Dixieland: The Country of Tomorrow, Everyday (yet another Confederate TL)

I’m surprised that the black Confederate population is allowed to vote at all. And with how the USA, CSA, and France all interacted here, it would not surprise me if the WW1 analogue became a three-way conflict instead of the traditional two-way war.

The people who won the First Confederate Civil War (the current Confederate political establishment in ITL 1900) are mostly racial pragmatists, guys like Mahone, Longstreet, etc. Guys who OTL were pro-reconstruction not because they were ardent believers in racial equality, but moreso "hey, this is how it works now. Get used to it."

Their racial strategy is to basically not talk much about it, but basically do enough to be the most palatable option in Confederate society for black voters, who are mostly desperately poor, and then get those black voters on board with patronage politics (we built a school in your town, vote for us!) This also fits in with their general interventionist economics. ITL, I'd bet in polite (aka racist) company, they would probably justify this by arguing if they spend all of their effort suppressing 40% of the population, they'd be weak and divided as they were during the Spanish-Confederate War.

Obviously this is only my analysis, but it reminds me a bit of "votebanks" in India or other countries, where marginalized groups vote en masse for a certain candidate or party based on clientistic reasons, while middle-class members of the majority ethnicity view this negatively, either because they find it grossly corrupt or they just don't like the marginalized group in question (or sometimes both?). It's why the ITL "Progressives" are a mix of both hardcore racists and good government types.
 
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Chapter 115 - The US Presidential Election of 1904
The US Presidential Election of 1904
In perhaps the strangest path to a presidency ever, the election was basically over before it started. As a surprise pick to encourage bipartisan comity, President Hays selected Senator Albert Beveridge, who had run for Vice-President on the Democratic ticket against Hays in 1900, as his Navy Secretary. As Navy Secretary, Beveridge's political start would ignite after in a move that angered most Democrats, he called for the US Navy to intervene in the 1903 Confederate crisis. A former Republican who party-switched to the Democrats because he viewed them a better vehicle for progressive policy reforms, Hay's popularity amazingly exploded among Republicans - and yet his ambition was not quenched. In the mass juggling at the 1904 Republican National Convention, an election most Republicans expected to lose due to the relative unpopularity of the essentially absent President Hays, Beveridge promised one thing - an easy Republican victory in November thanks to crossover Democratic voters.

The argument ultimately prevailed, as Beveridge's promise of progressive reforms at home and a new muscular foreign policy abroad won over Republican delegates. In a sign of his crossover appeal, Beveridge also simultaneously ran for the National Unionist National Convention nomination, but failed as conservatives in the party rallied behind prominent New York jurist Alton B. Parker, to deny him the unique honor of being the first American presidential candidate nominated by both parties. However, as some business interests blanched at the new American ticket, the election wasn't even close. The Democrats were too disorganized and the Republicans were united in at least winning another term. Easily winning the popular vote by nearly double-digits, Beveridge and his Vice-Presidential candidate, the more traditional Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, swept a clear supermajority of the states.

The election of President Beveridge would open a floodgate of new progressive legislation, especially on child labor, maximum working hours, universal education, and other laws that had been demanded by the public but generally not acted on. In many ways, the Beveridge administration was viewed as an inspiration by Confederate intellectuals, who admired his muscular foreign policy (and his role in aiding the Confederacy in the 1903 crisis). The Beveridge administration also fought to promote labour unionization, though they weren't actually interesting in enhancing worker's rights vis-a-vis business. Beveridge himself lambasted the "socialistic, Marxist" notion of class conflict, arguing that greater centralization of the American federal government, bigger and bigger businesses, and amalgamating American workers into larger and larger unions, each managed by scientific technocrats, would lead to higher and higher efficiency gains in the economy. American progressivism argued not for "class conflict", but rather "class cooperation", mediated by unelected experts.

Like the rest of the Republican Party, Beveridge was an immigration restrictionist who believed in the "supremacy of the Anglo-Saxon race", which meant his belief that the ruling order of the Confederate States had to be "protected from the Negroid menace" in order to prevent "similar disorder from spreading" to the United States. Although a personal Slavophile who adored the Tsarist regime, Beveridge was horrified by the Russo-Japanese Alliance, viewing the Japanese presence in North America as an existential threat. Despite that, Beveridge painted an image of "Anglo-Saxon, German, and Nordic" civilization under assault by "Papist Mongrelism", and argued that America needed to dramatically enhance its military power to join the "defense" of this civilization. Jewish immigration was particularly opposed in the aftermath of pogroms in Russia, but unlike other restrictionists, Beveridge didn't want to prohibit Russians in general, so a new immigration restriction law specifically prohibiting Jews was promulgated (the law was ultimately upheld by the Supreme Court on the basis that religious non-discrimination provisions didn't apply to foreigners, the so-called plenary power argument).

Beveridge was an ardent anti-Mexican, viewing "Mestizo-Latin blood" as an existential threat to the United States. Despite that, he became very popular in the Dominican Republic, largely because the territory was so vehemently anti-Haitian due to the influx of Haitian refugees from the Confederate invasion. Believing that the Dominican Republic could be "racially uplifted", the Beveridge administration quickly found common ground with a group of young Dominican white supremacists, who helped pioneer the Beveridge Raids, which essentially used crude scientific racist "measurements" to determine if someone in the Dominican Republic was "black", at which point they would be deported at gunpoint into Haiti. Mark Twain famously wrote an article lambasting an incident where U.S. Army soldiers gave the now infamous "pencil test" to a family, and after finding that two of the children failed (their hair was curly enough to hold a pencil in place), arrested the two children and threw them across the Haitian border into the warzone. His racial views aside however, Beveridge's progressives loathed anything that stunk of "anarchy", cracking down hard on lynching cases that began emerging in states with small black populations like Kentucky and Missouri. Although America's new progressives were happy to use violence to preserve "Anglo-Saxon supremacy", they loathed initiatives that felt to them as unorganized, inefficient "mob violence."

A bit of pressure on their Confederate partners quickly saw the largely non-progressive Confederate Congress pass a completely identical law declaring lynching a crime, an incident that made many Confederate progressives view their Northern counterparts as too "sentimental" and "weak" on the "Negro problem." One of the most prominent intellectuals in the Confederate States and typically an ardent Beveridge fan, Professor Woodrow Wilson, argued that Beveridge's anti-lynching law made sense in the North, but not in the South, which he described as the "first battle line of the Anglo-Saxon race." He also said the same for anti-Catholicism in the North, arguing that the Confederate States was different from the United States insofar that it needed as much immigration from Europe as possible in order "improve the racial demographics" of the state. Which was not really a controversial issue in the Confederate States, which more or less had an open immigration policy since people generally didn't want to actually immigrate there. If anything, Confederate progressives were primarily more furious that the Confederate States had a relatively open immigration policy to "oriental coolies" due to persistent labor shortages in the white rural South (due to the tendency of white Confederates to homestead in the US or immigrate to cities like Chicago to work in large burgeoning industries).
 
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The US Presidential Election of 1904
amalgamating American workers into larger and larger unions, each managed by scientific technocrats, would lead to higher and higher efficiency gains in the economy. American progressivism argued not for "class conflict", but rather "class cooperation", mediated by unelected experts.

Like the rest of the Republican Party, Beveridge was an immigration restrictionist who believed in the "supremacy of the Anglo-Saxon race", which meant his belief that the ruling order of the Confederate States had to be "protected from the Negroid menace" in order to prevent "similar disorder from spreading" to the United States. Although a personal Slavophile who adored the Tsarist regime, Beveridge was horrified by the Russo-Japanese Alliance, viewing the Japanese presence in North America as an existential threat. Despite that, Beveridge painted an image of "Anglo-Saxon, German, and Nordic" civilization under assault by "Papist Mongrelism", and argued that America needed to dramatically enhance its military power to join the "defense" of this civilization. Jewish immigration was particularly opposed in the aftermath of pogroms in Russia, but unlike other restrictionists, Beveridge didn't want to prohibit Russians in general, so a new immigration restriction law specifically prohibiting Jews was promulgated (the law was ultimately upheld by the Supreme Court on the basis that religious non-discrimination provisions didn't apply to foreigners, the so-called plenary power argument).
Oh dear, oh dear.
I'm sure this Beveridge character will work absolute wonders over the next four years.

Looking forward to seeing where this one goes....
 
Oh dear, oh dear.
I'm sure this Beveridge character will work absolute wonders over the next four years.

Looking forward to seeing where this one goes....
I think he's actually less unique as a singular figure, and more broadly just representative of what ideas American elite opinion have adopted - which is why he's embraced by the political establishment.

There's a temporary sense of the US political establishment being more white supremacist (in the Anglo-Saxonist-Nordicist "Passing of the Great Race" sense) than the Confederate political establishment largely because the CSA is just more backwards in every sense and catches onto new elite intellectual trends slower.
 
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Well America is interesting to say the least. Wonder if we end up seeing a CSA more tolerant than the USA although both would have their own unique brands of racism.
At this rate, it would not surprise me, since the annexation of Haiti made at least a significant minority of Confederate whites re-evaluate their stance on racism. But is there really anyone immigrating to the CSA at this point to tilt the scale in favor of tolerance (later down the road) towards not only blacks but Catholics (including Hispanics), Jews, Asians, and other minorities? I do think immigration would help the CSA overcome its labor shortages, particularly in rural areas.
 
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At this rate, it would not surprise me, since the annexation of Haiti made at least a significant minority of Confederate whites re-evaluate their stance on racism. But is there really anyone immigrating to the CSA at this point to tilt the scale in favor of tolerance (later down the road) towards not only blacks but Catholics (including Hispanics), Jews, Asians, and other minorities? I do think immigration would help the CSA overcome its labor shortages, particularly in rural areas.
At this point, the question is largely "why would you move to the CSA if you could move to Mexico or Argentina or Brazil?" So the CSA definitely isn't getting a lot of Catholic immigrants.

Their competitive advantage seems to be towards just Jewish immigrants, because the CSA is probably one of the least antisemitic nations in the Christian world.
 
So we have... not exactly *Fascist US, but *Fascist-adjacent. And Woodrow Wilson is as classy as ever.
Not really, fascism is mostly revolutionary, ultranationalist, and expansionist all of which the ITTL USA really isn't. This USA is just plain old racist and really not much different than the OTL USA at the beginning of the twentieth century. OTL this is when the frontier thesis became in vogue, that argued that the USA would slide into decadence due to lack of expansion into the Native American frontier and justified the rapid expansion of the United States into the Pacific, Arctic, and the Caribbean. In this timeline the USA hasn't greatly expanded it's borders nor acquired many colonies since annexing the Dominican Republic.
 
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mial42

Gone Fishin'
Not really, fascism is mostly revolutionary, ultranationalist, and expansionist all of which the ITTL USA really isn't. This USA is just plain old racist and really not much different than the OTL USA at the beginning of the twentieth century. OTL this is when the frontier thesis became in vogue, that argued that the USA would slide into decadence due to lack of expansion into the Native American frontier and justified the rapid expansion of the United States into the Pacific, Arctic, and the Caribbean. In this timeline the USA hasn't greatly expanded it's borders nor acquired many colonies since annexing the Dominican Republic.
I'd question expansionist as a prerequisite (Francoist Spain), but I agree that TTL's US isn't fascist, hence -adjacent. TTL's US isn't fascist (neither revolutionary nor ultranationalist, as you correctly pointed out), but is combining corporatist economics (which have never really existed in the US) with even-more-exclusionary-then-OTL-racism (not waiting until 1924 to start legally excluding Catholics).
 
I'd question expansionist as a prerequisite (Francoist Spain), but I agree that TTL's US isn't fascist, hence -adjacent. TTL's US isn't fascist (neither revolutionary nor ultranationalist, as you correctly pointed out), but is combining corporatist economics (which have never really existed in the US) with even-more-exclusionary-then-OTL-racism (not waiting until 1924 to start legally excluding Catholics).
Francoist Spain as fascist is a pretty hotly debated topic, though. To the extent that fascist is generally used as an epithet for murderous right-wing dictators, that obviously works, but the way at least academics label things as fascist is more limited.

I make fun of reddit a lot, but this post I think is a pretty interesting perspective.

I think you could also describe parts of the New Deal as inching towards corporatist economics, since it certainly was neither laissez-faire nor socialist. Though the NRLB envisioned much more adversarial union-business relations than most corporatist regimes do, so I wouldn't actually call it corporatist.
 
Chapter 116 - The Kanitz Incident
The Kanitz Incident
In the Zanzibar Treaty between North Germany and the United Kingdom, the North Germans agreed to give up interests in maritime Zanzibar (though not mainland Zanzibar ) in exchange for a strip of land that connected German Southwest Africa to the Zambezi River (in what became known as the Kanitz Strip). Notably, the North Germans actually rejected the British offer of trading the primarily German-speaking island of Heligoland for mainland Zanzibar, realizing that a British presence in the North Sea actually made it more likely for the British to intervene on behalf of the North Germans in a Europe-wide conflagration.

The problem with this deal is that the British hadn't really cleared this with another nation. Namely, the Portuguese, who had claimed most of the land between Angola and Mozambique as theirs as part of their "Pink Map". In practice, the British mostly traded away lands adjoining other lands that they abandoned in the face of stiff Portuguese claims. Although not viewing Iberia as a likely conflict zone, maintaining the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance was of high value to British officials given the fear of something happening in Iberia that could jeopardize British access to the Mediterranean. However, that means in practice, the British largely traded lands they did not meaningfully control. This territorial dispute festered between North Germany and Portugal for years, even though most North German governments didn't actually care.

In 1902 however, North German Chancellor Rudolf von Bennigsen died. Wilhelm II, angry at having been excluded from picking chancellors of his choice for over a decade, rushed to seize the moment. Dissolving the Reichstag, Wilhelm II rushed to appoint his close friend, Philipp, Prince of Eulenburg, as the new Chancellor over outraged cries from both the National Liberals and Socialists. Wilhelm II was still furious over the Reichstag essentially "stealing" the Congo from the Prussian King and aimed increasingly to make his mark in Africa. Luckily for the King, the Prince dutifully followed most of his commands. Although the diplomatic situation in Central Africa was too tricky, Wilhelm II saw Southwest Africa as a prime staging ground for a new colonial vision. The North German Army essentially began forcing natives into de facto slave labor, meanwhile confiscating native lands to make way for German settlers, who were emboldened to treat the natives poorly. After a German settler allegedly raped and murdered a native woman, the local North German governor, Theodor Leutwein, attempted to sentence him to death. Instead, Wilhelm II lambasted Leutwein as a "race traitor", fired him, and pardoned the accused.

Wilhelm II instead appointed a different officer with views closer to his own, Lothar von Trotha, who decided instead to speed up the process. When various native tribes rose up in revolt, most notably the large Herero, General von Trotha simply ordered that the Herero be entirely wiped out, with thousands of civilians intentionally driven into the Kalahari Desert to die, with mass killings to force them to flee. Stories of native atrocities on German settlers infuriated Wilhelm II, who supported von Trotha's methods. The North German General Staff, although not entirely supportive, did their best to conceal this process due to their desire to prevent any and all criticism of the North German military as an institution.

However, a large number of Hereros and other tribal group escaped into the unguarded and demilitarized (based on a previous agreement by Portugal and North Germany for neither to place troops there) Kanitz Strip. When the North Germans pursued fleeing natives into the Kanitz strip, the Portuguese demanded that they stay out. The North Germans not only went in, but they sailed deep into Portuguese territory to set up a blockade on the Zambezi to kill off the last survivors. When North German troops began killing off native groups under Portuguese protection accused of sheltering refugees, Portugal had reached a breaking point. In early 1905, Portuguese governor Mouzinho de Albuquerque demanded that Lisbon respond. The King of Portugal was inclined to do nothing, but his son, Luis Filipe, was a close protege of Mouzinho de Albuquerque and essentially forced the issue. After a quick debate, Joao Franco was essentially appointed by the King as a parliamentary dictator to undertake a serious process: to fight a war on the North German Confederation. Portugal was by no means a Great Power, but Portuguese military leaders believed that their navy could hold up to the North German navy - which they hoped would prove decisive in a colonial war.

More distraught than anyone at his development was Great BRitain, which saw two nations it viewed as close allies going to war against each other. British mediation failed, with Wilhelm II openly laughing off the attempt. The United Kingdom, albeit displaying its great displeasure, would firmly stay out of the conflict, though both sides were known for hiring large numbers of Boer mercenaries. After receiving guarantees from the Russians and French that they would not intervene, the North Germans totally rejected the Portuguese ultimatum to retreat to North German territory, which immediately caused Portugal to declare war. The Luso-North German War had begun.
 
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Wow, it seems like the Racism Olympics is almost literal in this universe. And the Confederacy may not even make it to the podium when all is said and done, let alone get the gold medal.
 
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