America - Albion's Orphan - A history of the conquest of Britain - 1760

If the modernization of the Viceroyalty of New Spain continues eventually it will be them the ones that reconquer Anahuac in a few years since British North American interest in the region stopped once they "bought" the lands in the north.
A Jewish state in South Africa, that's got to be interesting for historians, though there would be Jews opposed to a Jewish state until the coming of the Jewish Messiah and others who would believe that this is abandoning their "ancestral" land.

You said that 80% of the Jewish held territory is Jewish, what are the demographics of the remaining 20%?

A mix of African, Dutch, assorted European, some Maratha, Javan, etc.
If the modernization of the Viceroyalty of New Spain continues eventually it will be them the ones that reconquer Anahuac in a few years since British North American interest in the region stopped once they "bought" the lands in the north.

I'm not sure if Spain or the Viceroyalty of New Spain would really be coveting Anahuac at this point. This may also result in a decline in relations with British North America, Tikhookeaskoya and California.
Anahuac is pretty much non-viable since the Kingdom of California is far better positioned as an exit route for BNA to the Pacific while the viceroyalty of New Spain needs a better outlet to the Pacific and its trade with China.
Chapter 366
1890 - May


For months, the East India Company Directors would debate internally regarding the proposed peace. In previous generations, prior to the advent of steam travel and the telegraph, communication to end a war could take months, even years for such far flung regions. However, the Declaration of Independence of the Jewish districts of Southern Africa had taken but two weeks to reach Batavia and, over a year later, the Directors STILL remained in chaos as to what to do.

With the EIC's fraying relationship with the Maratha Empire, recent hostilities with France, America, China, the Dutch Republic (a generation prior) and now an incident at sea with Russia, the EIC was feeling enormously isolated. Years of war had buried trade and left the Company laden with debt. While it was POSSIBLE that the EIC could continue the war, there was always the chance that the another power, maybe France, might take advantage of the situation again. France resented her loss to the EIC/Jews a few years prior and, had it known of the impending Jewish Revolt, France may have held off on making peace.

After intense discussion, the Directors realized that the Company had been greatly overextended for years and it was only a matter of time that it broke. If the war continued, it could spell the end of the Company one way or another, either by bankruptcy or further defeat. These powerful men took a step back and determined that the loss of the "Jewish" state was not a short or medium term issue. Indeed, most of the gold, diamonds and other valuable metals of Southern Africa were located in the regions STILL dominated by the EIC (only about 15-20% were Jews in the eastern territories). Yes, the "Big Hole" diamond mine in north-western Southern Africa (a tortured description and many of the local Jews were already pining for a name change) was in the Jewish territory but the Company felt there may be room to negotiate.

Thus the formal armistice was signed in lieu of yet another invasion (the Russians were already rattling that an attempt to blockade the Southern African coast would not be well received) and negotiators went to work. The Directors felt that a swift peace made more sense than grubbing for every last favor. Trade MUST return in force in order for the Company to crawl out from under its debt.

Thus the EIC would offer surprisingly lenient terms, effectively offering full independence to the Jewish State with only a few stipulations including continued free port privileges for the EIC (which the Jews would have planned anyway), "ownership" of the Big Hole remained with the Company (though the region would be governed by the new state and continued most favored nation status between the EIC and Jews. In truth, the Jews didn't care much about trade. They simply wanted their own nation after a few thousands of years of wandering.

The Company would find that the loss of these particular lands were not crippling at all. Initially, the EIC was drawn to the region to control the trade lanes. But new developments in technology - steam-ships, the Suez and Isthmus Canals, the telegraph and others - would make owning a couple of ports less important. Tax revenues were never terribly high in the area and only the location along the trade lanes mattered. Thus governing some farmland in Southern Africa was not a priority, especially when the ACTUAL valuable mining regions remained in EIC hands.

It was not a perfect peace, but one that the Company was willing to live with given the political upheaval of the Indian Ocean.

Salm, Southern Africa

Over the course of several months, the tensions eased to the point that the Jews of Southern Africa effectively restarted trade with the rest of the world. Granted, the agricultural exports were modest by global standards and there were sufficient open ports along Southern Africa that Salm and Godoy were hardly overwhelming but the victory in the war gave the Jewish settlers something they'd lacked in countless generations: a homeland.

Diamond and gold revenues were nothing compared to this.

Peace, though, would prove far easier than the formation of a government. Arguments promptly raged as to what type of government they wanted: a clerical state? A Republic? Select a King and form a monarchy?

While the new state promised to respect property laws and allow long-term non-Jewish residents to remain as citizens, nearly 25% of the 200,000 non-Jews in these districts opted to leave, some to the Dutch Cape Colony, some to the remaining EIC lands to the east, others....wherever they wanted.

Among these was Doctor Arthur Doyle, a Doctor in the EIC Army in Southern Africa, who opted to give up his EIC employment and assume a teaching position in Mumbai in one of the Peshwa's Universities. While he spoke no Marathi, Doyle was a natural adventurer and threw himself into learning the local language and the Devanagari script (11 vowels and 36 consonants) with the aid of several Maratha servants and aides generously provided to him by the University of Mumbai.

During this exciting time, Doyle would rethink his "Sherlock Holmes" character. Instead of residing in Britain, Doyle began to wonder if he and his friend, Doctor Watson, may live in a more exotic region. Doyle would promptly begin rewriting parts of the "Study in Scarlet" with this in mind, perhaps as a former servant of the EIC who now called this huge city of Mumbai home. "Watson" was reimagined as a Maratha Doctor, shaken by years of war in Malaya who meets Holmes after returning home to Mumbai.
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Among these was Doctor Arthur Doyle, a Doctor in the EIC Army in Southern Africa, who opted to give up his EIC employment and assume a teaching position in Mumbai in one of the Peshwa's Universities. While he spoke no Marathi, Doyle was a natural adventurer and threw himself into learning the local language and the Devanagari script (11 vowels and 33 consonants) with the aid of several Maratha servants and aides generously provided to him by the University of Mumbai.

There are 13 vowels and 36 consonants in the Devanagari script. Might want to correct that.

Also, Mumbai has been made into a singular island ? When did the requisite land reclamation happen ?
it amazes me that France does not reform its army and its navy after the disastrous war

I don't think the French Navy really had a disastrous war. They got caught by the EIC and Marathas with torpedoes but could probably catch up swiftly there.

As for the French army defeats in Southern Africa, that may have been more a matter of overconfidence than actual incompetence. Maybe an upgrade to a more modern rifle, probably already complete by 1890, would be in the cards. In the end, the French army dispatched to southern Africa was trained to fight a European-style war. As France, and Europe in General, has seldom to never had to fight colonial wars in the past century in this TL, the problems would hardly be surprising.

For example, the 18th century British Army failed in its objectives in America and in the 19th century, the South African war would prove that the old modes of European battle may not work in vast open areas.
Chapter 367
1890 - November


One of the worst kept secrets in Manhattan was the impending retirement of John Abbott. As expected in the summer of 1890, Abbott pronounced that he would not be seeking reelection to his Parliamentary seat in Mississauga. This, naturally, produced a free-for-all among the powerful men prior to the 1890 November election as they sought to influence Parliamentary votes for the inevitable "recommendation" to the King for First Lord of the Treasury over the next five years.

Adlai Stevenson of Chicago had served as Postmaster General in the previous years under Abbott until he was discovered effectively firing Postal employees not supporting Abbott's government. While Abbott naturally desired to reward followers, he was also adamantly in favor of the concept that the overwhelming number of public positions should not be patronage posts for any given political group, liable to be fired to hire loyal supporters. This had been one of the few great scandals of the Abbott ministry despite John Abbott being cleared by all of having any involvement.

But Stevenson's sacking did not mean he was any less popular in Chicago and was easily reelected in 1890. A keen observer of political winds, Stevenson had his own following and was considered one of the Dark Horses of the coming election.

Of course, by 1890, EVERY Candidate appeared to be a Dark Horse as this might have been one of the few Parliamentary Elections where a clear favorite or limited number of favorites existed.

Stevenson was a proponent of "Free Silver", expanding the money supply to help debtors and agriculturalists in the west.

Grover Cleveland of New Jersey carried many of Stevenson's politics...except he was in favor of a strong Gold standard and low tariffs (popular among consumers)

Benjamin Harrison of Miami was in favor of higher tariffs to support the growing manufacturing industry of the nation. Harrison was also the grandson of the celebrated Indian fighter, William Henry Harrison.

James G. Blaine of Sagadahock (Eastern Maine) would support a strong American LB. backed by gold as well as expansion of the American Navy, currently rapidly rebuilding after the Krakatoa disaster. He also was more interested in foreign affairs than most candidates and encouraged total political neutrality with no alliances other than protecting the "territorial integrity" of their smaller neighbors to the west (in an obvious message to Spain, the only other likely aggressor beyond America itself in the region).

Political parties had been forming for generations but the election of 1890 would widely be held as the first since the formation of the country where effectively every candidate received an endorsement of one party or another, often multiple parties at once. Sometimes these party recommendations came from factions utterly mutually exclusive to one another. For example, a candidate in Boston was selected as the Candidate for the "Free Silver" party AND the "Gold Standard" party.

There were parties ranging from "Labor", "Radical" (which, conversely, had few "radical" ideas), "Loyalist" (whatever this meant), "National" (which focused on effective Empire building abroad), "American" (which was anti-Catholic), "Free Silver", "Gold Standard", "Trade Protections", "Anti-Trade Protections", "Women's Rights", etc, etc, etc.

However, there was a growing belief that eventually, the Parties would merge into two or three factions, but this had not yet come to pass, largely due to the complexity and size of the nation which provided a heterogenous political spectrum. But it was obvious that this was coming, Eventually, the "Gold Standard" faction would align with the Manufacturing sector. The "Free Silver" naturally coincided with the Agricultural movement but also the "Labor" group, which was odd as most farmers were self-employed.

In the end, the political parties were merging in manners which seemed incongruous and illogical other than these other interest groups being WILLING to support their interest group, regardless of whether or not it mattered to their own.

Politics truly did make strange bedfellows.

New Caanan (formerly Western Southern Africa)

By 1890, the Jewish rebels of Southern Africa knew their cause was won against the East India Company...but were already fighting among themselves to win the peace. Debates were waged about the nature of the new government. Would it be a monarchy, a pure democracy, an oligarchy, a religious theocracy?

Divisions between German and Pole, Russian and Austria struck the community. Ashkenazi faced Sephardic, Rabbinical versus Reformed. It seemed that the Jewish State was already facing eventual extinction.

In hopes of unifying the nation, the hastily convened Diet would seek a symbol which all could rally around. In the 19th century, this meant a King.

But who?

There were a few battlefield heroes but one or two battles won did not make a great King. We were hardly talking about King David here.

Eventually, the infighting became so bitter than any local candidate was viewed as anathema to the rest. A "foreign" King must be selected. But, unlike the Christians or Muslims or even Buddhists, there were no Jewish monarchies from which to borrow a second son. No, the Jews must seek their own monarch among the best of their kind.

Throughout the past twenty years, the Russian tea magnate Kalman Wissotsky had sponsored countless Jews to migrate from Poland, Russia, the German states, the Habsburg Empire, etc, to Southern Africa and Palestine. Few Jews had such a good reputation among the Jewish world without any significant feuds. Hardly a Southern African Jew could be found that HAD NOT benefited from the generosity of Wissotsky. It seemed this was the only real candidate.

But would he come if called?

Wissotsky had only supported Southern African migration as Israel or "Zion", the ancient land of the Jews, was perhaps not interested in hundreds of thousands or even millions of Jewish immigrants. While many were taken by Palestine, there seemed to be no will to give the Jews their own homeland in the Levant. Instead, Russians, Balkan Muslims, Copts, Egyptian Shi'as and others had been encouraged to migrate to this region (by now vastly outnumbering the native Arabs) more than the Jews, who were more accepted than welcomed.

But Southern Africa, under the East India Company, desired to take ALL Europeans regardless of creed (as was the EIC's wont) and eventually Wissotsky would sponsor uncounted thousands of European Jews to migrate AND provide interest free loans for land acquisition beyond that offered for free by the EIC. While this strategy had eventually backfired upon the Company, the Jews had certainly obtained their long-time desire for a homeland dominated demographically by Jews.

Over the course of the past two years, over fifty thousand of the region's 200,000 non-Jews had migrated out voluntarily...and another 25,000 native Africans forced north and east into tribal or EIC lands by the Jewish militias. Indeed, by 1890, there were fewer black faces by percentage in the Jewish State than in the still-Dutch Cape Colony, which was actively seeking to expel many of the native Africans still within her borders and entice as many Dutch (or at least Protestants, preferably Lutherans) to the colony as possible. Almost 90% of the Jewish State was now actually Jewish. Similar to the Dutch, the Jewish State would encourage FURTHER Jewish immigration from Europe where over 2,500,000 Jews still resided, mostly in Poland. Perhaps 50,000 per year (a large number but only about 2% of the Jewish European population) arrived by boat from 1890 to 1920, well below the demographic increase of Jewish Europeans in general.

Though shocked by the call to the throne, Kalman Wissotsky would agree to migrate himself as he understood better than most the ethnic and sectional divisions of the Jewish people. In truth, "King Kalman I", now in his mid-sixties, suspected the "Kingdom" would be overthrown sooner rather than later and only agreed to the throne in hopes of unifying the people somehow.

King Kalman would agree only to accept the throne upon the condition that ALL resident males, including non-Jews, be granted the franchise (the third country in the world to due so after Anahuac and the country of Iceland now granted "Home Rule" by the King of Denmark) to grant universal male suffrage). He stated that he lacked the wisdom to govern the concerns dear to the hearts of ALL subjects and required the advice and council of ALL the peoples of his realm. He also stated that he would immediately abdicate if ANY man, be he Christian European or African, Jew or Heathen, be stripped of this privilege (he later amended this to exclude convicted felons).

Kalman pointed out that Jews had been accepted as equal citizens in Palestine, France, America and, at least legally, in many German states, the Berber Kingdom and the assorted British states and therefore he would never accept to rule a nation which refused to return the compliment to non-Jews in his own realm.

This was accepted with only moderate resistance (many Jews preferred to withdraw at least POLITICAL rights to non-Jews) and King Kalman I of....well, it took some more time to determine a name.

The term "Zionism", named after Jerusalem, had been thrown out a bit over the years meaning that Jews should return/find sactuary in their ancient homeland of Palestine. While many received succor there, it was obvious that none of the ethnic groups of the region desired to be home to four million Jews. Eventually, Kalman himself would spend more of his fabulous wealth aiding his people to migrate to Southern Africa.

Thus, "Zionism" was no longer an ideal and the concept of "New Zion" replaced. But what then to call the nation?

Eventually, names were suggested and discarded such as Israel and "Zion" as they were geographically too directed towards the Levant. But "Canaan" had not been used for millennia. Almost out of exhaustion over the debate, the "Knesset" (the Canaanite version of Parliament or Diet) would choose "New Canaan" as the name of the new Jewish State. This seemed reasonable as much of the old Jewish state had resulted in the conquest of the Old Canaan. Here, the modern Jews had conquered the African state from her fore-bearers of African or EIC extraction.

King Kalman I, himself exhausted with the matter, accepted "New Canaan" without reservation.

To his surprise (he still expected a Coup or major rebellion to his presence within a year or two), the first few years of Jewish rule were mild. Kalman surprisingly found an ally to the west in the Dutch Cape Colony. For years, the Cape Colony had sought to encourage Dutch (or at least Protestant, preferably Lutheran, migration to the Cape in hopes of demographically challenging the EIC and later "New Canaan") immigration and succeeded to increase the Dutch (i.e. WHITE though not all "WHITE" were "Dutch") population to 300,000 but still faced several challenges from African tribes to the north. An alliance was struck, perhaps believed by BOTH sides to be temporary given the years of distrust, and the Cape Colony (by this point more and more self-sufficient and self-governing) worked together with New Canaan against any tribal cultures which encroached upon their borders.

Both New Canaan and the Cape Colony, both of which once desired large numbers of African laborers to do the work the Dutch and Jews abhorred, would launch wars of aggression against neighboring tribes with the intent of pushing them further and further north.

Indeed, by 1890, the Cape Colony political classes were already considering the idea of "Home Rule" without further Dutch Republic interference.
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Map of Africa - 1890
Albion's Orphan - Africa 1891.png
This is the first time I've seen a place get called "New Canaan" and it not being populated by Mormons, but playing Fallout will do that to ya.

It's different seeing Africa so relatively untouched by this time compared to OTL after the Congress of Berlin.

The absence of any real rival in Europe really led France to be complacent when it comes to Empire building.

With Europe getting sick and tired of Pax Gallica, would other entities get interested in their own African colonies?
This is the first time I've seen a place get called "New Canaan" and it not being populated by Mormons, but playing Fallout will do that to ya.

It's different seeing Africa so relatively untouched by this time compared to OTL after the Congress of Berlin.

The absence of any real rival in Europe really led France to be complacent when it comes to Empire building.

With Europe getting sick and tired of Pax Gallica, would other entities get interested in their own African colonies?

I'm not sure if there would be an equivalent to the "Scramble for Africa" in this TL as there are fewer European colonial rivalries. I don't see too many European powers attempting to spend vast amounts of resources for colonies of dubious value.
a bit off-topic, but what's the current status of pan-german nationalism? Does it even exist to the same degree that it did OTL?
Chapter 368
1891 - May


Though it took many votes in Parliament, eventually the Parliamentarian from Sagadahock, James Blaine, would be selected by Parliament for "recommendation" to the King as First Lord. Naturally, Alfred I hardly wasted a moment in accepting. Blaine was a good enough fellow and was unlikely to overstep his bounds into Royal Affairs just as Alfred had learned to avoid overly dealing with political matters.

The relationships appeared likely to be mutually supportive.

Of course, Blaine and his Ministers (a collection of allies) would begin expanding their agenda. Under Abbott, the nation had already worked actively to rebuild and expand the Navy so the large numbers of ships in various stages of construction or planning was impressive. Naturally, the American Army remained relatively small as was the nation's long time preference. However, there were some upgrades in armaments. The latest service rifle was held as good as anyone's but the artillery department's weapons had fallen behind in recent years. The War Department would determine a new model for both the heavy guns and a good mix of lighter, more mobile artillery to be expanded in the cavalry (the utility of small, mobile guns had been proven against the French in Southern Africa).

Parliament, however, was proving more contentious and less gentlemanly than before. The great debates over the money supply issue (free silver) as well as tariff levels (currently high enough to make most mass-produced foreign goods prohibitively expensive). But unemployment was low and the balance between city and country, region to region and class to class seemed to have been adequately struck. Men adamantly opposed to higher tariffs existed....but this was seldom a major issue. After all, goods purchased by consumers which MAY have come from a foreign source only accounted for a small portion of the average family's discretionary income (most household funds went to housing, food, clothing, heat from coal or oil, etc, etc). Paying an extra 10% for foreign goods like rum, exotic clothing, manufactured items, etc didn't hurt most households as these items typically made up less than 5% of the total household expenses (in other words, it was estimated that the ACTUAL cost of these tariffs only amounted to .5%) and the tariffs not only encouraged local industry but gained significant funds for the treasury.

One of Blaine's first duties was attending the Knighting of his predecessor, John Abbott, who had served as First Lord for two terms. Blaine merely hoped that his tenure in the position would be appreciated as much.


Over the past few years, really the past few decades, the link between Spain and France had become more and more tenuous. This was not due to lack of trade between the two. Indeed, the rapid improvement in transportation over the past century would result in vast quantities of assorted goods exchanged over the border. In the age of sail, most goods imported from abroad tended to be limited to items that COULD NOT be procured locally - iron, coffee, silk, tea, tobacco, sugar - etc. Actual manufactured goods had long been protected by high tariffs in most countries lest an imbalance of trade wipe out the gold and silver supply of a nation. The most common mass-produced consumer good of prior centuries, textiles, were notorious for encouraging governments to higher levels of tariff protection. If cheaper clothing from abroad could be had, then the money supply would be wiped out in short order.

But the transportation would prove vital in the modern world and nations became interconnected in ways, both physical (via roads, railways, etc) and cultural, that brought the day to day experiences of foreigners even to the common lower classes which were becoming better educated and politically minded.

Political unrest, common in other part of Europe, particularly Germany against the handful of German Crowns utterly intent on maintaining absolutist power, was starting to reach even Spain. Democracy had long been considered a "Protestant Problem but with the political reforms in Spanish America exceeding in virtually every case that of the homeland it would seem that reform was required even in Madrid.

Miguel I was already prepared for this and had given hints over the years of his support for reform but wasn't ready to challenge the aristocrats of the Cortes.

Perhaps now was the time to do so.
a bit off-topic, but what's the current status of pan-german nationalism? Does it even exist to the same degree that it did OTL?

I would say that it would be somewhat less than OTL. Much of Pan-German nationalism in OTL had to do with the fact that there was one overwhelming German King who dominated political discourse and no doubt supported the idea of German Unification....under Prussian domination.

In my TL, the assorted German Kings were largely equal in status, thus there would be no obvious candidate to assume control of a united Germany. Each King would hardly support unification as it would likely mean the end of their power.

Also, in my scenario, the southern, more Catholic nations (including Bavaria) are under the Habsburg crown or in the southwest (Swabia) are politically distant from the northern Protestant-dominated Kingdoms.

At the least, I would expect the northern and southern Germans to be at odds.

One other point is that, without a strong early 19th century post-Napoleonic Prussia (which would unite Germany in 1870 OTL), the various German regions would not have a unified school system and this would result in the growing school systems learning the local dialect over the "standard" German dialect of Berlin. Much like France, Britain and any other nation, the curriculum of the Capital, including language, of OTL Germany would swiftly be the only one taught in schools, thus the Rheinish dialects, the Swabian, the Bavarian dialects would see significant movements to a "standard" German through the 19th and 20th centuries.

But here, every Kingdom would naturally teach the local dialect in schools. There would be no "Brothers Grimm Dictionary" of the 1850's or the 1901 standardization conference.

It is likely that the various dialects of German would actually diverge more in this TL and, with language differences, there would be less sense of commonality.
1. I love the way Ethiopia looks, with southern Sudan, Djibouti, and Somalia. I truly hope they can modernize.

2. Will Egypt and Ethiopia partition the Madhist state?