1960 - Security
1960 – 1969
SecurityThe 1960s was a decade of struggle for the Portuguese security forces as they faced both external and internal challenges. External forces marshalled against the Federation while economic progress, cultural awakening led many within the country to believe it would be a matter of time that political liberation would also start. While forces marshalled outside the country in armed camps and governments hostile to the Federation supported and attempted to arm growing groups opposed to government within the country the GNR, PSP and DGS were besieged by growing discontent within the country as regular citizens joined in the clamor for change.
In 1960 the DGS became very preoccupied with the growing number of armed groups being provided sanctuary in Zaire, Republic of Congo and Tanzania. Infiltration of these groups was difficult but by 1962 the Portuguese had a good understanding of who these groups were and their composition. In 1963 the number of opposition groups grew within these “liberation groups” operating in communist Guinea, and Senegal as well. Several incursions by these groups into the Portuguese Federation was limited to border areas with border posts being the primary target. The Portuguese military either reinforced vital border areas or evacuated venerable border communities. During 1964 – 1965 at the UN the Portuguese Federation continually complained of foreign government supported armed groups along its borders attacking it. The African countries countered that the armed groups within their borders were Africans from the Portuguese occupied regions wishing to expel the Portuguese from their country. In May 1965 a motion in the UN was approved to send a delegation to the border area to verify Portuguese claims. While the UN team and reporters were in the Portuguese Federation during the months of July – September the Portuguese launched Operation Ouvindo, over the three months the army supported by air force launched repeated border reprisal including commando raids on the insurgency camps. Hundreds of insurgents were killed, and 1,105 insurgents were “arrested”. The UN staff and reporters were taken to these camps to see for themselves the “foreign” insurgents and to verify that these border African countries were in fact supporting armed groups attacking the Federation. The countries of Zaire, Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Senegal condemned the Portuguese attacks as well as the UN who objected to the Portuguese attacks, but the Portuguese were able to achieve its objective as the public in Europe and America were able to see for themselves that the Federation was being attacked by foreign troops and not Portuguese Africans wishing to achieve independence. The OAU and Soviets sponsored a bill condemning the Portuguese attacks, but it was defeated by combination of European, North American, South American and some Asian countries. The African, Arab and Communist countries were the only ones who supported the motion. Unfortunately, the attacks hardened the African countries attitude towards the Portuguese and many that had been neutral aligned themselves with the Soviets who they saw as the only superpower willing to stand up to the Portuguese.
In 1967 at the height of the Portuguese intervention in South Africa the Portuguese government ordered the evacuation of all settlements within 20 kilometers of the border in the African subcontinent. During the African wars Portuguese security forces carried out thousands of sweeps in the country detaining citizens and residents who either were linked with foreign governments or sympathized with them. In addition, DGS agents accompanied Portuguese armed forces into the neighboring countries providing personnel for interrogation and detaining people Portuguese security personnel considered hostile to the Portuguese Federation. Interrogated were also conducted on many members of the Soviet and Eastern European communist advisors to the invading countries captured during the war.
The 1962 attempted coup by General Humberto and his supporters was seen as a major failing on part of the DGS and rest of the Portuguese security apparatus but the fact that the DGS, GNR and PSP headquarters in Lisbon were never taken even though they suffered heavy attacks from revolting troops and that no senior security officials were dismissed as a result of the attempted coup led some to believe the DGS had either orchestrated the event or been complicit. The DGS and other security organizations were subsequently cleared on any wrongdoing while some local commanders did receive transfers or retired. The DGS, GNR and PSP along with military gained a boost in popularity as result of their resolve and actions against the rebels.
In the 1960s the Portuguese opened additional re-education camps as the number of arrests increased. By 1964 over 250,000 individuals were either imprisoned or under surveillance for antigovernmental actions by 1969 that number had risen to 450,000. This did not include the thousands of prisoners held by Portuguese aligned governments surrounding the Federation. In 1967 the outlawed socialist party leader Mario Soares was arrested for holding antigovernmental demonstrations during the African Wars. After a six-month stint in prison, he left the Portuguese Federation and moved to Paris. In Paris, he continued talking against the government and on 3 October 1968 while having a coffee at a Parisian coffee shop he was fatally shot by a Portuguese expatriate named Joaquim Silva. Joaquim Silva was arrested at the coffee shop without resistance. During questioning he denied any connection with the DGS or Portuguese government and stated he was acting alone. He stated that his motivation was revenge for Mario Soares betrayal of the Portuguese Federation. Two weeks after his arrest he collapsed in jail and was transferred to military hospital where it was discovered he had terminal cancer and had less than two months to live. Also missing was Mr. Silva’s wife and family who had disappeared on the day of the assassination. It was later discovered she and her children had sought protection at the Portuguese Embassy after she heard what her husband had done. She was interviewed by French authorities but provided no additional information. Two months after the assassination following her husband’s death, Mrs. Silva and her four kids were escorted out of France to the Portuguese Federation by Embassy officials. She and her children settled in an undisclosed location in the Federation. Another major politician who died in the 1960s was the Portuguese Communist Party leader Álvaro Cunhal who had escaped from Portuguese maximum-security prison in Peniche in 1960. In the escape over 18 communist and other prisoners escaped from the prison, 15 were eventually captured including some of the most important communists in the Federation such as Jaime Serra. Álvaro Cunhal and two others including the guard José Alves who was the inside man in the prison were able to flee the country going first to Moscow then to Paris. On 15 January 1968 José Alves travelled from Romania, where he had been living, to Paris and met with Cunhal on the premise of requesting additional compensation for helping him escape. When Cunhal refused his request, Alves attacked Cunhal and before his guards could help Alves slit the throat of Álvaro Cunhal. Alves was killed in the attack, which was one several major loses both at home and overseas that year that the Portuguese Communists suffered.
Police mug shots of Mario Soares and Álvaro Cunhal
In 1960 the DGS, GNR and PSP became involved in Guinea Boke assisting the country in establishing adequate security to keep the country safe. In 1964, they began providing Katanga with similar support. When several new Portuguese aligned countries were established following the African Wars the DGS, GNR and PSP also moved into those countries to assist with their security. In the countries of Namibia, Zambia. Malawi, Botswana and Rhodesia the Portuguese security forces’ role was to train and provide support. While in the new countries such as Casamance, Kongo and Rovuma the Portuguese security like in both Guinea Boke and Katanga were involved in setting up those countries’ security forces from scratch.
In the 1960s the DGS experienced organizational problems as its role within the country and the aligned countries took away focus from its external espionage efforts as the need to help Portuguese industry and government with intel on industrial, military and political matters expanded. In 1965 the DGS split into two separate organizations (internal and external). In 1968 the internal DGS was renamed “Serviço de Informações de Segurança” or (SIS) while DGS continued its role gathering information from external sources and preventing attacks from abroad.
During the South African Civil War and the African Wars, DGS agents provided intelligence and directed special forces and marine units to locations of special targets and persons. The DGS recruited foreign agents in the Americas, Africa, Europe and Asia to provide Portuguese Federation with information. While the DGS continued to provide political and military information in the 1960s part of its focus turned to industrial and commercial information as USA and other western countries continued to limit the technology transfers and interaction of their corporations in the Federation. Many times, multinational corporations were approached by people acting on the behalf of Portuguese companies to license the sale of their product within the Federation, when these companies refused, information would be provided showing the data or blueprints to the corporation’s product or in some case compromising personal data. Discreet arrangements were then arranged to license the product to Portuguese companies thus protecting the foreign companies from unfair competition in other parts of the world and opening the door to future endeavors.
Internally the DGS/SIS continued keep a very close watch on communists and other agitators including independence supporters. The communists continued to be main agitators with several major groups in Africa and Iberian Peninsula fighting both politically and supporting armed struggle. While some communist militants continued to adhere to the message many civilians and residents seeing improvements to their economic and personal lives turned their back to their message. Portuguese cinema and television continued its regular showing of life in other parts of the world; one such area was life in Soviet Union and communist countries, using scenario recreation based on first person interviews from former residents the Portuguese continued to show a very negative image of life under communism. Another series called “A Vida Desejada”, A life desired, showed real life experiences of life not only in US but also in Europe, Brazil and other parts of the world showing how the people’s lives were harsher or just the same as those in the Federation. Featured in this series was the lives of Portuguese immigrants or their descendants.
Racism became a major issue that the DGS/SIS combatted regularly while government policy and other programs were instituted by other departments to combat it the DGS/SIS worked to eliminate those it felt were the most dangerous while others were dealt with by GNR and PSP. The DGS/SIS also kept vigilance over the military and government departments making sure they stayed loyal to the government.
MigrationThe immigration and internal migration policies of the 1940s and 1950s that had worked so well for the Portuguese Federation were continued. Internal migration was encouraged by subsidized transportation between provinces while immigration into the Federation was prioritized by regions. Those immigrants willing to settle in areas prioritized by government received priority clearance. This way the Portuguese government continued to target specific provinces that it wished to increase specific trades and cultures while at same time working with industry to direct industrial development to less economically developed regions. Immigration to the Portuguese Federation from Europe, Americas and Asia was set at 250,000 a year with Europe accounting for 2/3 of the migrants. As political stability and economic growth fueled Portuguese Federation growth immigrants from Latin America, Indian Subcontinent and East Asia became more pronounced. Added to the immigrants that the Federation received on yearly basis external conflicts in Africa resulted in the Portuguese Federation accepting over 500,000 refugees during the 1960s. In 1961 the with the establishment of Lusitania Commonwealth movement of individuals within the member states was liberated but internal surveillance and living and working permits were still required.
Internal MigrationIn 1960 of the 2,792,000 “Brancos Portugueses” Caucasians living in Portuguese provinces outside Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands 1,349,000 lived in West Africa, 611,000 in East Africa, 501,000 lived in North Africa, 112,000 in Guinea, 69,000 in Portuguese India, 85,000 in Portuguese East Indies with remaining 65,000 spread out over the various other provinces. By 1969 the number of Caucasians living outside Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands reached 4,104,000 with West Africa continuing to be the destination of choice with 2,118,000 Europeans while East Africa had the second largest number at 826,000, while Portuguese Morocco European population jumped to 699,000. Caucasians continued to move to all provinces and in 1969 136,000 lived in Guinea, 80,000 in Portuguese India, 156,000 in Portuguese East Indies with remaining 89,000 spread out over the various other provinces.
In 1960 the number of Africans living in Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands reached 1,582,000, Portuguese Morocco also became a popular destination with a population of 239,500. In addition, Africans also continued to move into Portuguese India and East Indies and by 1960 they numbered over 211,000. In 1969 the number of Africans in Iberian Peninsula and adjacent islands had reached 2,032,000. Portuguese Morocco though showed the highest increase with the African population growing to 409,000 while African living in Portuguese India and East Indies by 1969 numbered over 299,000.
The 1960s saw a more relaxed internal migration of Indians, Chinese and East Indians from not only the Portuguese provinces in Portuguese India, Portuguese East Indies and Macau but also internally to other provinces with East African provinces seeing the largest re-emigration. In 1960 over 1,369,000 Indians lived outside Portuguese India provinces, while Sundanese (people from Timor, Flores and Sumbawa islands) living outside the Portuguese East Indies had grown to 699,000 of which 60% lived in Portuguese African provinces. As for the Macanese and Chinese 645,00 lived outside of province of Macau. By 1969 the number of Portuguese Indians living outside Indian Subcontinent reached 1,653,000, while Sundanese living outside the Portuguese East Indies had grown to 902,000 and 899,000 Macanese and Chinese lived outside of province of Macau.
Portuguese ImmigrationFrom 1961 to 1969 the growing discrepancy between Portuguese Federation and Spain continued to draw Spanish immigrants especially from the more rural and underdeveloped regions of the country. The Portuguese Federation continued to limit the number of Spanish who could settle in the Iberian Peninsula at 10,000 max per year, while the remaining immigrants allowed to settle to other provinces. Immigration figures from Spain showed 30,000+ Spanish immigrated to Federation on average per year during the 1960s. Meanwhile the open border with the Republic of Galicia had resulted in half of Galicia’s population living at least part of the year in the Federation.
In 1960s the Portuguese Federation continued to be a destination to thousands of Europeans fleeing communism, with Poles, Hungarians, continuing to be the largest groups. In middle of decade a growing number of Yugoslavians and Romanians began arriving in the Federation. Portuguese Federation refugee processing workers working at the major refugee centers in Germany, Czech, Austria, Italy and Greece processed approximately 25,000 refugee applications a year.
From 1960 to 1969 Europe was in the midst of strong economic boom with countries such as Germany showing the strongest growth, while strong personal connections continued to be primary motive to migrate to the Federation. Immigration from Germany slowed to a trickle and for the decade approx. 10,000 migrated to the Federation a year which vast majority migrating due to family connection in the Federation. In place of the Germans emigration of other Europeans from less developed countries such as Greece, and southern Italy increased and 40,000 immigrated a year. Emigration from British Isles continued at about 25,000 a year with Irish being the largest group, but in 1965 due to economic and political situation in Britain the number of British migrating to the Federation rose. By 1969 the number of British citizens moving to Portuguese Federation started surpassing the Irish.
During the 1960s Portuguese Federation rising standard of living continued to attract not only Brazilian but other Latin emigrants. The Brazilian emigrants were soon followed by emigrants from Argentina, Uruguay and Chile, but as communist insurgency wreaked havoc in Peru, Columbia and other Latin American countries a new source of immigrants appeared at Portuguese embassies and even at airports. The number of Brazilians emigrating continued at about 12,000 a year while other Latin Americans accounted for 25,000 a year. In 1969 the number of Brazilians living in Federations surpassed 250,000 which was a mere pittance compared to the millions of Portuguese emigrants in Brazil and their dependents. During the 1960s with the Portuguese standard of living almost double Brazil’s standard of living and many Portuguese and their descendants who had sought their fortunes in Brazil at end of the 19th century and early 20th century began considering returning to “Portugal” as Brazilians still referred to the Portuguese Federation. With the Portuguese 1940 nationality law granting Portuguese nationality to Portuguese descendent to third degree (great grandparent) the number of Brazilians of Portuguese descent applying for Portuguese citizenship at Portuguese Embassy and consulates in Brazil reached 50,000 a year by 1969.
During the 1960s the Portuguese Federation had to deal with several major economic, political and conflicts on the African continent that impacted immigration from border African states. This included the Portuguese Moroccan border skirmishes, the Senegalese-Portuguese border skirmishes due in part to the Casamance conflict. The Portuguese also had very strained relationship with Republic of Benin regarding Portuguese enclave of Ajuda. As the countries surrounding the Portuguese provinces in West and East Africa gained their independence movement of people grew increasingly more difficult. In 1964 Portuguese borders with both Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Malawi, and Tanzania were closed, and all people caught crossing the border were detained. The border between white minority countries (South Africa, Rhodesia and South West African) and the Portuguese Federation remained closed. The African War changed the relationship between many African countries and the Federation not always in a good way.
In the early 60s (1962-1964) Morocco attempted to destabilize the Portuguese provinces bordering Morocco by organizing tens of thousands of civilians to cross the border into Portuguese territory. The Portuguese responded by arresting the illegal aliens and repatriating them by force into the demilitarized zones. Clashes along the Portuguese-Moroccan border throughout the early 1960s resulted in Portuguese enhancing its border patrols and reinforcing its border fencing. In 1964 armed clashes in the demilitarized zones between residents of the zones and Moroccans attempting to cross into Portuguese territory led to UN resolution against Morocco and Portuguese Federation when several peacekeepers were killed in clashes between residents and those attempting to enter the Federation. In 1966 the situation in the demilitarized zones became too chaotic that the UN was forced to withdraw. Portuguese Federation allowed for the immigration of 89,970 residents from the demilitarized zones to the Federation when the UN withdrew and closed the border. Illegal immigrant camps were established within the Federation for any Moroccan who illegally crossed into Federation. By 1967 when war broke out between Portuguese Federation and Morocco there were over 100,000 Moroccans in the UN monitored camps. After the war and the establishment of the Portuguese allied countries Kingdom of Fez and Kingdom of Marrakesh along Portuguese Morocco provinces the camps were emptied, and the illegal aliens transferred to the new countries or if they wished to Islamic State of Morocco. Many illegals refused to move peacefully and had to be moved by force. After the establishment of the two border states the Portuguese Federation allowed for the 50,000 a year immigration from the two countries into the Federation.
To the south during the first half 1960s Portuguese Guinea provinces received a steady stream of refugees from Senegal as the people of Casamance region fled Senegal’s oppression of the Jola people in the Casamance region. Between 1960 – 1966 almost half the Jola people from Casamance region lived in Portuguese Guinea provinces. After the 1967 African War and the establishment of the Republic of Casamance, the majority of the Jola refugees returned to their homes. The Special status of both Casamance and Guinea Boke with Portuguese Federation allowed for easy movement of citizens between the three countries.
From 1960 to 1967 the Republic of Benin attempted to expel the Portuguese from the enclave of Ajuda and only the threat of Portuguese military intervention prevented Benin from overrunning Ajuda, as such non-essential personnel and civilians were evacuated in months leading up to the African Wars. After the war, the expanded province of Ajuda resulted in greater vigilance of both illegal immigrants crossing from Togo and Nigeria. While a small number of legal immigrants were allowed from Togo the border with Nigeria was closed and no movement of people allowed.
In West Africa, the Portuguese faced several major border and immigrant issues. In 1964 Republic of Congo’s leader Alphonse Massamba-Debat copied the Morocco border tactic and tried to overrun the Portuguese province of Cabinda with Congolese. Portuguese responded by reinforcing the border and arresting all Congolese who crossed the border. Clashes including armed fighting along the border resulted in hundreds of casualties and thousands of Congolese being injured. Meanwhile border tensions between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Federation as well as support for communist rebels within the border of Democratic Republic of Congo resulted in the border between the two countries remaining closed. In 1964 the Katanga conflict saw the establishment of Republic of Katanga in Southern Democratic Republic of Congo. Portuguese economic and military support to Katanga in its war of independence with the Democratic Republic of Congo led to strong economic and military cooperation and relaxed immigration between the two countries. Thousands of Portuguese citizens moved to Katanga and Katanganese as well as Europeans (mostly Belgians) were allowed to move freely within the Federation. The African War saw the occupation of southern Republic of Congo and western part of Democratic Republic of Congo. Following the war, the northern part of the Republic of Congo descended into anarchy and Gabon moved to occupy it and eventually annexed it after the establishment of the Kingdom of Kongo in Portuguese occupied Congo. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the cease fire did not lead to a peace treaty and Portuguese occupation of western Congo continued. In 1968 to safeguard the Federation from continued attacks the Portuguese joined the Portuguese occupied parts of Republic of Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo into a single state. The Kingdom of Kongo provided Portuguese with stability along its northern border. The Portuguese provided Kingdom of Kongo with same privileges as the Republic of Katanga.
The dissolution of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (all British colonies between Portuguese West Africa and Portuguese East Africa in 1960 and the establishment of independent African states of Zambia, Malawi and Rhodesia resulted in increased tension in the region. The trade, transportation and migration agreements between the Portuguese and Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland collapsed even though their continuation had been guaranteed at time the African countries gained their independence. As Zambia and Malawi became communist aligned countries and joined the Pan-African Alliance all Portuguese citizens returned to the Portuguese Federation and as anti-foreigner movement spread to Zambia and Malawi thousands of British and East Indians followed the Portuguese. In Rhodesia, the white minority government aligned itself with South Africa and became hostile to the Portuguese Federation which like South Africa saw the Federation as a bigger threat than black African nations. In 1966 the South African civil War resulted in the largest humanitarian crises the Federation ever faced. Hundreds of thousands of South Africans (whitse, Blacks and East Indians) fled the 3-way fighting between Communists/Nationalist/Commonwealth forces. Refugee camps were erected in the provinces of Moçãmedes, Lubango, Lunda Sul, Lourenco Marques, Limpopo and Mandigos. By the time the war ended in 1967 over 1 million refugees were being cared for by the Portuguese with little to no international aid. Following the end of the South African Civil War and the African War the Portuguese moved to establish friendly aligned governments in Namibia, Zambia, Malawi, Botswana and Rhodesia then moved the majority of the refugees who refused to return to the Socialist South African Federation to the Portuguese aligned countries.
The border between Tanzania and Portuguese provinces of Niassa and Cabo Delgado was one of the most tense and periodic border clashes occurred from 1961 – 1967. Movement of people between the two countries was severely restricted. As the border war intensified and the buildup of troops in Tanzania regions of Mtwara and Ruvuma civilian attacks intensified by Tanzanian and other Pan African troops. The local people attempted to address the abuses diplomatically requesting Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere assistance. In 1965 the government responded by detaining thousands of people in the two regions and a brief revolt ensued. Thousands of refugees fled through the heavily armed border into Portuguese Federations escaping Tanzania government retaliation. The Portuguese responded by increasing military resources in the two Portuguese provinces. The African War saw thousands of new refugees fleeing the fighting in Tanzania. Following the war fear of further fighting in Tanzania resulted in thousands of refugees fleeing Mtwara and Ruvuma towards the relative safety of the Portuguese Federation. In 1968 the establishment of Portuguese aligned Republic of Ruvuma allowed the movement of majority of these refugees back to their homes, while the remainder were allowed to migrate to other Portuguese provinces following the closures of the refugee camps.
In the Indian Subcontinent, the Portuguese faced a much different situation than it had witnessed during the preceding two decades, relative peace in the subcontinent and strong economic growth in southern part of the subcontinent resulted in peaceful coexistence of the major economies of the region. In 1962 the Portuguese - Indian Economic Union (IEU) agreement allowed for visa free travel between IEU and Portuguese Federation and Federation agreed to allow 35,000 - 50,000 a year temporary and permanent residency IEU citizens to work and live in the Portuguese Federation.
Meanwhile in Southeast Asia the Portuguese East Indies provinces continued to be both a target of anti-Portuguese attacks as well as beacon for many wishing a better life. Both nationalist and communist forces from neighboring East Indies Islands hid as immigrants attempted to infiltrate the 10 Portuguese provinces and two Portuguese aligned countries (Republic of Bali and Republic of Lombok). Meanwhile immigrants from Republic of East Indonesia and Republic of South Moluccas continued to attempt to migrate both legally and illegally to the Portuguese provinces. This created problems for Portuguese security agencies and border officials to determine who were a risk to the country and who was a genuine immigrant. The Portuguese government limited the number of immigrants from East Asian countries at 20,000 a year causing many more to attempt to sneak into the country. Forced repatriation for those caught illegally entering the country was strictly enforced.
The province of Macau enjoyed strong economic growth due to in part to the growth of gambling and tourism. Strict border controls were in place but visa free travel from Nationalist China and Hong Kong both by air and by sea was allowed. Migration to Macau from Communist China declined as Communist China increased the number of border guards and naval patrols. Even so over 10,000 Chinese arrived on Portuguese soil each year. Those that were Catholic and or spoke Portuguese were allowed to apply for permanent residency and migrate to other provinces. Nationalist China continued to be the preferred destination for the majority of the refugees.
Portuguese EmigrationPortugal had always been a country of emigrants, during the 16th - 18th century more Portuguese had migrated to Brazil than British had migrated to the 13 colonies. Prior the Estado Novo economic miracle about 20,000 Portuguese were emigrating each year mostly to Brazil. The economic revolution had absorbed those emigrants and for the last 30 years less than 2,000 emigrants continued to leave the country.
In 1950s America removed many of the emigration restrictions from Southern Europe but by then the major source of Portuguese emigrants to America, the Azores, had been siphoned to Portuguese Africa and other green pastures within the Federation. Same was true for Madeirans who had emigrated to South Africa and South America in the past were drawn to new opportunities elsewhere within the Federation. Even with the strong economic activities and opportunities within the Federation Portuguese citizens continued to seek opportunities outside the Federation. During the 1960s approximately 10,000 Portuguese applied to leave the country each year with 2,000 continuing to go to Brazil each year, with USA, Canada, Venezuela and Australia being the other preferred destinations. In 1963 a row between the Portuguese Federation and Canada / Australia erupted when statistics showed that 70% of Caucasians who applied to the two countries were accepted while less than 10% of Africans, Colored and Asian Portuguese applicants were accepted. In 1964 the row expanded to include the Americans as their immigration records also showed an even greater bias towards European immigrants. Attempts by the Portuguese government and the three governments to discreetly fix the issue failed and the Portuguese government went public in both the Portuguese Federation as well in the three countries. While the Portuguese were able to change the situation in the Canadian case the Australians and Americans refused to acknowledge the issue. During the African War emigration slowed considerably only recovering slightly in 1968. In 1969 controversy once again visited Portuguese immigrants in USA, Canada and Australia when news of Portuguese spies and covert operatives were imbedded in the Portuguese communities and actively supporting the Federation. When news of political assassinations of leading Portuguese opposition politicians living in Paris by Portuguese expatriates broke, attitudes in Canada, Australia and USA towards the Portuguese communities turned negative. While the backlash against the Portuguese emigrant communities was nowhere as severe as in South Africa these communities struggled with racism and suspicion directed towards them. The biggest impact was the reduced number of Portuguese emigrants that both applied to immigrate to the three countries but more importantly the sharp reduction in Portuguese emigrants that were accepted.
 Portuguese Intelligence identified that less than 25% of armed rebels fighting the Portuguese were from Portuguese Federation with majority coming from similar tribes of the host countries.
 Guinea Boke and Guinea became the subject of an intensive guerrilla war by Guineans financed and supported by Communist Guinea. Whom also became source of instability in neighboring Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Mali and Liberia. In 1965 in what became known as the PDR Guinea border Crises, Communist Guinea was besieged by troops of all its neighbors. Troops from Mali, and Ivory Coast were the first to strike inside PDR Guinea and within two months PDR Guinea was being attacked by all of its neighbors. After six months of continually losing ground to advancing neighbors forces the PDR Guinea requested intervention by the UN. PDR Guinea agreed to dismantle all communist camps and stop instigating any military action against all Organization of African Unity countries, thus leaving Guinea Boke and Portuguese Federation out of the agreement.
 iOTL José Alves committed suicide in Romania due to what he felt the betrayal of the communist to make sure he and his family would be well off. iTTL on the same day Alves travelled to Paris his wife and children flew to London and following the death of Cunhal they continued on their journey to the Portuguese Federation where government officials met them. They were settled in the Federation, but location is currently classified.
 The government goal of 160,000+ immigrants from Europe proved unrealistic as economic development in Europe slowed immigration to just under 70,000 a year with majority of whom were not from traditional northern European sources.
 In 1960 the Portuguese Federation instituted the British Isles Residency Act, allowing Irish and British citizens with no criminal record to automatically receive Federation residency upon arrival at Portuguese port or airport. In 1969 numerous British companies either closed, merged, sold their operations to Portuguese firms or moved to the Federation. This was followed by a percentage of their workers and their families moving also.
 The Indian Economic Union (IEU) was formed in 1961 between the Kingdom of Baroda, Kingdom of Hyderabad, Kingdom of Mysore, Democratic Union of India and Tamil Nadu to facilitate commerce and trade as well as ease the movement of people between the five countries. In 1962 both France and Portuguese Federation signed separate agreements with the IEU. Immigration to the Portuguese Federation was restricted in the Portuguese Indian provinces but open in European, African and East Asia provinces.
So we deal with two parts here the immigration/emigration of people in and out of country as well as the internal movement but also the security apparatus. So in regards to immigration into the country the traditional sources such as Germany that had served the Portuguese wonderfully in the 1940s and 1950s dried up as German economic recovery and progress meant it became a net importer of people. Therefore the Portuguese turned to the southern European and Eastern Europe (communist) as principle sources. The South American/Latin America component became a more important source of immigrants while Africans, Indians and Asians were allowed within the quota allowed for each group. emigration out of country was open and no one unless working in critical industry was allowed to leave. Principle motivation was liberty where as economic and military avoidance like witnessed in iOTL was largely absent.
This leads us to the security apparatus as the country security system was split and DGS became strictly external such as the CIA while the internal component became SIS or the Portuguese version of the FBI. Questions/ Comments?
Return in 2 weeks on Aug 8 when we post the culture and sports.