Generally it was just they were playing catch up, Russia had been lagging in naval architecture under the Tsars, and the Revolution and WWII did not help at all with this. The USSR never really invested enough resources to catch up to Western navies, who placed a higher priority on seapower due to inherent geographically matters. Basically they started behind and their opponents invested enough resources to keep staying aheadI had always heard Soviet submarines were noisier than their counterparts in western navies. Annoyingly wherever I saw this likely true but of information stated it offered no explanation as to why this was aside from the USSR was terrible and the US of eagles rules and has the best stuff.
Recently however I was watching a sub brief video (an excellent YouTube channel) and he said the Soviets doubled up most things in their subs. Leading to twice the noise and adding great difficulty in isolating components to silence.
This seems logical to me, but is there anyone else who has a similar theory to explain things? Without making it seem that the USSR was hopeless and could not hope to compete with the might and brains of the US because they were commie pigs? I know the Soviets often were playing catch up to the west, but this often seems over blown and doesn't actually explain why.
There were also different doctrinal priorities that did not help them, in general the USSR wanted higher top speeds than Western navies, so had to cram more horsepower in