1960 - Security

Lusitania

Donor
1960 – 1969

Security

The 1960s was a decade of struggle for the Portuguese security forces as they faced both external and internal challenges. External forces marshalled against the Federation while economic progress, cultural awakening led many within the country to believe it would be a matter of time that political liberation would also start. While forces marshalled outside the country in armed camps and governments hostile to the Federation supported and attempted to arm growing groups opposed to government within the country the GNR, PSP and DGS were besieged by growing discontent within the country as regular citizens joined in the clamor for change.

In 1960 the DGS became very preoccupied with the growing number of armed groups being provided sanctuary in Zaire, Republic of Congo and Tanzania. Infiltration of these groups was difficult but by 1962 the Portuguese had a good understanding of who these groups were and their composition.[1] In 1963 the number of opposition groups grew within these “liberation groups” operating in communist Guinea, and Senegal as well.[2] Several incursions by these groups into the Portuguese Federation was limited to border areas with border posts being the primary target. The Portuguese military either reinforced vital border areas or evacuated venerable border communities. During 1964 – 1965 at the UN the Portuguese Federation continually complained of foreign government supported armed groups along its borders attacking it. The African countries countered that the armed groups within their borders were Africans from the Portuguese occupied regions wishing to expel the Portuguese from their country. In May 1965 a motion in the UN was approved to send a delegation to the border area to verify Portuguese claims. While the UN team and reporters were in the Portuguese Federation during the months of July – September the Portuguese launched Operation Ouvindo, over the three months the army supported by air force launched repeated border reprisal including commando raids on the insurgency camps. Hundreds of insurgents were killed, and 1,105 insurgents were “arrested”. The UN staff and reporters were taken to these camps to see for themselves the “foreign” insurgents and to verify that these border African countries were in fact supporting armed groups attacking the Federation. The countries of Zaire, Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Senegal condemned the Portuguese attacks as well as the UN who objected to the Portuguese attacks, but the Portuguese were able to achieve its objective as the public in Europe and America were able to see for themselves that the Federation was being attacked by foreign troops and not Portuguese Africans wishing to achieve independence. The OAU and Soviets sponsored a bill condemning the Portuguese attacks, but it was defeated by combination of European, North American, South American and some Asian countries. The African, Arab and Communist countries were the only ones who supported the motion. Unfortunately, the attacks hardened the African countries attitude towards the Portuguese and many that had been neutral aligned themselves with the Soviets who they saw as the only superpower willing to stand up to the Portuguese.

In 1967 at the height of the Portuguese intervention in South Africa the Portuguese government ordered the evacuation of all settlements within 20 kilometers of the border in the African subcontinent. During the African wars Portuguese security forces carried out thousands of sweeps in the country detaining citizens and residents who either were linked with foreign governments or sympathized with them. In addition, DGS agents accompanied Portuguese armed forces into the neighboring countries providing personnel for interrogation and detaining people Portuguese security personnel considered hostile to the Portuguese Federation. Interrogated were also conducted on many members of the Soviet and Eastern European communist advisors to the invading countries captured during the war.

The 1962 attempted coup by General Humberto and his supporters was seen as a major failing on part of the DGS and rest of the Portuguese security apparatus but the fact that the DGS, GNR and PSP headquarters in Lisbon were never taken even though they suffered heavy attacks from revolting troops and that no senior security officials were dismissed as a result of the attempted coup led some to believe the DGS had either orchestrated the event or been complicit. The DGS and other security organizations were subsequently cleared on any wrongdoing while some local commanders did receive transfers or retired. The DGS, GNR and PSP along with military gained a boost in popularity as result of their resolve and actions against the rebels.

In the 1960s the Portuguese opened additional re-education camps as the number of arrests increased. By 1964 over 250,000 individuals were either imprisoned or under surveillance for antigovernmental actions by 1969 that number had risen to 450,000. This did not include the thousands of prisoners held by Portuguese aligned governments surrounding the Federation. In 1967 the outlawed socialist party leader Mario Soares was arrested for holding antigovernmental demonstrations during the African Wars. After a six-month stint in prison, he left the Portuguese Federation and moved to Paris. In Paris, he continued talking against the government and on 3 October 1968 while having a coffee at a Parisian coffee shop he was fatally shot by a Portuguese expatriate named Joaquim Silva. Joaquim Silva was arrested at the coffee shop without resistance. During questioning he denied any connection with the DGS or Portuguese government and stated he was acting alone. He stated that his motivation was revenge for Mario Soares betrayal of the Portuguese Federation. Two weeks after his arrest he collapsed in jail and was transferred to military hospital where it was discovered he had terminal cancer and had less than two months to live. Also missing was Mr. Silva’s wife and family who had disappeared on the day of the assassination. It was later discovered she and her children had sought protection at the Portuguese Embassy after she heard what her husband had done. She was interviewed by French authorities but provided no additional information. Two months after the assassination following her husband’s death, Mrs. Silva and her four kids were escorted out of France to the Portuguese Federation by Embassy officials. She and her children settled in an undisclosed location in the Federation. Another major politician who died in the 1960s was the Portuguese Communist Party leader Álvaro Cunhal who had escaped from Portuguese maximum-security prison in Peniche in 1960. In the escape over 18 communist and other prisoners escaped from the prison, 15 were eventually captured including some of the most important communists in the Federation such as Jaime Serra. Álvaro Cunhal and two others including the guard José Alves who was the inside man in the prison were able to flee the country going first to Moscow then to Paris. On 15 January 1968 José Alves travelled from Romania, where he had been living, to Paris and met with Cunhal on the premise of requesting additional compensation for helping him escape. When Cunhal refused his request, Alves attacked Cunhal and before his guards could help Alves slit the throat of Álvaro Cunhal. Alves was killed in the attack, which was one several major loses both at home and overseas that year that the Portuguese Communists suffered.
[3]

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Police mug shots of Mario Soares and Álvaro Cunhal

In 1960 the DGS, GNR and PSP became involved in Guinea Boke assisting the country in establishing adequate security to keep the country safe. In 1964, they began providing Katanga with similar support. When several new Portuguese aligned countries were established following the African Wars the DGS, GNR and PSP also moved into those countries to assist with their security. In the countries of Namibia, Zambia. Malawi, Botswana and Rhodesia the Portuguese security forces’ role was to train and provide support. While in the new countries such as Casamance, Kongo and Rovuma the Portuguese security like in both Guinea Boke and Katanga were involved in setting up those countries’ security forces from scratch.

In the 1960s the DGS experienced organizational problems as its role within the country and the aligned countries took away focus from its external espionage efforts as the need to help Portuguese industry and government with intel on industrial, military and political matters expanded. In 1965 the DGS split into two separate organizations (internal and external). In 1968 the internal DGS was renamed “Serviço de Informações de Segurança” or (SIS) while DGS continued its role gathering information from external sources and preventing attacks from abroad.

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SIS badge

During the South African Civil War and the African Wars, DGS agents provided intelligence and directed special forces and marine units to locations of special targets and persons. The DGS recruited foreign agents in the Americas, Africa, Europe and Asia to provide Portuguese Federation with information. While the DGS continued to provide political and military information in the 1960s part of its focus turned to industrial and commercial information as USA and other western countries continued to limit the technology transfers and interaction of their corporations in the Federation. Many times, multinational corporations were approached by people acting on the behalf of Portuguese companies to license the sale of their product within the Federation, when these companies refused, information would be provided showing the data or blueprints to the corporation’s product or in some case compromising personal data. Discreet arrangements were then arranged to license the product to Portuguese companies thus protecting the foreign companies from unfair competition in other parts of the world and opening the door to future endeavors.

Internally the DGS/SIS continued keep a very close watch on communists and other agitators including independence supporters. The communists continued to be main agitators with several major groups in Africa and Iberian Peninsula fighting both politically and supporting armed struggle. While some communist militants continued to adhere to the message many civilians and residents seeing improvements to their economic and personal lives turned their back to their message. Portuguese cinema and television continued its regular showing of life in other parts of the world; one such area was life in Soviet Union and communist countries, using scenario recreation based on first person interviews from former residents the Portuguese continued to show a very negative image of life under communism. Another series called “A Vida Desejada”, A life desired, showed real life experiences of life not only in US but also in Europe, Brazil and other parts of the world showing how the people’s lives were harsher or just the same as those in the Federation. Featured in this series was the lives of Portuguese immigrants or their descendants.

Racism became a major issue that the DGS/SIS combatted regularly while government policy and other programs were instituted by other departments to combat it the DGS/SIS worked to eliminate those it felt were the most dangerous while others were dealt with by GNR and PSP. The DGS/SIS also kept vigilance over the military and government departments making sure they stayed loyal to the government.

Migration

The immigration and internal migration policies of the 1940s and 1950s that had worked so well for the Portuguese Federation were continued. Internal migration was encouraged by subsidized transportation between provinces while immigration into the Federation was prioritized by regions. Those immigrants willing to settle in areas prioritized by government received priority clearance. This way the Portuguese government continued to target specific provinces that it wished to increase specific trades and cultures while at same time working with industry to direct industrial development to less economically developed regions. Immigration to the Portuguese Federation from Europe, Americas and Asia was set at 250,000 a year with Europe accounting for 2/3 of the migrants.[4] As political stability and economic growth fueled Portuguese Federation growth immigrants from Latin America, Indian Subcontinent and East Asia became more pronounced. Added to the immigrants that the Federation received on yearly basis external conflicts in Africa resulted in the Portuguese Federation accepting over 500,000 refugees during the 1960s. In 1961 the with the establishment of Lusitania Commonwealth movement of individuals within the member states was liberated but internal surveillance and living and working permits were still required.

Internal Migration

In 1960 of the 2,792,000 “Brancos Portugueses” Caucasians living in Portuguese provinces outside Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands 1,349,000 lived in West Africa, 611,000 in East Africa, 501,000 lived in North Africa, 112,000 in Guinea, 69,000 in Portuguese India, 85,000 in Portuguese East Indies with remaining 65,000 spread out over the various other provinces. By 1969 the number of Caucasians living outside Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands reached 4,104,000 with West Africa continuing to be the destination of choice with 2,118,000 Europeans while East Africa had the second largest number at 826,000, while Portuguese Morocco European population jumped to 699,000. Caucasians continued to move to all provinces and in 1969 136,000 lived in Guinea, 80,000 in Portuguese India, 156,000 in Portuguese East Indies with remaining 89,000 spread out over the various other provinces.

In 1960 the number of Africans living in Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands reached 1,582,000, Portuguese Morocco also became a popular destination with a population of 239,500. In addition, Africans also continued to move into Portuguese India and East Indies and by 1960 they numbered over 211,000. In 1969 the number of Africans in Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands had reached 2,032,000. Portuguese Morocco though showed the highest increase with the African population growing to 409,000 while African living in Portuguese India and East Indies by 1969 numbered over 299,000.

The 1960s saw a more relaxed internal migration of Indians, Chinese and East Indians from not only the Portuguese provinces in Portuguese India, Portuguese East Indies and Macau but also internally to other provinces with East African provinces seeing the largest re-emigration. In 1960 over 1,369,000 Indians lived outside Portuguese India provinces, while Sundanese (people from Timor, Flores and Sumbawa islands) living outside the Portuguese East Indies had grown to 699,000 of which 60% lived in Portuguese African provinces. As for the Macanese and Chinese 645,00 lived outside of province of Macau. By 1969 the number of Portuguese Indians living outside Indian Subcontinent reached 1,653,000, while Sundanese living outside the Portuguese East Indies had grown to 902,000 and 899,000 Macanese and Chinese lived outside of province of Macau.

Portuguese Immigration

From 1961 to 1969 the growing discrepancy between Portuguese Federation and Spain continued to draw Spanish immigrants especially from the more rural and underdeveloped regions of the country. The Portuguese Federation continued to limit the number of Spanish who could settle in the Iberian Peninsula at 10,000 max per year, while the remaining immigrants allowed to settle to other provinces. Immigration figures from Spain showed 30,000+ Spanish immigrated to Federation on average per year during the 1960s. Meanwhile the open border with the Republic of Galicia had resulted in half of Galicia’s population living at least part of the year in the Federation.

In 1960s the Portuguese Federation continued to be a destination to thousands of Europeans fleeing communism, with Poles, Hungarians, continuing to be the largest groups. In middle of decade a growing number of Yugoslavians and Romanians began arriving in the Federation. Portuguese Federation refugee processing workers working at the major refugee centers in Germany, Czech, Austria, Italy and Greece processed approximately 25,000 refugee applications a year.

From 1960 to 1969 Europe was in the midst of strong economic boom with countries such as Germany showing the strongest growth, while strong personal connections continued to be primary motive to migrate to the Federation. Immigration from Germany slowed to a trickle and for the decade approx. 10,000 migrated to the Federation a year which vast majority migrating due to family connection in the Federation. In place of the Germans emigration of other Europeans from less developed countries such as Greece, and southern Italy increased and 40,000 immigrated a year. Emigration from British Isles continued at about 25,000 a year with Irish being the largest group, but in 1965 due to economic and political situation in Britain the number of British migrating to the Federation rose. By 1969 the number of British citizens moving to Portuguese Federation started surpassing the Irish.[5]

During the 1960s Portuguese Federation rising standard of living continued to attract not only Brazilian but other Latin emigrants. The Brazilian emigrants were soon followed by emigrants from Argentina, Uruguay and Chile, but as communist insurgency wreaked havoc in Peru, Columbia and other Latin American countries a new source of immigrants appeared at Portuguese embassies and even at airports. The number of Brazilians emigrating continued at about 12,000 a year while other Latin Americans accounted for 25,000 a year. In 1969 the number of Brazilians living in Federations surpassed 250,000 which was a mere pittance compared to the millions of Portuguese emigrants in Brazil and their dependents. During the 1960s with the Portuguese standard of living almost double Brazil’s standard of living and many Portuguese and their descendants who had sought their fortunes in Brazil at end of the 19th century and early 20th century began considering returning to “Portugal” as Brazilians still referred to the Portuguese Federation. With the Portuguese 1940 nationality law granting Portuguese nationality to Portuguese descendent to third degree (great grandparent) the number of Brazilians of Portuguese descent applying for Portuguese citizenship at Portuguese Embassy and consulates in Brazil reached 50,000 a year by 1969.

During the 1960s the Portuguese Federation had to deal with several major economic, political and conflicts on the African continent that impacted immigration from border African states. This included the Portuguese Moroccan border skirmishes, the Senegalese-Portuguese border skirmishes due in part to the Casamance conflict. The Portuguese also had very strained relationship with Republic of Benin regarding Portuguese enclave of Ajuda. As the countries surrounding the Portuguese provinces in West and East Africa gained their independence movement of people grew increasingly more difficult. In 1964 Portuguese borders with both Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Malawi, and Tanzania were closed, and all people caught crossing the border were detained. The border between white minority countries (South Africa, Rhodesia and South West African) and the Portuguese Federation remained closed. The African War changed the relationship between many African countries and the Federation not always in a good way.

In the early 60s (1962-1964) Morocco attempted to destabilize the Portuguese provinces bordering Morocco by organizing tens of thousands of civilians to cross the border into Portuguese territory. The Portuguese responded by arresting the illegal aliens and repatriating them by force into the demilitarized zones. Clashes along the Portuguese-Moroccan border throughout the early 1960s resulted in Portuguese enhancing its border patrols and reinforcing its border fencing. In 1964 armed clashes in the demilitarized zones between residents of the zones and Moroccans attempting to cross into Portuguese territory led to UN resolution against Morocco and Portuguese Federation when several peacekeepers were killed in clashes between residents and those attempting to enter the Federation. In 1966 the situation in the demilitarized zones became too chaotic that the UN was forced to withdraw. Portuguese Federation allowed for the immigration of 89,970 residents from the demilitarized zones to the Federation when the UN withdrew and closed the border. Illegal immigrant camps were established within the Federation for any Moroccan who illegally crossed into Federation. By 1967 when war broke out between Portuguese Federation and Morocco there were over 100,000 Moroccans in the UN monitored camps. After the war and the establishment of the Portuguese allied countries Kingdom of Fez and Kingdom of Marrakesh along Portuguese Morocco provinces the camps were emptied, and the illegal aliens transferred to the new countries or if they wished to Islamic State of Morocco. Many illegals refused to move peacefully and had to be moved by force. After the establishment of the two border states the Portuguese Federation allowed for the 50,000 a year immigration from the two countries into the Federation.

To the south during the first half 1960s Portuguese Guinea provinces received a steady stream of refugees from Senegal as the people of Casamance region fled Senegal’s oppression of the Jola people in the Casamance region. Between 1960 – 1966 almost half the Jola people from Casamance region lived in Portuguese Guinea provinces. After the 1967 African War and the establishment of the Republic of Casamance, the majority of the Jola refugees returned to their homes. The Special status of both Casamance and Guinea Boke with Portuguese Federation allowed for easy movement of citizens between the three countries.

From 1960 to 1967 the Republic of Benin attempted to expel the Portuguese from the enclave of Ajuda and only the threat of Portuguese military intervention prevented Benin from overrunning Ajuda, as such non-essential personnel and civilians were evacuated in months leading up to the African Wars. After the war, the expanded province of Ajuda resulted in greater vigilance of both illegal immigrants crossing from Togo and Nigeria. While a small number of legal immigrants were allowed from Togo the border with Nigeria was closed and no movement of people allowed.

In West Africa, the Portuguese faced several major border and immigrant issues. In 1964 Republic of Congo’s leader Alphonse Massamba-Debat copied the Morocco border tactic and tried to overrun the Portuguese province of Cabinda with Congolese. Portuguese responded by reinforcing the border and arresting all Congolese who crossed the border. Clashes including armed fighting along the border resulted in hundreds of casualties and thousands of Congolese being injured. Meanwhile border tensions between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Federation as well as support for communist rebels within the border of Democratic Republic of Congo resulted in the border between the two countries remaining closed. In 1964 the Katanga conflict saw the establishment of Republic of Katanga in Southern Democratic Republic of Congo. Portuguese economic and military support to Katanga in its war of independence with the Democratic Republic of Congo led to strong economic and military cooperation and relaxed immigration between the two countries. Thousands of Portuguese citizens moved to Katanga and Katanganese as well as Europeans (mostly Belgians) were allowed to move freely within the Federation. The African War saw the occupation of southern Republic of Congo and western part of Democratic Republic of Congo. Following the war, the northern part of the Republic of Congo descended into anarchy and Gabon moved to occupy it and eventually annexed it after the establishment of the Kingdom of Kongo in Portuguese occupied Congo. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the cease fire did not lead to a peace treaty and Portuguese occupation of western Congo continued. In 1968 to safeguard the Federation from continued attacks the Portuguese joined the Portuguese occupied parts of Republic of Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo into a single state. The Kingdom of Kongo provided Portuguese with stability along its northern border. The Portuguese provided Kingdom of Kongo with same privileges as the Republic of Katanga.

The dissolution of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (all British colonies between Portuguese West Africa and Portuguese East Africa in 1960 and the establishment of independent African states of Zambia, Malawi and Rhodesia resulted in increased tension in the region. The trade, transportation and migration agreements between the Portuguese and Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland collapsed even though their continuation had been guaranteed at time the African countries gained their independence. As Zambia and Malawi became communist aligned countries and joined the Pan-African Alliance all Portuguese citizens returned to the Portuguese Federation and as anti-foreigner movement spread to Zambia and Malawi thousands of British and East Indians followed the Portuguese. In Rhodesia, the white minority government aligned itself with South Africa and became hostile to the Portuguese Federation which like South Africa saw the Federation as a bigger threat than black African nations. In 1966 the South African civil War resulted in the largest humanitarian crises the Federation ever faced. Hundreds of thousands of South Africans (whitse, Blacks and East Indians) fled the 3-way fighting between Communists/Nationalist/Commonwealth forces. Refugee camps were erected in the provinces of Moçãmedes, Lubango, Lunda Sul, Lourenco Marques, Limpopo and Mandigos. By the time the war ended in 1967 over 1 million refugees were being cared for by the Portuguese with little to no international aid. Following the end of the South African Civil War and the African War the Portuguese moved to establish friendly aligned governments in Namibia, Zambia, Malawi, Botswana and Rhodesia then moved the majority of the refugees who refused to return to the Socialist South African Federation to the Portuguese aligned countries.

The border between Tanzania and Portuguese provinces of Niassa and Cabo Delgado was one of the most tense and periodic border clashes occurred from 1961 – 1967. Movement of people between the two countries was severely restricted. As the border war intensified and the buildup of troops in Tanzania regions of Mtwara and Ruvuma civilian attacks intensified by Tanzanian and other Pan African troops. The local people attempted to address the abuses diplomatically requesting Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere assistance. In 1965 the government responded by detaining thousands of people in the two regions and a brief revolt ensued. Thousands of refugees fled through the heavily armed border into Portuguese Federations escaping Tanzania government retaliation. The Portuguese responded by increasing military resources in the two Portuguese provinces. The African War saw thousands of new refugees fleeing the fighting in Tanzania. Following the war fear of further fighting in Tanzania resulted in thousands of refugees fleeing Mtwara and Ruvuma towards the relative safety of the Portuguese Federation. In 1968 the establishment of Portuguese aligned Republic of Ruvuma allowed the movement of majority of these refugees back to their homes, while the remainder were allowed to migrate to other Portuguese provinces following the closures of the refugee camps.

In the Indian Subcontinent, the Portuguese faced a much different situation than it had witnessed during the preceding two decades, relative peace in the subcontinent and strong economic growth in southern part of the subcontinent resulted in peaceful coexistence of the major economies of the region. In 1962 the Portuguese - Indian Economic Union (IEU) agreement allowed for visa free travel between IEU and Portuguese Federation and Federation agreed to allow 35,000 - 50,000 a year temporary and permanent residency IEU citizens to work and live in the Portuguese Federation.[6]

Meanwhile in Southeast Asia the Portuguese East Indies provinces continued to be both a target of anti-Portuguese attacks as well as beacon for many wishing a better life. Both nationalist and communist forces from neighboring East Indies Islands hid as immigrants attempted to infiltrate the 10 Portuguese provinces and two Portuguese aligned countries (Republic of Bali and Republic of Lombok). Meanwhile immigrants from Republic of East Indonesia and Republic of South Moluccas continued to attempt to migrate both legally and illegally to the Portuguese provinces. This created problems for Portuguese security agencies and border officials to determine who were a risk to the country and who was a genuine immigrant. The Portuguese government limited the number of immigrants from East Asian countries at 20,000 a year causing many more to attempt to sneak into the country. Forced repatriation for those caught illegally entering the country was strictly enforced.

The province of Macau enjoyed strong economic growth due to in part to the growth of gambling and tourism. Strict border controls were in place but visa free travel from Nationalist China and Hong Kong both by air and by sea was allowed. Migration to Macau from Communist China declined as Communist China increased the number of border guards and naval patrols. Even so over 10,000 Chinese arrived on Portuguese soil each year. Those that were Catholic and or spoke Portuguese were allowed to apply for permanent residency and migrate to other provinces. Nationalist China continued to be the preferred destination for the majority of the refugees.

Portuguese Emigration

Portugal had always been a country of emigrants, during the 16th - 18th century more Portuguese had migrated to Brazil than British had migrated to the 13 colonies. Prior the Estado Novo economic miracle about 20,000 Portuguese were emigrating each year mostly to Brazil. The economic revolution had absorbed those emigrants and for the last 30 years less than 2,000 emigrants continued to leave the country.

In 1950s America removed many of the emigration restrictions from Southern Europe but by then the major source of Portuguese emigrants to America, the Azores, had been siphoned to Portuguese Africa and other green pastures within the Federation. Same was true for Madeirans who had emigrated to South Africa and South America in the past were drawn to new opportunities elsewhere within the Federation. Even with the strong economic activities and opportunities within the Federation Portuguese citizens continued to seek opportunities outside the Federation. During the 1960s approximately 10,000 Portuguese applied to leave the country each year with 2,000 continuing to go to Brazil each year, with USA, Canada, Venezuela and Australia being the other preferred destinations. In 1963 a row between the Portuguese Federation and Canada / Australia erupted when statistics showed that 70% of Caucasians who applied to the two countries were accepted while less than 10% of Africans, Colored and Asian Portuguese applicants were accepted. In 1964 the row expanded to include the Americans as their immigration records also showed an even greater bias towards European immigrants. Attempts by the Portuguese government and the three governments to discreetly fix the issue failed and the Portuguese government went public in both the Portuguese Federation as well in the three countries. While the Portuguese were able to change the situation in the Canadian case the Australians and Americans refused to acknowledge the issue. During the African War emigration slowed considerably only recovering slightly in 1968. In 1969 controversy once again visited Portuguese immigrants in USA, Canada and Australia when news of Portuguese spies and covert operatives were imbedded in the Portuguese communities and actively supporting the Federation. When news of political assassinations of leading Portuguese opposition politicians living in Paris by Portuguese expatriates broke, attitudes in Canada, Australia and USA towards the Portuguese communities turned negative. While the backlash against the Portuguese emigrant communities was nowhere as severe as in South Africa these communities struggled with racism and suspicion directed towards them. The biggest impact was the reduced number of Portuguese emigrants that both applied to immigrate to the three countries but more importantly the sharp reduction in Portuguese emigrants that were accepted.


[1] Portuguese Intelligence identified that less than 25% of armed rebels fighting the Portuguese were from Portuguese Federation with majority coming from similar tribes of the host countries.
[2] Guinea Boke and Guinea became the subject of an intensive guerrilla war by Guineans financed and supported by Communist Guinea. Whom also became source of instability in neighboring Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Mali and Liberia. In 1965 in what became known as the PDR Guinea border Crises, Communist Guinea was besieged by troops of all its neighbors. Troops from Mali, and Ivory Coast were the first to strike inside PDR Guinea and within two months PDR Guinea was being attacked by all of its neighbors. After six months of continually losing ground to advancing neighbors forces the PDR Guinea requested intervention by the UN. PDR Guinea agreed to dismantle all communist camps and stop instigating any military action against all Organization of African Unity countries, thus leaving Guinea Boke and Portuguese Federation out of the agreement.
[3] iOTL José Alves committed suicide in Romania due to what he felt the betrayal of the communist to make sure he and his family would be well off. iTTL on the same day Alves travelled to Paris his wife and children flew to London and following the death of Cunhal they continued on their journey to the Portuguese Federation where government officials met them. They were settled in the Federation, but location is currently classified.
[4] The government goal of 160,000+ immigrants from Europe proved unrealistic as economic development in Europe slowed immigration to just under 70,000 a year with majority of whom were not from traditional northern European sources.
[5] In 1960 the Portuguese Federation instituted the British Isles Residency Act, allowing Irish and British citizens with no criminal record to automatically receive Federation residency upon arrival at Portuguese port or airport. In 1969 numerous British companies either closed, merged, sold their operations to Portuguese firms or moved to the Federation. This was followed by a percentage of their workers and their families moving also.
[6] The Indian Economic Union (IEU) was formed in 1961 between the Kingdom of Baroda, Kingdom of Hyderabad, Kingdom of Mysore, Democratic Union of India and Tamil Nadu to facilitate commerce and trade as well as ease the movement of people between the five countries. In 1962 both France and Portuguese Federation signed separate agreements with the IEU. Immigration to the Portuguese Federation was restricted in the Portuguese Indian provinces but open in European, African and East Asia provinces.


So we deal with two parts here the immigration/emigration of people in and out of country as well as the internal movement but also the security apparatus. So in regards to immigration into the country the traditional sources such as Germany that had served the Portuguese wonderfully in the 1940s and 1950s dried up as German economic recovery and progress meant it became a net importer of people. Therefore the Portuguese turned to the southern European and Eastern Europe (communist) as principle sources. The South American/Latin America component became a more important source of immigrants while Africans, Indians and Asians were allowed within the quota allowed for each group. emigration out of country was open and no one unless working in critical industry was allowed to leave. Principle motivation was liberty where as economic and military avoidance like witnessed in iOTL was largely absent.

This leads us to the security apparatus as the country security system was split and DGS became strictly external such as the CIA while the internal component became SIS or the Portuguese version of the FBI. Questions/ Comments?


Return in 2 weeks on Aug 8 when we post the culture and sports.
 
The Food Culture in the Federation must be amazing. It should be even more diverse than the US.

Will Caucasian birthrates across the rest of the Federation be influenced by the upsurge among African and Asians?
 
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Lusitania

Donor
The Food Culture in the Federation must be amazing. It should be even more diverse than the US.
during the 1950s the food culture like rest of the culture was turned upside down as the explosion of African, Berber/Arab, Jewish Indian, Chinese, East Asian and multitude of European immigrants shared and blended their foods with traditional Portuguese foods but more importantly introduced a whole slew of new foods, flavors on the nation.

now imagine a traditional Portuguese brought up on what was considered traditional Portuguese food was overwhelming . During the 1960s the Portuguese cuisine had become cosmopolitan and while in US trying Italian or Greek food would be considered exotic the Portuguese were incorporating new foods and reinventing their cuisine.

this all tied into the 1950s cultural reinvention and the theme of 1950s. “What is Portuguese”, where the argument and government message was that if traditional Portuguese culture took into consideration differences between Algarve, Minho and the two island groups then for the federation to be real then it meant that all parts were part of the country and all people part of the country and their values and culture part of the federation.
 

Lusitania

Donor
Will Caucasian birthrates across the rest of the Federation be influenced by the upsurge among African and Asians?

gotta keep our caucasian pop high

Good questions and this leads me to think that the census should be in this section because it provides a good idea of what the various population groups were per region at the start of the decade.

Census​

In 1960 Portuguese census provides following information:

Territory(0000)% increase from 1950% European% African% Indian% Asian% other[18]
Iberia13,1902272122212
Azores140-28921<115
Madeira150-25912<115
Morocco & North Africa2,1007524112662
Cape Verde75-25378<1<118
Guinea5001222571119
Equatorial Africa3991910761<112
West Africa12,3938011632321
East Africa14,136804586319
India750-18947719
East Indies2,116-74441838
Macao236-6210<1<1836
Total46,18539

Then we can add the following information from the security section:

1969 the number of Caucasians living outside Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands reached 4,104,000 plus the number from the Iberian peninsula 9,496.8 and islands 128.8 and 136.5 = 13,866,100 Caucasians in all of the Federation = 30% of the Federation. Now this does not account for two things the natural and immigration growth of Caucasians in the Iberian Peninsula from 19609-1969 and also the growing mixed demographic called Portuguese that fastest growing demographic in the country.

Now considering places of continued
immigration such as Europe were drying up there was a move government to find other areas of immigration such as Latin America and less developed European countries.
 
1960 - Culture & Sports

Lusitania

Donor
1960 – 1969

Culture and Sports

Culture

The 1950s had been defined as “What is the definition of Portuguese Culture” which was somewhat a success with multiple viewpoints being advanced and recognized as Portuguese but as the 50s turned to the 60 the cultural revolution that was gripping the USA, Britain and other countries started making its way to the Portuguese Federation. The traditional conservative culture and way of thinking clashed with the new ideas about personal freedom, sexuality and culture. Portuguese youth who had embraced the idea of the Federation faster and with greater belief than many of their parents also embraced many of these concepts.

The Portuguese culture was in a flux during the 1960s and during the 1st half of the decade the Ministry of Culture continued to espouse the same policies and goals as the 1950s. In 1962 following the attempted coup the Minister of Culture and Sports César Henrique Moreira Baptista was moved to the DGS and António Gabriel de Quadros Ferro, son of the first Minister of Culture and Sport, was appointed as the new Minister. António Quadros as he preferred to be called was only 39 but had established himself within the Portuguese art and culture community and had written several books already. For the last five years he had also taught at the University of Luanda and was what many considered very cosmopolitan and very aware of the cultural changes being witnessed in country. In 1962 after taking over the Ministry he instituted Portuguese Culture Modern Thinking and Traditional Values Commission that looked at current cultural, religious, moral and sport issues facing the country and what external pressures the country faced. The study was completed in 1964 and when it was published met quite a lot of resistance from both the liberal arts community and the conservative establishment. It emphasized the promotion of regional cultural values including various African cultures, Indian Culture, East Indian Culture, Chinese Culture and Berber Culture as well as traditional European Portuguese Culture including the acknowledgement of German, Polish, Spanish and English components within that culture. The report continued to emphasize the importance of the government in molding and guiding the development of culture whereas many within the arts community wanted less or no government intervention while many conservatives reacted angrily to the continued derogation of traditional Lusitania culture.

“Mocidade Portuguesa” Portuguese Youth Organization (PY), the Portuguese Women League (PWL) and Portuguese League (PL) continued to be the primary means of the promoting and expanding Portuguese culture, language and arts to millions of Portuguese through a variety of programs, festivals and activities. At the same time, the rejection of PY and other government sanctioned cultural activities by bigger percentage of youth in favor of their own independence continued to grow especially by many emigrants and nonwhites, the reforms instituted in 1965 went along way to change that but it took years for PY local chapters to change and offer programs of interest for the marginalized youth.

The 1960s saw the emergence of FM radio stations, private television stations and increased book and newspaper publishing in the country which proved impossible for the Department of Interior to properly supervise all the programming and to read every book and every newspaper article, so instead it issued directives with specific penalties outlined for running afoul of the government regulations. While in the 50s thousands of DI agents supervised radio, television and movie productions as well as cleared news reports and books the DI now pulled the agents out and concentrated on reviewing programs, movies and published works after the fact. Fear of DI action made the program directors, managers and publishers their own censors. Production time of movies and television programs was reduced in half while newspapers and book publishers were able to publish their newspapers and books in 1/3 of the time. But everyone was always second guessing themselves. Even so people started seeing a shift in programming, movies, news reporting and books that were much more critical of the status quo. Variety programming, ad lib and political and cultural programming appeared and grew in popularity. Those that veered too far from path the government guidelines saw their business suffer, received fines and the worst offenders were imprisonment.

The influence of foreign culture grew immensely during the last half of the decade with British music, films and television programs making big inroads. Nothing exemplified this than the visit to the Portuguese federation of the British rock band “the Beatles” who visited nine Portuguese cities as part of their world tour that saw them travel from Berlin to Porto, Lisbon, Tetouan, Bissau, Luanda, Benguela, Lourenço Marques, Beira, and Panjim before going on to Bombay, Calcutta and then onto Australia. The recording industry also saw huge movements with distinct Portuguese bands coming from such places as Luanda, Beira and Daman as Brazilian, African and Indian influences made their way into Portuguese music scene. In 1968 the biggest craze to hit the nation was the kizomba type music with several groups such “Homens de Ouro” and “Lenda” which competed with more traditional music groups from all over the country. Meanwhile in Lisbon and Porto the British music influenced Portuguese youth to form rock bands as they began playing both English songs and their own Portuguese rock songs. At same time, Brazilian music continued to have a strong influence and airtime on Portuguese airwaves. In 1969 the department of information issued a rule that increased the % of music that all radio stations had to play to 80% Portuguese music and that 50% had to be from Portuguese artist living in the Federation. In 1960s saw the elevation of famed Portuguese Fado singer and actress, Amalia Rodrigues, as the Portuguese Cultural Ambassador, in 1964 she won the Luis Camoes award for her role in her most successful movie “Fado de Luanda” this was followed “Fado Corrido” in 1967. In terms of music, she came out with six albums with her 1962 self-titled album “Amalia Rodrigues” and 1969 “Com Que Voz” reached multiplatinum sales both in Portuguese Federation but more importantly catapulted her career internationally and she toured extensively in Europe, America and South America.

In the 1960s Portuguese television made huge leaps in both programming as well as new television stations. Several private television stations both national as well as regional started transmitting in the country. The government Instituted a tax on all private television stations to pay for the various educational programming that continued to show in the RTP stations. While RTP was allowed lessen its arts and education programming so it could compete with private television stations who responded by showing foreign shows (Brazilian, Spanish, British and other European). The government stipulated that by end of decade 70% of all shows on Portuguese television stations had to originate in the Federation and all others needed to be dubbed into Portuguese. This resulted in huge boon for Portuguese actors, technicians and support staff and by 1969 over 20 telenovelas “Portuguese soap operas”, dramas and comedy series were in production and being shown on television.

Portuguese government continued to support the production of movies both for television as well as for cinemas. During the 1960s the number of movie companies reached six producing dozens of movies a year with 1964 the number of movies released domestically reaching a record 42 films. Portuguese movies continued to be shown at Cannes Film Festival. In 1965 the Portuguese Cinema Awards were held for the first time celebrating Portuguese cinema, documentaries and acknowledging the work of Portuguese workers in cinema. Portuguese directors such as Jorge Brum do Canto, Augusto Fraga and Paulo Soares da Rocha made a huge contribution to Portuguese cinema and had their works recognized internationally. Portuguese cinemas gained much popularity in Brazil and were also dubbed into Spanish for the South American market. In Brazil, many Brazilians complained about the “Portuguese Invasion” and the supplanting of Brazilian cinemas. During the 1960s Brazilian cinema was releasing only a fraction of the movies the Portuguese were releasing each year and the market domination by the Portuguese was displacing many Brazilian workers and actors even though all Brazilian movies were also shown in the Portuguese market. Throughout the world British, French and German movies were slowly being displaced by Hollywood who dominated cinema outside the Federation. Demand for foreign movies in the Federation increased during the 1960s and majority of the best foreign movies were edited and dubbed by DI and released. With the huge number of movies available many movie theatres expanded into multi theatres and new theatres continued to spread throughout the country.

Religion

Proselytism of Catholicism had been a cornerstone of Portuguese trade and colonial expansion since the time of the first exploration in the 15th century. For centuries evangelization of Catholicism was supported by the state and in many ways Catholic Religion and the Portuguese state was perceived as one. This caused many problems as spreading of religion became in some ways more important than spreading of trade or state control which led to resistance to Portuguese control. The Goan Inquisition which operated till early 19th century was the clearest example of a religious process which was detrimental to the Portuguese state.

The abolition of the monarchy in 1910 had severed the alliance between the Catholic Church and state. Anti-clerical laws and hostility by Portuguese Republic government severely limited state and religious interaction. The establishment of the Estado Novo in 1920s had in some ways allowed for greater state and religious collaboration and the 1941 Portuguese-Vatican agreement reestablished formal Portuguese State and Catholic Church cooperation. What was missing was the exclusivity on moral and religious matters.

With the creation Portuguese Federation, the Catholic church was once more sidelined as the sole authority on religious and moral matters. Protestant churches, which had been growing exponentially especially with the continued immigration of Protestant Europeans, demanded an increased voice in public affairs. The liberation of non-Christian religions (Hindu, Islam and Buddhism) by Portuguese government starting in the 50s caused major concern within the Catholic Church and the more conservative Protestants. During the 1950s while the number of Catholics in the Federation had grown considerably due to Catholic immigration into the country and Catholic evangelization, its share of the religious had decreased to less than 70% of the population and the continued attraction of Protestant denominations had the Catholic Church with its heavy baggage of rules and Latin mass struggling to compete as the 1960s started.

The announcement of Pope John XXIII in 1959 to call a general council with the purpose of modernizing the Catholic Church was welcomed by the besieged Portuguese Catholic Church. While the council only started in 1962 and would take a full three years to complete, the second Vatican council as it became known greatly changed the face and ways the Catholic Church functioned. The celebration of the mass in local languages which the Portuguese Catholic Church was one of the first adoptees in celebrating the mass and other religious events in Portuguese. Church doctrine, and scriptures were modified and modernized. Religious orders and hierarchy also changed between 1965 and 1969 while the number of dioceses in the Federation doubled.

In 1967 Pope Paul VI planned visit to Fatima to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the apparition of Virgen Mary who had appeared to three children in 1917 was postponed as a result the Portuguese African Wars. After the war negotiations with the Vatican took place for the pope to visit Portuguese Federation with visits in various cities and not only in Fatima. In May of 1969 he visited Fatima where he celebrated mass to over 100,000 devotees. He then visited Lisbon and Porto on the Iberian Peninsula before continuing his 20-day tour of the Federation with stops to Tetouan, Bissau, Luanda, Benguela, Lourenco Marques, Beira, Panjim, Daman and finishing in Dili. The visit was objected by many Americans and Northern Europeans who opposed the visit to Portuguese Federation due to its continued occupation of parts of Africa regardless of security issues given by the Federation as reason for their continued occupation.

Sports

Portuguese sports in 1960s were dominated by Portuguese Federation Games and the participation in three Olympics during the 1960s. In addition, Portuguese soccer, both on national level and international gained new heights. In addition the 1960s saw the emergence of national leagues for basketball, handball and hockey. Portuguese cycling and racing continued to gain prestige and popularity.

The 1960 Summer Olympics was held in Rome, Italy, from 22 August – 11 September 1960. Portuguese Federation sent 286 athletes (194 men and 92 women) the second most number of athletes just behind USA with 292. The Portuguese athletes who participated in all 150 events in 17 sports. Portuguese Federation won 51 medals (15 gold, 19 silver and 17 bronze) again third behind US and USSR. This was the first Olympics that were televised in the Federation. Portuguese television crews filmed and edited the events onto tapes that were then flown to all over the Federation for transmitting the following day on television. The world’s first International Paralympics games were held in Rome from 18 – 25 September 1960 using many of the same venues. Portuguese Federation sent 32 athletes to compete at the Paralympics who won 21 medals.

In 1963 at the IOC meeting in Germany, Luanda ran up against Mexico City, Detroit and Lyons for the privilege of hosting the 1968 Summer Olympics, in the voting it came in third behind the winner Mexico City and second place Detroit.

The 1964 Summer Olympics was held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 - 24 October 1964. Portugal sent 321 athletes (196 men and 125 women) the fourth highest number of athletes just behind USA, Japan and Germany. The Portuguese athletes participated in all 163 events in 19 sports. Portuguese Federation won 49 medals (13 gold, 19 silver and 17 bronze) placing fourth behind US, USSR and Germany. Portuguese television crews filmed and edited the events onto tapes that were then they transmitted by US satellites to the Portuguese Federation, the lack of Portuguese own satellite network meant that about half the Federation had to wait till next day to watch the Olympics. The Paralympics games were also held in Tokyo from 8 - 12 November 1964 using many of the same venues. The Paralympics had been expanded to nine sports and the Portuguese Federation sent 102 athletes to compete at the Paralympics who won 61 medals.

The 1968 Summer Olympics was held in Mexico City, Mexico, from 12 - 22 October 1968. Zaire, Uganda, Tanzania, Egypt, Morocco, and Sudan boycotted the games over the participation of the Portuguese Federation and newly Portuguese aligned countries of (Namibia, Zambia, Rhodesia, Katanga, Botswana, Guinea Boke and Malawi) in the games. Portuguese Federation sent 346 athletes (217 men and 129 women) the second highest number of athletes just behind USA. The Portuguese athletes participated in all 172 events in 18 sports and won 66 medals (20 gold, 22 silver and 24 bronze) placing third behind US, and USSR. Portuguese television crews filmed and edited the events onto tapes that were then transmitted by US satellites to the Portuguese Federation, the continued lack of Portuguese own satellite network continued to hinder the Portuguese ability to transmit the games simultaneously thought the whole Federation. The Paralympics games were held in Tel Aviv in 12 - 18 November 1968 when Mexico City stated it could not host them following the Olympics like the previous games. The Paralympics had been expanded to 10 sports and the Portuguese Federation sent the largest contingent of athletes 107 to compete at the Paralympics who won the most medals, 81.

Between the Olympic Games, Portuguese Federation continued to hold the Portuguese Federation Games every four years between the Olympic games. It was the largest sporting event in the country with Panjim, Goa hosting it in 1962 and Bissau in 1966. Participants started representing their provinces instead of city or region with each province sending a provincial team.[1] Participation averaged over 12,000 athletes and were televised over several channels providing fans with access to over 20 hours of televised coverage each day.

Portuguese Games and the Olympics training continued to be one of the PY main focuses with all PY chapters offering a wide variety of sports.

Soccer continued to be the other main sport uniting the whole country. The Portuguese Super Soccer Federation (PSSF) was established with 20 teams, while 5 Regional 2nd divisions were established, with the 2 top teams from each regional division plus 2 best 3rd place teams participated in the Kings Cup at end of each season with the winner and runner-up team advancing to the Super Soccer Federation while the bottom 2 teams from the (PSSF) moved down to their respective 2nd division.[2] In addition 12 Regional 3rd divisions were also organized. The most prestigious trophy was the Federation Cup which was awarded to the winner of the year-round tournament between all 3rd division, 2nd division and Supper Soccer Federation teams. Soccer had fans in every corner of the country; radio stations would broadcast several games each week. Meanwhile Portuguese Super Soccer Federation winner continued to compete yearly against rest of Europe in the Europe Cup. Portuguese top teams (Benfica, Porto, Desportivo de Lourenço Marques and Luanda Gazelas) won five of the decades European Cups continuing their domination over their European rivals, which were Milan and Real Madrid.

In 1960 the first European Nations’ Cup was held in France, the Portuguese faced Slovakia in the first qualifying game which they beat 2-1 and 4-1. In the second round they faced Yugoslavia and easily beat them 6-1 on first game but lost the second game in 2-1 in Belgrade, with an aggregate of 7-3 they advanced to finals. In the finals in France, they faced the hosts (France), Czech and Soviet Union. They were drawn against Soviet Union and beat them 3-0 advancing against France who had beaten Czech Republic in the semi-final. The game was played in Paris and hosts took an early lead in the 5th minute, but Portuguese Mario Coluna tied it back in the 60th minute. The game went into extra time and when it looked like it would end tied when Justine Fontaine scored the winning goal for France in the last minute and they won the first Europeans Cup.

In 1962 the Portuguese Federation qualified for the World Cup being held in Chile by beating both England and Luxemburg. It was drawn into Group 4 with Hungary, Argentina, and Bulgaria. Portuguese Federation beat Hungary 3-1, Blanked Bulgaria 2-0 and beat Argentina 2-1 in the group stage and won the group. Portuguese Federation, Brazil, Chile, Soviet Union, Germany, Yugoslavia, Hungary and Czech advanced to the knock out phase where Portuguese Federation was drawn against Brazil. Portuguese Federation beat them 2-1 in a hard-fought match with Eusebio and Pele going up against each other for first time and both players scoring. Portuguese Federation then faced the host nation, Chile in the semifinal, who it beat after overcoming a one goal deficit in 2nd half to win it 3-2. In the final, Portuguese Federation faced off against Czech Republic. The Czech proved to be a determined adversary but in the 22-minute Eusebio came through with a super goal from outside the box. At the 39-minute he headed in a pass from Eduardo and at end of 1st half the Portuguese were up 2-0. During the second half, the Czech player Masopust made it 2-1 when he successfully converted a penalty. But Portuguese responded in the 55 minute with another superb goal by Eusebio and João Martins sealed it with a goal at the 81 minute and Xeva Santos topped it off with another goal in the 88 minute. The final score was 5-1 and the Portuguese hoisted the trophy for the second time and Eusebio was the top scorer with 8 goals in the tournament. The Portuguese left Santiago June 18 and after stopping in Brazil for refueling arrived in Luanda to a tumultuous hero’s welcome. On the 21 they flew to Lisbon where they were met by as big a crowd as in Luanda. They met with both King Duarte II and government. On June 26 Eusebio brought the trophy to Lourenco Marques and the city stopped to greet him. Hundreds of thousands cheered the procession from the Airport to Desportivo de Lourenço Marques stadium and then to city hall.

In 1964 the second European Nations’ Cup was held in Spain, the Portuguese received a bye for the preliminary round and faced Bulgaria in the first round winning the game 1-0 in extra time in the first qualifying game which they beat 2-1. In the second round they faced Soviet Union, the first game was played in Porto whom they beat 2-1. In the second game in Moscow the Portuguese were heckled all the time they had possession of the ball but won a very scrappy game 2-0. In the tournament they faced the hosts (Spain), Denmark and Hungary. They were drawn against Denmark while hosts (Spain) played Hungary. The Portuguese beat the Hungarians 5-0 and faced Spain in the final. The game was played in Madrid and the crowd was hostile to the Portuguese, but Eusebio was brilliant scoring four unanswered goals before Pereda score two goals for the Spanish, but it was not enough, and the Portuguese won their 1st European Nation Cup.

In 1966 Federation qualified for the World Cup being held in England by winning group 4 of the EUFA qualifying group, Federation faced Czech, Turkey and Romania winning all its games. In the tournament, it was drawn into Group 3 with Hungary, Brazil and Bulgaria. In the group stage Federation beat Hungary 5-1, blanked Bulgaria 3-0 and advanced alongside Brazil, whom it had beaten 2-1, to the knockout phase. In the quarterfinals Federation was pitted against host team, England, which it overcame in extra time by a score of 2-1. In the semifinals Portugal went up against surprise team of the tournament North Korea. The Koreans scored first but then Portuguese Federation and Eusebio turned on the pressure and scored 10 unanswered goals.[3] The final game against Brazil was one of the most anticipated games ever and was transmitted directly to Portuguese Federation for the 1st time. The Brazilians were hungry to win the trophy after lucking out twice and Pele scored two quick goals in the 5th and 12th minute. Portuguese responded in the 33rd minute and at half time it was 2-1 for Brazil. In the second half Pele scored in the 47th minute but Eusebio leveled it with two superb goals in the 51st and 60th minute. For the next 30 minutes, the game stayed tied at 3-3 and just when it looked like the game was going into extra time Pele appeared in front of the goal and slid the winning g oal with one-minute left in injury time. Brazil went on to win the 1966 World Cup 4-3 a bitter disappointment and a preview of the constant rivalry between the two countries. Eusebio once again was the leading scorer with 12 goals the most in any world cup.

In 1968 the 3rd European Nations’ Cup was held in Italy, the qualifying style changed with the various teams being placed in groups. The Federation was placed into group 2 and faced Bulgaria, Sweden and Norway. The Federation beat Sweden 3-1 in first game and 1-0 in second game. Against Norway they won 4-1 and 3-0. Their toughest opponent was Bulgaria who held the Portuguese 1-1 in Sofia but were beaten 3-1 in Lisbon. The Federation advanced to the Play-off and were drawn against Soviet Union again. The Soviets objected to the Portuguese selecting Tetouan as the host city for the Portuguese leg of the two games and withdrew in protest, resulting in the Portuguese winning the playoff by default. In the tournament they faced the hosts (Italy), Yugoslavia and England. They were drawn against the hosts (Italy) while Yugoslavia played England. The game against Italy ended tied at 2-2 and Portuguese lost in a coin toss. The Italians advanced to the final against Yugoslavia and won the 3rd Europeans Cup.


[1] This led to each province having their own provincial games to select the best athletes within the province to send to the Portuguese Federation Games national competition.
[2] By 1970 following a decade of movement back and forth between divisions some 2nd division leagues had extra three teams while other leagues were down two teams making scheduling difficult. In 1972 with air travel faster and cheaper the five 2nd divisions were combined into one division with 40 teams.
[3] The North Korean players and team staff were so humiliated and afraid of repercussions at home by the loss that 90% of the players and team staff tried to defect. Only half were successful with remainder being apprehended by North Korean security personal who had accompanied the team to England. Those caught were either killed in the struggle or committed suicide, in the end only two players and six staff members returned to North Korea and it withdrew from international competition for over a decade.


This section provides the reader with some interesting information. 1) culture was guarded and promoted by the government who after more that 30 years had a complex but working process in place to provide its people with a huge spectrum of media to emphasize the "Portuguese" and government priorities. The advent of television like in other countries saw a move of many shows from radio to television but it also provided new avenues for more shows and movies that radio could not provide as well as that cinemas were not showing. Portuguese content rules at first were resisted by cinema theatres associations and television networks but the government stuck to their gradual increasing schedule reaching 70% by 1969. While many countries made fun or criticized the rules (especially USA) it would soon be copied by almost every country in the world. Much to the anger of American cultural industry. ITOL Portugal only had RTP into the 1980s when it allowed for private television stations to start here the industry was much more advanced and sophisticated that it allowed them to start in the 1960s. Expansion of radio stations (with the advent of FM radio stations) was another innovation that happened decades ahead of iOTL. 2) Religion was an important component of many peoples lives and here the 2nd Vatican happened similarly to iOTL but what happen was the Portuguese Catholic church had working committees to plan many of the major changes such as literature, mass books as well as training to priests all while the 2nd Vatican was still going on. When the final announcement was made in Rome many national churches started the process but the Portuguese Catholic Church implemented its new program within a few months. iOTL the Catholic church had immense power and influence in Portugal, government and its affairs. iTTL it competed for influence with both other Christian and non Christian religions. 3) Sports - this was a byproduct of the PY which had sports programs in every fregesia (parish). It was here that talent was recognized and training provided, where the most promising were sent to train in the provincial training centers. It was at the provincial levels that these athletes would get their first exposure to competing at a national level and the Federation games amongst the most competitive and important in these young athletes career. From these athletes the "national" team were selected and compete internationally with ultimately being chosen to compete in the Olympics. The problem was not having athletes who qualified for international competition / Olympics but to send those most likely to win to the Olympics. Hence the reason it had one of the largest number of athletes compete in the Olympics. Other sports also were just as competitive with Portuguese soccer being recognized in the 1960s as one of the best in Europe. Questions/ Comments?

Return in 2 weeks on Aug 22 when we start posting Foreign Affairs.
 
We might not see that many players of African origin in European national teams TTL, with it no longer the prime destination with the Federation nearby reachable by land.
The final game against Brazil was one of the most anticipated games ever and was transmitted directly to Portuguese Federation for the 1st time.
Looks like they finally got their satellites.
While many countries made fun or criticized the rules (especially USA) it would soon be copied by almost every country in the world.
I don't think that's possible in Western Democracies. It's terribly intrusive on part of the government.
 

Lusitania

Donor
We might not see that many players of African origin in European national teams TTL, with it no longer the prime destination with the Federation nearby reachable by land.
The Federation will continue to be one of Europe’s biggest and richest soccer federations and be both a magnet for Portuguese and international players. That being said there will actually be more players from Africa as the richer African countries will actually develop more players as the number of teams and the quality of those teams be greater than iotl.

This of course leads us to football on the African continent. The CAF underwent several major changes during the 1960s which in turn led to a period in which CAF went through several upheavals. In 1964 the CAF boycotted all international competitions and events due to Federation. In 1968 the CAF was reborn with headquarters in Dakar. All Francophone, Lusitania commonwealth and British Commonwealth countries including new countries formed after war allowed to join. It rejoined FIFA and began planing the Africa Cup. Morocco, Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda and Zaire formed their own Federation but continued to boycott FIFA programs.

The two countries with provinces in Africa; Federation and France played in Europe.
 
That being said there will actually be more players from Africa as the richer African countries will actually develop more players as the number of teams and the quality of those teams be greater than iotl.
Yes, but wouldn't those players be in Club Soccer, not national teams?
 

Lusitania

Donor
Yes, but wouldn't those players be in Club Soccer, not national teams?
Yea what I was trying to imply was that both the number and professionalism if these clubs would be higher in the African countries as the respective country GDP would be higher. Some being 3-4 higher by year 2000.
 

Lusitania

Donor
Looks like they finally got their satellites.
Not yet, they used American satellite just like in the olympics. Something the Portuguese were working on but a little behind the Americans and Soviets. Wait it will come.

prior to this the only live play by play was on radio. Although in the 1950s movie theaters were sold out when they showed the Portuguese playing in the World Cup. There was a huge rush to get copies of the reels from the game to the Federation and people wanting to relive the game again. Then when televisions appeared in the Federation there was similar rush to air it on the tv.

even In remote villages the cafe/drinking place would have a generator and catch RTP. So by 1966 electrification of the country was complete with even the most remote villages linked by road and electricity (few were linked by boat or air only, but electricity brought to the villages with gas powered electrical generators operated by electrical companies providing the power).

Communication via telephone and television was seen as priority of the government and this World Cup along with other sporting events a show case of Portuguese culture and of course pride.

PS of course the bitter defeat was a huge disappointment but we have to remember there was no Brazilian dominance with both countries about equal in World Cup wins in the two last two decades.
 

Lusitania

Donor
I don't think that's possible in Western Democracies. It's terribly intrusive on part of the government.
Ok I want to clarify that what we are talking about is the content rules. Iotl democratic countries like Canada and France have content rules for television and radio as well as other media about how much much be produced/made in their respective country. These were brought in during the 1970s-1980s. These laws were introduced to provide incentive for national artists/actors to have jobs and programming to reflect national identity. I know living in Canada that many television programs and music would never of existed if it had not been for this law.

Therefore with this background we can safely state that a country such as Federation would be at forefront of such legislative initiatives and that other cultural sensitive countries such as France would of enacted their own legislation decade earlier. Even countries such as Brazil would enact their own decades earlier.
 
1960 - Foreign Affairs (1 of 3)

Lusitania

Donor
1960 – 1969

Foreign Affair ( 1 of 3)


The sections provides synopsis of several countries and regions through the 1960s and their relationship positive or negative with the Federation.

Portuguese Federation - UK diplomatic relationship during the 1960s struggled while its economic relationship during the first half grew even stronger. British firms accounted for almost 25% of the Portuguese economy with British firms entrenched in manufacturing, defense, retail, and services. The growth in the Portuguese economy had permitted many British firms to survive and even thrive after WWII while Britain’s economy continued to struggle with both the British Pound Sterling and government expenditures under pressure due to government’s War debt. The British defense industry was a clear example of the British constrains and its reliance on continued Portuguese-British collaboration with Portuguese purchases accounting for over 30% of British military hardware sales following the war and during the 1950s. With not only British defense companies benefiting but also the British military as British planes, ships and other military hardware was manufactured for both Portuguese and British procurement specs. The British Navy had been one of the primary beneficiaries.

During the 1960s as the Portuguese Military Industry made increasing strides in fulfilling Federation’s own needs even so the Portuguese continued to collaborate in the development of new aircraft carriers and destroyers while British high-tech firms continued to supply many of the components in Portuguese military hardware. During the 1960s first under conservative governments of Harold Macmillan and then Alec Douglas-Home the Portuguese-British relationship continued strong even though segments of society especially the left opposed the close political and business Portuguese-British relationship. The Portuguese-British offensive against the Malaysian communists was a good example of the shared interested and values between the two countries.

Britain own defense and commonwealth needs put severe pressure of the British military. The resurgent Malaysian Communist Insurgency and the British Caribbean communist attacks forced the British to seek out partners. In Malaysia, the British were forced to accept Portuguese help with Australia occupied supporting the Americans in Vietnam. In the Caribbean, the Canadians provided invaluable support led several of the campaigns especially in British Guiana. The two initiatives and theatres taxed the British forces that when South Africa Civil War occurred the British decided a collaborative effort of commonwealth countries would be best solution. Soldiers from Canada, DUI, Australia, and New Zealand fought alongside British forces supporting the United SA government forces. The British Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home intervened several times by calling the Portuguese Prime Minister “requesting” that the Portuguese stay out of SA civil War. The strength of the Afrikaner forces and disarray in the United government and forces along with discord between the various Commonwealth forces contributed to the United/Commonwealth forces defeat and the humiliating withdrawal from SA. The defeat proved too much for the government of Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home and his government fell. The conservatives were trounced, and the Labor Party under of James Harold Wilson won the 1966 election.

The election of the Labor Party in 1966 brought a new way of looking at the world, questioning British priorities and government support of society but also British foreign relations. Fore mount of that review was the British-Portuguese relationship including both the close military procurement and British involvement and “support” of the Federation. Since the 1950s as Portuguese and British had cemented their close relationship and the establishment of the Federation the left had always been critical of British support. Over the next decade as the Federation grew economically and politically the distrust and anger amongst those continued to grow. The British and rest of Europe’s decolonization efforts of the 1950s and 1960s seemed in complete contrast to the Federation continued “strangle hold” over huge swaths of territory confounded these individuals. During the 1960s opposition to the Federation and British cooperation and economic partnership grew and became entrenched in British Labor party.[1]

The Labor Government under the leadership of James Harold Wilson had two major issues on its plate after assuming power: the situation in SA and the Portuguese Federation. The government proceeded to dismantle the military and more controversial business dealings with the Federation.[2] Complicating his efforts was Portuguese-British debt accord that limited British governments actions much to the anger of many British Labors’ supporters and left wing allies who could not understand British government’s reluctance to immediately terminate all military sales to the Portuguese.[3] Therefore British government announced the review of all military project and future British-Portuguese business dealings. Meanwhile the South Africa Civil war also greatly affecting British-Portuguese relations. Afraid of humanitarian catastrophe and unwilling to re-send British troops back to South Africa after the forced humiliating withdrawal by the previous government following the collapse of the Commonwealth intervention which had cost Britain 2,950 casualties, the British government of Harold Wilson reluctantly consented to endorsing the Portuguese Federation intervention in South Africa. The subsequent collapse of South Africa and the continental war between the Federation and most of the African states culminating with the announcement that the Federation was a nuclear power by exploding of nuclear bomb during the African wars eroded any hope of continuing the British-Portuguese special relationship. During 1967 and 1968 the installation of Portuguese aligned governments in many British Commonwealth countries and continued occupation of several border areas caused major diplomatic repercussions between the two countries. The refusal of the Federation to withdraw from the occupied areas in Morocco, Senegal, Congo, Zaire and Tanzania and creation of independent countries in these occupied zones resulted in many demonstrations against the Federation in Britain. In 1969 the British government under immense pressure finally introduced legislation to prohibit not only defense trade with the Federation but also severely limiting what goods could be exported and imported from the Federation. On 2 August 1969, the Labor government gave notice to terminate all remaining joint military developments and ban the sale of military hardware to the Federation. Much to the surprise and anger of the Harold Wilson government was the stipulations in the agreements that if the projects were terminated by the British the Portuguese were entitled to receive complete transfers of technology.

While Labor was able to use its majority in Parliament to pass the legislation the House of Lords rejected the bill, when it was passed a second time by Parliament the House of Lords again threatened to defeat the bill. Prime Minister Wilson responded by threatening to dissolve parliament and go to the people, afraid that Labor would defeat the conservatives again and greatly increase its majority the conservatives in the House of Lords agreed to a compromise. Providing for a 12-month phase-in to the limitations of trade and the respecting of all existing agreement including transfer of technology.[4] While Labor supporters and many British Nationalists celebrated the trade embargo, those British companies that had not done so already rushed to transfer part or all their operations to the Federation. As the decade came to a close the rush of British firms either selling their Federation assets or transferring their operations to the Federation became a deluge. As a result of the government legislation thousands of British workers either lost their jobs or moved along with the companies. Many critical military and civilian projects viability came into doubt. British Navy’s new aircraft carriers and escorts ships were cancelled with the loss of the Federation participation, British corporations such as Ferranti which supplied civilian and military electronics including radar, navigation were forced to lay off many employees and downsize. Many firms that remained in Britain were forced to merge or were bought out; especially hard hit was the aircraft and aviation engineering firms. Under the direction of the government by early 1970s most of the British aerospace firms had been absorbed by the two remaining British companies British Aerospace (BAE) and Marconi Electronic Systems (MES).

Portuguese Federation – France diplomatic and trade relationship during the 1960s slowly improved following the assassination of President de Gaulle and subsequent uneasy truce between French Algeria and Muslim Algeria. The assassination of French President de Gaulle in 1961 shocked France and the French people and the French government struggled to make sense of the assassination and what to do about Algeria. The subsequent “Algerian Compromise” pleased neither the right nor left but the centrists and nationalists felt it was the best outcome for France. It provided France with energy needs and kept millions of French citizens and supporters on the African continent. The splitting of Algeria was opposed by the left and French universities were rocked by student demonstrations for over a year. But the government of President Pompidou weathered the storm and France actually saw a net migration of French citizens to French provinces in Africa. French companies also invested in the region and French Africa saw a huge economic growth during the decade.

The one area that France lost was its relationship with remaining French speaking African countries who turned their back on France following the Algerian Compromise. With the French community collapsing and all African countries withdrawing from the organization. Portuguese – French relations were also cool during the first part of the decade, but De Gaulle’s successor President Pompidou worked to improve the French - Portuguese relationship especially following the creation of the Arab League Alliance and its threat to both French and Portuguese provinces in Africa. During the African Wars, Portuguese and French forces cooperated and shared intel on the Moroccan and Algerian forces facing both countries. Following the war France and the Federation trade increased and relationship between the two countries warmed up much to the anguish and opposition of those on the left. During both the African War and the years following French Universities became center of anti-Portuguese opposition with university students leading many anti-Portuguese and anti-USA marches.[5] The death of two Portuguese opposition leaders in Paris by Portuguese expats caused diplomatic repercussions with many believing that the DGS had been behind the deaths of both Mario Soares and Alvaro Cunhal, but no proof was ever discovered. The explosion of a Nuclear Bomb during the African Wars put the Portuguese in the same league as France with both countries stating that their nuclear arsenal was strictly for defense.

In 1968 two major events in France and the French Community brought the French and Portuguese closer in several ways. The African wars had highlighted the inadequacies of many of the French speaking economies and political structure and the failure in the policies of the previous administrations in adhering to Soviet influence and Communism. Following the wars French diplomacy was in full swing talking to both surviving governments and new governments about providing French support to these countries. In many African French speaking countries dissatisfaction with the outcome of the war and economic situation led to French sponsored government changes. In 1968 the French Community was re-stablished linking the French speaking countries in Africa to France, providing France with increased influence and trade advantages in the continent. Included in the French Community was the four African countries (Senegal – Mali Federation, Guinea, Togo and Gabon) that had established peace treaties with the Portuguese Federation and expanded by annexing neighboring countries. The warmer relationship with the Federation and Lusitania Commonwealth would see French industry and investors entering both the Federation and Commonwealth just as British firms were being forced to leave.

On the international stage and diplomatically President Pompidou government set France on a Pro Europe path with promoting and supporting a strong Europe as a counter to the USA and Soviet influence. In 1963 he visited German, Germany and France signed a treaty of friendship, the Élysée Treaty. France also reduced its dollar reserves, trading them for gold from the U.S. government, thereby reducing America's economic influence abroad. His government approved the British application into the EEC as way of lessening USA influence in Britain. The country also witnessed a population boom unseen in France since the 18th century, the government under President Pompidou oversaw a rapid transformation and expansion of the French economy. With dirigisme — a combination of capitalism and state-directed economy — the government intervened heavily in the economy, using indicative five-year plans as its main tool.

High profile projects, were launched: the extension of Marseille harbor (soon ranking third in Europe and first in the Mediterranean); the promotion of the Caravelle passenger jetliner (a predecessor of Airbus); the decision to start building the supersonic Franco-British Concorde airliner in Toulouse; the expansion of the French auto industry with state-owned Renault at its center; the building of the first motorways between Paris and the provinces and the building of the first high speed trains connecting France’s largest cities.

In 1968 also saw the approval of the 1968 French referendum in which provided for direct Presidential elections, regionalization, increased French franchise and French Senate reforms. The referendum was approved by 61% of the voters despite opposition from left and riots by anarchists and communists. Several bombings caused over 10 deaths in Marseilles, Lyons and Paris but even so President Pompidou who campaigned for the referendum dissolved parliament in the spring of 1969 and stood for elections himself as president. He won with 52% of the vote in the first round and his party the Union of Democrats for the Republic increased their number of seats and majority. So, in 1969 as Britain went ahead with its divorce with the Federation the French warmed up the Portuguese, French investors and businesses were foremost in the development of Portuguese African development projects in both French Community countries and Lusitania Commonwealth countries. The Portuguese and French were aligned in several areas, in Europe both continued to be part of NATO, while in Indian Subcontinent both continued to support Indian Economic Union (IEU) countries, both countries were also members of Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) although the Portuguese Federation had a larger presence in the region than France and lastly both countries continued to have provinces in the African continent.

Under De Gaulle in 1960, France became the fourth state to acquire a nuclear arsenal, detonating an atomic bomb in the Algerian desert. Thus, providing France with a means to defend itself and not have to rely on American protection. Following De Gaulle’s death President Pompidou continued to press French scientist to advance French nuclear capabilities and in 1968, at the French scientists finally succeeded in detonating a hydrogen bomb without American assistance.

In 1965, France launched its first satellite into orbit, being the third country in the world to build a complete delivery system, after the Soviet Union and the United States.

Portuguese Federation - Western Europe relationship continued to be plagued by disagreement regarding Portuguese Federation’s presence in Africa and Asia. Even so almost all western countries recognized the Federation and by 1965 only Finland refused to recognize the Portuguese Federation. The African Wars outcome and the declaration that Federation was a nuclear power sent shockwaves through Western Europe. Subsequent failure in peace with several African countries and redrawing of borders with “Portuguese Puppet” regimes installed in many countries strained Portuguese - West Europe relationship with Nordic Countries governments being the most critical. In 1968 during Prime Minister Dr. Antonio Rapazote’s UN address the Portuguese Federation promised to only to use its nuclear arsenal for defense as well as to also protect its friends from nuclear attack. He surprises most delegates when he read out a list of countries that were under the Portuguese Nuclear Umbrella. The list included all of Western Europe, most of Africa and South America as well as many countries in the Indian Subcontinent and South-East Asia.

Politically the Portuguese – Western Europe relationship was complex, but its economic relationship continued to thrive. Portuguese Federation was an important market for many European goods while the Federation continued to sell Europe a variety of manufactured goods, agricultural goods, and resources. Both individuals and businesses continued to invest in the country and European firms accounted for almost half of all foreign firms in the Federation. While the Swedish government was critical of the Federation it continued to support Swedish companies trade and investment in the Federation. Emigration to the Federation by tens of thousands of Europeans every year along with continued Portuguese acceptance of political refugees escaping from communist European countries added to the continued European - Portuguese link. Foremost amongst the Europeans living in the Federation was the close to three million Germans citizens living in the Portuguese Federation. In December 1963 after visiting the USA, German Chancellor Ludwig Erhard stopped in the Portuguese capital where he visited the Portuguese King and had meeting with Portuguese government officials before visiting large German communities in the Federation. He visited German Portuguese in Lisbon, Porto, Luanda and Benguela.

The Portuguese government continued to fund the publishing and creation of positive attitude articles and programs about the Portuguese Federation in Western Europe, included in the campaign was the family reunion campaign where Portuguese Europeans could enter a contest to bring relatives to the Federation for visit and vacation. Portuguese tourism was also heavily promoted with both Iberian, African, Indian and East Asia destinations advertised.

Following the admission of Britain, Ireland, Denmark, and Norway in the EEC in 1963 the EEC came to represent 2/3 of western Europe with only Sweden, Switzerland and Austria as the only democratic European countries outside the EEC. Spain, Greece and Portuguese Federation were barred from joining EEC due to their “non-democratic” governments. In 1964 following the departure of Britain, Ireland, Denmark and Norway to EEC the Portuguese Federation along with Galicia joined Austria, Switzerland and Sweden in the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), the Portuguese entry into the EFTA was supported by the two largest members Sweden and Austria which had extensive trade ties with the Federation.

In 1962 The EEC started its ‘common agricultural policy’ giving the countries joint control over food production. Farmers started getting paid the same price for their produce. The result is that EU started to grow enough food for its needs and farmers earned well. In 1968 the EEC removed customs duties on goods imported from each other, allowing free cross-border trade for the first time. They also applied the same duties on their imports from outside countries. The world’s biggest trading group was born. Trade among the EEC and the rest of the world grows rapidly. This greatly impacted the Federation as Italy was forced to reduce its import duties on Portuguese goods and trade between EEC and Federation grew by over 10% a year.



[1] Oblivious to the party members and new MPs was the British – Portuguese debt that had been negotiated by Labor British government of Clement Richard Attlee and had paved the way for the British – Portuguese military and economic relationship.
[2] In 1964 the Portuguese and British navies began planning for the next class of aircraft carriers, and escort destroyers. The Type 82 destroyer was to be a joint project between the two countries. The new CVA-01 aircraft carrier was designed to replace the Audacious and Implacable class carriers and to be mostly built in Britain. Each country would build their own Type 82 destroyers while Britain would build the first 3 carriers while the Federation would build the 4th carrier. The CVA-01 fleet carrier had a displacement of 54 tons, speed of 30 knots and capability of carrying 50 aircraft.
[3] British – Portuguese debt accord was set to expire on 31 December 1969 at which time all British WWII debt to the Portuguese Federation was forgiven. In addition to the contractual obligations the original 2.5 billion debt had grown to over 20 billion with interest (all of which would be forgiven at the end of the accord).
[4] British Industry, which was in process of transferring operations, licensing their technology or just selling their overseas operations to companies in the Federation lobbied the conservatives in the House of Lords to force the government to respect cancellation and transfer of technology agreements so that they either received more money from the sale and license or the value of their subsidiaries was worth more.
[5] The anti-Portuguese French left student movements unable to affect Portuguese diplomacy targeted Portuguese Embassy and consulates. In 1969 the Marseilles consulate was bombed, luckily no one was hurt. Following the attack Portuguese consulates were forced to relocate to locations that could afford them with greater protection while French police provided them with additional security. With Portuguese embassy and consulates out of reach the more extreme groups began attacking Portuguese businesses and expatriates in the country regardless of their support for the Portuguese government or not.


We are listing 3 countries/regions and I like to comment on each.
Britain there is little departure from IOTL politically in this section the biggest departure was the British-Federation economic ties and military procurement agreements that had contributed to a richer and more prosperous Britain to the mid 1960s. I thought that the links to the Federation would not of changed the forces that brought labor into power in the 60s and it also provided a way for the British to abandon the Federation. That being said regardless of who was in power the Federation had proven it no longer needed British protection and the African Wars and SA civil war would of caused a split regardless of whom was in power. The Federation market had allowed many British firms to continue after WW2 that IOTL disappeared. The British economy was stronger and many firms continued to exist because their market had not been over shadowed by American firms and in many cases they had grown due to their market doubling or tripling in size. But when the economic link between the two countries was severed the British economy already under strain witnessed a huge upheaval as companies closed, merged or the lucky few were able to transition to producing for Europe. The economic impact of the split would be felt in Britain well into the mid 1970s.
France this is where we have a huge deviation from iOTL history. 1) De Gaulle being assassinated in 1961 had the most profound impact. iOTL there was an attempt assassination but here it succeeds, This has huge impact not only in France, but Africa and Europe. 2) Britain joins the EEC in the 1960s instead of the 1970s. 3) The controversial Algeria split - this actually had its roots in the acceptance of Tangier Enclave as part of Metropolitan France in the late 1950s. Which would lead to the "Oran Solution" during the Algerian war of Independence. Where French settlers and their supporters setup a French enclave surrounded by Algerians. De Gaulle was against this and tried to stop it and many believe it was supporters of Oran who assassinated De Gaulle. Following the death of De Gaulle the split of Algeria was almost inevitable, 4) the collapse and relaunch of the French community due to French actions in Algeria and then following the wars actually strengthened France position and power in Africa. 5) The French referendum was successful paving way for structural changes in the way the French voted, political structure and power. 6) lastly the growing French - Portuguese détente and economic cooperation especially in Africa.
Western Europe/ EEC here we have a few item of note. The separation of political and economic relationship with European leaders either condemning Portuguese actions or expressing disappointment but not risking any economic repercussions. Sweden being the best example with the Swedish government being anti Federation and condemning the Portuguese actions but fighting any attempt by the left or opposition parties to weaken Swedish economic relationship with Federation or supporting any imposition of duties or sanctions on imports from Federation. Volvo for example exported thousands of cars manufactured in Sweden to Federation but also imported thousands of trucks from the Federation. Sweden still had a large vehicle surplus with the Federation and the Swedish government, companies and unions at these Swedish firms all stood together in protecting Swedish jobs. The other major factor is the growing economic weight of Germany (no east or west Germany) plus the German-Portuguese economic, cultural and political links. So great was the link that German leader visited the Federation. Questions/Comments????

Return in 2 weeks on September 4 when we continue posting Foreign Affairs.
 
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I guess Sweden & co learned from the British exit... :p

If any two countries deserve a Special Relationship it's Portugal and Germany, over 30 years by now.
 

Lusitania

Donor
I guess Sweden & co learned from the British exit... :p
Yes, Swedish companies have been slowly integrating themselves into the Federation as the Portuguese economy grew it became a larger and more important market far outweighed home market. The 1940-1950s is where they decided to capitalize on their position in market and brand recognition to expand their manufacturing presence. In time their sales grew along with economy and their relationship with parent company also changed. Two scenarios arose the Volvo and Erickson. The Volvo evolved to designating specific factories to produce models or types of vehicles. With federation plants producing trucks while Swedish produced cars. With the federation market bring 7-8 times bigger before commonwealth appeared and then 30+x bigger the amount of cars being exported to federation was greater. Although federation made trucks were exported to all of Europe. The Erickson model saw manufacturing and assembly transfer to federation with about 20-50% of components still manufactured in Sweden and exported to the Federation. This would lead to transfer of manufacturing in Sweden with component parts becoming much greater % of manufacturing process in Sweden and expanded plants. In some cases they bought out suppliers to bring the component manufacturing in-house.

All this was not lost of the Swedish government who viewed the economic value of trade with the Federation as vital to the economic success of Sweden. Regardless of Swedish political disagreements with the Federation it refused to let that affect its trade. This of course led to Sweden not being interested in joining the EEC and instead preferred the European Association which it and Federation belonged to. Which was strictly a trade association.
 
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Lusitania

Donor
If any two countries deserve a Special Relationship it's Portugal and Germany, over 30 years by now.

Yeah, I am also curious about the Germans.
Do little recap. The Soviets suffered greater losses and were slower to drive the German forces back than iotl. So much so that western allies reached the Oder River before the Soviets. There was no attack on Berlin but western allies had it surrounded. The Nazi and SS in Berlin were defeated by German military and Berlin was spared the devastation of the Soviet assault like in iOTL.

After the war the western Allies occupied Germany while offering the Soviets several disperse small zones which they rejected. In 1948 a communist attempt to overthrow German/allied forces was defeated and an United Germany emerged. Millions of People of German ancestry were expelled from neighboring countries to Germany but hundreds of thousands emigrated.

German reparations to Soviet Union and Eastern Europe was extensive with factories and resources taken. The reparations continued till 1965 mainly in the transportation of resources and food to communist countries.

even through this Germany rebuilt and grew to be an industrial powerhouse in a Europe. France in the early 1960s worried over Germany increasing strength sought counter weight in the EEC and supported Britain joining. But Germany had by end of the 1960s become the leading European Economy and most populous country after the Soviet Union.

now to Portuguese - German relationship. The relationship can be broken down into three phases: Pre-War, WW2 and post war.

Pre-War saw a rapid investment in Portugal and its overseas provinces by German companies and first real signs of industrialization in the country. The Portuguese financed most of the development and the German made huge profits as “advisors”. This period came to rapid stop in 1938 as Portuguese-German racial laws clashed and the relationship cooled. During this time was when Portugal became the new strange refuge for Jews. Hundreds of thousands of educated Jews were allowed to emigrate to Portugal and became a huge catalyst in its modernization. Bringing doctors, scientists, engineers and administrators to the country severely lacking in those professions.

WW2 - saw the Portuguese sell anything it could to Germany in a exchange for machinery, weapons and gold/cash. But more importantly to keep the Germans north of Pyrenees mountains. The tungsten, copper and most critical oil made Portuguese tempting target for Nazi planners. So great was the threat that Portugal afraid of invasion by both Spain and Nazis went as far as negotiating to join the Axis. The Portuguese demands were to be able to arm themselves so they requested and received plans and technical information about German planes, vehicles, tanks and submarines. The transfer was completed and the Portuguese started building Factories, assembling machinery and training workers all in preparation to supply Portuguese forces to protect Portugal and its overseas provinces. In 1943 the allies led by America invading North Africa and thus provided the Portuguese with excuse not to join Axis. For next two years Portuguese did everything to hide their plans including joining Allies and sending agents at end of war try to hide extent of Portuguese -German cooperation and trade. During the war Portugal led an important underground railway to smuggle Jews and other refugees out of Nazi occupied Europe to Portugal and beyond. Trying along the way to convince as many as it could to stay in Portugal or it’s overseas provinces. By end of war over 500,000 Jews were living in Portugal and its overseas provinces.

Post War - would see Portugal receive huge amount of war reparations but more importantly actively recruit Germans who had worked in factories, or were educated. Majority were unemployed and as result of these campaigns hundreds of thousands emigrated to Portugal. They repeated the process with the Germans expelled by Germany's neighbors in the late 1940s attracting tens of thousands of more Germans. Meanwhile many German business families renewed and expanded their business in Portugal they had left at the start of the war.

Portugal/Federation was an important supplier of food and resources to the starving Europeans/Germans following the war. This was the start of the growing German / Federation business partnership and trade. It also started a few rivalries with Portuguese steel industry and manufacturing competing head to head with German companies.

By the middle of the 1960s Germans were the largest ethnic group in the Federation after the Portuguese with over 3 million Germans and German descendants in the country. They were ranked as the country’s most educated, richest and powerful people.
 
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1960s - Foreign Affairs (2 of 3)

Lusitania

Donor
1960 – 1969

Foreign Affair ( 2 of 3)


Portuguese Federation - Brazil relationship deepened during the decade, in the first half of the decade under President Quadros and then President João Goulart the relationship was at times straightened with both Presidents not being as enthusiastic about Federation as previous president JK but as the economic, political and communist insurrection problem became worse the Portuguese provided Brazil with as much support as it needed.

Following JK term he had spent several years in the Federation and developed many close relations with several of the countries politicians as well as business leaders and in 1964 when Brazil faced it deep crises besieged by communist rebels and lacking strong leadership the Portuguese provided JK with both moral and political support when he returned to Brazil and assumed power.

The Portuguese provided military support in Brazil’s attack on the communist rebels along its border and in turn Brazil would provide military support and assistance to the Federation during the African Wars.

In 1965 the Portuguese Federation-Brazil trade agreement was enhanced and travel and investment between the two countries was simplified. The Portuguese-Brazilian defense agreement was strengthened which included the exchange of officers with several Portuguese officers serving in Brazil military as well as several Brazilian officers serving in the Portuguese armed forces. To assist the new government in maintain order and security collaboration between SIS/DGS and their Brazilian counterparts intensified with dozens of Portuguese advisors being sent to Brazil and many Brazilian agents being sent to the Federation for training. Brazil was the first country to join the Lusitania Commonwealth as an associate member. Providing both countries with economic clout and strength.

In 1967 Brazil watched anxiously as the Portuguese Federation battled not only the Pan African Alliance but also the Arab League Alliance and most Brazilian watched/listened intensely the news each day of the developments. Brazilian army units stationed in Federation participated in the war and Brazilian public watched in awe as Brazilian journalists attached to the Brazilian army units reported on the Brazilian-Portuguese counterattack and saw images of thousands of Zambians, Russians and Eastern European prisoner of war paraded on television. Brazilian forces were some of the first units to enter Zambian capital Lusaka. Television reporters accompanying Brazilian troops showed political prisoners being liberated and Brazilian soldiers distributing food and aid from Portuguese Red Cross to the starving population. The greatest shock came when the Portuguese not only defeated the two alliances but declared it was a nuclear power by detonating a nuclear bomb. Showing those who had supported the Federation that the Portuguese would be an economically and militarily force to reckoned with. The war had once and ever shattered the old Brazilian attitude of the poor and backwards Portugal. Replacing it was a resilient nation with a GDP that surpassed Brazil’s and a military that was greater than all South American’s forces combined.

While Portuguese investment in Brazil had been growing and trade with the Federation account for a greater and greater percentage of Brazil’s trade but it had taken the lopsided military victory over the Soviet proxy alliances to awaken the Brazilians to the new “Portugal”. Over the next years several major agreements between the two countries strengthen the bond between the two countries. In 1967 Brazil joined Portuguese Federation and Israel in the Lusitania Space Program and in 1968 with Portuguese support and technology Brazil began building the first of six nuclear power plants in Brazil.[1]

Brazil relationship with Argentina grew and together the two countries assisted their neighbors Uruguay and Paraguay in liberating themselves from American influence. Brazil also played a major role in persuading Chile President Frei in aligning his country with first the Federation by joining the Copper Consortium that raised Chile income by over 20% and later in joining the Commonwealth. Brazil and Argentina provide other Latin American countries with example of what could be achieved by choosing the 3rd option.

As the decade came to an end Brazil and Argentina took leadership role in South American war against communist threat with support from Chile and the Federation as they began battling communist Bolivia threat to its neighbors.

Portuguese Federation – Argentina relationship strengthened both economically as well as politically. The Argentinian economy continued to grow as Argentina became greater linked to the Federation and commonwealth with Federation/commonwealth being its biggest agricultural customer. Portuguese accounted for 2/3 of the foreign investment in Argentina, to cement the link between Argentina and the Federation Argentina followed Brazil lead and joined the commonwealth as an associate member. This had a positive affect as demand for Argentinian agricultural goods increased especially after the African wars and the number of countries in the commonwealth substantially increased.

The death of Peron was a very sad and somber occasion but one that brought the two countries closer. Portuguese Prime Minister Dr Rapazote state visit to Argentina for Peron’s funeral was also a great opportunity for the Portuguese and Argentinians to meet and strengthen Argentinian – Federation relations.

Argentina relation with its neighbors also changed as it assumed a more dominant role and attitude alongside Brazil countering American influence and joined its neighbors fighting communist threat alongside Brazil and Chile. Argentine mining industry continued to grow in both real terms and importance to the Argentina economy. While manufacturing continued to grow providing stability and continued growth Argentina and renewed prosperity to Argentina.

Argentina government successfully transitioned from Peron to post Peron and reduced the powers of the President while keeping tight control over both country and limiting communist and antigovernmental influence and power.

At the end of the decade though Argentina faced a huge challenge with the fall of Bolivia to communism and its offering itself as platform to launch both attacks and fund insurrections though out the region. As part of its multi-nation fight against the communism and Bolivia threat the Federation sent 1 infantry division along with air force squadrons to assist Argentina and Paraguay fend off and eventually liberate Bolivia.

Portuguese Federation – Latin America relationship continued to strengthen as Portuguese influence grew. As the region continued to be rocked by communist insurrections with both Columbia and Peru countryside almost overrun by rebels and Bolivia falling to communism left many in region looking at alternatives to the continued American strategy of military option while maintaining the conditions that communist rebels exploited. The biggest success in terms of increased Portuguese influence in the region was aligning of Chile with both Federation economically and militarily with Argentina and Brazil two political, economic and military Federation aligned countries. In 1969 as Chile’s war with communism intensified the Federation alongside both Brazil and Argentina sent a naval task force to the Pacific to assist Chile patrol both its coast and to attempt to slow flow of weapons to the region.

The only Latin American countries that seemed to have the communists on the run was the central American countries of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica who over the decade reformed their social support, implemented agricultural reforms, expanded education access and increase the living standards of the poor and those most likely to be receptive of communist message coupled with joint military action between themselves and US the communist threat had substantially diminished in region. Even with their success lack of continued American support after President Nixon took power left these countries searching for alternative and Federation-Commonwealth (especially Brazil and Argentina) influence, trade and investment grew substantially.

Venezuela for all its oil wealth was a country struggling to maintain communist threat under control with the western part of country particularly affected as the rebels used the Columbia as base to mount attacks against both American and Venezuelan forces in the country. In 1964 Venezuela suffered a 50% drop in oil exports when rebels were able to sabotage and plant explosives in country main oil export terminal and Venezuela and more specifically capital Caraccas suffered massive fires and thick black smoke blanketing the capital for close to a month and thousands of people dying of respiratory diseases and fire and over 50,000 being forced to evacuate till the fires were put out. The explosion and continued communist attacks undermined the confidence of the people in the government of President Wolfgang Larrazábal.[2] In 1965 after six months of continuous demonstrations by average citizens the military worried that communist threats would increase with the demonstrations announced new civilian elections. The 1965 election saw Rafael Caldera win the election with 51% of the vote.

During President Caldera term the country instituted many reforms, advanced several infrastructure projects and advanced diversification of the economy. Agriculture, including rice cultivation was supported and expanded, expansion of the economy with iron mines, gold mines opened to development. Rail and road infrastructure greatly expanded during his term. President Caldera also instituted major political reforms by freeing all people in prison due to their political views including those who were suspected of being communists (only those who had been convicted of violence were kept incarcerated). The battle against the communist rebels continued but military became concentrated in western part of country while the police and intelligence worked on capturing those hiding throughout the rest of the country. In the western part of country, the tens of thousands of Columbians were placed in refugee camps while laws were passed to prevent Venezuelan from hiring Columbians at lower wages while Venezuelans especially those non-Europeans were unemployed or underemployed.

During President Caldera inauguration the Federation Foreign Minister Paulo da Cunha visited Venezuela and met with both Caldera and several other government officials. This was the highest Portuguese – Venezuelan government meeting between the two countries. Portuguese presented the case of both Argentina and Brazil development including the expansion of mining, agriculture and each country’s own growing manufacturing base to provide the respective country with a more stable income not dependent on cycle of a single commodity. Of interest to President Caldera was the representatives from Portuguese oil companies who were not looking to invest in oil exploration or production but talking about refining Venezuelan oil directly in Venezuela instead of shipping it to the US to their refineries. Using the Portuguese own example of refining all their production instead of exporting oil to be refined in other countries. During President Caldera term trade between the Federation and Venezuela grew four-fold. The Portuguese became Venezuela primary supplier of railroad rolling stock and engines while Portuguese mining companies promising to train locals and pay larger royalties than American companies got the majority of new contracts to develop Venezuela vast mineral wealth. All this did not sit well with the Americans whose ambassador Maurice Marshall Bernbaum repeatedly criticized President Caldera repeatedly but unlike in past the Americans afraid of the situation in South America never supported or pushed for regime change. American maintained over 35,000 troops in Venezuela mostly along its borders with Columbia while Venezuelan troops fought Venezuelan communist rebels within the country.

Portuguese Federation – Israel relationship grew during the 1960s. The Federation had since the creation of Israel been one of it staunches supporters and trade during the 1950s had steadily grown between the two countries. During the 1950s Israel had attempted to join the non-aligned league and to be accepted by its neighbors but the Islamic world would have none of it and they pledged to destroy Israel and re-establish a Palestinian state in its place. During the late 1950s and early 1960s Israeli – Federation military cooperation was either kept low key or as in the case of nuclear weapons development secret. Israeli biggest collaborative public venture was Israeli involvement in Portuguese rocket development. But all that changed when France Israel’s largest military supporter announced it was scaling back its support and would no longer be selling military weapons to Israel in 1963.

Israeli Prime Minister Levi Eshkol was faced with decision of relying solely on one benefactor or to make sure Israel was able to establish strong relations with multiple countries. The two countries that were Israel biggest supporters as the time was USA and the Federation. While US administrations were uncomfortable about the close relationship of Israel and the Federation both domestic and geopolitical strategy in the middle east forced the various American administrations to accept the Israeli rebuff to distancing itself from the Federation. The Israeli had been surprised at the French sudden switch in 1963 due to its desire to try mend relations with the Arab countries (not succeed) and Israel saw Federation beset by enemies like itself and while in past there had been a lot of ill feeling towards the Portuguese and their persecution of the Jews, Portugal/Federation had shown itself to be a true friend and supporter of the Jewish people since the 1930s. That over 500,000 Jews continued to live in the Federation and an additional 400,000 living in Israel had dual Israeli/Federation citizenship bode well for the growing relationship between the two countries. At the end of the decade Israeli companies saw a huge opportunity to expand into the Federation to replace many British firms who were leaving.

The 1967 6-day war against its neighbors had left Israel stronger in the region and occupying large tracks of land. In the north it occupied the Golan heights from the newly independent Syria. To the east it now controlled all lands west of the River Galilee while to the south it occupied the Gaza strip and Sinai Peninsula to the Suez Canal. The military victory against its Arab neighbors had only seemed to strengthen their hatred of Israel and initiatives to trade land for peace with its neighbors had gone nowhere as the Arab states vowed to rebuild their militaries and drive the Jews from Palestine. The Palestinians were the ones caught in the middle of conflict and following the 6-day war about half of them fled the Israeli occupied territory. Those that remained were relocated and the refugee camps disbanded. Those that fled Israeli occupation joined the tens of thousands who had fled the creation of Israel in refugee camps in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt. Prevented from integrating into the host nation they were kept in these refugee camps with the promise of reclaiming their lost territory.

Portuguese Federation – USA relationship was one of mutual distrust and at time antagonism during the 1960s. At the beginning of the decade the election of President Kennedy brought a détente in relationship and at the invitation of President Kennedy, Portuguese President Semedo visited USA in 1962. There was a lot of good feelings on both sides and several agreements were signed and USA and Portuguese Federation issued a proclamation of renewed friendship and struggle against communism at end of President Semedo official visit to Washington. The attempted coup while President Semedo was in New York at first had no impact on Portuguese – American relations but when CIA involvement was discovered later a definite coolness descended between the Federation and the USA. President Johnson administration did very little to mend the relationship and in some ways, exasperated the discord between the two countries by backing additional trade restrictions to the Federation. The American view was that the growing communist presence on the African continent was a direct result of the continued Portuguese presence on the continent. The outbreak of the South African Civil War made this very clear, and both the US and Britain believed Portuguese involvement would make the situation worse. It took a change in presidency, the evacuation of over a million South African refugees and a looming humanitarian catastrophe not seen since WWII for the Americans to request Portuguese intervention.[3] The subsequent African wars, the surprise Portuguese detonation of nuclear bomb and Portuguese victory left many Americans stunned including the government and intelligence community. The Portuguese actions while proving successful against the communist influence in Africa left President Humphry looking weak and he lost the 1968 election to Richard Nixon. President Nixon government’s attitude towards Portuguese Federation was equally negative. Meanwhile the Portuguese government attempted to change the attitudes of the American public itself with advertising campaign and inviting Americans to visit the Federation and see the country for themselves.

During the 1960s the US was a country in transition as the American society especially the younger generation demanded greater freedoms and society changed to a more individualistic attitude. Many people such as Africans and women demanded social justice and fought segregation and for feminine rights. While all this occurring the American economy began losing some of its dominance it had enjoyed during the 1950s. European countries formed the EEC and used it to both protect its industry as well as expand its trade. Asian and South American countries also expanded their economies and boosted their protection for their own domestic companies. Meanwhile USA’s fight against communism intensified with communism influence expanding throughout the world. This led the US government to bolster its partnership with many countries that it had strained relationship with including the Federation, Brazil and Argentina. While the USA sought out partnerships in the fight against communism American congress still was hostile to many of these countries since their political and economic policies at time put them into direct conflict with American interests.

One of the major concessions that the US had to make was to acknowledge that in certain parts of the world it was not the dominant power. Such was the case in Africa and parts of South America. In Africa the US two main allies were Nigeria on the west and Kenya on the east. Kenya bordered the Soviet Union proxies Tanzania and Uganda as well as Communist China only ally Ethiopia making it crucial for American interests in the region. But the two major powers on the African continent was the Federation and France which required the US to work with both countries even while having at times difficult or uneasy relationship with both.

In many parts of the world there seemed to be a four-way power struggle as the Federation and Communist China increased their influence. To counter the balance of power President Nixon administration worked very hard behind the scenes to increase American influence and decrease Soviet power but which major power were the Americans courting was not know for sure as the decade came to a close.

The USA not only competed with the Soviet Union for dominance and influence on Earth but also in what was known as the race to space and land person on the moon. During the 1960s the USA and Soviet programs were neck and neck with the Soviet program being the first to send a man to space but as the race continued the American program surpassed the Soviets program which was mired in problems and landed a man on the moon in 1969. America celebrated the accomplishments with huge fan fare and pride.


[1] The agreement to join the Lusitania Space program had many detractors especially many who still dreamed of Brazil being able to reach space on its own but as the space race between USA and Soviet Union gained speed and world watched in wonder at the new accomplishments the Brazilian government realized that Brazil did not have the whereabouts to compete with them on its own. The Brazilian Space program was merged with the Lusitania Space Program with Brazil contributing important research, knowledge and infrastructure.
[2] Following the Assassination of President Rómulo Betancourt in 1960 and the ongoing communist rebel attacks the military had taken civilian government and former admiral Wolfgang Larrazábal had assumed control of the country alongside the military.
[3] 1967 was a watershed moment for the antiwar movement in the USA. During the 1960s the American involvement in the wars against communist insurgencies in Central America, South America, Vietnam, and Southeast Asia had left the majority of Americans feeling they were surrounded by communists and support for US involvement including support for American allied South African Nationalist forces was strong. In 1967 attitudes toward both the war and US support to regimes in Vietnam, Columbia and South Africa started changing. Massacres against civilians and hundreds of thousands of people on the verge of dying filled television screens and demonstrations against current American policy grew. In Congress motions condemning South African tactics and demand for American action were passed. President Humphry administration hampered by an overstretched military turned to the only country able to intervene in South Africa, the Federation.


We continue the foreign Affairs which is both a recap of the major events in these countries but also a opportunity to discuss their relationship with the Federation. The newest country that we are discussing in Venezuela where the Federation after its intervention and influence in Venezuela's southern neighbors starts having a positive influence in the country. We see an increase in development in the country and the movement of the country's leaders from a strict Por-USA stand. This was in large part due to the American failure in Columbia and Peru while both Brazil and Argentina economic growth and security are envied by other Latin American countries. As for Israel it benefits from Portuguese Alliance and also it encourages the exodus of tens of thousands of Palestinians from the newly occupied territories as well as the dismantling of refugee camps created after the 1948 war. Questions/Comments????

Return in 2 weeks on September 19 when we continue posting Foreign Affairs.
 
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