They started too late. Siberia has been turned into a punishment by the governments treatment of it as a place to exile criminals to and that was way before the 20th century. Agricultural practices in Russia were horrid. Absolutely horrid, to the point that Baltic’s in the same country outproduced Russians by factor of 5. Nonsensical hatred of Jews (I have no clue where that even came from) prevented the middle class from investing into themselves and becoming more than middle class. Pogroms prevented investments as well. The fact that Russia didn’t do all it can to mix Russians, Ukrainians and Belorussians at least to the point of indistinguishability is a symbol of incompetence.
Everybody knows that they started too late. That’s the whole point which makes references to the US irrelevant. You would need a fundamentally different Russian history to start making necessary changes at least century earlier. Russia was what it was and quoting Karamzin is pointless (I already quoted him): the Baltic nobility had historically different traditions before the area became part of Russia (and the area was much closer to the ports than most of Russia so they could sell their produce at a higher price).
Not sure what you are trying to say about the middle class not investing into itself and what this has to do with antisemitism but if you are familiar with the Russian history, you should know that until second half of the XIX the “middle classes” (aka, neither nobility nor peasants) could not become more then they were because their places (there were numerous categories of the “middle classes”) had been strictly defined by the regulations. What the middle classes had to do with the Russian agriculture is a little bit beyond my comprehension: they were predominantly city dwellers.
An idea of mixing Russians, Ukrainians and Belorussians to a point of indistinguishability would please Russian ultra nationalists of all periods but in a reality this did happen on the big areas (population of some of which is still trying to sort out who they are) and situation in Ukraine was seriously changed by Stalin’s annexation of the Western Ukraine for which Tsarist government hardly can be blamed.