more followers than the NU. Nevertheless, NU still had a great influence on Eastern Java, as Jombang is its base. The Communist rebellion in Madiun1948 had also led NU into growing more influence in the region.

For years, purist has tried to convince Eastern Java. Alas, they had a hard time, and it gets even harder.

On 13 November of 1954, the TUF had held its Extraordinary Congress in Bandung. Congress mainly discuss the party’s future visions. Although it started peacefully, Congress took a dark turn when a certain former Masyumi declared a provocative speech.

“Friends of Islam, the 1955 Election must be in our hands. We, based on Islam, must certainly reach a level of fighting against the INP. However, I intend to declare something to you all. In last September, the leader of the NU had contacted the PGI. They said that the NU will cooperate and joining the coalition of Christianity to fight this radical mena…”

Before he could finish his sentence. TUF Congress has sparked into riots. NU fights against the Masyumi for declaring such falsehood. The TUF was clearly in disarray. Scholars still didn’t know if the statement is true, or it is just pure provocation. Nevertheless, the dye is cast.

NU abandoned the TUF, left Eastern Java and Borneo with no political party. NU couldn’t be qualified into the election, as it would be held in two months. The leader KH Abdul Wahab Chasbullah declared that NU partisans may vote other parties of choice, except the TUF. The Kalimantan Nus have great leniency towards PNI and PSI, while the PGI had infiltrated in Eastern Java. Although the Easternmost of Java remained voting TUF, NU didn’t express any hatred towards the voters, as KH Abdul Wahas Chasbullah said, “We have destroyed TUF enough, let them have a piece of klappertart.” He later regrets this as many votes in Kalimantan and Sulawesi shifted to SPI, who became another TUF ally. But he was grateful that his base in Eastern Java loves PGI and INP.
During December, TUF supporters would incite several raids, terrorism and exodus to communities with NU allegiance. Situations are so dire that the authorities set up a curfew on West Java. Cities like Bandung and Bogor are heavily militarized.

images.jpeg-2.jpg

Siliwangi Division march up in Subang, they were called by Wilopo to guard Bandung

After that, the TUF left by Purists in Sumatra, Maluku and West Java. It is still quite a large percentage, and still enough voters to manage a fight. However, things do darken during a special visit.

TWO

It’s 4 December 1954, and President Sukarno decided to pay a visit to Bandung. During the visit, Sukarno had explicitly stated that he wanted TUF in supporting him. His old party, INP, has rejected his request, throwing him out with calling him ‘red traitor’. Incidentally, it was in Bandung also. In his visit, he requests the TUF to support him. The TUF unanimously accept this offer, but Sukarno wasn’t finished. He gave a condition that the TUF must cooperate with the lefts, like the Socialists and the Communist.

This spark another chaos especially in Sumatra, as none of them wants to cooperate with leftist, moreover the Communist. The TUF, like it or not, accept this offer. By the new year, Sumatra has shifted mostly into voting the PUP or INP, although the TUF still clinging on a few provinces.

As promised, the TUF, SPI and ICP has formed a coalition, named the People Coalition. They support Sukarno ‘s re-nomination as President. The opposition parties, PUP, PGI and INP form the National Democratic Coalition. The opposition parties lead the Assembly with a majority vote. They nominate Hatta as president. Now, it is time for campaign and consolidation.
 
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1955 Election Part 3: PGI
Cited from: 2045: 100 years of Indonesia. By Prasetyo Subagio

Tensions rose after the election. The TUF followed an Islamic ideology mixed with Socialist views. Headquartered in Bogor, the party would ally itself with the Socialist prior to Presidential Election, as they have predicted that Sukarno would win the election. However, they forgot about the Rocket Party which held one more surprise up in their sleeve.

The Party of Greater Indonesia or abbreviated Parindra Baru in Indonesia had a plan. Holding a decent 18% of Indonesia population, Party of Greater Indonesia had resumed a bang with its own slogan. The slogan would be used as a battle-cry among Indonesians. Furthermore, the slogan also led Indonesia into direct war against the Red Albion.

The party’s aggressive views of Indonesia’s greatness really appealed the Armed Forces in Indonesia. Many retired commissioned Indonesian officers, which retired due to health decline and direct order of the higher power, eventually join the party. As a result, the party became aligned to the Armed Forces, especially the Army. The Army had never expanded widely as the Navy and the Coast Guards were. Their only development made was upgrading an infantry template into a more structural organization, rather than the former militant style. With the Armed Forces led by Lieutenant General TB Simatupang, an army officer, the TNI or the National Armed Forces of Indonesia become mainly upset with the Assembly, particularly the opposition of the Communist Party, which had been building an army of their own. The Coast Guard, had been stamped by the other Armed Forces as the spoilt child, became the only ones who leaned themselves to the ICP.

Suryadarma.jpg

Suyadarma, the Head of the Air Force before joining the party.

In 15th of February 1955, the PGI publicized its national slogan, “ For the Greater Glory of Indonesia” or “Demi Indonesia Raya”. The party slogan had several key points.

First, the party will support the total achievement of Greater Indonesia, which is all of the Malayan Archipelago, that includes Malaya and Papua as a whole. The key points later on described by more radicals to include also Madagascar and Suriname. Secondly, Indonesia will militarize herself, as to prevent any foreign power, either great or minor, into ever stepping Indonesian soil. Lastly, Indonesian citizens will be guaranteed pure Democracy. Pure Democracy which means that any ideology, from left to right, is allowed in Indonesia, as long as the ideology reflects the fundamental principles of Pancasila.

images.jpeg-1.jpg

Party propaganda, which linked the Anthem Indonesia Raya

The slogan reached the whole of Indonesia, excite the public. In villages across Indonesia, sympathizers increased significantly. In addition to it, regions near the Papuan borders had undergone a massive increase in border fights, as a means of liberating their Eastern brothers. Not long, the Australian government knew about this and spread to the International media.

In Western media, the slogan was condemned as Neo-Fascism and demand the retraction of the statement. The Commonwealth pleaded the United States to intervene. But the Stars and Stripes declined of intervention due to increasing tension in Berlin. Japan, however, had mixed views. The Parliament condemned the slogan, while the Emperor stays silent, secretly admired their nationalism.

In the other hand, the Comintern never really be anxious about this. They had fought Fascism once, they thought maybe let ICP would handle the problem easily. Besides, the Communist needs to fight against NATO. They mainly focused on regions like the Middle East and Europe, with South East Asia left on Chinese hands. The Chinese never really cared about it either, as they were busy in Vietnam.

The PGI would greatly influenced the nation for long. During the next few decades, Indonesia’s politics is greatly influenced by this party. Because of this party too, Indonesia will finally progress into the First Party System Era, which proceeded for decades.

By end of February, each side of the Assembly had their own pair. Sukarno teamed up with Natsir as running mate, while Hatta brought up Ali Sastroamidjojo as his vice president. The people of Indonesia were not certain who would win the election. Even until the polls had closed, the people of Indonesia still had no clue who won until the announcement was made.

natsir.jpg

Natsir
ali.jpg

Ali
 
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1955 Election Part 4: Presidential Election
"The 1955 Election was anti-climatic, but it made us into establishing the First Party System and the Constitution we all knew."
Teungku Abdul Suryadharma Ali, an Aceh Party Politician

Uniquely, nothing special really happened during the Election period. All parties campaign in harmony and riots were infrequent except the ongoing Muhammadiyah and Nahdatul Ulama. At one time, people have thought violence ended, and peace within Nusantara would last long. Outside areas of that certain conflict, less people get annoyed with rivals. INP and ICP supportes lived with harmony, PGI and TUF also able to make peaceful coexistence.

Prior to the election, Sukarno had made a charismatic campaign on all of Indonesia. With his fine speech skills, and also diplomatic strategies. Bung Karno convinced many into supporting him, even those who vote for the National Democratic Coalition. Dubbed as "The Long Trail", Sukarno made great followers in Java, especially in West and Central Java. Nonetheless, he failed to convince East Java, as the hard-lined PGI supporters already satisfy them with Hatta.

Talking about Hatta, meanwhile, never get the fame as Sukarno did. His speeches were sound, but mediocre. Besides, his weapon, which is antagonizing Sukarno as a commie, has lost its effectiveness. Again, people were assured with Sukarno, and that was final after the election.

Election Results:

Total Votes : 38,403,569 voters
Sukarno-Sukiman : 20,358,298 voters - 53,01%
Hatta-Ali : 18,045,271 voters - 46,99%


indonesiae1955president.png


Election is over. People celebrated democratically. Now, Indonesia is a divided government. The foreign section is led by People's Coalition while the domestic section is led by the National Democratic Coalition.

----------------------------
That's for the election part, the era from 1948 onwards, like OTL, is called "Liberal Democracy Era". I intend to prolong this Era until the 70s. Or at least after Kennedy (You'll know which one) is in power.

This post's a bit short, I say. But it is necessary for me to proceed into a new period of Indonesia. Btw, please also comment for my content-building and for improving my writing skills.
 
So an attempt to have a pan-Austronesian nation? From Madagascar to Taiwan, Hawaii, Easter Island, New Zealand, and the islands in between?
 
So an attempt to have a pan-Austronesian nation? From Madagascar to Taiwan, Hawaii, Easter Island, New Zealand, and the islands in between?
I really can't say as such.

Firstly, Papua New Guinea was unexpected. Indonesians thought to prefer uniting the Melayunesians first, which is Madagascar, Malaysia and Philippines.

Secondly, Indonesia is having a balance between affirming the fundamental principles of their Preamble, which promotes independence to the opressed, and their own Manifest Destiny or Pax Nusantara. As you see, expansionism does not fit with democracy. The PGI is walking on a thin line.

Lastly, Taiwan? Hawaii? No, the Indonesians are not that mad.

Nevertheless, I can't say much. Indonesia has many ways into the future, but I'll try to keep it as realistic as possible.
 
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