A New Dawn Rising: What if America stuck by her ideals?

A New Dawn Rising
A New Dawn Rising
What if America stuck by her ideals?

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(author note: I focused more on writing a story I enjoyed then 100% accuracy. some things may be ASB and some things I may have missed. I hope you can enjoy)
 
Chapter One: The Seeds of Mistrust


Prologue: The American Revolution

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Chapter One: The Seeds of Mistrust

The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were a time of neglect for the colonies in America. The British occupied elsewhere had mostly left them on their own with little to no interest in them. Thus, the colonies in America were a lot more independent than other places the British held grasp on. most men in America could vote on colonial issues which was more than that in the home isles. This had a strange effect which would slowly increase income. As time passed, the colonies so far away from there home islands began to grasp new ideas and a new separate ideology different from the absolutism of the ever-growing British empire.

New political ideas and ideology’s that shifted power from one man to the many. Ideas that stemmed from the Greek times. It out-right rejected the monarchy, the high-powered rich nobles which they now believed were nothing but corrupt puppet masters of the people. The idea of a free people would only grow but then abruptly and without warning the period of free thinking and isolation from the main land came to an abrupt halt. In 1763 with British victory in the French and Indian War, the British were now heavily in debt. They could not tax the home islands, that could be deadly so instead they placed the blame on the country had fought the war in.

At first these taxes were simple, things that any normal Englishmen would pay. The American’s however complained. They were nothing but puppets being led along, they had no say and no voice in parliament. How could they be taxed if they were nothing but simple colonists. Annoyed by the constant complaining the British government began to deliberately provoke their colonists with harsher and harsher taxes. They ignored all cries for representation and insisted there was no grounds to complain.

From the Stamp Act of 1765 onward, disputes with London escalated. What started out as simple plans to have representation in England became more as London became harsher and harsher. By 1772 the colonists began the transfer of political power into to their own hands and started to form shadow governments that could coordinated protest and resistance. Independence was not the first goal of the colonists. But as time passed, the idea of a free country governed by the people grew ever more an idea. In 1774, the First Continental Congress met as 12 united colonies for the first time to bring about a trade boycott against Britain. Twelve colonies were represented at the Congress. Georgia was under tight British control and did not attend.

Tensions continued to mount, the British lambasted the Continental Congress and free thinkers began to use newspapers to share their true thoughts on the British. A war of words was all it seemed to be but it could not last forever. Continued growing resistance in Boston would eventually lead to the in the Boston Tea Party in 1773 with the dumping of tea shipments into the harbour. London finally had enouth with its upstart American colonies and imposed the Intolerable Acts on the colony of Massachusetts, ending self-government, and sent in the Army to take control. This was the final straw for the colonists as well. The Patriots in Massachusetts prepared to fight, upon hearing this the other colonies swung into action and readied their own militias. The American war for independence had begun.
 
Chapter Two: Military hostilities begin

Chapter Two: Military hostilities begin​

Massachusetts would be the first state declared to be in a state of open rebellion against the crown in February of 1775. The British garrison there was ordered to simply disarm the rebels and capture the leaders for punishment. The government in Brittan expected little to no resistance and any they did meet they were certain they could crush with little to no ease. They believed the sheer size of there armed forces would be enouth to instil total fear in the colonists; enouth to force them back into being happy as a colony of the crown. However it was not to be as the colonists began to arm themselves more and more, ready to fight against the tyranny placed on them by King George. This race to arm and disarm would eventually lead to a clash. The shot that all the world would hear.

The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775. The colonial militia was heavily out-numbered by the much more experienced British army and were defeated at Lexington. It was here the first shots were fired of a war that was set to change the world no matter which side eventually came to win. Vowing not to lose again, the American forces dug in at Concord and prepared for a fight they believed would end in defeat. Over 400 militiamen engaged 100 British soldiers resulting in casualties on both sides. The outnumbered troops fell back, eventually leaving all together for Boston. Running on high after their first victory, the militia forces followed.

The Patriot forces across America quickly began to act after news of the battle quickly spread across the colonies. They laid siege to Boston, expelled royal officials from all the colonies, and the second congress took rein of all control over the colonies, ending all British control. Though still a colony for now, the idea of a united states was beginning to form. Some still wanted the war to end and to go back to Britain but voices began to call for complete independence something that was once considered nothing but the pipe dream of mad men.

After winning The Battles of Lexington and Concord, the militia consisting of mostly farmers came to blows with the British at bunker hill on June 17, 1775. The battle was a loss for the farmers though It came at a larger cost then either side could expect. Over a thousand British troops died. It proved the need for action and after King George rejected the colonies Olive Branch Petition it named George Washington commander of the American armed forces. In an event that would begun a long standing feud, congress agreed to levy a tax to pay the troops. Though states in the south cried, there was little they could do. Congress made its first power move towards a united colony and the army was now taken from a militia into a semi-funded army ready to fight.

The south would be proved wrong when the new Continental Army forced the British to evacuate Boston, with George Washington as the commander. The revolutionaries now fully controlled all thirteen colonies and were ready to declare independence. There still were many Loyalists, but they were no longer in control anywhere by July 1776, and all of the Royal officials had fled. Congress enacted war powers in June of 1776 which was protested only by Georgia.​
 
Chapter Three: Invasion of Canada

Chapter Three: Invasion of Canada​

With British forces pushed out of all states, the people seemed more at ease though the situation was far from over. There was still mounting pressure to win the war. Independence had been declared though the official declaration was taking longer than anticipated. A clause about the ending of slavery and the slave trade had been in debate for months among the minds who worked on the document. The debate was endless lasting from early morning to late in the night. For now, however while the debate raged on the colonies were united in their efforts to protect themselves from the forces of the royal navy. Still despite being free there was still a growing problem both in the country and overseas.

The country needed allies. And France was number one on that list. It had resson for revenge against the British which also lined up with the problem the Americans now faced on its northern border. With the loss of major control in the mainland colonies, the British had begun raiding towns from Canada. Before the revolution had begun, British troops focused their efforts on French overseas outposts like Canada. And since France was so vastly outnumbered in Canada, it struggled to defend itself against British attacks.

In 1754, England and France began to duke it out in Canada itself. France allied itself with Aboriginal Canadians to boost its small troop numbers, but it was no match for British forces. By 1759, the British had defeated the French and the French and Indian War ended soon after. In 1763, France ceded Canada to England through the Treaty of Paris. Now America was set to turn the native’s and the French against the British and absorb Canada into the union. At first it seemed impossible to get the French and natives to agree to the American plan but eventually with concessions (French recognised as a national language alongside English, all legal documents bi-lingual and slavery most not be spread upward). Though the south once again feared Canada’s admission would be the early end of slavery. Under the war powers congress was able to agree on the concessions and the plan to liberate Canada began. The American’s suspected France would be watching.

The invasion would not be an easy one but it would be aided by sabotage from within. The invasion was to be the first proper major military initiative by the newly formed Continental Army. It was also a test of strength to other nations who watched with a keen eye. The main objective was to gain military control of the British Province of Quebec and to establish civilian governance under French leaders. The first group to depart was that under Richard Montgomery which besieged and captured Fort St. Johns, and captured British General Guy Carleton when taking Montreal. Guy Carleton would remain a prisoner in Montreal to the end of the war.

The next group left Cambridge, Massachusetts, under Benedict Arnold, and travelled with great difficulty through the wilderness of Maine to Quebec City. The two forces joined there with aid from French loyalists and natives the forces won a bottle neck victory at the Battle of Quebec in December 1775. A snowstorm hindered a British siege which was defeated in the second a snowstorm by reinforcements from Philip Schuyler. Though Canada was secure, the British forces had diverted south. Taking New York and pushing Washington back. By early December Washington crossed the Delaware River into Pennsylvania, leaving the British free to operate in New Jersey.

Canada was dived up and left under military occupation with Civilians overseeing the cities with military aid. Richard Montgomery was placed in charge of the forces in Canada to protect it from the British. The victory had been a hard one but it was a victory non the less. And the 13 colonies had now already grown to sixteen. The invasion was a success but it would have unforeseen consequences.​
 
Chapter Four: Unforeseen consequences

Chapter Four: Unforeseen consequences​

Securing Canada weighted the new countries power in the north, with the natives and the French supporting northern interests. This irritated the south even further than it already had. The unity that had kept the colonies together was finally shattered. The news quickly broke that with the admission of three new states those writing the Declaration of Independence seemed braver then ever and moved to cull slavery before it poisoned any new union. This infuriated Georgia, North/South Carolina and Virginia. Sensing the brewing problems in the south, the British offered full protection of slavery (with the intent to move away from it eventually, though this was unknown to the southern states at the time) and amnesty for all states who re-joined the empire. Georgia would agree to this first with Savannah becoming a landing place for British troops. It was a blow to moral for the American forces as its own country now turned against each other but it was also a victory in itself.

With Georgia gone, Virginia reaffirmed its loyalty to the new country. This was predicted by both sides. James Madison, Thomas Jefferson and George Washington all came from the state and though they all had slaves they agreed they could not truly be free if any man was in bondage. South Carolina joined Georgia in open rebellion though troops under Charles Lee were able to keep control of North Carolina. The British once again had a strong foothold in the colonies but it was not enouth to stop the wave of freedom that had washed over the colonies.

Without the heavy slave influence from South Carolina or Georgia. The more northern states were able to move ahead. To appease Virginia and North Carolina it was promised they would have first rights on any further land gained in the west to accommodate the loss of slaves. To further appease Virginia, the Declaration of Independence was drafted largely by Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration explained why the Former Thirteen Colonies were at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain, it also referenced the rights of all men and the abolishment of the evils of Great Britain. The Declaration was unanimously adopted by the entire Congress on July 4 1776.

With French interest mounting. The Second Continental Congress approved the "Articles of Confederation. At that point, the Continental Congress was dissolved and a new government of the United States in Congress Assembled took its place on the following day, with Samuel Huntington as presiding officer. France would not yet join the war, it faced questions of its own about the new united states but it knew letting this chance go by would be a hard one to miss.

Marquis de La Fayette would be the first French military aid sent to the country with supplies. Though not at war some ships were targeted by the royal navy increasing Anglo-French tensions. Still the new America had boots, guns and food. It was enouth to boost the sunken moral of the American’s who now had to two British attacks from New York and the south. George Washington however was now fully prepared to try push the British out of New York and the north. Then shift the focus south. It was a daring plan; nobody knew if it would work.​

 
Chapter Five: The New and the old


Chapter Five: The New and the old​

The year of 1777 was a year of preparation and defence. The British in the south solidified their position as the American’s readied themselves to push the empire out of New York before turning south. Washington knew had much relied on taking New York and congress believed another victory would finally see France entre the war on their behalf. As the army held against British skirmishes and prepared for a siege. New and old people began to emerge as heroes to the people. Ready to take up the flag and fight. These people included:

Alexander Hamilton: Hamilton was born out of wedlock in Charlestown, Nevis. He was orphaned as a child and taken in by a prosperous merchant. When he reached his teens, he was sent to New York to pursue his education. He came to the attention of the armed forces when he along with a few others stole food and canons from the British then used them to defend their position. Saving them from defeat. In 1777, he became a senior aide to General Washington in running the new Continental Army.
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Benedict Arnold: Benedict Arnold was an American military officer who served during the Canadian campaign. He fought with distinction for the American Continental Army, rising to the rank of major general. In 1777 he acquired command of the American forces in the south and valiantly defended Wilmington from a British invasion; keeping the American hold on north Carolina strong
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Benjamin Franklin: Benjamin Franklin was a leading diplomat, scientist, and inventor of the 18th. He. He had been a major figure in Philadelphia life, creating both a university and fire department there both which would be used as models for the country. He was also a spokesman for the colonies who played a crucial role in creating the Declaration of Independence before being deployed to France in order to convince the French to form an alliance with the new country.
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John Laurens: John Laurens was a soldier and statesman from South Carolina. While the rest of his state joined Georgia in siding with the British. Laurens worked undercover of night to liberate slaves and ferry them north. He eventually joined the Continental army and took charge of the first all-black battalion in early 1778 with the objective of disrupting Georgia and South Carolina though raids and secret attacks.
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John Adams: John Adams was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat and writer. Adams was a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress and became a principal leader of the Revolution. He assisted in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and was its foremost advocate in Congress. In 1777 he was dispatched to Spain hopefully to open trade and bring the country into the war.
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Thomas Jefferson: Thomas Jefferson was a one of the most important and prominent figures at the time. He was responsible for writing the Declaration of Independence. He was also an advocate of the ending of slavery and was key to keeping Virginia in the union. Once he was finished in congress in early 1778, he was elected governor of Virginia where he set about properly ending slavery and protecting the state from the British.
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Marquis de Lafayette: Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette), known in the United States as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer. He was the first official French military aid to the country. At first, he aided American troops in training before being given command in 1778 in order to fight in the upcoming battle for New York.
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James Monroe: James Monroe was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat. Monroe served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War where he was known to fire up the troops with his speeches. After being injured in a British raid in Virginia, Monroe was deployed as a diplomat to the Dutch republic (congress believed the country was a lost course due to its closeness to the British). In 1778 Monroe secured Dutch loans and trade and continued talks to bring them into the war.

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Aaron Burr: Aaron Burr Jr. was an American politician and lawyer. He began his career as a lawyer before joining the Continental Army as an officer in the American Revolutionary War in 1775. In 1777 Burr was sent as a diplomat to the Indian nations in order to secure friendship and drive out British influence.
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All these people helped gain America allies or troops in its most critical hour. The battle of New York was fast approaching. If America won, it would drive the British completely out of the north and allow the main forces to begun attacking the south. If the battle of New York was lost, the whole American idea could die before it ever truly started.​
 
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Chapter Six: The Battle For New York

Chapter Six: The Battle For New York​

1778. New York. Early British military success resulted in military occupation of the city, and the exodus of any remaining Patriots combined with a large influx of Loyalist refugees from throughout the former colonies, making the city solidly Loyalist. The city became the British political and military centre of operations for a short while. After the American victory in Canada, New York was put under immense pressure as it eventually came to be encased on all sides by the American forces. Supplied by the navy and protected heavily however the city would be a hard task for any forces to take. The control of the war had slowly shifted south over the last year but New York was still a critical point of control for the British. And Washington was keen to take it.

The Plan was to go ahead in 1777 but British skirmishes in the south and raids in the north had delayed the plans. Plans were further delayed in a break though the with the French. On October 2nd 1777, the British had opened fire on a French navel vessel. France declared war a day later, and the day after declared support for the new American nation. French supported was met with a wave of ecstatic emotion across America. The plans were delayed and changed to include the French. Tensions and fear rose as the day drew ever closer. On the eve of the battle, Washington dined with Hamilton, Lafayette and Henry Knox. It was a moment of peace before the battle began. Nobody there knew what the outcome would be. But all were ready to die to bring victory.

The day arrived. The French navy would engage the British fleet in the harbour while American and French forces bombarded the city from four sides. it was agreed that the city was allowed to be levelled completely. It was almost all loyalists so the commanders agreed it was a loss they were willing to take. The news spread to the loyalists who quickly began to pack up and flee, a mass exodus began as the bombardment commenced. The city was almost levelled as the bombardment continued for days. the British refused to surrender as the city was burnt asunder.

The British navy sensing defeat at the hands of American canons and the French navy pulled back to the south to continue the war effort there. With the British defence weakened Washington sent two columns to attack the last major remaining British outer defences. There was an air of excitement among the American troops. Victory now felt like it was in there grasp but Washington refused to let it cloud his vison. American troops advanced under the cover of night, taking British defences.

Now closer to New York then before, Washington gave the command to move the artillery closer. The short distance was devastating, any remaining buildings or military structures were torn apart or set alight. With the American artillery closer and its bombardment more intense than ever, the British position began to deteriorate rapidly. All sense of unity began to collapse in the British lines, troops staggered around half blind, missing limbs. General William Howe knew the situation was becoming too impossible to hold onto. New York was now a hopeless situation.

Howe asked for capitulation terms on October 17. After two days of negotiation, the surrender ceremony occurred on October 19; Howe was absent from the ceremony. Despite the capture of more than 7,000 British soldiers, the empire vowed to fight on. Its brutality increased in the south in response to the capture of New York. Dutch bankers moved in to increase loans and aid in the rebuilding of new York’s trade hub. One year after the battle of New York in 1779, the British attacked the Dutch in retaliation bringing them into war. Spain would join the war against the British in November of 1779 on behalf of France. Despite the changing of the wind. The war continued.​
 
Chapter Seven: One Step Beyond

Chapter Seven: One Step Beyond​

1780. The war had gone on for five years. It was two years after the battle of New York and two years since the war had shifted to the south and grounded to a halt. The southern terrain was hotter and conditions rapidly deteriorated in the summer weather. The situation was hampered further by the British. They had fully relocated themselves, embedding themselves in the cities with the navy on standby. The victory in New York had secured them a northern victory but now the British were more prepared. Sir Henry Clinton had taken over control over the armed forces in America. General William Howe had been relieved of his command. It was a tight situation for America though it was aided by the strengthening of the army.

The situation in America had ground to a halt but in Europe things were changing rapidly. Thomas Jefferson had been deployed to France to further aid relations which congress saw as key to victory. Jefferson struck up a strange but warming friendship with King Louis XVI. The first part of Louis XVI reign was marked by attempts to reform the French government in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove land tax and the labour tax, and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics as well as abolish the death penalty for deserters. The French nobility reacted to the proposed reforms with hostility, and successfully opposed their implementation.

Tensions were rising in France and Louis could see problems mounting. Money to fund the war was slowly sapped away from the people while food became more and more expensive. It was a situation that could not last. Louis XVI was slumped on what to do and so he turned to the father of independence. Jefferson, franklin, Adams and Monroe had been working together via letters in Europe to bring the Dutch, the French and the Spanish together to battle the British and destroy their empire, dividing it among them. So far only the Dutch consented, asking only for French protection and money from the British, Spain wanted the Caribbean islands and wanted France to renounce its claims on them. It was not something she was yet prepared to do.

Louis XVI agreed to host Dutch and Spanish ambassadors in France if Jefferson and franklin could aid him in solving Frances woes. Jefferson and franklin both saw gold. They believed they had found a way to push American ideals into Europe and began spreading their ideals. Jefferson and franklin would spend the years of 1780 and early 1781 to draft *The French Rights*. The document pushed for fair taxes on the poor, taxes on the rich, a group of people to advise the king and ideas for future changes. The ideas franklin and Jefferson proposed would eventually go on to help America. Louis XVI accepted the proposal and had the French rights posted throughout France. The nobility was not pleased nor was Louis XVI wife who began to complain to Austria laying seed for the French Nobility war of the 1790s. Louis XVI first act was his cabinet which once again Jefferson helped with.

Minister of Finances: Charles de Calonne- Calonne was considered daring and a man ready to make bold action needed to aid France. Calonne began a daring plan to shift the French tax burden from the poor to wealthy nobles and businessmen, his eventual plan was to implement a tax on land proportional to land values and a lessened tax burden for peasants

Minister of Public Safety: Maximilien Robespierre- Jefferson did not know what the minster of public safety would do but it was requested and talked about heavily with the king. Robespierre planned to use a small detachment of the armed forces to keep the people safe from crime, establishing what would become France’s first police force.

Minster for War: Marquis de Lafayette- The war was a stalemate for all forces in Europe and overseas in late 1781. Lafayette was recalled home from America, his efforts no longer needed. It was here he was given the position of Minster for War. He set about bringing American tactics and ideas to the French army, reforming it to be more equal and efficient.

Little was known about what Jefferson and Franklin were up to until 1782. Congress asked for a report in 1781 but it did not get that report till 1872. Some members of congress were outraged while others praised their efforts. It was here they also learnt of the treaty of Paris. The Dutch, the Spanish and the French had agreed to each other’s terms and had allied together to take down the British. Not only that, the majority of the British fleet was in Gibraltar and the combined Franco-Spanish-Dutch army were moving to attack.

The French Rights made their way to America in 1782 and began to shape an argument for a stronger federal government. General Alexander Hamilton (promoted after his efforts in the battle of New York) began speaking out for reform while Samuel Adams led the calls against this French monarchist behaviour. These sides would become known as federalists and anti-federalists. For now, both sides stayed united as British movements overseas in the south led Washington to begun preparing for one last push to end the war once and for all.​
 
Chapter Eight: Independence Secured

Chapter Eight: Independence Secured​

1782 was a big year for the war as things finally heated up once again. Delegates from America, France, the Dutch republic and Spain began pre-peace meetings with the British in Paris. It was a move to finally end the war though the British stalled, they planned to attack and route American forces in Richmond then push upward to attack Philadelphia. Their plan was to capture and execute congress. The plan was close to working when a British turn coat spilled the information. British forces were met with brutal attacks during the night then faced the full American army. The British forces were slaughtered and fell back with American troops finally advancing again.

King George had no choice but to begin suing for peace though the final battles of the war begun to take place in late 1782 and early 1783. The battle of Norfolk saw the British force that had set out to capture Richmond capitulate on November 5th 1782 by General alexander Hamilton while Washington moved in to siege and capture Charleston by February 2nd 1783. As the combined forces of America began moving into Georgia, the British began to evacuate. With their fleet divided between america and Europe.

The British believed they could unite their fleet and bombard America into submission. For now, they still held onto hopes of a peace that would not be so harsh upon them. Their choice to split the fleet in 1782 however would soon prove fatal. Gibraltar. In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne. The territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. The Spanish had wanted it back ever since and now it was to be the location of the last great battle of the revolution. Throughout 1782, the Spanish began to sneakily arm rebels to cause mayhem throughout the British controlled territory. The Rock of Gibraltar protected the town from any major land invasion without major loss. It was a problem that had vexed Spain for a while but with French and American aid a plan was finally devised.

On the night of July 8th 1783, under orders of the Spanish, armed forces attacked the British fleet and set some of the ships on fire before letting them go from the moorings. The burning ships collided spreading flames across the fleet and eventually the town. The ship’s that did not burst into flames were sent out to Sea where they were met by the Spanish and French fleet. It was a close victory that ended with the British escaping barely. Meanwhile the flames in Gibraltar burnt out of control, the British garrison was also met with landings by French and Spanish troops. It was a devastating and humiliating defeat for the royal navy.

The loss of Gibraltar was heavy for the British but things only went from bad to worse. The royal navy was all but destroyed with its remains licking its wounds in the Caribbean. The home isles were now open to invasion and America had all but been lost. The following peace treaty was deemed extremely harsh by the British but it was peace or invasion. The Paris peace treaties saw:

1: Britain acknowledges the United States to be free, sovereign, and independent states, and that the British Crown and all heirs and successors relinquish claims to the Government, property, and territorial rights.

2: Prisoners of war on both sides are to be released

3: The Canadian Colony would be ceded to the united states of America

4: The Caribbean possessions (St. Lucia, St. Christopher, Barbados, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Barbados, Anguilla, , Jamaica, And the British Virgin Islands) would be ceded to Spain.

5: Gibraltar would be ceded to Spain

6: The British Indian territories would be ceded to France

7: The British would pay all Dutch war damage and debts

8: Ratification of the treaty is to occur within six months from its signing.

The peace treaty was celebrated across America. All expect Georgia and South Carolina. They had now been forced to re-join a union they had left. The leadership were given two options, stand down and swear an oath to America or be exiled. When this was finally said and done emergency elections were held. General John Laurens was elected governor of South Carolina. George Walton, who had remained loyal became governor of Georgia. Both moved to end slavery and promised to follow the union whole heartedly. At long last America was free and now their entire world had been turned upside down. By the time the war was over and peace had fully settled in, the year was 1785.​
 
Chapter Nine: A New System

Chapter Nine: A New System​

The end of the war in 1783 temporarily ended any possibility of the states giving up power to a central government as the war powers that congress held came to an end. However, many in congress and outside of it believed there needed to be a stronger national government to stop any state from overreaching in power again like Georgia and South Carolina had. Soldiers and former soldiers formed a powerful bloc calling for a stronger national government, to protect what they had fought and died for. They were joined by merchants, who also wanted a strong national government to provide order an economic policy, many expansionists believed in a national government that could protect American lands in the West.

The north had grown powerful over the course of the war with most the south succeeding and saw the Revolutionary War as a struggle against a strong government. Few northern state leaders were willing to surrender their own state's sovereignty. In 1786, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of North Carolina (he had moved here once South Carolina succeeded) led the creation of a grand congressional committee to consider constitutional amendments. This was supposed to aid America with Seven proposed amendments. Congress however failed to act on and reformers began to take action outside of Congress.

Watching France reforming across the sea while America stagnated, American’s began to question congress and became angry at the lack of progress since states struggled to agree. James Madison who had become a slowly rising figure in America began to call for change, he would eventually be joined by the likes of Aaron burr and alexander Hamilton. The movements continued to clash with the country moving closer and closer to collapse. With the end of the war acts, congress could no longer pay troops who slowly became unruly. The return of an ailing Benjamin Franklin would prevent this. His last act as a founding father would be to unite enouth delegates to call for a convention to take place in 1787 in Philadelphia to consider constitutional reform. Benjamin Franklin would pass away in 1790.

. When the Philadelphia Convention opened in May 1787, every state sent a delegation. Three quarters of the delegates had served in Congress, and all of them recognized the difficulty, and importance, of amending the Articles, everybody knew what could happen if they failed. There was agreement among the delegates that the United States required a stronger federal government capable of effectively managing foreign relations and ensuring national security. Many also hoped to establish a uniform currency and national copyright and immigration laws. The delegates agreed to pursue sweeping changes to the national government.

Shortly after the convention began in September 1787, delegates elected Washington preside over the convention and agreed that the meetings would not be open to the public. The latter decision allowed for the consideration of an entirely new constitution, as open consideration of a new constitution would likely have inspired great public outcry. Led by James Madison, Virginia's delegates introduced a set of reforms known as the Virginia Plan, which called for a stronger national government with three independent branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. The plan envisioned a strong federal government with the power to nullify state laws. They knew that giving too much power to the states would cause future problem’s again.

After much debate and discussion, the delegates agreed to create a Congress in which each state received equal representation in the upper house (the Senate), while representation in the lower house (the House of Representatives) was apportioned by population. Slavery and the slave trade were to be made illegal in the constitution. The delegates of the convention also sought to increase the democratic nature of the new constitution, with elections established for the Senate and the office of the President of the United States, who would lead the executive branch. The judicial power of the United States would be vested in the Supreme Court of the United States. The amendment process would no longer require unanimous consent of the states, although it still required the approval of Congress and a majority of states.

Ratification of the Constitution written at the Philadelphia Convention was not assured, as opponents of a stronger federal government mobilized against ratification. It would only take one year to ratify the new Constitution. South Carolina and Georgia were the first, doing so to take pressure of them for past mistakes. To sway the closely divided states, Hamilton, Madison, and Jay anonymously published The Federalist Papers, which became seminal documents that affected the debate in New York and other states. James Monroe returning from France also began to aid the federalist course. The anti-federalists could see their side was losing but continued their fight.

In September 1788, the Congress of the Confederation formally certified that the Constitution had been ratified. It also set the date for the presidential election and the first meeting of the new federal government. Though Washington had desired to resume his retirement following the Constitutional Convention, the American public at large anticipated that he would be the nation's first president. alexander Hamilton, apron burr or even James Monroe were considered but all refused to take up the mantle all believing the country needed Washington.

On February 4, 1789, the Electoral College met for the first time, with each state's presidential electors gathering in their state's capital. Each elector cast one vote for Washington, while John Adams won the most votes of all other candidates, and thus won election as vice president The Federalists performed well in the concurrent House and Senate elections, ensuring that the both chambers of United States Congress would be dominated by those who supported the federal government established by the Constitution. This in turn ensured that there would not be a constitutional convention to propose amendments, which many Federalists had feared would critically weaken the national government. The new federal government commenced operations with the seating of the 1st Congress in March 1789 and the inauguration of Washington the following month.

In September 1789, Congress approved the United States Bill of Rights. The bill of rights included he first eight amendments to the United States Constitution:

1: congress shall not pass any law which would establish a state religion, it cannot take away free speech, freedom of the press or the right for those to protest against the government.

2: No citizen of the united states should at any time be forced to house or feed a soldier of the united states army.

3: All citizens are protected from unreasonable searches and seizures, along with requiring any warrant to be properly sanctioned.

4: All citizens are granted a speedy and public trial, an impartial jury, to be informed of criminal and the assistance of counsel.

5: All citizens are granted jury trials in federal civil cases that deal with claims of more than twenty dollars.

6: All citizens are protected from excessive bail conditions.

7: That French and English be recognised as the national language of America. And make life fair for citizens of both languages.

8: No citizen of America Is allowed to claim a Nobel title. Intent to do so will lead to forfeiting the rights of being an American citizen.​
 
Chapter Ten: The First Administration

Chapter Ten: The First Administration​

With Washington now the first president, he had a lot of precedent to set. Most importantly the president could not rule alone. To this end, the convention had already moved to solve this problem. They had given the president powers to appoint executive department heads with the consent of the Senate. Three departments had already been created for the past government under the war powers congress had been granted. The Department of War, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Finance Office had all been key to keeping America going during the war. The Department of war had organised the professionalising of the militia’s and the recruitment of more soldiers, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs had organised overseas efforts such as Monroe in the Dutch republic and Adams in Spain and the Finance Office had dealt with the taxation implemented and the paying of American soldiers.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs was re-established on July 27, 1789, and would be renamed to the Department of State in September. The Department of War was retained on August 7, while the Finance office was renamed as the Department of the Treasury on September 2. Congress also established a Home Department to oversee Native American affairs, the preservation of government documents, and other matters. The positions of Secretary of War, Secretary of State, Secretary of home development and Secretary of Treasury became collectively known as the cabinet, and Washington held regular cabinet meetings throughout his terms.

The First cabinet Included:

Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson- Thomas Jefferson was returning home when selected to be Secretary of state. Washington had considered John Jay or James Monroe for the role but Washington selected Jefferson. Washington believed Jefferson’s expertise in handling the French situation was needed at home. Jefferson would bring his love of the French home working with cabinet members closely to further American goals and deepen ties with France.

Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton- despite their closeness Hamilton was not Washington’s first choice. Hamilton had bold plans for America, he wanted to assume state debts, lower payments to former slave owners and establish the first bank. It was these ideas that would eventually lead to divisions in politics.

Secretary of War: Benedict Arnold- The Position of Secretary of war was not an easy one to choose. Henry Knox was to retain his position as head of the Department of War but that choice was not one Washington eventually ended up choosing. Knox’s ideas on the Indians put Washington at odds with the Secretary of home development. Knox would stand down and would instead take Washington’s place as the highest general under the president. Benedict Arnold would instead take the role after his victories in Canada and the south while also aiding in the battle of New York. Arnold would work closely with the Secretary of home development to oversee the Indian policy were also developing naval fortifications and forts.

Secretary of home development: Aaron Burr: this new department only had a basic ideas on how to oversee Native American affairs, the preservation of government documents, and other matters. Washington had only one candidate for the role and that was Aaron burr who had been working closely with the native Americans’ in the war. Burr pressured a policy of appeasement and understanding and worked to warm relations between America and the natives without the need for more violence.​
 
Chapter Eleven: The Capital Issue

Chapter Eleven: The Capital Issue​

One Main problem of the new government was the capital. Congress could not agree. The north believed it should be there’s while the south called for it to be less bias toward the north. Philadelphia had served as the nation's temporary capital since 1785, but had never been intended to serve as a permanent capital. The city made numerous improvements in preparation for the new government. The Constitution said nothing about where the permanent capital would be. Interest in attracting the capital grew as people realized the commercial benefits and prestige that were at stake. Two sites Pennsylvania sites won congressional approval as the site of the permanent capital, but divisions continued to delay the capital choice.

Washington, Jefferson, and Madison all supported a permanent capital on the Potomac; Hamilton backed a temporary capital in Philadelphia, and a permanent one in Trenton, New Jersey. At the same time Hamilton came to realise the importance of balancing the union. Hamilton had already become a liked figure in the north for aiding the rebuilding of New York, now he aimed to win over the south. Jefferson, liking Hamilton’s fondness of the French allies and his desire for democracy, made use of an opportunity provided by an encounter with Hamilton to stage an informal dinner meeting.

The deal subsequently struck, known as the Compromise of 1790, cleared the way for passage, in July 1790, of the Residence Act. The act confirmed Philadelphia for 10 years as the capital, while a permanent capital along the Potomac was under construction and Hamilton, Jefferson and Madison would go on to form the first bases for a political party. The Residence Act allowed the president to select a specific site along the Potomac for the permanent seat of government. It also authorized him to appoint three commissioners to survey and acquire property for the federal city. Washington announced his selection of a site on January 24, 1791, and planning for the new city began afterward.​
 
Chapter Twelve: The Navy and The Tariff

Chapter Twelve: The Navy and The Tariff​

When the war powers act was in place taxes were levied on the states but since the war powers act had ended, congress was faced with a most pressing issue. More taxes were for the moment not politically doable. Forming the union and adopting the constitution had been a large move congress did not want to provoke the people any further than they had to. Congress turned to the tariff as the main source of funding. Despite the fact they wanted to seek better deals for them self’s, the states moved to compromise for without it the federal government would be unable to even pay the salaries of its officials without passage of the bill. In July, Congress finally passed the Tariff of 1789, which Washington signed into law. The act created a uniform impost on goods carried by foreign ships, while also establishing a much smaller tax on goods carried by American-owned ships.

To enable the federal government to collect the import duties, Congress also passed the Collection Act of 1789, which established the United States Customs Service and designated ports of entry. One year later, the Navy Department was established when Washington signed legislation creating the new state department. John Paul Jones (He was the United States' first well-known naval commander in the American Revolutionary War) was selected to be the new Secretary of the navy with plans to build enouth ships to combat piracy.​
 
Chapter Thirteen: The Hamiltonian economic program

Chapter Thirteen: The Hamiltonian economic program​

After the passage of the Tariff of 1789, various other plans were considered to address the debt issues during the first session of Congress, but none were able to generate widespread support. In September 1789, with no resolution in sight and the close of that session drawing near, Congress directed Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton to prepare a report on credit. Hamilton estimated that the state and federal governments had a combined debt of $79 million; he projected that the federal government's annual income would be $2.8 million. Hamilton proposed the most ambitious and far-reaching economic plan that had ever been advanced by an American, calling for the federal assumption of state debt and the mass issuance of federal bonds.

Hamilton believed that these measures would restore the ailing economy, ensure a stable and adequate money stock, and make it easier for the federal government to borrow during emergencies such as wars. Hamilton who had so far met little to no opposition finally dew the attention of his former friend Aaron burr and James Monroe. Both accepted the strengthen of the federal government but neither wanted the powers to go any further, calling Hamilton’s plan an overreach of federal power. Hamilton however was close to both Madison and Jefferson, the ideals of a strong industrial American policing the world becoming the base for the Federalist party.

In response to Hamilton's proposal, Congress passed the Bank Bill of 1791, establishing the First Bank of the United States. The following year, Congress passed the Coinage Act of 1792, establishing the United States Mint and the United States dollar, and regulating the coinage of the United States. This made life easier for the people of america who openly supported the federalist economic plan. The united states dollar was easier to use and fixed prices meant goods moved quicker.

In December 1791, Hamilton published the Report on Manufactures, which recommended numerous policies designed to protect U.S. merchants and industries to increase national wealth, induce artisans to immigrate, cause machinery to be invented, and employ women and children. Hamilton called for federally-supervised infrastructure projects, the establishment of state-owned munitions factories and subsidies for privately owned factories. With federalist control over congress and the white house most of these passed, the first federal infrastructure project began in 1793 with a road connecting New York state down to Georgia. Hamilton’s plan also began the slow spread of industry into the south with black labour being used cheaply for big economic gains.

Enouth was enouth for James Monroe and Aaron burr who along with other northerners and southern folk formed the democratic-republican party in opposition to Hamilton and the federalists. They wanted to end the continuing rise of the federalist party and put an end to Hamilton’s economic plan.​
 
Chapter Fourteen: An Official French Friendship

Chapter Fourteen: An Official French Friendship​

France was no longer the country she was once. On July 14, 1789, the French Revolution erupted. The aristocracy having enouth of the king moved against him sparking civil unrest. King Louis XVI was captured by the nobles and put-on trial for treason and imprisoned. Marie Antoinette assumed the role of queen of France where she began to roll back reforms to appease the nobles causing the revolution to begun in support of the king and his republican reforms. The American public, remembering the aid provided by the French during the Revolutionary War, was largely enthusiastic, and hoped for democratic reforms that would solidify the existing Franco-American alliance and transform France into a republican ally against Great Britain. Shortly after the Queen took control, the Bastille were the king was being held fell, the main prison key was turned over to the Marquis de Lafayette, a Frenchman who had served under Washington in the American Revolutionary War.
In an expression of optimism about the revolution's chances for success, Lafayette sent the key to Washington, who displayed it prominently in the executive mansion. Soon after the revolt began, the Washington administration, at French request, agreed to send money, arms, and provisions to assist the King. The democratic-republicans spoke out against further war but the federalists insisted it was there job to spread democracy as far as they could. The federalists would win the day once more, in the days immediately following Washington's second inauguration, he officially declared a new strong friendship with France though stopped short of a fully alliance due to not being ready for a full European war. Henry Knox would be dispatched to France with a small detachment to help the French as they had done in their own revolution. King Louis XVI would eventually win the war with the support of the army and the people by 1794 though the war was from over.

Marie Antoinette escaped France to Austria, Austria declared her the rightful queen and that King Louis had been tainted by the well of poisoned freedom. The War of the Coalition moved to restore the queen and France back to its old ways. Austria and the Holy Roman Empire, Naples, Portugal and Sardinia all moved against France while King Louis XVI was supported by the newly named Batavian Republic and Spain. The war was considered a reverse of the American revolution with the British now supporting Austria and the American’s supporting the French. Though America did not officially intervene in the two wars in France it did set precedent of them helping republican style governments change and become free. This would have repercussions. It made Spain scared of America despite them being close for it held many colonies in north and south America, it made France closer to Americans with their aid and friendship not forgotten and it proved to American citizens their experiment could in fact work.​
 
Chapter Fifteen: Relations with Spain

Chapter Fifteen: Relations with Spain​

Eleven months after the signing of the Jay Treaty with France, the United States and Spain agreed to the Treaty of San Lorenzo, also known as Pinckney's Treaty. Signed on October 27, 1795, the treaty established intentions of peace and friendship between the U.S. and Spain; established the southern boundary of the U.S. with the Spanish colonies of East Florida and West Florida. Perhaps most importantly, Pinckney's Treaty granted both Spanish and American ships unrestricted navigation rights along the entire Mississippi River, as well as duty-free transport for American ships through the Spanish port of New Orleans, opening much of the Ohio River basin for settlement and trade. Agricultural produce could now flow on flatboats down the Ohio River to the Mississippi and on to New Orleans. From there the goods could be shipped around the world. Spain and the United States further agreed to protect the vessels of the other party anywhere within their jurisdictions and to not detain or embargo the other's citizens or vessels.

The final treaty also aided native American’s with the home development department taking over Spanish guarantees of military support that colonial officials had made to Native Americans in the disputed regions, greatly strengthening their lands. In return for peace, protection and supplies, the Native Americans would work with American settlers as they spread out west though there were some brutal killings it eased tension between the Native Americans and America. The treaty represented a major victory for Washington administration. It also enabled and encouraged American settlers to continue their movement west, by making the frontier areas more attractive and lucrative.​
 
Chapter Sixteen: Farewell Address and election of 1796

Chapter Sixteen: Farewell Address and election of 1796​

As his second term entered its final year in 1796, Washington was exhausted from years of public service. Though he remained in fine mental condition, his physical health had begun to decline. Perhaps most importantly, Washington believed that he had accomplished his major goals as president. The nation had a stable economy, a strong grip over its Western territories, a peaceful relation with foreign powers, a growing industry and a navy/army that was blooming. Against the wishes of most Federalists, who hoped that the president would seek re-election, Washington decided early in 1796 that he would retire unless compelled to run by a national emergency.

His retirement would set great precedent in America and the western worlds for very rarely did any leader give up power without dyeing or being uprooted. His exit from the office would set a precedent that no president ever wanted to break. Washington made it clear at the outset in his final address that he was not running for a third term, and then thanked his fellow citizens for the opportunity to serve as their president. He then talked about the preservation of the Union, the core of American nationhood, and which, along with the Constitution binds all Americans together and provides for the popular wellbeing. With Washington gone, the election of 1796 was to be the first contested election.

During the ensuing weeks after his intent to step down, both sides sprang into action in an intensive and focused effort to influence the outcome of the electoral vote. Like the previous two presidential elections, no candidates were put forward for voters to choose between in 1796. The Constitution provided for the selection of electors, who would then elect a president. The clear favourite of Democratic-Republicans was James Monroe. Thomas Jefferson was the choice of a large majority of the Federalists. In early November, France's ambassador to the U.S., Pierre Adet, inserted himself into the political debate on behalf of Jefferson, publishing statements designed to arouse anti-British sentiment and to leave the impression that a Jefferson victory would result in improved relations with France.

The electoral votes were counted during a Joint Session of Congress on February 8, 1797; Jefferson won the presidency by a narrow margin, garnering 71 electoral votes to 68 for Monroe (who became the vice president). The balance of the Electoral College votes was dispersed among: Thomas Pinckney (59), Aaron Burr (30), Samuel Adams (15), Oliver Ellsworth (11), George Clinton (7), John Henry (2), Samuel Johnston (2), George Washington (2), and C. C. Pinckney (1).​
 
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