There are a few things I like to see.

Whats happening with the Balkans.

An update with Brazil since it been a year since Luis becoming king.

Whats happening with Austria-Hungary.

One question is the GAW and CEW the same war, different wars, or two parts of one conflict?
I think I touched on Brazil and Isabel’s meddling not too long ago but there’ll be more where that came from before long.

Great q - completely separate wars that will have no overlap at all. I detest “CP USA/Entente CSA” or what have you shoehorning; I’ve never personally found the idea that these two states would neatly enter alliance systems premised on the European balance of power and ambitions persuasive, especially when they’d have unique disputes (and European countries invest eagerly in both and in LatAm for that matter)
 
Are there any requests anyone has, areas of interest that may have fallen by the wayside in order to explore China?
Well, I would like to know more about the genocide of Chinese Christians and how the community is recovering or not recovering… it will be unpleasant but it’s something that I feel should be payed attention too.
 
Well, I would like to know more about the genocide of Chinese Christians and how the community is recovering or not recovering… it will be unpleasant but it’s something that I feel should be payed attention too.
This is a terrific suggestion and honestly something I hadn’t even thought of covering. I’ll add it to my notes!
 
This is a terrific suggestion and honestly something I hadn’t even thought of covering. I’ll add it to my notes!
Thank you, I know it’s fictional but engaging in something like this, it’s going to be something that needs to be addressed even if not pretty… It’s going to be very hard historiography wise unfortunately, Western Historiography will hype on it to justify their own atrocities, while Chinese historgraphy after this point is probably going to go full Turkey about it. None of it will do justice to the victims unfortunately…
 
Thank you, I know it’s fictional but engaging in something like this, it’s going to be something that needs to be addressed even if not pretty… It’s going to be very hard historiography wise unfortunately, Western Historiography will hype on it to justify their own atrocities, while Chinese historgraphy after this point is probably going to go full Turkey about it. None of it will do justice to the victims unfortunately…
No, definitely not. Exploring how we see history through historiography is one of the mission statements of Cinco de Mayo however so I’ll do what I can to rise to the challenge to do such an atrocity justice
 
Nine Flags Fly in China: The Boxer Intervention and the Twilight of the Concert of Europe
"...the dust had barely settled in Peking and the embers of the flames that had consumed much of the city barely cooled before the infighting started. Lord Roberts decamped in early July to return to an opulent hero's welcome in London as the "avenger of Lord Gordon," leaving behind Kitchener to run a brutal occupation force studded with grizzled veterans. The aftermath of Peking imbued a deep cynicism in the participants, nowhere more so than in the United States, where President Joseph Foraker in a letter to a friend wrote acidly, "The favored game of Europeans has now begun, squabbling and posturing over the carrion, a spoils system that would put our own Democrats to shame," while his Secretary of State William Allison put it somewhat more diplomatically: "The war is over, save for the bickering."

And it was high time the war drew to an end, after roughly a year. Outside of London, where the slaying of a key British diplomat and a war hero in Gordon had Cabinet and the public alike seeing blood, the public enthusiasm to go off and "slay the yellow peril" had dwindled to apathy at best. Even Russia, which had secured all of its war aims in Manchuria beyond its greatest imagination at the outset, had to deal with a surprise case of public contempt for the conduct of the war. The casualty rate stunned the European public in particular, where citizens had for decades been conditioned to see what they viewed as overseas imperialist adventures as simple and quick police actions that inevitably ended in brown, black or yellow natives surrendering in the face of superior Western technology and even civilization. The bloody slog, the thousands of lives lost, and the reports of horrific atrocities engendered much debate, particularly among the liberal intelligentsia ascendant in the continent's academia.

Of course, the war was not even informally over; by July it was clear that Cixi had survived and escaped with the core of her Court reactionaries and crowned herself a new puppet Emperor in Xi'an, now known as the Xuantong Emperor - formerly named Puzhuan, the son of the most rabidly anti-Western official of them all, the Prince Duan. Attempts by Tangku-based forces to link up with the divisions that had cleared central and eastern Shandong were bogged down by ambushes, poor coordination and flooding on the Yellow River and adjacent low-lying countryside after years of drought. In late July, a bloody battle was fought between an Anglo-German-Japanese joint expedition southwest of Peking and a large army headed by Dong Fuxiang at Baoding, as the Allies attempted to march towards the Yellow River and towards Taiyuan, where one of the most infamous Boxer massacres of Christians and Westerners had occurred. Dong's counterattack slowed the Allied approach so much that they would not attempt to pierce southwards again until much later in the year when the worst of the flooding was over and they had restocked their spent supplies; both sides were able to retrench.

The hope, particularly in London, was that this brief pause after the collapse of Peking would allow her diplomats, charged by new Foreign Secretary Sir George Trevelyan, to take point in reaching some accommodation either with what was derisively called the "Canton Crew" of Li Hongzhang and his Provisional Republic of China, or give Britain time to find a new monarch that would be suitable both to European powers and the Chinese themselves [1] and install them in the abandoned Forbidden City. What made finding any kind of solution difficult was that to millions of Chinese, the Qing still held the Mandate of Heaven; to millions of others, they would never have known a war had even happened, what with the violence being so localized to lands north of the Yangtze and, really, the Yellow. The "Loyalists" were holed up in Xi'an ostensibly under the 26-year old Xuantong Emperor but really a cabal of Cixi's sycophants, while a "Republic" in Canton was a competing government claiming legitimacy over the territory held by its constituent viceroys. Who were the Western Allies to treat with, then? China was no longer a singular entity in any sense of the word - so who spoke for her at the table of surrender...?"

- Nine Flags Fly in China: The Boxer Intervention and the Twilight of the Concert of Europe

[1] Yes this is just as bad of an idea as it sounds and will 100% blow up in Trevelyan (and Chamberlain's) face
 
The Revolution Sleeps
"...French prestige was higher nowhere than in the Near East. On paper, Britain, Germany and Russia may have been competing in their own ways for influence in Constantinople but it was France and to a lesser extent her Austrian partners [1] who held sway, the latter in the Balkans and the former across Anatolia, the Levant and particularly most of North Africa. Tunis' bey may have nominally been an Ottoman vassal and Tripolitania and Egypt may have fallen back under more central Ottoman control but they were for all intents and purposes all French colonies; Frenchmen dominated the bureaucracies, economies and militaries of all three. France's influence in the Maghreb was not only tolerated but appreciated by the Ottomans, who leveraged arms imports, military advisors and most importantly money to crack down on Sudanese Mahdists and the Senussis who plagued the coastal villages of Barca and the immediate hinterlands of Tripoli and Benghazi. Though outnumbered even more so than they were in formally French Algeria, the communities of Tunisiens, Tripolistes, Bengasiens and Alexandriens had enormous public stature and authority and could rely upon Ottoman manpower to maintain their hold.

Beginning in 1901, the French domination of the Ottoman public sphere only deepened; it was at the direction of the French Treasury (in reality, the directors at Credit Maritime) that the French share of the OPDA - the Ottoman Public Debt Administration - was dramatically reworked, buying out a number of creditors and making the terms of the Ottoman repayments considerably more generous to the Porte than before. Combined with above-European-average inflation and breakneck economic growth, this restructuring allowed a big reduction in tax payments sent to Europeans and allowed even more potential reinvestment by the Porte back into the Empire itself.

This was not done out of kindness; banks such Credit Maritime or Creditanstalt in Vienna expected to be, and more often than not were, rewarded with concessions such as rail, factory and shipping investments. Indeed, by the early 1910s the entire shipbuilding and shipping industry of the Ottomans had been captured by French ownership. The Porte's army reforms were now meant to include the replacement of Winchesters with rifles made by Saint-Etienne or Steyr, and cannons built by Krupp subbed out for ones forged at Skoda Works or Chatillon-Commentry, and naval vessels were in the future to be ordered from yards in Brest or Trieste.

There was another purpose to this program, too; the mass slaughter of Chinese Christians in the early Boxer War, most infamously the mass burning of Catholic converts in the Beitang Cathedral in Peking in the summer of 1900, had placed concerns over "Oriental Christianity" high on the mind of both the laity of the Franco-Austrian alliance as well as the clerical parties of the governments of both regimes. The defense of not only Balkan but Levantine and North African Christianity emerged as a first-order priority in Paris particularly, where disproportionate Catholic missionaries had been martyred in the Far East and Emperor Napoleon IV felt personally responsible for failing to protect them sooner..."

- The Revolution Sleeps

[1] Recall - the Habsburgs ITTL are totally and fully as aligned with Paris as IOTL they were with Berlin, thanks to the muscular Catholic politics of the Eaglet and his government (and their mutual contempt of Prussia/Germany)
 
Thank you, I know it’s fictional but engaging in something like this, it’s going to be something that needs to be addressed even if not pretty… It’s going to be very hard historiography wise unfortunately, Western Historiography will hype on it to justify their own atrocities, while Chinese historgraphy after this point is probably going to go full Turkey about it. None of it will do justice to the victims unfortunately…
Thinking more on this: I doubt the Westerners will actually do that much to protect the Christians, save killing Boxers in the middle of their pillage. That could result in a dimming of their view in the Western History due to embarrassment at not actually doubt that much to achieve their stated goals.
 
Thinking more on this: I doubt the Westerners will actually do that much to protect the Christians, save killing Boxers in the middle of their pillage. That could result in a dimming of their view in the Western History due to embarrassment at not actually doubt that much to achieve their stated goals.
That's an interesting take (and, considering the time period, probably a realistic one). Do you mean that your theory is that Westerners will in later decades feel guilty that they did not do more for China's Christian communities?

I can't say I know enough about Christianity in China to say if the Boxers ran rampant in the parts where it was ascendant, seeing as how the Southeast went basically untouched - it's really just the Northeast (we'll count Shandong in such a description for our purposes) and North-Central interior where Boxers were tolerated and then encouraged by the state. Christian communities in Guangdong and Fujian to say nothing of more cosmopolitan places like Shanghai or concessions like Hong Kong or Amoy are probably doing just fine if not thriving.
 
[1] Recall - the Habsburgs ITTL are totally and fully as aligned with Paris as IOTL they were with Berlin, thanks to the muscular Catholic politics of the Eaglet and his government (and their mutual contempt of Prussia/Germany)
Christ, the great war for this timeline is going to be such a wild ride.
 
That's an interesting take (and, considering the time period, probably a realistic one). Do you mean that your theory is that Westerners will in later decades feel guilty that they did not do more for China's Christian communities?
In later decades yeah they’ll feel more guilty, what I was more talking about was In the current time. I can imagine European and American Papers very quickly losing any interest in stories about the Christians for the glories of what their boys were accomplishing in Peiking and the like, with the Christians brought up but more as a After thought.


I can't say I know enough about Christianity in China to say if the Boxers ran rampant in the parts where it was ascendant, seeing as how the Southeast went basically untouched - it's really just the Northeast (we'll count Shandong in such a description for our purposes) and North-Central interior where Boxers were tolerated and then encouraged by the state. Christian communities in Guangdong and Fujian to say nothing of more cosmopolitan places like Shanghai or concessions like Hong Kong or Amoy are probably doing just fine if not thriving.
Looking up now, and I can’t tell where exactly the biggest Christian Populations were in China. The In Land communities got hit hard OTL, which I imagine here translates into outright annihilation. Christianity actually grew after the Revolt due to the wipe of the most virulent anti Christians and the hard work and reach of various Missonaries. That may stay true ITTL I guess, but the Europeans being a lot more vicious here is going to be a put off. Also the response of the new Republican Goverment will be important.
 
Maximilian of Mexico
"...the death was not unexpected after a year of sharply declining health but the passing of Prince Jose Francisco nevertheless sent ripples through the Imperial household. Carlota, in particular, was beside herself being predeceased by her son; even Luis Maximiliano, who had never been particularly close to or fond of the severely disabled younger brother whom he resented for his mother's over-doting and attentiveness on them both, was withdrawn and grim for months after the funeral.

Maximilian, who while keen to show his softer side as a monarch on matters related to the state rarely revealed his innermost self to his friends, let alone the public, made an odd choice to eulogize his middle child. It was not court custom for the sovereign to speak on such matters, let alone read poetry he himself had penned both in anticipation and in the aftermath of his son's death, but the Emperor read regardless in both the German the family preferred in private and the Spanish his office demanded:

"Oh, how unfair and cruel Lady Fate is! That I draw breath though I am old while my son lies cold in his youth. What unnatural thing is this? That such a sweet innocent, a boy in the body of a man who not once in his life committed any sin, should pass into eternal slumber while I, who have sinned and sinned, should live? Or is it I who am cursed with life, cursed with the memory of my dear boy, while he is treated to peace?"

The condolences from Europe were perfunctory, save for the more heartful ones from Austria; it was once again a dagger of a reminder to Maximilian that he was, off here in Mexico City, still regarded as a backwater as far as royal standards went, with Brazil much more prestigious. Nonetheless, his time of mourning was relatively brief; in time, confidants reminded him Jose Francisco, by living to thirty, had survived longer than expected considering his congenital defects and severe mental handicaps, and that for him to live longer in such condition would have been cruel. Carlota did not see it that way; she would wear all black, often with a veil, for years, even at the baptisms of the ever-expanding brood of grandchildren Margarita Clementina granted her, and the death of her doomed favored child only drove her deeper into her melancholy and spasms of occasional madness..."

- Maximilian of Mexico
 
Christ, the great war for this timeline is going to be such a wild ride.
ITTL, an Aufmarsch Ost may indeed be to Germany's advantage...

In later decades yeah they’ll feel more guilty, what I was more talking about was In the current time. I can imagine European and American Papers very quickly losing any interest in stories about the Christians for the glories of what their boys were accomplishing in Peiking and the like, with the Christians brought up but more as a After thought.



Looking up now, and I can’t tell where exactly the biggest Christian Populations were in China. The In Land communities got hit hard OTL, which I imagine here translates into outright annihilation. Christianity actually grew after the Revolt due to the wipe of the most virulent anti Christians and the hard work and reach of various Missonaries. That may stay true ITTL I guess, but the Europeans being a lot more vicious here is going to be a put off. Also the response of the new Republican Goverment will be important.
Yeah, with an extra year to operate before the fall of Peking, Boxers across the inland north have probably put a few tens of thousands more to the sword. It seems that the stats from the China Inland Mission suggest Gansu, Henan, Shanxi and Shaanxi were the centers of Christendom in China at the turn of the century (in addition to Zhejiang) - in other words, the Boxer heartland, which is probably not a coincidence. So if we take the estimated 32,000 Chinese Christians killed in OTL's Boxer Uprising (probably a lowball considering how difficult it is to get accurate demographic numbers/casualty estimates from Qing-era China), doubling or tripling that figure is probably a reasonable guess (ITTL's Peitang Cathedral siege alone something like three to four thousand Chinese Christians were burned alive inside the cathedral)
 
A New Tsar in a New Century: The Life and Reign of Michael II of Russia
"...all the talk at the balls at the Gatchina or opulent dinners at Michael's personal residence with Feodora at Yelagin was of Russia's victory in Manchuria; the upper classes were abuzz with the Empire's first genuine military victory since taking Circassia from the Turks seventy years prior. It was for this reason that the tsesarevich could little understand what his father was so frustrated about in his review of the Mukden siege, to the point that he had had to have been talked out of sacking Kuropatkin. Of course, Michael had not even yet been born when his father, then the heir, angrily watched his men freeze to death in trenches not unlike those around Mukden during the ill-fated campaign against the Turks in Bulgaria, so he had a hard time understand the Tsar's obsession with poor logistics, the improper provisioning of supplies by the Imperial Army or the slow grinding march from Harbin and the tens of thousands of Russian sons who had not come home from the frozen fields of Manchuria and how it affected his father's moods at a deeply personal level [1].

To him, and to most young Russian aristocrats of his generation, the war had been a smashing success by any definition of the word. Boxers had been slain by the tens of thousands, the Chinese government's most professional army had been forced to withdraw without a climactic engagement at Mukden, Russia had conducted daring and difficult amphibious landings both west and east of the Liaodong Peninsula, and they had secured the Shanhaiguan Pass that controlled the roadways into Manchuria with barely a shot fired thanks to a critical British defeat on those grounds just days earlier. Russia's railroad interests through Harbin were secured, and unlike any other European power it could now easily project power into northern China via land at will, provided it kept a large army provisioned and stationed in Manchuria - which it intended to do. In the space of a year, Russia's decision two decades earlier to "look eastwards and inwards" had paid off handsomely; despite some bloody noses along the way, it now held easily the pole position of any European power in the Far East, able to influence the governments of China and Korea alike with its presence, and whatever ordinary frustrations had bubbled up as they did in any military campaign, the problems of Russia's logistics and military command structure that had been exposed were eminently fixable. [2]

Russia thus stood on an intriguing precipice, one in which it had a number of considerations for future Oriental policy. Korean's neutrality was effectively guaranteed permanently and Russia would have as great a seat at the table as any European power in helping dictate the future course of China, perhaps even her next monarch. The prestige of St. Petersburg had exploded, and the influence of Mikhael Muravyov, architect of Russia's Oriental policy, would not dim for years. [3] The future for Russian extraterritorial ambitions seemed now to be inexorably, though in what form was still unclear, quite Asian - perhaps more specifically quite Manchurian..."

- A New Tsar in a New Century: The Life and Reign of Michael II of Russia

[1] Here, a game of historiography; in The Bear Looks East, Mukden and the Manchurian campaign is portrayed as a bit of a debacle. In this book, it is portrayed as a smashing success in Michael's eyes. The truth, as in all things, somewhere in between
[2] Of course, knowing 19th century/early 20th century Russia, the question is whether they actually fix them!
[3] As with any/all Russian content I welcome @alexmilman and his expertise/corrections
 
The Great Transition: The Turn of the Century and the Emergence of American Progressivism
"...the true revolution of progressivism was at that point still on the streets of America, rather than her halls of power - quite literally. It was mayors across the United States who pushed for and pioneered new policies, practices and priorities that would gradually seep upwards into state legislatures and beyond. The pioneer and patron saint of such radical municipal reform had, of course, been Henry George, a socialist and political philosopher elected to two terms as Mayor of New York (eight years apart) but run into entrenched city interests, primarily those of the corrupt Democratic machine Tammany Hall, and failed to pass much of what he had desired to, wasting his time and political capital (and, eventually, his health and mental wellbeing) on administrative turf wars.

But if George was the John the Baptist of populist reform mayors, then Cleveland's Tom Johnson was his Jesus Christ. Johnson was indeed a disciple of George's, famously enamored with his treatises on political economy and social theory, but also a deal more pragmatic, charismatic, and persuasive - nor did it hurt that Johnson was a dedicated and partisan Democrat, who had served two terms in the US House of Representatives in the mid-1890s. In 1897, he narrowly failed to be elected Mayor of Cleveland; in 1899, he won with a solid majority, and in 1901, he would win in a landslide, earning nearly 60% of the vote over a well-resourced Liberal handpicked by the party's state machine and endorsed by the Presidential widow and famed Clevelander Clara Hay herself. Johnson's popularity stemmed from his straight talk and straighforwardness; he was hard-charging but humble, and his speeches and events often had a circus atmosphere that made him a larger than life figure to the adoring citizens of his city. He paved hundreds of miles of Cleveland streets, combatted the powerful Liberal business interests that had for years controlled the city (personified in financier and rail baron Mark Hanna, whose death in early 1901 made Johnson's life much easier), and hired some of the best bright minds of the day as part of his program of "scientific government," including a young Newton Baker.

Many of the ideas that would later be taken for granted as baseline Democratic policy had their origins in Johnson's radical Cleveland; he viewed, perhaps not incorrectly, the city and the local government as the form of government which the average American interacted with the most, and thus the level of government that needed to best serve their needs. A strong believer that political morality could not be divorced from public morality, he spent his time not campaigning against saloons, flophouses or bordellos but rather on a platform of public health, employing dozens of new street cleaners, building public bathhouses in poor neighborhoods, and even subsidizing the construction of new hospitals, schools and libraries. The idea, often associated with New York's William Hearst, of "public custody" - that is, municipal or state ownership and control of utilities and other key public services rather than their privatization - originated with Johnson and indeed inspired Hearst in his final years as Governor of New York, and formed the nucleus of their future partnership. Particularly after Hanna died, Johnson's campaign to bring Cleveland's electrical power, along with its water, rubbish collection and streetcar services, under city control only escalated, and he was able to successfully deliver on all four by his final re-eelection campaign in 1903.

Of course, familiar epithets sprung up around him - to the upper class Liberals in the city, who had been used to a legacy of fiscal rectitude and business-friendly policy in the "city of millionaires" [1], he was demonized as a socialist agitator who aimed to overthrow the American system of free enterprise. Johnson took such rage in stride and indeed wore it as a point of pride; in the end, he served the people, and in his view previous administrations had served trusts and industry barons who had squeezed the populace dry. Indeed, costs for the various municipal services dropped as they were absorbed by the city. And Johnson was always keen to point out that if he was such a socialist, why did actual socialists in Cleveland, of which there were many, complain so much that the former railroad owner was a tool of the oligarchy and had repeatedly failed to bring real change by seizing the means of production...?" [2]

- The Great Transition: The Turn of the Century and the Emergence of American Progressivism

[1] Remarkable, considering Cleveland's reputation today
[2] Plus ca change...
 
Mukden during the ill-fated campaign against the Turks in Bulgaria, so he had a hard time understand the Tsar's obsession with poor logistics, the improper provisioning of supplies by the Imperial Army or the slow grinding march from Harbin and the tens of thousands of Russian sons who had not come home from the frozen fields of Manchuria and how it affected his father's moods at a deeply personal level
Let's hope he managed to fix the Russian Army before its War with Japan.
 
Let's hope he managed to fix the Russian Army before its War with Japan.
Japan would have a pretty hard time against Russia here, though, since Korea is independent, neutral and materially stronger than OTL (and her neutrality is desired by both Russia and the US, and France still regards Seoul as within her orbit even if the facts on the ground don’t align with that)
 
Japan would have a pretty hard time against Russia here, though, since Korea is independent, neutral and materially stronger than OTL (and her neutrality is desired by both Russia and the US, and France still regards Seoul as within her orbit even if the facts on the ground don’t align with that)
Indeed. If Japan wants a Euro power to beat on for Global Influence, they will have to go for the Philipines.
 
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