Using red for the Republicans and a slightly different red for the Socialists with various shadings for percentages makes these maps very, very hard to read.The 1912 Presidential election would prove to be a defining moment in shaping the modern party system of American Politics
After president Theodore Roosevelt pledged to not seek a 3rd term and with Roosevelt's support William howard taft would become the republican nominee in 1908 going on to defeat democrat William Jennings Bryan and becoming Roosevelt's successor
However schisms in the two's relationship quickly became apparent. Taft represented a conservative faction of the Republican Party that Roosevelt disagreed mightily with. Despite his best efforts Taft's ideology became distant to Roosevelt's setting him up to challenge the increasingly unpopular Taft
The democrats seing the ensuing split in the Republican party were optimistic about their chances for the presidency in 1912, however they were to go through their own primary process with the main characters being speaker of the House Champ Clark, governor Woodrow Wilson, Governor Judson Harmon and Representative Oscar Underwood. Despite Clark being the favourite on initial ballots Wilson eventually pulled ahead
Despite unsuccessful campaigns in 1904 and 1908 Eugene Debs became the Socialist Party's nominee in the 1912 election as the outlook for the party's chances looked bleak considering the (relative) progressivism of the Republican and Democratic candidates. Alas the Socialist party would run on its agenda of a Pro Labour platform and campaign to supporters in rural and mining areas.
Due to his unpopularity and lack of appeal Taft performed poorly in the Republican primaries with the race seemingly starting off as a competition between Roosevelt and senator Robert La Follette. Roosevelt ended up having a strong lead in primary delegates but Taft gained delegates from conservative southern republican organisations. Going into the convention the winner of the competition was still unclear with many delegates remaining uncommitted but at the final convention vote Roosevelt would win with a slim majority of delegates. Taft was initially hostile towards Roosevelt after his win of the nomination but would eventually quit his public feud with Roosevelt, although he never did formally endorse him for the presidential race. Roosevelt picked progressive William Borah as his running mate.
As Taft was still president he used the opporunity and the strong Conservative presence in congress to influence the passage of policies he liked. As the election campaign begun to heat up in July a small but sustantial General Strike in the West started becoming a thorn in the side of the president who had since tried to ignore in the hopes of the strike disbanding. The strike spread across Nevada, California, Arizona and Idaho with many thousands of strikers from various professions demanding greater pay, stricter anti-trust laws and right to union membership. It was found that the IWW was heavily encouraging workers to join in on the strikes and Taft decided that the best way to aleaviate the pressure on the government was to go after IWW. Painting IWW as a 'radical labour group' congress seeked to ban the organisation in the USA in hopes that doing so would discourage the members of the nearly month old strike. Congress theorised that any backlash that IWW would have would not be effective considering that IWW was already divided into different factions.
The IWW quickly set up public demonstrations in major cities as a way of callig public attention to the treatment of the group. Cities like Chigago and New York were flooded by IWW demonstrators. These demostrations increased public sympathy for the strikers and the IWW itself and made the attempt to ban the organisation deeply unpopular in the North and West. As a founder of the IWW Eugene Debs appeared at many major demonstrations and used them as a way to present himself and the Socialist party to a wider audience. Newspapers across the nation pitted him firmly against not just Taft but the conservative factions of the Republican and Democratic parties causing him to spihon support from progressive republicans and even a few democrats. In an unprecendeted move to survey the voting intentions, The New York times sent out hundreds of thousands of postcards across the state of New York surveying people of their voting intentions over a month. It saw Eugene Debs with a strong 20% of the vote statewide catching up to Wilson's 29% and Roosevelt's 48%. The news of the high level of support of the Socialist Party quickly spread throughout the nation, this event may have made people more seriously consider voting for the party.
Make no mistake, the strikes were escalating in violence and it was indeed controversial to conservative voters to appear sympathetic to them. Although Wilson had appeared to be part of a wing of the democrats that were more sympathetic to Labour, Wilson's public tone quickly changed and he tried to position himself as a candidate of order in a nation of rising chaos. Roosevelt had to balance between the two upsetting his left-wing supporters and once again giving Debs and the Socialist party more support. The New York Times decided to do another survey for the state of New York showing Roosevelt still ahead but with 36%, Wilson with 34% and Debs with 28%
As Roosevelt's support seemed to be floundering he turned his focus against the opinion surveys in New York calling them a "Perversion of Free Choice and Democracy" and gave fiery speeches about his bread and butter topics across the midwest and atlantic. Wilson tired to ride the 'momentum' in states that appeared to be close such as Ohio, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. More people warmed up to Wilson's pragmatic style than had did for Jennings-Bryan.
Just weeks before the election President Taft declared in the face of the now enormous western general strike that he could no no more to dissipate it and it was now the responsibility of the next president to aide the strikers and negotiate with them. This move was seen as a general win for the Socialist party and a minor one for the Republicans as the issue would not drag their party down too much and in the final stretch issues like Tariffs and Civil Rights became much more prominent
Debs went into election day with a band of strong supporters loyal to the ideas of socialism, Wilson went in with a sense of optimism and Roosevelt was hoping that the events of the campaign had not dampened his populist appeal and that his legacy would speak for itself.
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The Speaker election was also notable for having the first Female speaker candidate, Representative Mary Ovington, to receive a vote in a speaker election. Berger gave Ovington his vote to her surprise as a symbolic gesture for the Socialist Party's advocation for gender equality legislation.
With a Socialist party to appease only time would tell what Roosevelt would be able to do in his third term and whether he would be able to convince the nation to give him a fourth.
That's because of the special circumstances regarding the scandal and the referendum. The royal family officially does not recognise anyone as heir until after the referendum. If not for that Eriks younger sister Margareta would be the presumptive heir."Heir apparent: none" does not make sense to me. Wikipedia would have showed the heir presumptive at least.
In which case shouldn't it be "Heir Presumptive: Margareta of [Housename] or none [footnote that explains why]"?That's because of the special circumstances regarding the scandal and the referendum. The royal family officially does not recognise anyone as heir until after the referendum. If not for that Eriks younger sister Margareta would be the presumptive heir.
It became a very touchy subject because of the nature of the parties the old king supported so wikipedia went with the safe option in order to avoid controversy. A German journalist got himself in trouble when he called Margareta the heir presumptive (which is exactly what she is), received death threats and everything. But you're correct i should probably have added a footnote at least.In which case shouldn't it be "Heir Presumptive: Margareta of [Housename] or none [footnote that explains why]"?