Do you intend to write about public safety? During the dictatorship, the military police (state police) were subordinate to the army, and used a doctrine of shock (beating protesters), while the civil police (state police but investigative), with the DOPS, became real intelligence agencies and torturers...
I wonder how the police (perhaps unificated) would behave in a Brazil like the one you wrote.
I honestly didn't have public security high on my list of things to address directly, since crime is directly linked to poverty and inequality. AFAIK most of the favelas (and the problems associated with them) exploded in population during the 60s and 70s for reasons that have been butterflied away ITTL, so they'll be more like low income neighborhoods instead of slums.
 
I honestly didn't have public security high on my list of things to address directly, since crime is directly linked to poverty and inequality. AFAIK most of the favelas (and the problems associated with them) exploded in population during the 60s and 70s for reasons that have been butterflied away ITTL, so they'll be more like low income neighborhoods instead of slums.

Yeah, you're right. Anyway, I'm really enjoying it, excited for the next chapters
 
Part 12: Walking the Rope
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Part 12: Walking the Rope


To fully understand the course the Brizola administration's foreign policy was able to take, one must first take a good look at the context Brazil was in during the early sixties, the elephant in the room being the fact the Cold War was slowly winding down, even though the tensions between the West and East blocs would obviously never go away entirely (1). Contributing to this scenario was the election of a new government in the United States of America, one which sought to coopt rather than suffocate the growing number of democratic governments springing like mushrooms in its traditional sphere of influence, and was willing to use the vast amounts of money at its disposal to ensure they stayed under Washington's orbit (2).

The second factor to be taken into account was the near synchronised rise of several new countries all over the Third World, especially in Africa, where the last remnants of colonialism were swept away - in theory, at least - and provided Brazil with many potential allies and trade partners, chief among them being the former Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique, which became independent in 1961 (3). This was a very favourable outlook for an government that intended to adopt a multilateral, "third worldist" foreign policy.

Which brings us to the Brizola administration's Minister of Foreign Affairs, San Tiago Dantas, who still is, to this day, hailed as one the best people to occupy that post, second only to the Baron of Rio Branco. An accomplished lawyer and journalist who started his political career as a fascist before distancing himself from the Integralist movement from 1938 onward and gradually becoming a "positive (moderate) leftist", Dantas joined PTB in the 1955 and won a seat in the Chamber of Deputies three years later. His staunch criticism of most of Etelvino Lins' policies earned him the respect of the left, while his moderation in other areas and status as a respected intellectual did the same with those who were often turned off by PTB's "radicalism". All in all, he was the perfect foil to the president's impetuous personality.
san tiago dantas.jpeg

San Tiago Dantas in his office.

The first country Brizola visited after his inauguration was Argentina, a predictable decision since it was Brazil's largest neighbor. He spent several days in Buenos Aires as a guest of his Argentine counterpart, Juan Perón, during which he, among other things, visited a factory that belonged to IAME, the company that produced the Justicialista car (4). The two leaders also began to discuss the possibility of future economic cooperation between their own nations, something that would eventually be facilitated not only by their ideological similarities, but by the creation of LAFTA (Latin American Free Trade Association) in 1962 (5).

Although San Tiago Dantas was an important character in all of the president's trips abroad, it was the role he played in ensuring Brazil's inclusion in the Alliance for Progress that earned him the most acclaim. Many in Washington were alarmed by Brizola's election in 1960, not only because he had defeated their favourite candidate (Carlos Lacerda) but because his rhetoric reminded them of Chilean president Salvador Allende, who was elected two years prior with support from the Communist Party and established diplomatic and trade relations with China and the Soviet Union after taking office (6). Dantas assuaged the concerns of POTUS Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. and Secretary of State J. William Fulbright by comparing the administration he belonged to to that of countries like Cuba and especially Mexico, which were loyal allies of the US in spite of their - mostly - independent foreign policy, and promising to not entertain any diplomatic ovetures to the East Bloc. This promise ruffled quite a few feathers back home, but the billions of dollars that came as aid in the coming years ensured complaints were kept to a minimum (7).
dantas lopez mateos.PNG

San Tiago Dantas meeting with Mexican president Adolfo López Mateos.
The other noteworthy aspect of the Brizola administration's foreign policy was its pivot to Africa. Not only were multiple embassies founded in dozens of countries in just a few years, but Leonel was the first Brazilian president to set foot in the continent, visiting Luanda in 1962 to take part in the ceremonies commemorating the first anniversary of Angola's independence from Portugal. Steps such as this ensured that Brazil's growing industrial sector had a reliable market to which it could export its products, which would come in handy in the future.

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Notes:

(1) The Cuban Missile Crisis never happens ITTL, so détente begins sooner.

(2) The Alliance for Progress. "Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable" and all that.

(3) IOTL Portugal only recognized its colonies' independence in 1974, after more than a decade of war. What happened ITTL, you may ask? I swear I'll give an answer later.

(4) Something that will give Brizola a few ideas.

(5) This is OTL.

(6) IOTL Allende lost the
1958 presidential election to Jorge Alessandri by a very narrow margin. He wins here because of butterflies that will be explored later.

(7) The US is less paranoid ITTL without a Communist regime sitting just south of Florida.
 
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